International Journal of Geosciences

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 21568359 / 21568367
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 943
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SHERPA/ROMEO
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Daï Bi Seydou Mathurin, Ouattara Gbele, Gnanzou Allou, Koffi Gnammytchet Barthélémy, Coulibaly Inza
International Journal of Geosciences, Volume 11, pp 325-344; doi:10.4236/ijg.2020.115017

Abstract:
The gold mineralization of the Tondabo prospect, located in the northern part of the Oumé-Toumodi-Fettêkro greenstone belt, is mainly hosted in the rhyodacite and to a lesser extent in the mafic volcanics (volcanic lavas and volcanoclastites). These rocks were affected by a hydrothermal alteration marked by quartz veins and veinlets associated with crystals of carbonates, sericite, epidote and sulfides. This hydrothermal alteration induced a pervasive alteration of the surrounding bodies with silicification, chloritization, carbonation and sericitization of the feldspars. The metalliferous paragenesis contains an abundant pyrite, with rare pyrrhotite and chalcopyrite. This mineralization indicates that the Tondabo gold prospect exhibits lithological control. The mineralized deposits are generally affected by a S1 schistosity oriented mainly N000-010° and minority N040-050° with a general dip of 60°-80°to the West; however with rare N-S orientations with a dip of 60°-80° to the East. The drilling intervals show that the highest gold contents are linked to the quartz-carbonates veins and veinlets, which are located in the highly deformed zones, characterizing local shear zones.
Mark Healey
International Journal of Geosciences, Volume 11, pp 420-457; doi:10.4236/ijg.2020.116022

Roberto Lima Barcellos, Maria Cristina Da Silva Sales De Melo, Alcides Da Nóbrega Sial, Valdir Do Amaral Vaz Manso
International Journal of Geosciences, Volume 11, pp 393-419; doi:10.4236/ijg.2020.116021

Mapathe Ndiaye, Oustasse Abdoulaye Sall, Alassane Thiam, Déthié Sarr, Moustapha Badji, Issa Ndoye
International Journal of Geosciences, Volume 11, pp 345-359; doi:10.4236/ijg.2020.116018

Abstract:
Seismic refraction investigations have been carried out in Bakel, Eastern Senegal. The purpose was to map geometrical relationship between the existing rock types and the Panafrican quarzitic basement, which is valuable information for the project of the Bakel fluviatile port construction. Four seismic refraction profiles were acquired. The obtained data have been processed by inversion. The obtained four seismic P-wave velocity profiles have been integrated to obtain a 3D model. By comparing the outcropping geological formations with the observed seismic data at the surface, it was possible to identify the lithology corresponding to each measured range of seismic velocity for the alluvium, the weathered bed rock, and the fresh rock. The results showed that the depth of the fresh rock of the basement varies from 0 to 18 meters above the sea level, with a deepening toward the Senegal River and toward the Northern part of the studied area. The presence of alluviums and their thickness are linked to the existence of bays and gulfs. The results of this study give valuable information for the river bed dredging cost assessment prior to the port construction phase.
T. Harinarayana, Pitambar Sai Goyal, N. Rajendran
International Journal of Geosciences, Volume 11, pp 360-376; doi:10.4236/ijg.2020.116019

Abstract:
Identification of a place and navigation to reach are two most important things for any traveler. Although Google map has been helping the society at large in many ways, it has some disadvantages. For example, all the postal addresses cannot be identifiable through Google map APP. There is no unique place for identification as popular name of a location has several places. Additionally, it depends wholly on GPS accuracy and may sometimes be away from the desired location by 100 meters. Some of these disadvantages are overcome from our new way of identification of a place. Our innovation is simple but its applications are many. We can provide code for any place on the land, water or ice-covered surface of this planet with 8-digit alphanumeric code (TH code). This code is integrated with Google map and implemented in Android based mobile phones and can easily be extended to IOS based Apple mobile phones as well. The accuracy of our code location is about one meter anywhere in the world. To get the code of a location, GPS is not required but internet service is necessary. However, to navigate from one place to the other both GPS and Internet are required. Our APP is quite simple to operate and useful to many and has applications at least in ten different sectors. In this present-day Corona virus scenario, our APP is vital to track human beings, goods, medical equipment etc. to reduce human loss, economy loss due to quarantine/lockdown issues and it is the need of the hour.
Mouhamed Lemine Mohamed, Djim M. L. Diongue, Huguette C. Emvoutou, Ahmed Salem Mohamed, Mohamed Jiddou, Serigne Faye
International Journal of Geosciences, Volume 11, pp 377-392; doi:10.4236/ijg.2020.116020

Abstract:
A comprehensive and detailed study was conducted for the first time in the Benichab Region (western part of Mauritania) unique groundwater resource to identify the main process driving groundwater salinization using major and minor ions together with environmental isotopes. One hundred and nineteen samples were collected from 45 points (dug-wells and boreholes) during the period 2015 to 2017, where physico-chemical, chemical and isotope parameters were analyzed. pH values indicate circumneutral to basic (6.8 to 8.6) values while Electric Conductivity (EC) values show an increasing gradient from fresh groundwater lense (EC
U. Z. Magawata, Ibrahim Mohammed, B. A. Ojulari, A. I. Augie, Salisu Musa
International Journal of Geosciences, Volume 11, pp 1-13; doi:10.4236/ijg.2020.111001

Abstract:
An integrated geophysical investigation using very low frequency electro-magnetic (VLF-EM) and electrical resistivity methods using (VES) technique has been carried out for investigation of possible causes of dam failure in Kali, Aliero Northwestern Nigeria. A total of Three 3 (VLF-EM) traverses and Ten 10 vertical electrical soundings (VES) techniques have been carried out to identify the fracture zones, seepage and possible threat that lead to the collapse of the dam. The interpretation of VLF-EM data is carried out qualitatively using Fraser and Karous-Hjelt filters and the interpretation of sounding data is done using IPI2 win software. VLF-EM data signifies the exact fracture zones founded on higher values of relative current density that coincide to the subsurface fracture. The survey was conducted on an interval of 10 m interval along traverses at South-North direction ranging from 620 - 640 m in length. The plot of filtered real and filtered imaginary identified noticeable fracture zone close to the surface which was later further delineated by (VES) technique. VES soundings were carried out at locations of prominent VLF anomalies presumably typical of basement fracture using AB/2 of 80 m. Results interpreted show layers thickness and their corresponding resistivity, top soil (0.5 m to 3.45 m, 51.9 Ωm to 318 Ωm), underlain by clay to confined clay (4.56 m to 54 m, 7.88 Ωm to 60.2 Ωm) which is underlain by fractured/fresh basement (5.76 m to 73.9 m, 40.3 Ωm to 197 Ωm). The overburden materials underlain are far away to subsurface (bed rock) in most of the area to support the dam. The clay materials which could serve as conduit, exist within the shallow overburden which was not excavated during the construction. Therefore it was concluded that the dam cannot retain its strength to oppose the dam against collapse.
U. Z. Magawata, D. S. Bonde, B. U. Abdullahi, Basiru Qudus, M. N. Yahaya
International Journal of Geosciences, Volume 11, pp 25-36; doi:10.4236/ijg.2020.112003

Abstract:
Very low frequency (VLF-EM) was used to assess variations in overburden composition, bedrock lithology and the hidden Sedimentary structures within the foundation of Shagari Dam of the sedimentary basin of Northwestern Nigeria. Four VLF-electromagnetic (EM) traverses were occupied at 10 m in-tervals. The VLF normal and filtered real component irregularities identify major geological interfaces suspected to be faults/fractured zones. The points of crossover between the real and imaginary components delineate the fractured zones, which were identified as areas of possible seepage (sloughing and piping). The fractured zones are suspected to be present at all traverses. In total, 38 fractured zones were identified along the dam embankment and canal site, while 17 major fractures occurrence dippers along the Traverses at a point, Traverse 1 (F3, F4, F5, F7, F10, F11), Traverse 2 (F12, F13, F21, F22), Traverse 3 (F23, F24, F29) and Traverse 4 (F32, F33, F34, F38), and coincide with cross over point at 4 traverses. These seepage zones cause heterogeneity in the sub-surface structure that could be prime to dam failure which in turn leads to the flooding, decreases in irrigations activities of the peoples leaving around the dam and loss of several hundreds of life when care not taken. The result of the study suggests that VLF is suitable for observing seepages in embankment dams.
Barry Mamadou Saliou, Xinwu Huang
International Journal of Geosciences, Volume 11, pp 15-24; doi:10.4236/ijg.2020.112002

Abstract:
Exploration and prospecting for mineral resources deposits are perceived to not be an easy process due to big deposits being discovered in early times. Numerous gold prospecting methods have been used in gold prospecting. The aim of this research is to critically analyze both traditional and modern gold prospecting methods that are being used in gold exploration. The research objective is to critically evaluate the numerous studies that focus on gold prospecting methods in an effort to provide an effective analysis of gold prospecting methods. In doing so, the study has used a qualitative method to review the existing literature. The study reviews academic journals and articles, books, and periodicals which were published between 2010 and 2019. This study has achieved to critically analyze both traditional and modern gold prospecting methods. The study finds out that the traditional gold prospecting methods include gold panning and dry washing. Additionally, the current gold prospecting methods include biological prospecting, geochemical prospecting and geophysical prospecting methods.
Fouad Shaaban, Amani Bourselli, Adam El-Shahat, Mostafa El-Belqasi
International Journal of Geosciences, Volume 11, pp 37-57; doi:10.4236/ijg.2020.113004

Abstract:
A complete set of well logs was used to study the sedimentology, structural and depositional environments of the subsurface Cretaceous rocks of northern Sinai, as a promising hydrocarbon province in Egypt. The sedimentological interpretations of well logs show sedimentary sequence of the Early Cretaceous, represented by the Neocomian, Aptian and Albian, which is composed mainly of shales and marls with minor carbonate and sandstone intercalations. Based on the Th/K ratios, the argillaceous sediments are composed of illite, montmorillonite and micas with little amounts of glauconite and chlorite. The environmental interpretations revealed sedimentological environments vary from estuarine to lagoonal and backreef of the Barremian-Aptian rocks, and from continental to estuarine in the Aptian-Albian. By contrast, the Late Cretaceous rocks, represented by the Cenomanian, Turonian, Santonian and Maastrichtian, are mainly composed of carbonates with few shale and marl intercalations. This sequence was accumulated under lagoonal to neritic and bathyal environments. The structural interpretations of well logs show that the Cretaceous section attains a wide range of dip magnitudes and dispersed azimuths all over the study area, which is probably attributed to tectonic and sedimentological processes. The inherited structural complexities indicate possible rejuvenations along old fault planes and rotation of the faulted blocks.
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