Nutrients

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ISSN / EISSN : 2072-6643 / 2072-6643
Current Publisher: MDPI (10.3390)
Total articles ≅ 12,073
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Sigal Tepper, Vered Kaufman-Shriqui, Danit Shahar
Published: 19 October 2020
by MDPI
Nutrients, Volume 12; doi:10.3390/nu12103190

Abstract:
Identifying the concerns about and attitudes toward adopting a healthy, sustainable diet may facilitate the development of effective implementation policies targeted at changing an individual’s dietary choices toward reducing the environmental burden of food systems. This cross-sectional online study was conducted in Israel among 348 adults aged 20–45 who responded to an advertisement posted on several social media platforms. Respondents received a link for the survey after signing informed consent forms. The questionnaire included three sections: concerns regarding food-related sustainability issues, willingness to act (“self”), and expectation that leaders would act upon these issues (“leaders”). Responses were recorded on a 1–4 Likert scale. Health-related issues—healthy food and drink, food prices, food safety, and the quality of health services—were scored the highest, both in the “self” and “leaders” sections. In all items, the expectation that leaders would act was higher than the willingness to act (composite mean ± SD: 3.04 ± 3.11 vs. 2.51 ± 2.47, respectively, p < 0.001). There were significant differences among dietary patterns in all three components. Mapping young adults’ concerns about and attitudes toward food-related sustainability issues allows for the identification of leverages that can be further used as focus issues in messages and interventions such as communication, food labeling, and economic incentives.
Ellen Quillen, Kristen Beavers, Anderson O’Brien Cox, Cristina Furdui, Jingyun Lee, Ryan Miller, Hanzhi Wu, Kristen Beavers
Published: 19 October 2020
by MDPI
Nutrients, Volume 12; doi:10.3390/nu12103188

Abstract:
Inter-individual response to dietary interventions remains a major challenge to successful weight loss among older adults. This study applied metabolomics technology to identify small molecule signatures associated with a loss of fat mass and overall weight in a cohort of older adults on a nutritionally complete, high-protein diet. A total of 102 unique metabolites were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for 38 adults aged 65–80 years randomized to dietary intervention and 36 controls. Metabolite values were analyzed in both baseline plasma samples and samples collected following the six-month dietary intervention to consider both metabolites that could predict the response to diet and those that changed in response to diet or weight loss.Eight metabolites changed over the intervention at a nominally significant level: D-pantothenic acid, L-methionine, nicotinate, aniline, melatonin, deoxycarnitine, 6-deoxy-L-galactose, and 10-hydroxydecanoate. Within the intervention group, there was broad variation in the achieved weight-loss and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-defined changes in total fat and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) mass. Change in the VAT mass was significantly associated with the baseline abundance of α-aminoadipate (p = 0.0007) and an additional mass spectrometry peak that may represent D-fructose, myo-inositol, mannose, α-D-glucose, allose, D-galactose, D-tagatose, or L-sorbose (p = 0.0001). This hypothesis-generating study reflects the potential of metabolomic biomarkers for the development of personalized dietary interventions.
Ran Uchitomi, Mamoru Oyabu, Yasutomi Kamei
Published: 19 October 2020
by MDPI
Nutrients, Volume 12; doi:10.3390/nu12103189

Abstract:
Skeletal muscle, the largest organ in the human body, accounting for approximately 40% of body weight, plays important roles in exercise and energy expenditure. In the elderly, there is often a progressive decline in skeletal muscle mass and function, a condition known as sarcopenia, which can lead to bedridden conditions, wheelchair confinement as well as reducing the quality of life (QOL). In developed countries with aging populations, the prevention and management of sarcopenia are important for the improvement of health and life expectancy in these populations. Recently, vitamin D, a fat-soluble vitamin, has been attracting attention due to its importance in sarcopenia. This review will focus on the effects of vitamin D deficiency and supplementation on sarcopenia.
Núria Voltas, Josefa Canals, Carmen Hernández-Martínez, Núria Serrat, Josep Basora, Victoria Arija
Published: 19 October 2020
by MDPI
Nutrients, Volume 12; doi:10.3390/nu12103196

Abstract:
Vitamin D status during pregnancy is involved in numerous physiological processes, including brain development. In this study, we assess the association between vitamin D status during pregnancy and infant neurodevelopment (cognitive, language, and motor skills). From an initial sample of 793 women (mean age 30.6) recruited before the 12th week of pregnancy, 422 mother–infant pairs were followed up to a postpartum visit. Vitamin D levels were assessed in the first and third trimesters of pregnancy, and socio-demographic, nutritional, and psychological variables were collected. At 40 days postpartum, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III were administered to the infants and several obstetrical data were recorded. Independently from several confounding factors, deficient vitamin D levels in the first trimester of pregnancy (
Bilal Alashkar Alhamwe, Laura A.P.M. Meulenbroek, Désirée H. Veening-Griffioen, Tjalling M.D. Wehkamp, Fahd Alhamdan, Sarah Miethe, Hani Harb, Astrid Hogenkamp, Léon M.J. Knippels, Elke Pogge Von Strandmann, et al.
Published: 19 October 2020
by MDPI
Nutrients, Volume 12; doi:10.3390/nu12103193

Abstract:
Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergy against cow’s milk protein fractions such as whey is one of the most common food-related allergic disorders of early childhood. Histone acetylation is an important epigenetic mechanism, shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of allergies. However, its role in food allergy remains unknown. IgE-mediated cow’s milk allergy was successfully induced in a mouse model, as demonstrated by acute allergic symptoms, whey-specific IgE in serum, and the activation of mast cells upon a challenge with whey protein. The elicited allergic response coincided with reduced percentages of regulatory T (Treg) and T helper 17 (Th17) cells, matching decreased levels of H3 and/or H4 histone acetylation at pivotal Treg and Th17 loci, an epigenetic status favoring lower gene expression. In addition, histone acetylation levels at the crucial T helper 1 (Th1) loci were decreased, most probably preceding the expected reduction in Th1 cells after inducing an allergic response. No changes were observed for T helper 2 cells. However, increased histone acetylation levels, promoting gene expression, were observed at the signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (Stat6) gene, a proallergic B cell locus, which was in line with the presence of whey-specific IgE. In conclusion, the observed histone acetylation changes are pathobiologically in line with the successful induction of cow’s milk allergy, to which they might have also contributed mechanistically.
Robert Gajda, Marzena Jeżewska-Zychowicz
Published: 19 October 2020
by MDPI
Nutrients, Volume 12; doi:10.3390/nu12103191

Abstract:
The sense of food insecurity in a group of elderly people may be determined by the perception of distance to food outlets. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between the perception of food insecurity by the elderly and their perception of the distance between the places of residence and food purchase. A cross-sectional quantitative survey was carried out in 2019–2020 amongst 762 Polish elderly living in Świętokrzyskie and Śląskie Voivodeship. The assessment of the relationships between the perceived food insecurity due to living too far away from the grocery shops and socio-demographic features was performed using multiple correspondence analysis (MCA), chi-square tests, and Phi and Cramér’s V coefficients. Too great a distance to the place of food purchase was the cause of a lack of a sense of food security in 20.5% of the study sample, especially in men, people aged 75 and more, people living in a rural environment and people living alone. People reporting a lack of food due to the distance to the place of purchase showed socio-demographic characteristics similar to those of people declaring a lack of a sense of food security. Reduced food consumption due to the distance from the place of sale, including of fish (24.8%), some fruits (18.9%) and vegetables (15.4%) and beef (17.3%), may contribute to the deterioration of the diet and, as a result, health conditions. Including access to places of the sale of food in food policy as a factor contributing to ensuring the food security of older people can help to maintain a better quality of life and avoid exclusion. Especially in a situation of limited independence, food insecurity in elders due to causes other than financial limitations should be a focus of food policy.
Yo-Han Han, Jeong-Geon Mun, Hee Dong Jeon, Dae Hwan Yoon, Byung-Min Choi, Ji-Ye Kee, Seung-Heon Hong
Published: 19 October 2020
by MDPI
Nutrients, Volume 12; doi:10.3390/nu12103195

Abstract:
Background: Cachexia induced by cancer is a systemic wasting syndrome and it accompanies continuous body weight loss with the exhaustion of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Cancer cachexia is not only a problem in itself, but it also reduces the effectiveness of treatments and deteriorates quality of life. However, effective treatments have not been found yet. Although Arctii Fructus (AF) has been studied about several pharmacological effects, there were no reports on its use in cancer cachexia. Methods: To induce cancer cachexia in mice, we inoculated CT-26 cells to BALB/c mice through subcutaneous injection and intraperitoneal injection. To mimic cancer cachexia in vitro, we used conditioned media (CM), which was CT-26 colon cancer cells cultured medium. Results: In in vivo experiments, AF suppressed expression of interleukin (IL)-6 and atrophy of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. As a result, the administration of AF decreased mortality by preventing weight loss. In adipose tissue, AF decreased expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) by restoring AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. In in vitro model, CM increased muscle degradation factors and decreased adipocytes differentiation factors. However, these tendencies were ameliorated by AF treatment in C2C12 myoblasts and 3T3-L1 cells. Conclusion: Taken together, our study demonstrated that AF could be a therapeutic supplement for patients suffering from cancer cachexia.
Jing Wang, Yong Chen, Xiaosong Hu, Fengqin Feng, Luyun Cai, Fang Chen
Published: 19 October 2020
by MDPI
Nutrients, Volume 12; doi:10.3390/nu12103194

Abstract:
The beneficial effects of ginger polyphenols have been extensively reported. However, their metabolic characteristics and health effects on gut microbiota are poor understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the digestion stability of ginger polyphenols and their prebiotic effects on gut microbiota by simulating digestion and fermentation in vitro. Following simulated digestion in vitro, 85% of the polyphenols were still detectable, and the main polyphenol constituents identified in ginger extract are 6-, 8-, and 10-gingerols and 6-shogaol in the digestive fluids. After batch fermentation, the changes in microbial populations were measured by 16S rRNA gene Illumina MiSeq sequencing. In mixed-culture fermentation with fecal inoculate, digested ginger extract (GE) significantly modulated the fecal microbiota structure and promoted the growth of some beneficial bacterial populations, such as Bifidobacterium and Enterococcus. Furthermore, incubation with GE could elevate the levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) accompanied by a decrease in the pH value. Additionally, the quantitative PCR results showed that 6-gingerol (6G), as the main polyphenol in GE, increased the abundance of Bifidobacterium significantly. Therefore, 6G is expected to be a potential prebiotic that improves human health by promoting gut health.
Chiu-Li Yeh, Po-Jen Yang, Ming-Tsan Lin, Jin-Ming Wu, Po-Da Chen, Chun-Chieh Huang, Sung-Ling Yeh, Ming-Tsan Lin
Published: 19 October 2020
by MDPI
Nutrients, Volume 12; doi:10.3390/nu12103192

Abstract:
Obesity is a health problem associated with many metabolic disorders. Weight reduction can effectively alleviate obesity-associated complications. Sleeve gastrectomy is a commonly used bariatric surgery and is considered safe and effective for improving outcomes. Glutamine (GLN) is an amino acid with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. This study used a mouse model of sleeve gastrectomy to investigate the impacts of intravenous GLN administration on glucose tolerance and adipocyte inflammation short-term after surgery. C57BL6 male mice were divided into normal control (NC) and high-fat diet groups. The high-fat diet provided 60% of energy from fat for 10 weeks to induce obesity. Mice fed the high-fat diet were then assigned to a sham (SH) or sleeve gastrectomy with saline (S) or GLN (G) groups. The S group was intravenously injected with saline, while the G group was administered GLN (0.75 g/kg body weight) via a tail vein postoperatively. Mice in the experimental groups were sacrificed on day 1 or 3 after the surgery. Results showed that obesity resulted in fat accumulation, elevated glucose levels, and adipokines production. Sleeve gastrectomy aggravated expressions of inflammatory cytokine and macrophage infiltration markers, cluster of differentiation 68 (CD68), epidermal growth factor-like module-containing mucin-like hormone receptor-like 1 (EMR-1), and macrophage chemoattractant protein-1, in adipose tissues. Treatment of obese mice with GLN downregulated hepatic proteomic profiles associated with the gluconeogenesis pathway and improved glucose tolerance. Moreover, macrophage infiltration and adipose tissue inflammation were attenuated after the sleeve gastrectomy. These findings imply that postoperative intravenous GLN administration may improve glucose tolerance and attenuate inflammation shortly after the bariatric surgery in subjects with obesity.
Tatsunori Toida, Reiko Toida, Shou Ebihara, Risa Takahashi, Hiroyuki Komatsu, Shigehiro Uezono, Yuji Sato, Shouichi Fujimoto
Published: 19 October 2020
by MDPI
Nutrients, Volume 12; doi:10.3390/nu12103187

Abstract:
Background: The relationships between serum zinc levels and body composition or clinical outcomes of incident hemodialysis (HD) patients remain unclear. Methods: This prospective observational study examined the relationships between serum zinc levels and clinical indexes, including body composition, in 142 incident HD patients using a bioelectrical impedance analysis. Patients were divided into three groups according to baseline serum zinc levels: tertile,
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