Nutrients

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ISSN / EISSN : 20726643 / 20726643
Current Publisher: MDPI (10.3390)
Total articles ≅ 11,173
Google Scholar h5-index: 78
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Nicholas Carroll, Adam Sadowski, Amar Laila, Valerie Hruska, Madeline Nixon, David W.L. Ma, Jess Haines, on behalf of the Guelph Family Health Study on behalf of the Guelph Family Health Study
Published: 7 August 2020
by MDPI
Nutrients, Volume 12; doi:10.3390/nu12082352

Abstract:
The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted many aspects of daily life. The purpose of this study was to identify how health behaviors, level of stress, financial and food security have been impacted by the pandemic among Canadian families with young children. Parents (mothers, n = 235 and fathers, n = 126) from 254 families participating in an ongoing study completed an online survey that included close and open-ended questions. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the quantitative data and qualitative responses were analyzed using thematic analysis. More than half of our sample reported that their eating and meal routines have changed since COVID-19; most commonly reported changes were eating more snack foods and spending more time cooking. Screen time increased among 74% of mothers, 61% of fathers, and 87% of children and physical activity decreased among 59% of mothers, 52% of fathers, and 52% of children. Key factors influencing family stress include balancing work with childcare/homeschooling and financial instability. While some unhealthful behaviors appeared to have been exacerbated, other more healthful behaviors also emerged since COVID-19. Research is needed to determine the longer-term impact of the pandemic on behaviors and to identify effective strategies to support families in the post-COVID-19 context.
Maya K. Vadiveloo, Haley W. Parker, Filippa Juul, Niyati Parekh
Published: 7 August 2020
by MDPI
Nutrients, Volume 12; doi:10.3390/nu12082354

Abstract:
Insufficient research has explored whether sociodemographic differences in self-reported, individual-level diet quality are similarly reflected by grocery purchase quality. This cross-sectional analysis of n = 3961 U.S. households from the nationally representative Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey (FoodAPS) compared Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2015 scores from 1 week of food-at-home acquisitions across self-reported demographic factors (race/ethnicity, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participation, food security, and household-level obesity status). Multivariable-adjusted, survey-weighted regression models compared household HEI-2015 scores across sociodemographic groups. Respondents were primarily White and female, with a mean age of 50.6 years, 14.0% were food insecure, and 12.7% were SNAP-participating. Mean HEI-2015 scores were 54.7; scores differed across all sociodemographic exposures (p < 0.05). Interactions (p < 0.1) were detected between SNAP participation and (1) food insecurity and (2) household-level obesity, and race/ethnicity and (1) household-level obesity. HEI-2015 scores were higher among food secure, non-SNAP households than among food insecure, SNAP-participating households (53.9 ± 0.5 vs. 50.3 ± 0.7, p = 0.007); non-SNAP households without obesity had significantly higher HEI-2015 scores than other households. Household-level obesity was associated with lower HEI-2015 scores in White (50.8 ± 0.5 vs. 52.5 ± 0.7, p = 0.046) and Black (48.8 ± 1.5 vs. 53.1 ± 1.4, p = 0.018) but not Hispanic households (54.4 ± 1.0 vs. 52.2 ± 1.2, p = 0.21). Sociodemographic disparities in household HEI-2015 scores were consistent with previous research on individual-level diet quality.
Lanlan Yu, Ruijun Li, Wei Liu, Yalin Zhou, Yong Li, Yong Qin, Yuhan Chen, Yajun Xu
Published: 7 August 2020
by MDPI
Nutrients, Volume 12; doi:10.3390/nu12082355

Abstract:
Alcohol consumption increases the risk of gastritis and gastric ulcer. Nutritional alternatives are considered for relieving the progression of gastric mucosal lesions instead of conventional drugs that produce side effects. This study was designed to evaluate the gastroprotective effects and investigate the defensive mechanisms of wheat peptides against ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats. Sixty male Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into six groups and orally treated with wheat peptides (0.1, 0.2, 0.4 g/kgbw) and omeprazole (20 mg/kgbw) for 4 weeks, following absolute ethanol administration for 1 h. Pretreatment with wheat peptides obviously enhanced the vasodilation of gastric mucosal blood vessels via improving the gastric mucosal blood flow and elevating the defensive factors nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and lowering the level of vasoconstrictor factor endothelin (ET)-1. Wheat peptides exhibited anti-inflammatory reaction through decreasing inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and increasing trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) levels. Moreover, wheat peptides significantly down-regulated the expression of phosphorylated nuclear factor kappa-B (p-NF-κB) p65 proteins in the NF-κB signaling pathway. Altogether, wheat peptides protect gastric mucosa from ethanol-induced lesions in rats via improving the gastric microcirculation and inhibiting inflammation mediated by the NF-κB signaling transduction pathway.
Gabriella M. McLoughlin, Lindsey Turner, Julien Leider, Elizabeth Piekarz-Porter, Jamie F. Chriqui
Published: 7 August 2020
by MDPI
Nutrients, Volume 12; doi:10.3390/nu12082356

Abstract:
School environments are an optimal setting to promote healthy student diets, yet it is unclear what role state and district policies play in shaping school contexts. This study examined how state and district policies are associated with school-reported practices for promoting student participation in school lunch programs. School nutrition manager data were obtained from the School Nutrition and Meal Cost Study’s (SNMCS) sample of 1210 schools in 46 states and the District of Columbia (DC) during school year 2014–2015. Relevant state laws and district policies were compiled and coded. Multivariable logistic and Poisson regressions, controlling for school characteristics, examined the relationship between state/district laws/policies and school practices. Compared to schools in districts or states with no policies/laws, respectively, schools were more likely to provide nutritional information on school meals (AOR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.33, 5.05) in districts with strong policies, and to promote school meals at school events (AOR = 1.93, CI = 1.07, 3.46) in states with strong laws. Schools in states with any laws related to strategies to increase participation in school meals were more likely to seek student involvement in menu planning (AOR = 2.02, CI = 1.24, 3.31) and vegetable offerings (AOR = 2.00, CI = 1.23, 3.24). The findings support the association of laws/policies with school practices.
Jan Alexander, Alexey Tinkov, Tor A. Strand, Urban Alehagen, Anatoly Skalny, Jan Aaseth
Published: 7 August 2020
by MDPI
Nutrients, Volume 12; doi:10.3390/nu12082358

Abstract:
Objectives: The novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19) conveys a serious threat globally to health and economy because of a lack of vaccines and specific treatments. A common factor for conditions that predispose for serious progress is a low-grade inflammation, e.g., as seen in metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and heart failure, to which micronutrient deficiencies may contribute. The aim of the present article was to explore the usefulness of early micronutrient intervention, with focus on zinc, selenium, and vitamin D, to relieve escalation of COVID-19. Methods: We conducted an online search for articles published in the period 2010–2020 on zinc, selenium, and vitamin D, and corona and related virus infections. Results: There were a few studies providing direct evidence on associations between zinc, selenium, and vitamin D, and COVID-19. Adequate supply of zinc, selenium, and vitamin D is essential for resistance to other viral infections, immune function, and reduced inflammation. Hence, it is suggested that nutrition intervention securing an adequate status might protect against the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome - coronavirus-2) and mitigate the course of COVID-19. Conclusion: We recommended initiation of adequate supplementation in high-risk areas and/or soon after the time of suspected infection with SARS-CoV-2. Subjects in high-risk groups should have high priority as regards this nutritive adjuvant therapy, which should be started prior to administration of specific and supportive medical measures.
Marina Plyta, Pinal S. Patel, Konstantinos C. Fragkos, Tomoko Kumagai, Shameer Mehta, Farooq Rahman, Simona Di Caro
Published: 7 August 2020
by MDPI
Nutrients, Volume 12; doi:10.3390/nu12082357

Abstract:
(1) Background: Malnutrition in cancer patients impacts quality of life (QoL) and performance status (PS). When oral/enteral nutrition is not possible and patients develop intestinal failure, parenteral nutrition (PN) is indicated. Our aim was to assess nutritional status, QoL, and PS in hospitalised cancer patients recently initiated on PN for intestinal failure. (2) Methods: The design was a cross-sectional observational study. The following information was captured: demographic, anthropometric, biochemical and medical information, as well as nutritional screening tool (NST), patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA), functional assessment of cancer therapy-general (FACT-G), and Karnofsky PS (KPS) data. (3) Results: Among 85 PN referrals, 30 oncology patients (56.2 years, 56.7% male) were identified. Mean weight (60.3 ± 16.6 kg) corresponded to normal body mass index values (21.0 ± 5.1 kg/m2). However, weight loss was significant in patients with gastrointestinal tumours (p < 0.01). A high malnutrition risk was present in 53.3–56.7% of patients, depending on the screening tool. Patients had impaired QoL (FACT-G: 26.6 ± 9.8) but PS indicated above average capability with independent daily activities (KPS: 60 ± 10). (4) Conclusions: Future research should assess the impact of impaired NS and QoL on clinical outcomes such as survival, with a view to encompassing nutritional and QoL assessment in the management pathway of this patient group.
Hui Hua Chang, Pi-Shan Sung, Wei Chen Liao, Alice Y. W. Chang, Ya-Hsin Hsiao, Tzu-Fun Fu, Chin-Ying Huang, Chin-Wei Huang
Published: 7 August 2020
by MDPI
Nutrients, Volume 12; doi:10.3390/nu12082359

Abstract:
Observational studies have investigated the potential modulatory effect of neuronal excitability by vitamins in epilepsy. We aimed to investigate whether the addition of multivitamin therapy (B6/B9, D, E and Q) to regular antiepileptic drug therapy could ameliorate seizures in patients with refractory focal epilepsy. We conducted a prospective cohort open study to investigate the effect and tolerability of add-on multivitamin therapy (daily dose: B6 100 mg, B9 5 mg, D 1000 IU, E 400 IU and coenzyme Q10 100 mg) in patients with intractable focal epilepsy. All patients had effect and safety assessments at baseline and after one, three and six months of the supplementation. Thirty patients (11 men and 19 women) with a mean age of 42.37 ± 9.40 years were recruited and four patients discontinued. The seizure frequency significantly decreased after the six-month supplementation (9.04 ± 18.16/month and 2.06 ± 3.89/month, p = 0.045). At the final visit, 62.5% of the patients showed a ≥50% reduction in seizure frequency, and 12.5% were seizure-free. As to safety and tolerability, most patients did not experience significant adverse events, although three patients reported seizure worsening. In conclusion, this pilot study demonstrated the therapeutic potential and essentially good tolerability of add-on multivitamin therapy in patients with refractory focal epilepsy.
Massimo Bellini, Sara Tonarelli, Federico Barracca, Riccardo Morganti, Andrea Pancetti, Lorenzo Bertani, Nicola De Bortoli, Francesco Costa, Marta Mosca, Santino Marchi, et al.
Published: 7 August 2020
by MDPI
Nutrients, Volume 12; doi:10.3390/nu12082360

Abstract:
A low-FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols) diet (LFD) is a possible therapy for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This study investigates the short- and long-term efficacy and nutritional adequacy of an LFD and the patients’ long-term acceptability. Patients’ adherence and ability to perceive the “trigger” foods were also evaluated. Seventy-three IBS patients were given an LFD (T0) and after 2 months (T1), 68 started the reintroduction phase. At the end of this period (T2), 59 were advised to go on an Adapted Low-FODMAP Diet (AdLFD) and 41 were evaluated again after a 6–24 month follow-up (T3). At each time, questionnaires and Biolectrical Impedance Vector Analysis (BIVA) were performed. The LFD was effective in controlling digestive symptoms both in the short- and long-term, and in improving quality of life, anxiety and depression, even if some problems regarding acceptability were reported and adherence decreased in the long term. The LFD improved the food-related quality of life without affecting nutritional adequacy. When data collected at T0 were compared with those collected at T2, the perception of trigger foods was quite different. Even if some problems of acceptability and adherence are reported, an LFD is nutritionally adequate and effective in improving IBS symptoms also in the long term.
Chi-Nien Chen, Hung-Chen Yu, An-Kuo Chou
Published: 7 August 2020
by MDPI
Nutrients, Volume 12; doi:10.3390/nu12082361

Abstract:
An association between high pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and early breastfeeding cessation has been previously observed, but studies examining the effect of underweight are still scant and remain inconclusive. This study analyzed data from a nationally representative cohort of 18,312 women (mean age 28.3 years; underweight 20.1%; overweight 8.2%; obesity 1.9%) who delivered singleton live births in 2005 in Taiwan. Comprehensive face-to-face interviews and surveys were completed at 6 and 18 months postpartum. BMI status and breastfeeding duration were calculated from the self-reported data in the questionnaires. In the adjusted ordinal logistic regression model, maternal obesity and underweight had a higher odds of shorter breastfeeding duration compared with normal-weight women. The risk of breastfeeding cessation was significantly higher in underweight women than in normal-weight women after adjustments in the logistic regression model (2 m: aOR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.03–1.2; 4 m: aOR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.21–1.43; 6 m: aOR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.18–1.42). Our findings indicated that maternal underweight and obesity are associated with earlier breastfeeding cessation in Taiwan. Optimizing maternal BMI during the pre-conception period is essential, and future interventions to promote and support breastfeeding in underweight mothers are necessary to improve maternal and child health.
Iker Alegria-Lertxundi, Carmelo Aguirre, Luis Bujanda, Francisco J. Fernández, Francisco Polo, José M. Ordovás, M. Carmen Etxezarraga, Iñaki Zabalza, Mikel Larzabal, Isabel Portillo, et al.
Published: 7 August 2020
by MDPI
Nutrients, Volume 12; doi:10.3390/nu12082362

Abstract:
Epidemiologic studies have revealed inconsistent evidence of gene-diet interaction in relation to colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this study was to analyze them in a sample of cases and controls from the population-based bowel cancer screening program of the Osakidetza/Basque Health Service. This study analyzed dietetic, genetic, demographic, socioeconomic factors and lifestyles. In the present manuscript, the survey design, sampling, instruments, measurements and related quality management were presented. Moreover, we analyze differences between cases and controls in some data, especially those related to diet. The participants were 308 cases and 308 age- and sex-matched subjects as controls. Cases were more likely than controls to have overweight/obesity (67.5% vs. 58.1%, p < 0.05), a lower intake of vitamin B2 (0.86 ± 0.23 vs. 0.92 ± 0.23 mg/1000 kcal, p < 0.01) and calcium:phosphorus ratio (0.62 ± 0.12 vs. 0.65 ± 0.13, p < 0.01). A higher proportion of cases than controls did not meet the Nutritional Objectives for saturated fatty acids (85.7% vs. 67.5%, p < 0.001) or cholesterol (35.4% vs. 25.0%, p < 0.01). In conclusion, the present study provides valuable data for analyzing the complexity of gene-diet interaction in relation to CRC. The results presented here suggest that overweight/obesity and a high intake of certain dietary components, especially saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, are more frequent in cases than in controls.
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