International Journal of Geosciences

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 21568359 / 21568367
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 928
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U. Z. Magawata, D. S. Bonde, B. U. Abdullahi, Basiru Qudus, M. N. Yahaya
International Journal of Geosciences, Volume 11, pp 25-36; doi:10.4236/ijg.2020.112003

Abstract:
Very low frequency (VLF-EM) was used to assess variations in overburden composition, bedrock lithology and the hidden Sedimentary structures within the foundation of Shagari Dam of the sedimentary basin of Northwestern Nigeria. Four VLF-electromagnetic (EM) traverses were occupied at 10 m in-tervals. The VLF normal and filtered real component irregularities identify major geological interfaces suspected to be faults/fractured zones. The points of crossover between the real and imaginary components delineate the fractured zones, which were identified as areas of possible seepage (sloughing and piping). The fractured zones are suspected to be present at all traverses. In total, 38 fractured zones were identified along the dam embankment and canal site, while 17 major fractures occurrence dippers along the Traverses at a point, Traverse 1 (F3, F4, F5, F7, F10, F11), Traverse 2 (F12, F13, F21, F22), Traverse 3 (F23, F24, F29) and Traverse 4 (F32, F33, F34, F38), and coincide with cross over point at 4 traverses. These seepage zones cause heterogeneity in the sub-surface structure that could be prime to dam failure which in turn leads to the flooding, decreases in irrigations activities of the peoples leaving around the dam and loss of several hundreds of life when care not taken. The result of the study suggests that VLF is suitable for observing seepages in embankment dams.
P. Mishra O., Singh Priya, Ram B., Kiran Gera Sasi, P. Singh O., K. Mukherjee K., K. Chakrabortty G., V. N. Chandrasekhar S., Selinraj A., K. Som S., et al.
International Journal of Geosciences, Volume 11, pp 125-144; doi:10.4236/ijg.2020.113008

Abstract:
Seismic Microzonation comprising study of site specific seismic Microtremor (H/V ratio) is deployed to generate seismological parameters (Peak Frequency, Peak Amplification, Site Vulnerability Index) that may help estimate requisite factors for sound building design codes that can be used to construct risk resilient infrastructures. In this paper the site of Pakyong, Sikkim, India has been investigated by dividing it into three differed zones (Zone 1, Zone II, Zone III). The study area is associated with site amplification factor varying from 1.47 to 11.49 with corresponding frequency variations from 0.5 Hz - 12.5 Hz in which site vulnerability index found varied from 0.2 to 220.6. The anomalous subsurface formation with its high amplification corresponds to the centre of the Pakyong sites having conspicuous trend in NW-SE direction suggesting the existence of geological formations of Chlorite, Phyllite with intercalations of Quartzite beneath the centre of Pakyong site. The risk associated with vulnerability index for different zones maintains its variability as Zone I > Zone II > Zone III, indicating the low vulnerability index values are attributed to compact parts of the sub-surface materials with less amplifications whilst high vulnerability index of the site corresponds to relatively lower strength of the sub-surface materials and soft sediments underlying the Pakyong site which can be used for constructing risk resilient structure by enhancing the stiffness coefficient of the sub-surface by providing plausible engineering solutions for the purpose.
U. Z. Magawata, Ibrahim Mohammed, B. A. Ojulari, A. I. Augie, Salisu Musa
International Journal of Geosciences, Volume 11, pp 1-13; doi:10.4236/ijg.2020.111001

Abstract:
An integrated geophysical investigation using very low frequency electro-magnetic (VLF-EM) and electrical resistivity methods using (VES) technique has been carried out for investigation of possible causes of dam failure in Kali, Aliero Northwestern Nigeria. A total of Three 3 (VLF-EM) traverses and Ten 10 vertical electrical soundings (VES) techniques have been carried out to identify the fracture zones, seepage and possible threat that lead to the collapse of the dam. The interpretation of VLF-EM data is carried out qualitatively using Fraser and Karous-Hjelt filters and the interpretation of sounding data is done using IPI2 win software. VLF-EM data signifies the exact fracture zones founded on higher values of relative current density that coincide to the subsurface fracture. The survey was conducted on an interval of 10 m interval along traverses at South-North direction ranging from 620 - 640 m in length. The plot of filtered real and filtered imaginary identified noticeable fracture zone close to the surface which was later further delineated by (VES) technique. VES soundings were carried out at locations of prominent VLF anomalies presumably typical of basement fracture using AB/2 of 80 m. Results interpreted show layers thickness and their corresponding resistivity, top soil (0.5 m to 3.45 m, 51.9 Ωm to 318 Ωm), underlain by clay to confined clay (4.56 m to 54 m, 7.88 Ωm to 60.2 Ωm) which is underlain by fractured/fresh basement (5.76 m to 73.9 m, 40.3 Ωm to 197 Ωm). The overburden materials underlain are far away to subsurface (bed rock) in most of the area to support the dam. The clay materials which could serve as conduit, exist within the shallow overburden which was not excavated during the construction. Therefore it was concluded that the dam cannot retain its strength to oppose the dam against collapse.
Barry Mamadou Saliou, Xinwu Huang
International Journal of Geosciences, Volume 11, pp 15-24; doi:10.4236/ijg.2020.112002

Abstract:
Exploration and prospecting for mineral resources deposits are perceived to not be an easy process due to big deposits being discovered in early times. Numerous gold prospecting methods have been used in gold prospecting. The aim of this research is to critically analyze both traditional and modern gold prospecting methods that are being used in gold exploration. The research objective is to critically evaluate the numerous studies that focus on gold prospecting methods in an effort to provide an effective analysis of gold prospecting methods. In doing so, the study has used a qualitative method to review the existing literature. The study reviews academic journals and articles, books, and periodicals which were published between 2010 and 2019. This study has achieved to critically analyze both traditional and modern gold prospecting methods. The study finds out that the traditional gold prospecting methods include gold panning and dry washing. Additionally, the current gold prospecting methods include biological prospecting, geochemical prospecting and geophysical prospecting methods.
Michael G. Noppe
International Journal of Geosciences, Volume 11, pp 84-99; doi:10.4236/ijg.2020.113006

Mohamed Chibout, Anasse Benslimane, Mohamed El Mokhtar, Sidi Mokhtar El Kanti, Fatima Zahra Faqihi, Lahcen Gourari
International Journal of Geosciences, Volume 11, pp 58-83; doi:10.4236/ijg.2020.113005

Abstract:
The Tartar aquifer unit, is located at the SSO of the city of Boujdour, at a distance of nearly 86 km, and crossed (in its western part) by the National Road N1 connecting the towns of Boujdour and Lagouira passing through the vicinity of the city of Dakhla (PK40). It is exploited by rural settlements for domestic use (especially the inhabitants of fishing villages) and livestock watering, only through wells named Khtout Hobia (IRE 126/124) and Hassi Tartar known as Khtout Trayh (IRE 104/124). These wells have been tracked by a piezometric groundwater table and from 2011 to the present day. The interpretation of the electrical soundings in AB ≤ 2000 m allowed to differentiate the presence of two families of electrical soundings A and B, to establish the resistivity maps in AB = 200, 300 and 400 ihm⋅m with qualitative aspects, to draw up the map of the isohypses of the roof of the intermediate Dt1 representing the impermeable floor of the aquifer and to highlight two types of discontinuities; electrical discontinuities corresponding to lateral facies changes (limit of erosion surfaces) separating the families A and B of electrical soundings and those corresponding to syn-sedimentary faults which structured the formations into horsts and grabens. The lithological sections of the existing water points and that of oil well 43-1 allowed the geological identification of the geoelectric layers highlighted by the electrical soundings diagrams. As a result, the sandstone and lumachelic formations constituting the aquifer are of Moghrebian-Pleistocene age represented by the resistant R (Family A), sometimes grouping, in its basal part, sandstone levels of the Miocene roof (Family B). These formations lie directly on the Miocene sandy marls represented by the intermediate Dt1. For the present work, we will focus only on the transverse geoelectric cross-section TA, with an SW-NE orientation, which characterizes all the longitudinal sections established following the correlation between the different electric sounding diagrams. It highlights the presence of the gravels G1 and G3 separated by the horst H1 where the resistant R is admitted as aquiferous at the level of the gravels G1 (Khtout Trayh well 104/124) and G3 (well 126/124) and sterile at the level of the horst H1.
Naima Azaiez Arif, Azaiez Arif Naima
International Journal of Geosciences, Volume 11, pp 100-124; doi:10.4236/ijg.2020.113007

Abstract:
Currently we are at a phase where morphogenesis is gaining more prominence and dimension regarding the pedogenesis. The numerous multidisciplinary studies on the soil showed that the erosive action as well as the various problems that result from it, bring out a very serious state of soil degradation in the semi-arid field [1]-[9]. Several attempts have established to set empirical and experimental methods for a quantitative estimation of soil loss caused by diffuse erosion. In this perspective, this research intends to track soil losses in the watershed of the Chaddad wadi, the average-flowing stream of the Nebhana wadi belonging to the lower semi-arid field. The main stream and its tributaries drain an area of 26.5 km2 from the eastern slopes of Ejhaf mountain (517 m) and Fartout mountain (476 m), as well as the southern slope of Ediour mountain (405 m). The dividing line of the waters with the Khalfallah wadi and Bel Assoued wadi is caused by rows of hills with an altitude ranging between 220 m and 306 m such as the hills of Sidi Salah and those of Es-Souida and Ain Fres. The Wischmeier Equation will be improved by two corrective parameters: the rockiness on the one hand and the soil slaking index on the other, aiming to develop and optimize the potential of this empirical model. This application allowed overcoming some of the limitations that came with the Wischmeier equation, which is primarily designed for an application within different physical conditions on the scale of a land plot. This research is an opportunity to make a detailed contribution to the potential sensitivity of the watershed to water erosion. A good demarcation of the physical anthropogenic framework of the erosive action will provide substantial support in terms of soil protection and the stabilization of watersheds emitting sediments.
Fouad Shaaban, Amani Bourselli, Adam El-Shahat, Mostafa El-Belqasi
International Journal of Geosciences, Volume 11, pp 37-57; doi:10.4236/ijg.2020.113004

Abstract:
A complete set of well logs was used to study the sedimentology, structural and depositional environments of the subsurface Cretaceous rocks of northern Sinai, as a promising hydrocarbon province in Egypt. The sedimentological interpretations of well logs show sedimentary sequence of the Early Cretaceous, represented by the Neocomian, Aptian and Albian, which is composed mainly of shales and marls with minor carbonate and sandstone intercalations. Based on the Th/K ratios, the argillaceous sediments are composed of illite, montmorillonite and micas with little amounts of glauconite and chlorite. The environmental interpretations revealed sedimentological environments vary from estuarine to lagoonal and backreef of the Barremian-Aptian rocks, and from continental to estuarine in the Aptian-Albian. By contrast, the Late Cretaceous rocks, represented by the Cenomanian, Turonian, Santonian and Maastrichtian, are mainly composed of carbonates with few shale and marl intercalations. This sequence was accumulated under lagoonal to neritic and bathyal environments. The structural interpretations of well logs show that the Cretaceous section attains a wide range of dip magnitudes and dispersed azimuths all over the study area, which is probably attributed to tectonic and sedimentological processes. The inherited structural complexities indicate possible rejuvenations along old fault planes and rotation of the faulted blocks.
Xinliang Liu, Yi Wang, Yong Li, Feng Liu, Jianlin Shen, Liang Ou, Juan Wang, Runlin Xiao, Jinshui Wu
International Journal of Geosciences, Volume 10, pp 12-28; doi:10.4236/ijg.2019.101002

Mirza Jawwad Baig, M. Jawed Iqbal, Saba Naz
International Journal of Geosciences, Volume 10, pp 29-38; doi:10.4236/ijg.2019.101003