Nutrients

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ISSN / EISSN : 2072-6643 / 2072-6643
Current Publisher: MDPI AG (10.3390)
Total articles ≅ 14,919
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Published: 21 June 2021
Nutrients, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/nu13062122

Abstract:
The abnormal growth of the craniofacial bone leads to skeletal and dental defects, which result in the presence of malocclusions. Not all causes of malocclusion have been explained. In the development of skeletal abnormalities, attention is paid to general deficiencies, including of vitamin D3 (VD3), which causes rickets. Its chronic deficiency may contribute to skeletal malocclusion. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of VD3 deficiency on the development of malocclusions. The examination consisted of a medical interview, oral examination, an alginate impression and radiological imaging, orthodontic assessment, and taking a venous blood sample for VD3 level testing. In about 42.1% of patients, the presence of a skeletal defect was found, and in 46.5% of patients, dentoalveolar malocclusion. The most common defect was transverse constriction of the maxilla with a narrow upper arch (30.7%). The concentration of vitamin 25 (OH) D in the study group was on average 23.6 ± 10.5 (ng/mL). VD3 deficiency was found in 86 subjects (75.4%). Our research showed that VD3 deficiency could be one of an important factor influencing maxillary development. Patients had a greater risk of a narrowed upper arch (OR = 4.94), crowding (OR = 4.94) and crossbite (OR = 6.16). Thus, there was a link between the deficiency of this hormone and the underdevelopment of the maxilla.
Published: 21 June 2021
Nutrients, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/nu13062123

Abstract:
A protective effect of vegan diets on health outcomes has been observed in previous studies, but its impact on diabetes is still debated. The aim of this review is to assess the relationship between vegan diets and the risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) along with its effect on glycemic control and diabetes-related complications. In accordance with PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta–Analyses) guidelines, Pubmed and Cochrane library databases were systematically searched for all relevant studies. Seven observational and eight randomized controlled (RCTs) studies were included. The methodological quality of studies was assessed using the National Institutes of Health quality assessment tool for observational cohort and cross-sectional studies and the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool for RCTs. We found that a vegan diet is associated with lower T2D prevalence or incidence and in T2D patients decreases high glucose values and improves glucose homeostasis, as reported from the majority of included studies. This approach seems to be comparable to other recommended healthful eating models, but as it may have potential adverse effects associated with the long-term exclusion of some nutrients, appropriate nutritional planning and surveillance are recommended, particularly in specific groups of diabetic patients such as frail elderly, adolescents, and pregnant or breastfeeding women.
Published: 21 June 2021
Nutrients, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/nu13062120

Abstract:
In clinical practice, differences in glucocorticoid sensitivity among healthy subjects may influence the outcome and any adverse effects of glucocorticoid therapy. Thus, a fast and accurate methodology that could enable the classification of individuals based on their tissue glucocorticoid sensitivity would be of value. We investigated the usefulness of untargeted plasma metabolomics in identifying a panel of metabolites to distinguish glucocorticoid-resistant from glucocorticoid-sensitive healthy subjects who do not carry mutations in the human glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) gene. Applying a published methodology designed for the study of glucocorticoid sensitivity in healthy adults, 101 healthy subjects were ranked according to their tissue glucocorticoid sensitivity based on 8:00 a.m. serum cortisol concentrations following a very low-dose dexamethasone suppression test. Ten percent of the cohort, i.e., 11 participants, on each side of the ranking, with no NR3C1 mutations or polymorphisms, were selected, respectively, as the most glucocorticoid-sensitive and most glucocorticoid-resistant of the cohort to be analyzed and compared with untargeted blood plasma metabolomics using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The acquired metabolic profiles were evaluated using multivariate statistical analysis methods. Nineteen metabolites were identified with significantly lower abundance in the most sensitive compared to the most resistant group of the cohort, including fatty acids, sugar alcohols, and serine/threonine metabolism intermediates. These results, combined with a higher glucose, sorbitol, and lactate abundance, suggest a higher Cori cycle, polyol pathway, and inter-tissue one-carbon metabolism rate and a lower fat mobilization rate at the fasting state in the most sensitive compared to the most resistant group. In fact, this was the first study correlating tissue glucocorticoid sensitivity with serine/threonine metabolism. Overall, the observed metabolic signature in this cohort implies a worse cardiometabolic profile in the most glucocorticoid-sensitive compared to the most glucocorticoid-resistant healthy subjects. These findings offer a metabolic signature that distinguishes most glucocorticoid-sensitive from most glucocorticoid-resistant healthy subjects to be further validated in larger cohorts. Moreover, they support the correlation of tissue glucocorticoid sensitivity with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome-associated pathways, further emphasizing the need for nutritionists and doctors to consider the tissue glucocorticoid sensitivity in dietary and exercise planning, particularly when these subjects are to be treated with glucocorticoids.
Published: 21 June 2021
Nutrients, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/nu13062121

Abstract:
Anthocyanins, water-soluble flavonoids that produce red-to-blue pigment in plants, have antioxidant properties and have been developed as a functional food to fight obesity. In randomized controlled trials (RCTs), a systematic review with meta-analysis (SR-MA) was used to investigate these anti-obesity effects. Using search engines (PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane-library, and CINAHL) and keywords (anthocyanins, BMI, WC, WHR, and inflammatory biomarkers), 11 out of 642 RCTs (28.3–500 mg/day of anthocyanins for 4 to 24 weeks) were included. The results showed a significant reduction in body mass index (BMI) (MD = −0.36, 95% CI = −0.58 to −0.13), but body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC) did not change. Anthocyanins decreased BMI in the non-obese (non-OB) group in five RCTs (BMI ≤ 25; MD = −0.40 kg/m2; 95% CI = −0.64 to −0.16;) but did not affect BMI in the obese (OB) group. A subgroup analysis of six RCTs showed that fewer than 300 mg/day reduced BMI (MD = −0.37; 95% CI = −0.06 to −0.14), but ≥300 mg/day did not. A treatment duration of four weeks for four RCTs was sufficient to decrease the BMI (MD = −0.41; 95% CI = −0.66 to −0.16) as opposed to a longer treatment (6–8 or ≥12 weeks). An analysis of the effect of anthocyanins on the BMI showed a significant fall among those from the Middle East compared to those from Asia, Europe, South America, or Oceania. In conclusion, the anthocyanin supplementation of 300 mg/day or less for four weeks was sufficient to reduce the BMI and BW compared to the higher-dose and longer-treatment RCTs. However, further studies might be conducted regarding the dose- or period-dependent responses on various obese biomarkers.
Published: 21 June 2021
Nutrients, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/nu13062124

Abstract:
Body water turnover is a marker of hydration status for measuring total fluid gains and losses over a 24-h period. It can be particularly useful in predicting (and hence, managing) fluid loss in individuals to prevent potential physical, physiological and cognitive declines associated with hypohydration. There is currently limited research investigating the interrelationship of fluid balance, dietary intake and activity level when considering body water turnover. Therefore, this study investigates whether dietary composition and energy expenditure influences body water turnover. In our methodology, thirty-eight males (19 sedentary and 19 physically active) had their total body water and water turnover measured via the isotopic tracer deuterium oxide. Simultaneous tracking of dietary intake (food and fluid) is carried out via dietary recall, and energy expenditure is estimated via accelerometery. Our results show that active participants display a higher energy expenditure, water intake, carbohydrate intake and fibre intake; however, there is no difference in sodium or alcohol intake between the two groups. Relative water turnover in the active group is significantly greater than the sedentary group (Mean Difference (MD) [95% CI] = 17.55 g·kg−1·day−1 [10.90, 24.19]; p = < 0.001; g[95% CI] = 1.70 [0.98, 2.48]). A penalised linear regression provides evidence that the fibre intake (p = 0.033), water intake (p = 0.008), and activity level (p = 0.063) predict participants’ relative body water turnover (R2= 0.585). In conclusion, water turnover is faster in individuals undertaking regular exercise than in their sedentary counterparts, and is, in part, explained by the intake of water from fluid and high-moisture content foods. The nutrient analysis of the participant diets indicates that increased dietary fibre intake is also positively associated with water turnover rates. The water loss between groups also contributes to the differences observed in water turnover; this is partly related to differences in sweat output during increased energy expenditure from physical activity.
Published: 21 June 2021
Nutrients, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/nu13062126

Abstract:
The main objective of this study was to estimate the association between nut consumption and body composition-related measures and to examine whether this relationship is mediated by cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and the muscle strength index (MSI) in young adults. A cross-sectional study involving college students (n = 354) aged 18–30 years from a Spanish public university was conducted. Body composition and fitness components were assessed using standard methods. Nut consumption was evaluated using a Food-Frequency Questionnaire. ANCOVA models were used to assess the mean differences in physical fitness and body composition by nut consumption categories. Hayes’s PROCESS macro was applied for mediation and interaction analyses adjusted for the main confounders. Young adults with high nut consumption (≥5 portions of 30 g/week) showed significantly higher values of physical fitness components and fat-free mass and lower values of adiposity-related measures than their peers in the lowest categories of nut consumption (˂1 portion/week) (p< 0.05). No significant interaction between CRF and nut consumption on body composition was found. In the mediation analysis, CRF and MSI acted as full mediators of the relationship of nut consumption with fat-free mass and waist circumference/height index. Otherwise, CRF and MSI partially mediated the relationship between nut consumption and body mass index and percent of fat mass. Finally, nut consumption, per se, does not appear to have a significant impact on body composition indicators because these associations have been shown to be partially (for BMI and %BF) or entirely (for ratio WC/height and fat-free mass) explained by CRF and MSI.
Published: 20 June 2021
Nutrients, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/nu13062115

Abstract:
Clinical decision support systems (CDSS) are data aggregation tools based on computer technology that assist clinicians to promote healthy weight management and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. We carried out a randomised controlled 3-month trial to implement lifestyle modifications in breast cancer (BC) patients by means of CDSS during the COVID-19 pandemic. In total, 55 BC women at stages I-IIIA were enrolled. They were randomly assigned either to Control group, receiving general lifestyle advice (n = 28) or the CDSS group (n = 27), to whom the CDSS provided personalised dietary plans based on the Mediterranean diet (MD) together with physical activity guidelines. Food data, anthropometry, blood markers and quality of life were evaluated. At 3 months, higher adherence to MD was recorded in the CDSS group, accompanied by lower body weight (kg) and body fat mass percentage compared to control (p< 0.001). In the CDSS arm, global health/quality of life was significantly improved at the trial endpoint (p< 0.05). Fasting blood glucose and lipid levels (i.e., cholesterol, LDL, triacylglycerols) of the CDSS arm remained unchanged (p > 0.05) but were elevated in the control arm at 3 months (p< 0.05). In conclusion, CDSS could be a promising tool to assist BC patients with lifestyle modifications during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Published: 20 June 2021
Nutrients, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/nu13062114

Abstract:
Background: Nutritional status influences immunity but its specific association with susceptibility to COVID-19 remains unclear. We examined the association of specific dietary data and incident COVID-19 in the UK Biobank (UKB). Methods: We considered UKB participants in England with self-reported baseline (2006–2010) data and linked them to Public Health England COVID-19 test results—performed on samples from combined nose/throat swabs, using real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)—between March and November 2020. Baseline diet factors included breastfed as baby and specific consumption of coffee, tea, oily fish, processed meat, red meat, fruit, and vegetables. Individual COVID-19 exposure was estimated using the UK’s average monthly positive case rate per specific geo-populations. Logistic regression estimated the odds of COVID-19 positivity by diet status adjusting for baseline socio-demographic factors, medical history, and other lifestyle factors. Another model was further adjusted for COVID-19 exposure. Results: Eligible UKB participants (n = 37,988) were 40 to 70 years of age at baseline; 17% tested positive for COVID-19 by SAR-CoV-2 PCR. After multivariable adjustment, the odds (95% CI) of COVID-19 positivity was 0.90 (0.83, 0.96) when consuming 2–3 cups of coffee/day (vs. <1 cup/day), 0.88 (0.80, 0.98) when consuming vegetables in the third quartile of servings/day (vs. lowest quartile), 1.14 (1.01, 1.29) when consuming fourth quartile servings of processed meats (vs. lowest quartile), and 0.91 (0.85, 0.98) when having been breastfed (vs. not breastfed). Associations were attenuated when further adjusted for COVID-19 exposure, but patterns of associations remained. Conclusions: In the UK Biobank, consumption of coffee, vegetables, and being breastfed as a baby were favorably associated with incident COVID-19; intake of processed meat was adversely associated. Although these findings warrant independent confirmation, adherence to certain dietary behaviors may be an additional tool to existing COVID-19 protection guidelines to limit the spread of this virus.
Published: 20 June 2021
Nutrients, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/nu13062111

Abstract:
Children with inborn errors of intermediary metabolism (IEiM) must follow special diets that restrict their intake of essential nutrients and may compromise normal growth and development. We evaluated body composition, bone mineral density, physical activity, and food intake in IEiM patients undergoing dietary treatment. IEiM patients (n = 99) aged 5–19 years and healthy age- and sex-matched controls (n = 98) were recruited and underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to evaluate anthropometric characteristics and body composition. Data on food intake and physical activity were also collected using validated questionnaires. The height z-score was significantly lower in IEiM patients than controls (−0.28 vs. 0.15; p = 0.008), particularly in those with carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism disorders. Significant differences in adiposity were observed between patients and controls for the waist circumference z-score (−0.08 vs. −0.58; p = 0.005), but not the body mass index z-score (0.56 vs. 0.42; p = 0.279). IEiM patients had a significantly lower total bone mineral density (BMD) than controls (0.89 vs. 1.6; p = 0.001) and a higher risk of osteopenia (z-score < −2, 33.3% vs. 20.4%) and osteoporosis (z-score < −2.5, 7.1% vs. 0%), but none presented fractures. There was a significant positive correlation between natural protein intake and BMD. Our results indicate that patients with IEiM undergoing dietary treatment, especially those with amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism disorders, present alterations in body composition, including a reduced height, a tendency towards overweight and obesity, and a reduced BMD.
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