Nutrients

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ISSN / EISSN : 2072-6643 / 2072-6643
Published by: MDPI (10.3390)
Total articles ≅ 16,417
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Published: 26 October 2021
by MDPI
Nutrients, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113786

Abstract:
Osteoporosis and sarcopenia are two chronic conditions, which widely affect older people and share common risk factors. We investigated the prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) and sarcopenia, including the overlap of both conditions (osteosarcopenia) in 572 older hospitalized patients (mean age 75.1 ± 10.8 years, 78% women) with known or suspected osteoporosis in this prospective observational multicenter study. Sarcopenia was assessed according to the revised definition of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP2). Low BMD was defined according to the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations as a T-score < −1.0. Osteosarcopenia was diagnosed when both low BMD and sarcopenia were present. Low BMD was prevalent in 76% and the prevalence of sarcopenia was 9%, with 90% of the sarcopenic patients showing the overlap of osteosarcopenia (8% of the entire population). Conversely, only few patients with low BMD demonstrated sarcopenia (11%). Osteosarcopenic patients were older and frailer and had lower BMI, fat, and muscle mass, handgrip strength, and T-score compared to nonosteosarcopenic patients. We conclude that osteosarcopenia is extremely common in sarcopenic subjects. Considering the increased risk of falls in patients with sarcopenia, they should always be evaluated for osteoporosis.
Published: 26 October 2021
by MDPI
Nutrients, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113795

Abstract:
Acute respiratory infections are a common cause of morbidity in infants and young children. This high rate of respiratory infections in early life has a major impact on healthcare resources and antibiotic use, with the associated risk of increasing antibiotic resistance, changes in intestinal microbiota composition and activity and, consequently, on the future health of children. An international group of clinicians and researchers working in infant nutrition and cow’s milk allergy (CMA) met to review the available evidence on the prevalence of infections in healthy infants and in those with allergies, particularly CMA; the factors that influence susceptibility to infection in early life; links between infant feeding, CMA and infection risk; and potential strategies to modulate the gut microbiota and infection outcomes. The increased susceptibility of infants with CMA to infections, and the reported potential benefits with prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics with regard to improving infection outcomes and reducing antibiotic usage in infants with CMA, makes this a clinically important issue that merits further research.
Published: 26 October 2021
by MDPI
Nutrients, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113804

Abstract:
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an incurable chronic progressive neurodegenerative disease with the progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the motor cortex and lower motor neurons in the spinal cord and the brain stem. The etiology and pathogenesis of ALS are being actively studied, but there is still no single concept. The study of ALS risk factors can help to understand the mechanism of this disease development and, possibly, slow down the rate of its progression in patients and also reduce the risk of its development in people with a predisposition toward familial ALS. The interest of researchers and clinicians in the protective role of nutrients in the development of ALS has been increasing in recent years. However, the role of some of them is not well-understood or disputed. The objective of this review is to analyze studies on the role of nutrients as environmental factors affecting the risk of developing ALS and the rate of motor neuron degeneration progression. Methods: We searched the PubMed, Springer, Clinical keys, Google Scholar, and E-Library databases for publications using keywords and their combinations. We analyzed all the available studies published in 2010–2020. Discussion: We analyzed 39 studies, including randomized clinical trials, clinical cases, and meta-analyses, involving ALS patients and studies on animal models of ALS. This review demonstrated that the following vitamins are the most significant protectors of ALS development: vitamin B12, vitamin E > vitamin C > vitamin B1, vitamin B9 > vitamin D > vitamin B2, vitamin B6 > vitamin A, and vitamin B7. In addition, this review indicates that the role of foods with a high content of cholesterol, polyunsaturated fatty acids, urates, and purines plays a big part in ALS development. Conclusion: The inclusion of vitamins and a ketogenic diet in disease-modifying ALS therapy can reduce the progression rate of motor neuron degeneration and slow the rate of disease progression, but the approach to nutrient selection must be personalized. The roles of vitamins C, D, and B7 as ALS protectors need further study.
Published: 26 October 2021
by MDPI
Nutrients, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113790

Abstract:
My E-Diary for Activities and Lifestyle (MEDAL), a web-based application, was developed to assess the diets of children. This study examined the validity of school recess meals reported by children on MEDAL, using meal photography as the reference. Recess meals were photographed by trained researchers, and food items and portion sizes of recess meals reported on MEDAL were compared to recess meal photos. Validity was assessed by percentages of match, omission and intrusion for food items and percentages of the match, underestimation and overestimation for portion sizes. The Mann–Whitney test and the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test examined if sex, school and day of recording influenced the validity of food item reporting. We found that participants (n = 33, aged 10–11 years) recalled 60.2% of food items consumed at recess accurately (matches); omissions (24.6%) were more common than intrusions (15.2%). Omissions tended to be side dishes, and intrusions tended to be high-calorie items. Sex, school and day of recording did not influence validity. For food portion sizes, 58.3% of items were accurately reported. Overestimations (33.3%) were more common than underestimations (8.3%). In conclusion, these children were able to report food items consumed during school recess meals using MEDAL, albeit with limitations on the degree of accuracy.
Published: 26 October 2021
by MDPI
Nutrients, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113792

Abstract:
Inflammation may adversely affect early human brain development. We aimed to assess the role of maternal nutrition and infections on cord blood inflammation. In a pregnancy cohort in Sylhet, Bangladesh, we enrolled 251 consecutive pregnancies resulting in a term livebirth from July 2016–March 2017. Stillbirths, preterm births, and cases of neonatal encephalopathy were excluded. We prospectively collected data on maternal diet (food frequency questionnaire) and morbidity, and analyzed umbilical cord blood for interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and C-reactive protein. We determined associations between nutrition and infection exposures and cord cytokine elevation (≥75% vs. <75%) using logistic regression, adjusting for confounders. One-third of mothers were underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) at enrollment. Antenatal and intrapartum infections were observed among 4.8% and 15.9% of the sample, respectively. Low pregnancy intakes of B vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B6, B9 (folate)), fat-soluble vitamins (D, E), iron, zinc, and linoleic acid (lowest vs. middle tertile) were associated with higher risk of inflammation, particularly IL-8. There was a non-significant trend of increased risk of IL-8 and IL-6 elevation with history of ante-and intrapartum infections, respectively. In Bangladesh, improving micronutrient intake and preventing pregnancy infections are targets to reduce fetal systemic inflammation and associated adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes.
Published: 26 October 2021
by MDPI
Nutrients, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113807

Abstract:
The capacity of microbiota to produce medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) and related consequences for the gastrointestinal (GI) tract have never been reported before. We verified the impact of nutrition-related factors on fatty acid (FAs) production and found that caloric restriction decreased levels of most of MCFAs in the mouse cecum, whereas overnight fasting reduced the levels of acetate and butyrate but increased propionate and laurate. A diet high in soluble fibre boosted the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and caproate whereas a high-cellulose diet did not have an effect or decreased the levels of some of the FAs. Rectal infusion of caprylate resulted in its rapid metabolism for energy production. Repeated 10-day MCFA infusion impacted epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) weight and lipid accumulation. Repeated infusion of caprylate rectally tended to increase the concentration of active ghrelin in mice plasma; however, this increase was not statistically significant. In Caco-2 cells, caprylate increased the expression of Fabp2, Pdk4, Tlr3, and Gpr40 genes as well as counteracted TNFα-triggered downregulation of Pparγ, Occludin, and Zonulin mRNA expression. In conclusion, we show that colonic MCFAs can be rapidly utilized as a source of energy or stored as a lipid supply. Further, locally produced caprylate may impact metabolism and inflammatory parameters in the colon.
Published: 26 October 2021
by MDPI
Nutrients, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113806

Abstract:
Unique rapid urbanization-related changes in China may affect the dietary protein intake of the aging population. We aimed to evaluate trends in dietary protein intake and major food sources of protein and estimate conformity to the dietary reference intakes (DRIs) in the elderly Chinese population. A sample of 10,854 elderly adults aged 60 years or older, drawn from 10 waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) between 1991 and 2018, was included. Protein intake data were obtained on the basis of 3-day, 24 h dietary recalls. The dietary protein intake among elderly Chinese individuals declined from 63.3 g/day to 57.8 g/day over the 28-year period, with a −0.032 ± 0.0001 g/day change per year (p< 0.05). There was a significant increase in the proportion of subjects with a protein intake level below the estimated averaged requirement (EAR) and a reduction in the proportion of subjects consuming protein above the recommended nutrient intake (RNI) across all population subgroups. Cereals ranked as the major sources of dietary protein, although their contribution to dietary protein gradually decreased as time went on. The contribution from meat steadily rose from 18.2% in 1991 to 28.7% in 2018. The proportion of energy gained from fat increased notably, reaching 34.2% in 2018. The elderly Chinese population experienced a significant reduction in dietary protein intake. Although the transformation of dietary patterns had positive effects on improving protein quality due to increases in animal source food, some elderly Chinese individuals currently face the risk of inadequate dietary protein intake.
Published: 26 October 2021
by MDPI
Nutrients, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113796

Abstract:
Dietary behavior change is difficult to accurately measure in a low-income youth population. Objective tools to measure fruit and vegetable consumption without relying on self-report present the opportunity to do this with less respondent burden and bias. A promising tool for quantifying fruit and vegetable consumption via proxy is skin carotenoids as measured by reflection spectroscopy through a device called the Veggie Meter®. To assess whether the Veggie Meter® is able to detect changes in skin carotenoids as a proxy for fruit and vegetable consumption in a low-income school setting, skin carotenoid measurements were collected at three time points, along with student level demographics, anthropometric measurements, and nutrition knowledge. A secondary goal of this study was to refine the protocol to be used based on researcher observations. Repeated measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons indicate that there was a significant difference in VM scores over the course of the study (F(2, 68) = 6.63, p = 0.002), with an increase in skin carotenoids from Fall 2018 to Spring 2019 (p = 0.005). This increase was sustained over the summer months when measured in Fall 2019. Changes to the protocol included the addition of a hand cleaning step and using the non-dominant ring finger for data collection. With these refinements, the results demonstrate that the Veggie Meter® is usable as a non-invasive tool for measuring fruit and vegetable consumption in a population that is traditionally difficult to assess.
Published: 26 October 2021
by MDPI
Nutrients, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113794

Abstract:
Background: On Wednesday 18/03/2020 Belgium was placed in lockdown in order to curb the spread of COVID-19. Lockdown can lead to loneliness, boredom, anger, anxiety and depression, which in turn have an influence on food choices and physical activity (PA). This study aims to map the adjustments in food choices and PA by Flemish adults during lockdown. Methods: Chi square tests were performed to investigate the relationship between adjustments in food choices, PA and demographic variables. Results: A total of 1.129 respondents filled in the online questionnaire, aged between 18 and 81 years. The healthiest food choices were made by respondents living alone during lockdown, whilst people cohabiting with others increased their PA significantly. Moreover, the dietary adjustments of adults living with children evolved more favourably to healthier choices then those cohousing with other adults. However, respondents living with other adults showed a more favourable pattern regarding adjustments in PA. The strongest increase in sedentary behaviour was observed in students. Conclusions: This study shows the impact of lockdown on both PA and food choices, where healthier adjustments were observed in PA and respondents were prone to consume unhealthier food.
Published: 26 October 2021
by MDPI
Nutrients, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113802

Abstract:
The Mediterranean diet (MD) is one of the most healthful dietary patterns, beneficial for humans and the environment. However, the MD has recently exhibited a declining trend, especially in younger and less affluent people. This study investigated the association between socioeconomic indicators and adherence to the MD in 4671 adult subjects from Dalmatia, Croatia (age range 18–98 years; 61.9% were women). Additionally, in the follow-up we examined the change in adherence to the MD and in BMI (subsample, N = 1342; 62.5% were women; mean follow-up time of 5.8 years). The adherence to the MD was based on the Mediterranean Diet Serving Score (range 0–24 points, cut-off value ≥ 14 points), with a prevalence in the overall sample of 28.5%. Higher odds of adherence to the MD were recorded in women, older subjects, and those with higher level of objective material status, while it was less likely in the period after economic crisis of 2007–2008. Additionally, we detected no change in adherence to the MD in the follow-up subsample (−8.5%, p = 0.056), but there was an increase in BMI (+6.5%, p< 0.001). We recorded an increase in adherence for nuts (+127.5%), sweets (+112.6%), red meat (+56.4%), and wine (+50.0%), unlike the reduction in adherence for vegetables (−35.1%), fish (−23.4%), white meat (−11.6%), cereals (−10.9%), and dairy products (−9.6%). Similar results were obtained across all quartiles of objective material status. Over time, the absolute change in the MD score was positively associated with female gender, age, higher education, and moderate physical activity, but it was negatively associated with adherence to the MD at baseline. BMI change was positively associated with female gender, and negatively with initial BMI, initial adherence to the MD, and MD change. Our findings point towards a less than ideal adherence to the MD in the general population of southern Croatia, and identify important characteristics associated with adherence change over time, informing necessary interventions aimed at increasing MD uptake.
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