ISSN / EISSN : 0003-2700 / 1520-6882
Published by: American Chemical Society (ACS) (10.1021)
Total articles ≅ 125,676
Latest articles in this journal
Analytical Chemistry; https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c03130
Fast and efficient handling of ligands and biological targets are required in bioaffinity screening based on native electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). We use a prototype microfluidic autosampler, called the “gap sampler”, to sequentially mix and electrospray individual small molecule ligands together with a target protein and compare the screening results with data from thermal shift assay and surface plasmon resonance. In a first round, all three techniques were used for a screening of 110 ligands against bovine carbonic anhydrase II, which resulted in five mutual hits and some false positives with ESI-MS presumably due to the high ligand concentration or interferences from dimethyl sulfoxide. In a second round, 33 compounds were screened in lower concentrations and in a less complex matrix, resulting in only true positives with ESI-MS. Within a cycle time of 30 s, dissociation constants were determined within an order of magnitude accuracy consuming only 5 pmol of ligand and less than 15 pmol of protein per screened compound. In a third round, dissociation constants of five compounds were accurately determined in a titration experiment. Thus, the gap sampler can rapidly and efficiently be used for high-throughput screening.
Analytical Chemistry; https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c02272
Benefiting from the noble metal nanoparticle core and organic porous nanoshell, plasmonic metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) become a nanostructure with great enhancement of the electromagnetic field and a high density of reaction sites, which has fantastic optical properties in surface plasmon-related fields. In this work, the plasmon-driven interfacial catalytic reactions involving p-aminothiophenol to 4,4′-dimercaptoazobenzene (trans-DMAB) in both the liquid and gaseous phases are studied in plasmonic MOF nanoparticles, which consist of a Ag nanoparticle core and an organic shell (ZIF-8). The surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) spectra recorded at the plasmonic MOF in an aqueous environment demonstrate that the reversible plasmon-driven interfacial catalytic reactions could be modulated by a reductant (NaBH4) or oxidant (H2O2). Also, the situ SERS spectra also point out that plasmonic MOF ([email protected]) nanoparticles exhibit much better catalytic performance in the H2O2 solution compared to pure Ag nanoparticles for the anti-oxidation caused by the MOF shell. It is surprising that although there is greater SERS enhancement obtained at pure Ag nanoparticles, the plasmon-driven interfacial catalytic reactions only occur at plasmonic [email protected] nanoparticles in the gaseous phase. This interesting phenomenon is further confirmed and analyzed by simulated electromagnetic field distributions, which could be understood by the effective capture of gaseous molecules by the organic porous nanoshell. Our work not only explores the plasmonic MOF nanoparticles with unique optical properties but also strengthens the understanding of plasmon-driven interfacial catalytic reactions.
Analytical Chemistry; https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c01618
We described several postprocessing methods to measure protein concentrations in human urine from existing 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomic spectra: (1) direct spectral integration, (2) integration of NCD spectra (NCD = 1D NOESY-CPMG), (3) integration of SMolESY-filtered 1D NOESY spectra (SMolESY = Small Molecule Enhancement SpectroscopY), (4) matching protein patterns, and (5) TSP line integral and TSP linewidth. Postprocessing consists of (a) removal of the metabolite signals (demetabolization) and (b) extraction of the protein integral from the demetabolized spectra. For demetabolization, we tested subtraction of the spin-echo 1D spectrum (CPMG) from the regular 1D spectrum and low-pass filtering of 1D NOESY by its derivatives (c-SMolESY). Because of imperfections in the demetabolization, in addition to direct integration, we extracted protein integrals by the piecewise comparison of demetabolized spectra with the reference spectrum of albumin. We analyzed 42 urine samples with protein content known from the bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay. We found excellent correlation between the BCA assay and the demetabolized NMR integrals. We have provided conversion factors for calculating protein concentrations in mg/mL from spectral integrals in mM. Additionally, we found the trimethylsilyl propionate (TSP, NMR standard) spectral linewidth and the TSP integral to be good indicators of protein concentration. The described methods increase the information content of urine NMR metabolomics spectra by informing clinical studies of protein concentration.
Analytical Chemistry; https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c02008
Gene expression analysis (e.g., targeted gene panels and transcriptomics) from whole blood can elucidate mechanisms of the immune function and aid in the discovery of biomarkers. Conventional venipuncture offers only a small snapshot of our broad immune landscape as immune responses may occur outside of the time and location parameters available for conventional venipuncture. A self-operated method that enables flexible sampling of liquid whole blood coupled with immediate stabilization of cellular RNA is instrumental in facilitating capture and preservation of acute or transient immune fluxes. To this end, we developed homeRNA, a kit for self-collection of peripheral blood (∼0.5 mL) and immediate stabilization of cellular RNA, using the Tasso-SST blood collection device with a specially designed stabilizer tube containing RNAlater. To assess the feasibility of homeRNA for self-collection and stabilization of whole blood RNA, we conducted a pilot study (n = 47 participants) in which we sent homeRNA to participants aged 21–69, located across 10 US states (94% successful blood collections, n = 61/65). Among participants who successfully collected blood, 93% reported no or minimal pain/discomfort using the kit (n = 39/42), and 79% reported very easy/somewhat easy stabilization protocol (n = 33/42). Total RNA yield from the stabilized samples ranged between 0.20 and 5.99 μg (mean = 1.51 μg), and all but one RNA integrity number values were above 7.0 (mean = 8.1), indicating limited RNA degradation. The results from this study demonstrate the self-collection and RNA stabilization of whole blood with homeRNA by participants themselves in their own home.
Analytical Chemistry; https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c01247
We report here on a new generation of optical ion-selective sensors benefiting from cubosomes or hexosomes–nanostructural lipid liquid phase. Cubosome as well as hexosome optodes offer biocompatibility, self-assembly preparation, high stability in solution, and unique, tunable analytical performance. The temperature trigger reversibly changes the lipid nanoparticle internal structure–changing analyte access to the bulk of the probe and ultimately affecting the response pattern. Thus, cubosome or hexosome optodes are highly promising alternatives to conventional polymeric based optical nanoprobes.
Analytical Chemistry, Volume 93; https://doi.org/10.1021/acv093i037_1514568
Analytical Chemistry; https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c02721
Droplet microfluidics with picoinjection provides significant advantages to multistep reactions and screenings. The T-junction design for picoinjection is convenient in adding picoliter reagents into passing droplets to initiate reactions. However, conventional picoinjectors face difficulties in eliminating cross-contamination between droplets, preventing them from widespread use in sensitive biological and molecular assays. Here, we introduce stepinjection, which uses a T-junction with a stepped channel design to elevate the diffusional buffer zone into the main channel and consequently increases the pressure difference between droplets and the inlet of the injection channel. To demonstrate the stepinjector’s ability to perform contamination-sensitive enzymatic assays, we inject casein fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC-casein) into a mixture of savinase and savinase-free (labeled with a red fluorescent dye) droplets. We observe no cross-contamination using stepinjection but find a severe cross-talk using an optimal picoinjection design. We envision that the simple, tunable, and reliable stepinjector can be easily integrated in various droplet processing devices, and facilitate various biomedical and biochemical applications including multiplex digital PCR, single-cell sequencing, and enzymatic screening.
Analytical Chemistry, Volume 93; https://doi.org/10.1021/acv093i037_1514569
Analytical Chemistry; https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c02779
The polarization response of a coplanar electrochemical capacitor covered with an ionic liquid as the electrolyte has been examined using a combination of two powerful analytic techniques, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microcopy (SEM). Spatiotemporal distribution of the ionic liquid surface potential, upon DC or AC (square wave) biasing, has been monitored via chemical element binding energy shifts using XPS and secondary electron intensity variations using SEM. SEM’s high spatial resolution and speedy imaging together with application of a data mining algorithm made mapping of the surface potential distribution across the capacitor possible. Interestingly, despite the differences in the detection principles, both techniques yield similar polarization relaxation time constants. The results demonstrate the power of a synergistic combination of the two techniques with complementary capabilities and pave the way to a deeper understanding of liquid/solid interfaces and for performance evaluation and diagnostics of electrochemical devices.
Analytical Chemistry; https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c02877
Gene mutations are important biomarkers for the diagnosis, classification, monitoring, and prognosis evaluation of cancers and genetic diseases. Both personalized cancer treatment and noninvasive prenatal testing require methods to accurately determine the abundance of mutation. At present, the widely adopted and convenient methods for measuring mutation abundance are mainly based on relative quantification, which requires negative samples and strict control of the analyte amounts. The development of DNA-probe-based methods that can determine the mutation abundance without negative samples nor control of analyte amount is highly preferred. The key to solving this bottleneck lies in whether the probe’s response to mutation abundance can be completely independent of the number of targeted DNA strands. Herein, we propose the design of a self-internal-reference probe system. We established a theoretical model of this system and used the model to guide the design of probes. In this model, we provided quantitative corrections to the test results from the internal reference, thereby eliminating the influence of substrate amount. Therefore, the purification and quantification processes toward polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplicons can be omitted. We applied this system to analyze unquantified PCR products aimed at cancer mutation detection and noninvasive prenatal testing.