Nutrients

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ISSN / EISSN : 20726643 / 20726643
Current Publisher: MDPI (10.3390)
Total articles ≅ 8,100
Google Scholar h5-index: 78
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Jennifer Hilger-Kolb, Katharina Diehl
Published: 14 October 2019
by MDPI
Nutrients, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/nu11102440

Abstract:Healthy eating can prevent individuals across all age groups from developing overweight/obesity and non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, unhealthy eating habits (e.g., a high level of fast food consumption) have been found to be widespread among university students. Thus, it seems necessary to develop prevention strategies to improve students’ eating habits. However, to ensure that such strategies are successful, it is important that they fit the needs of the target population. By conducting qualitative interviews with students (n = 20), we aimed to get a deeper understanding of barriers to healthy eating. Students were asked about barriers to healthy eating and to suggest possible ideas that could improve their eating behavior in the future. Our findings revealed that students are especially affected by time-related barriers (e.g., a lack of time due to university commitment) and environmental barriers (e.g., a lack of cheap, tasty, and healthy meal options at the university canteen). Time-related barriers were also related to motivational barriers (e.g., being too lazy to cook after a busy day at university). In addition, knowledge/information-related barriers, social-support-related barriers, and transition-related barriers emerged from our interviews. The variety of barriers addressed and the different views on some of these, indicate that various strategies seem to be needed to improve the eating behavior among university students and to prevent them from gaining weight and developing non-communicable diseases in the future.
Hiroshi Kaneko, Hirohito Tsuboi, Sayuri Yamamoto, Toshihiro Konagaya
Published: 13 October 2019
by MDPI
Nutrients, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/nu11102436

Abstract:Background: There has been an increasing interest in low fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAP) diets for irritable bowel syndrome. The aims of the present study were (1) to survey knowledge and eating habits with respect to low- and high-FODMAP foods in a general population, and (2) to analyze the relationship between lower gastrointestinal problems (LGIP, pain and irregular stool habits) and habits/foods for prevention. Methods: The present study was carried out with medical examinees (n = 1024) at a clinic in Japan using self-administrated questionnaires. The subjects were asked whether they knew each FODMAP food, eating habit, and cooking habit. Chi-squared tests were used for analyzing the characteristics of LGIP-related factors. Logistic regression models were utilized to select foods which predict LGIP. Results: Women cooking by themselves and who were younger indicated less LGIP (Chai-square for trend). More than 60% reported that they often ate rice, coffee, eggs, pork, chicken, breads, noodles, and onions, which are solely classified as high-FODMAP foods. LGIP was related to age and self-cooking habits in women. Soybeans had the least significant relationship with LGIP (odds ratio (OR) 0.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32–0.73), followed by seaweed, shellfish, wheat, cow’s milk, green beans, and cauliflower. In contrast, artificial sweeteners were most significantly related with LGIP (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.16–2.03), followed by margarine and tomato paste. Conclusions: The associations between FODMAP foods and LGPI appeared to be different from the Western results. Furthermore, some diets related to LGIP are suggested.
Kyungho Ha, YoonJu Song
Published: 13 October 2019
by MDPI
Nutrients, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/nu11102437

Abstract:Emerging studies indicate that meal timing is linked to cardiometabolic risks by deterioration of circadian rhythms, however limited evidence is available in humans. This large-scale cross-sectional study explored the associations of meal timing and frequency with obesity and metabolic syndrome among Korean adults. Meal timing was defined as nightly fasting duration and morning, evening, and night eating, and meal frequency was estimated as the number of daily eating episodes using a single-day 24-hour dietary recall method. Meal frequency was inversely associated with prevalence of abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, and elevated triglycerides in men only. Independent of the nightly fasting duration and eating episodes, morning eating was associated with a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio (OR), 0.73; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.57–0.93 for men and OR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.54–0.89 for women) than no morning eating, whereas night eating was associated with a 48% higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.15–1.90) than no night eating in men only. Longer fasting duration and less sleep were associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. These findings suggest that overall eating patterns, including energy distribution across the day, eating frequency, and sleep duration, rather than fasting duration alone, are related to cardiometabolic risks in free-living Korean adults.
Joanna Myszkowska-Ryciak, Anna Harton
Published: 13 October 2019
by MDPI
Nutrients, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/nu11102438

Abstract:Staff education can improve the quality of nutrition in childcare centers, but an objective assessment of the change is necessary to assess its effectiveness. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the multicomponent educational program for improving the nutritional value of preschools menus in Poland measured by the change in nutrients content before (baseline) and 3–6 months after education (post-baseline). A sample of 10 daily menus and inventory reports reflecting foods and beverages served in 231 full-board government-sponsored preschools was analyzed twice: at baseline and post-baseline (in total 4620 inventory reports). The changes in 1. the supply of nutrients per 1 child per day; 2. the nutrient-to-energy ratio of menus; 3. the number of preschools serving menus consistent with the healthy diet recommendations, were assessed. Education resulted in favorable changes in the supply of energy, fat and saturated fatty acids. The nutrient-to-energy ratio for vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, C, folate and minerals Calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and zinc increased significantly. The percentage of preschools implementing the recommendations for energy, share of fat, saturated fatty acids and sucrose as well as calcium, iron and potassium increased significantly. However, no beneficial effects of education on the content of iodine, potassium, vitamin D and folate were observed. This study indicates the potentially beneficial effect of education in optimizing the quality of the menu in preschools. However, the magnitude of change is still not sufficient to meet the nutritional standards for deficient nutrients.
Wenbiao Shi, Maria Hegeman, Atanaska Doncheva, Melissa Bekkenkamp-Grovenstein, Vincent De Boer, Jaap Keijer
Published: 13 October 2019
by MDPI
Nutrients, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/nu11102439

Abstract:Nicotinamide riboside (NR) is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) precursor vitamin. The scarce reports on the adverse effects on metabolic health of supplementation with high-dose NR warrant substantiation. Here, we aimed to examine the physiological responses to high-dose NR supplementation in the context of a mildly obesogenic diet and to substantiate this with molecular data. An 18-week dietary intervention was conducted in male C57BL/6JRccHsd mice, in which a diet with 9000 mg NR per kg diet (high NR) was compared to a diet with NR at the recommended vitamin B3 level (control NR). Both diets were mildly obesogenic (40 en% fat). Metabolic flexibility and glucose tolerance were analyzed and immunoblotting, qRT-PCR and histology of epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) were performed. Mice fed with high NR showed a reduced metabolic flexibility, a lower glucose clearance rate and aggravated systemic insulin resistance. This was consistent with molecular and morphological changes in eWAT, including sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)-mediated PPARγ (proliferator-activated receptor γ) repression, downregulated AKT/glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) signaling, an increased number of crown-like structures and macrophages, and an upregulation of pro-inflammatory gene markers. In conclusion, high-dose NR induces the onset of WAT dysfunction, which may in part explain the deterioration of metabolic health.
Jiayu Gu, Bingyong Mao, Shumao Cui, Xuemei Liu, Hao Zhang, Jianxin Zhao, Wei Chen
Published: 12 October 2019
by MDPI
Nutrients, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/nu11102431

Abstract:Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are considered prebiotics and have been proven to selectively promote the growth of Bifidobacterium in the gut. This study aimed to clarify the effects of FOS intake on the composition of luminal and mucosal microbiota in mice. Briefly, mice were fed a 0% or 25% FOS (w/w)-supplemented diet for four weeks, and the composition of luminal and mucosal microbiota, especially the Bifidobacterium, was analyzed by sequencing the V3–V4 region of 16S rRNA and groEL gene, respectively. After FOS intervention, there were significant increases in the total and wall weights of the cecum and the amount of total short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the cecal contents of the mice. At the phylum level, the results showed a significant increase in the relative abundance of Actinobacteria in the contents and mucosa from the cecum to the distal colon in the FOS group. Besides Bifidobacterium, a significant increase was observed in the relative abundance of Coprococcus in all samples at the genus level, which may be partially related to the increase in butyric acid levels in the luminal contents. Furthermore, groEL sequencing revealed that Bifidobacterium pseudolongum was almost the sole bifidobacterial species in the luminal contents (>98%) and mucosa (>89%). These results indicated that FOS can selectively promote B. pseudolongum proliferation in the intestine, either in the lumen or the mucosa from the cecum to the distal colon. Further studies are required to reveal the competitive advantage of B. pseudolongum over other FOS-metabolizing bacteria and the response mechanisms of B. pseudolongum to FOS.
Parker Evans, Shawna McMillin, Luke Weyrauch, Carol Witczak
Published: 12 October 2019
by MDPI
Nutrients, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/nu11102432

Abstract:Aerobic exercise training and resistance exercise training are both well-known for their ability to improve human health; especially in individuals with type 2 diabetes. However, there are critical differences between these two main forms of exercise training and the adaptations that they induce in the body that may account for their beneficial effects. This article reviews the literature and highlights key gaps in our current understanding of the effects of aerobic and resistance exercise training on the regulation of systemic glucose homeostasis, skeletal muscle glucose transport and skeletal muscle glucose metabolism.
Ricarda Schmidt, Andreas Hiemisch, Wieland Kiess, Anja Hilbert
Published: 12 October 2019
by MDPI
Nutrients, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/nu11102433

Abstract:(1) Background: Research on parental feeding practices and non-normative eating behavior including loss of control (LOC) eating and eating disorder psychopathology indicated separate associations of these variables with child weight status, especially in early childhood. This study cross-sectionally examined interaction effects of restriction, monitoring, pressure to eat, and children’s weight status on disordered eating in children aged 8–13 years. (2) Methods: A population-based sample of N = 904 children and their mothers completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire for Children and the Child Feeding Questionnaire. Child anthropometrics were objectively measured. Hierarchical linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted for cross-sectionally predicting global eating disorder psychopathology and recurrent LOC eating by feeding practices and child weight status for younger (8–10 years) and older (11–13 years) ages. (3) Results: Restriction x Child weight status significantly predicted global eating disorder psychopathology in younger children and recurrent LOC eating in older children. Monitoring x Child weight status significantly predicted eating disorder psychopathology in older children. A higher versus lower child weight status was associated with adverse eating behaviors, particularly in children with mothers reporting high restriction and monitoring. (4) Conclusions: Detrimental associations between higher child weight status and child eating disorder symptomatology held especially true for children whose mothers strongly control child food intake.
Hye Lee, Hyoin An, Hyesook Park
Published: 12 October 2019
by MDPI
Nutrients, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/nu11102434

Abstract:Using data from the community-based cohort of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES), we evaluated the dietary patterns (DPs) related to metabolic diseases and their associations with the incidence of non-fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD). After excluding those with a history of CVD or cancer, we analyzed the data of 8352 subjects aged 40–69 years. Based on their daily intake of 26 food groups at baseline, the DPs of the subjects with metabolic diseases (n = 1679, 20.1%) were analyzed using principal component analysis. Due to regional differences in the effect of DPs on CVD, we performed analyses stratified by region. The association between DPs and the incidence of non-fatal CVD was evaluated by calculating the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) using the Cox proportional hazards model. During the 12-year follow-up, the incidence of non-fatal CVD was 5.4 per 1000 person-years (n = 431). An animal-based DP made the greatest contribution to the total variance and was characterized by a high intake of pork, beef, chicken, fish, and shellfish. The effect of DP on CVD differed by region (industrial/rural regions, p < 0.05) and was dominant in industrial regions, irrespective of metabolic disease status. In industrial regions, subjects in the top quintile of DP had a 0.42-fold (95% CI = 0.24–0.74) lower risk of incident CVD than those in the bottom quintile, even after adjusting for various covariates. In addition, the risk of CVD was high in individuals with a history of metabolic disease in both regions (HR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.24–2.43 in industrial regions; HR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.42–2.48 in rural regions). DP and a history of metabolic diseases, but not their interaction, were independently associated with incident CVD. In our study, an animal-based DP related to metabolic disease was independently associated with incident CVD, and this effect was noticeable only in industrial regions.
Celia Rodríguez-Pérez, Belén García-Villanova, Eduardo Guerra-Hernández, Vito Verardo
Published: 12 October 2019
by MDPI
Nutrients, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/nu11102435

Abstract:Over the last decade, proanthocyanidins (PACs) are attracting attention not only from the food industry but also from public health organizations due to their health benefits. It is well-known that grapes are a good source of PACs and for that reason, the industry is also focused on grape by-products identification and bioactivity evaluation. Grape seeds extract (GSPE) is a rich source of PACs, mainly composed of monomeric catechin and epicatechin, gallic acid and polymeric and oligomeric proanthocyanidins. Thus, this review encompasses the state-of-art structure and the most recent evidence about the impact of GSPE on chronic diseases, with a focus on oxidative stress, inflammation and metabolic syndrome (MeS)-related disorders such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular risk disease in vivo to offer new perspectives in the field that allow further research. Despite the controversial results, is undeniable that PACs from grape seeds are highly antioxidants, thus, the capacity of GSPE to improve oxidative stress might mediate the inflammation process and the progress of MeS-related pathologies. However, further well-design animal studies with standardized dosages and GSPE composition are necessary to shed light into the cause-effect relationship in a more accurate way to later allow a deeper study of the effect of GSPE in humans.