Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Latest articles in this journal
Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine; doi:10.1016/j.jtcme.2021.03.004
Phytoestrogens are traditionally used for cardiovascular risks but direct effects on the ischemic heart remain unclear. Plants with phytoestrogens are used for reducing menopausic symptoms and they could also be cardioprotectives. Here we investigated whether maca (Lepidium meyenii) contains isoflavones and prevents cardiac stunning, in comparison to soy isoflavones. Both products were orally and daily administered to rats during 1 week before exposing isolated hearts to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Young male (YM), female (YF) and aged female (AgF) rats treated with maca (MACA, 1 g/kg/day) or soy isoflavones (ISOF, 100 mg/kg/day) were compared to acute daidzein (DAZ, 5 mg/kg i.p.) and non-treated rat groups. Isolated ventricles were perfused inside a calorimeter to simultaneously measure contractile and calorimetrical signals before and during I/R. s: maca has genistein and daidzein. MACA and ISOF improved the post-ischemic contractile recovery (PICR) and muscle economy (P/Ht) in YM and YF hearts, but not in AgF hearts. DAZ improved PICR and P/Ht more in YM than in YF. The mKATP channels blockade reduced both PICR and P/Ht in DAZ-treated YM hearts, without affecting them in ISOF or MACA-treated YM hearts. In MACA treated YF hearts, the simultaneous blockade of NOS and mKATP channels, or the mNCX blockade reduced cardioprotection. Results show that subacute oral treatment with maca or with soy isoflavones was strongly preventive of cardiac ischemic dysfunction, more than the acute administration of a pure isoflavone (daidzein, genistein). Maca induced synergistic and complex mechanisms which prevented mitochondrial calcium overload.
Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine; doi:10.1016/j.jtcme.2021.03.005
Epithelial ovarian cancer has the deadliest prognosis amongstgynaecological cancers, warranting an unmet need for newer drug targets. Based onits anticancer as well as abortifacient potential, Moringa oleifera Lam. root washypothesized to have some implications in follicle stimulating hormone receptor(FSHR) dependent cancers like epithelial ovarian cancer. Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. root extract (MRE) was studied in epithelial ovariancancer cell line through in vitro studies viz. MTT assay, clonogenic assay, cell cycleanalysis, flow cytometry, western blot analysis, immunocytochemical analysis of FSHRand c-Myc expression and in vivo studies viz. effect of MRE in mice model of ovariancarcinoma. The structure of the active compound of MRE was elucidated followingsolvent extraction, purification through column chromatography, preparative TLC andbioactivity guided structural identification through 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, DEPT-135, ESIMS,FT-IR spectrophotometry, UV-vis-NIR spectrophotometry and DFT study. Crude MRE displayed cytotoxic activity, induced apoptosis, andattenuated expression of FSHR and c-Myc in ovarian cancer cell line OAW42. MREalso attenuated expression of CD31, FSHR, and c-Myc in tumour xenograft mousemodel. Finally, the active compound purified from ethyl acetate-n-hexane subfraction ofMRE, that attenuated viability of ovarian carcinoma cell lines and reduced FSHR and c-Myc expression, was identified as a naturally hydrated-trifattyglyceride, showing aDFT-optimized folded amphipathic structure for easy transportation through hydrophilicand hydrophobic regions in a biological system, indicating its immense therapeuticrelevance in epithelial ovarian carcinoma.
Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine; doi:10.1016/j.jtcme.2021.03.002
Staphylococcal and streptococcal species trigger a wide variety of infections involving epithelial tissues. Virginian witch hazel (WH; Hamamelis virginiana L.; family: Hamamelidaceae) is a plant that has been used traditionally by Native Americans to treat a variety of skin conditions. Extracts from the leaves were examined for their inhibitory effects on these bacterial species. Solvents of different polarity (water, methanol, ethyl acetate, hexane and chloroform) were used to prepare extracts from WH leaves, and the aqueous resuspensions were screened for antibacterial activities using disc diffusion and liquid dilution assays. Extract phytochemical profiles and toxicities were also examined, and combinations of extracts with conventional antibiotics were tested against each bacterial strain. The methanolic and aqueous extracts inhibited the growth of S. oralis, S. pyogenes, S. epidermidis and S. aureus, but not S. mutans. The extracts were especially active against staphylococcal species, with MIC values between 200-500 μg/ml. Combinations of active extracts with conventional antibiotics failed to yield beneficial interactions, except for two cases where additive interactions were observed (aqueous WH extract combined with chloramphenicol against S. oralis, and methanolic WH extract combined with ciprofloxacin against S. aureus). Phytochemical assays indicated an abundance of tannins, triterpenoids and phenolics in the water and methanol extracts, with trace amounts of these components in the ethyl acetate extract. Phytochemicals were not detected in hexane and chloroform extracts. Thus, phytochemical abundance in extracts was concordant with antibacterial activities. All extracts were found to be non-toxic in Artemia nauplii assays. These findings indicate the potential for WH leaf extracts for clinical use in treating staphylococcal and streptococcal infections, while substantiating their traditional Native American uses.
Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, Volume 11, pp 144-157; doi:10.1016/j.jtcme.2020.12.001
The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is now become a worldwide pandemic bringing over 71 million confirmed cases, while the specific drugs and vaccines approved for this disease are still limited regarding their effectiveness and adverse events. Since virus incidences are still on rise, infectivity and mortality may also rise in the near future, natural products are highly considered to be valuable sources for the discovery of new antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2. This present review aims to comprehensively summarize the up-to-date scientific literatures on biological activities of plant- and mushroom-derived compounds relevant to mechanistic targets involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection and inflammatory-associated pathogenesis, including viral entry, replication and release, and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Data were retrieved from a literature search available on PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar databases and collected until the end of May 2020. The findings from in vitro cell and non-cell based studies were considered, while the results of in silico studies were excluded. Based on the previous findings in SARS-CoV studies, except in silico molecular docking analysis, herein, we provide a total of 150 natural compounds as potential candidates for development of new anti-COVID-19 drugs with higher efficacy and lower toxicity than the existing therapeutic agents. Several natural compounds have showed their promising actions on multiple therapeutic targets, which should be further explored. Among them, quercetin, one of the most abundant of plant flavonoids, is proposed as a lead candidate with its ability on the virus side to inhibit SARS-CoV spike protein-angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) interaction, viral protease and helicase activities, as well as on the host cell side to inhibit ACE activity and increase intracellular zinc level.
Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine; doi:10.1016/j.jtcme.2021.03.003
And Aim: Maytenus ilicifolia has analgesic, healing, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study evaluated effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of M. ilicifolia leaves on skin wound repair Wounds were induced on mice and treated with the extract. The treatment was performed daily, until day 7 after wound induction. Wound closure was measured and the features of the repaired tissue were investigated, including mast cell quantification, neutrophil and macrophage activities, collagen deposition, angiogenesis, and pro-metalloproteases and metalloproteases 2 and 9 activity (pro-MMPs and MMPs) The M. ilicifolia extract accelerated the closure of wounds. The extract at a concentration of 4% was found to be effective, presenting anti-inflammatory effects and haemoglobin increased, along with increased soluble, total and type III collagens in the wound. In addition, there was an increase in pro-MMP9 and MMP9 activity after day 7th of treatment. The phenolic compounds and tannins present in this plant could be associated with the anti-inflammatory and healing activities observed in this study. Therefore, the ability to modulate essential parameters for accelerated and adequate healing as shown here suggests that the use of standardised extracts of M. ilicifolia and its fractions enriched in polyphenols may represent a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of wounds.
Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, Volume 11, pp 90-94; doi:10.1016/j.jtcme.2019.09.006
Vernonia cinerea (VC) is a herb that can alleviate nicotine addiction, potentially aiding in smoking cessation. Previous studies have examined four-to eight-week treatments using VC, but have found it to be ineffective. This study aimed to evaluate the smoking cessation effects of VC in addicted smokers over a longer treatment duration with pastilles. This was a randomized double-blinded controlled trial conducted at a community pharmacy. The inclusion criteria were age between 18 and 60 years, intention to quit smoking, and low to moderate level of nicotine addiction. All eligible participants were stratified according to nicotine addiction level and then randomly assigned either VC treatment or placebo. The VC group received two pastilles three times daily, while the control group received a placebo for 12 weeks. The outcomes were continuous abstinence rate (CAR) and point abstinence rate (PAR) at four and 12 weeks. There were 121 eligible participants; 10 participants were not willing to participate. In total, there were 111 eligible participants, 54 of whom were treated with VC (48.65%) and 57 of whom were given a placebo (51.35%). Baseline characteristics were comparable between the two groups. The VC group had a significantly higher chance of smoking cessation at 2.01 (95% CI of 1.03, 3.92) compared with the placebo group at the end of the study. There were no significant side effects in either group. The VC pastille group had significantly higher CAR than the placebo group at week 12.
Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, Volume 11, pp 123-129; doi:10.1016/j.jtcme.2020.02.010
The leaf of Nymphaea lotus has been used traditionally for the management of pain and inflammatory diseases. The methanol leaf extract of Nymphaea lotus (NLE) was evaluated for possible anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in rats and mice (at the doses of 250, 500 and 1,000 mg/kg) to investigate the existence of scientific basis for the folkloric use of the plant. The standard drugs used were piroxicam (10 mg/kg) and morphine (10 mg/kg). The possible pharmacological mechanism involved in the anti-nociceptive activity was also investigated. The acute toxicity was determined in mice and rats using method of Lorke. The anti-nociceptive activity was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate tests in mice, while the anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model in rats. The oral median lethal dose of NLE was found to be greater than 5,000 mg/kg in rats and mice. NLE demonstrated significant and dose-dependent protection against acetic acid induced writhes and increased the reaction time of mice in hot plate test. Pretreatment of the animals with naloxone (2 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated the anti-nociception elicited by both NLE and morphine. NLE at the doses of 250 and 1,000 mg/kg significantly (p < 0.05) decreased rat paw edema at the 2nd hour in the carrageenan-induced paw edema test. The result of the study revealed that Nymphaea lotus possesses anti-nociceptive activities which may be mediated via the opioidergic system as well as mild anti-inflammatory activities thus providing scientific basis for the use of the plant in the management of pain and inflammatory diseases.
Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, Volume 11, pp 180-187; doi:10.1016/j.jtcme.2021.01.004
Huashi Baidu Decoction (HSBD) is a novel complex prescription which has positive effects on severe COVID-19. This study was aimed to discover key Chinese materia medica, main active compounds, hub therapeutic target proteins and core signal pathways in the potential therapeutic mechanism of HSBD on severe COVID-19 through integrating network pharmacological methods. TCMSP, TCMID and STITCH databases were used to screen out active compounds and target proteins of HSBD. GeneCards database was used to screen out disease genes of severe COVID-19. The potential therapeutic targets of HSBD on severe COVID-19 were used to construct protein-protein interaction network through STRING database and the hub target proteins were discovered. Next, GO and KEGG enrichment analysis were carried out to discover core signal pathways. Finally, the network diagram of “Chinese materia medica-active compounds-therapeutic target proteins” was built, then key Chinese materia medica and main active compounds were selected. HSBD might treat severe COVID-19 through 45 potential target genes, among them, there were 13 hub target genes: RELA, TNF, IL6, IL1B, MAPK14, TP53, CXCL8, MAPK3, MAPK1, IL4, MAPK8, CASP8, STAT1. Meanswhile, GO_BiologicalProcess and KEGG signaling pathways analysis results showed that the core signal pathways were inflammation and immune regulation pathways. Finally, 4 key Chinese materia medica and 11 main active compounds were discovered in the HSBD. In conclusion, the therapeutic mechanism of HSBD on severe COVID-19 might involve its pharmacological effects of anti-inflammation and immune regulation via acting on 45 disease-related proteins of severe COVID-19. Viral Pneumonia, COVID-19, Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Septic Shock, Chinese Herbal Medicine.
Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, Volume 11, pp 173-179; doi:10.1016/j.jtcme.2021.01.006
COVID-19 emerged by the end of 2019 in Wuhan, China. It spreaded and became a public health emergency all over the world by mid of April 2020. Flavonoids are specialized metabolites that have antimicrobial properties including anti-viral activity. Rutin, a medicinally important flavonoid belongs to one of the best natural antioxidant classes. It has antiprotozoal, antibacterial, and antiviral properties. Keeping the antimicrobial potential of rutin in mind, we studied its role in the inhibition of essential proteins of SARS-CoV-2 including main protease (Mpro), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), papain-like protease (PLpro), and spike (S)-protein through different in silico approaches. Molecular docking, inhibition constant, hydrogen bond calculations, and ADMET-properties prediction were performed using different softwares. Molecular docking study showed significant binding of rutin with Mpro, RdRp, PLpro, and S-proteins of SARS-CoV-2. Out of these four proteins, Mpro exhibited the strongest binding affinity with the least binding energy (−8.9 kcal/mol) and stabilized through hydrogen bonds with bond lengths ranging from 1.18 Å to 3.17 Å as well as hydrophobic interactions. The predicted ADMET and bioactivity showed its optimal solubility, non-toxic, and non-carcinogenic properties. The values of the predicted inhibitory constant of the rutin with SARS-CoV-2 vital proteins ranged between 5.66 μM and 6.54 μM which suggested its promising drug candidature. This study suggested rutin alone or in combination as a dietary supplement may be used to fight against COVID-19 after detailed in vitro and in vivo studies.
Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, Volume 11, pp 158-172; doi:10.1016/j.jtcme.2020.12.002
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has now become the world pandemic. There is a race to develop suitable drugs and vaccines for the disease. The anti-HIV protease drugs are currently repurposed for the potential treatment of COVID-19. The drugs were primarily screened against the SARS-CoV-2 main protease. With an urgent need for safe and effective drugs to treat the virus, we have explored natural products isolated from edible and medicinal mushrooms that have been reported to possess anti-HIV protease. We have examined 36 compounds for their potential to be SARS-CoV-2 main protease inhibitors using molecular docking study. Moreover, drug-likeness properties including absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity were evaluated by in silico ADMET analysis. Our AutoDock study showed that 25 of 36 candidate compounds have the potential to inhibit the main viral protease based on their binding affinity against the enzyme’s active site when compared to the standard drugs. Interestingly, ADMET analysis and toxicity prediction revealed that 6 out of 25 compounds are the best drug-like property candidates, including colossolactone VIII, colossolactone E, colossolactone G, ergosterol, heliantriol F and velutin. Our study highlights the potential of existing mushroom-derived natural compounds for further investigation and possibly can be used to fight against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Disease, Infectious Disease, Respiratory System Disease, Covid-19, Traditional Medicine, Traditional Herbal Medicine, Phamaceutical Analysis.