Advances in Entomology

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ISSN / EISSN : 2331-1991 / 2331-2017
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 175
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Jean Wini Goudoungou, Félicité Arindo, Katamssadan Haman Tofel, Raoul Barry Borkeum, Jean Pierre Abdou, Elias Nchiwan Nukenine
Published: 1 January 2022
Advances in Entomology, Volume 10, pp 205-222; https://doi.org/10.4236/ae.2022.103015

Abstract:
Cowpea seed constitutes an important source of proteins for populations in Sub-Saharan Africa. But this food resource is heavily damaged by cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. The control of that pest is mainly carried out by using synthetic insecticides. Despite the efficacy of this method, it caused environmental and health problems. Therefore, the search for alternative methods is vivaciously needed. In this issue, the bio-efficacy of Plectranthus kirbii extracts was assessed on C. maculatus regarding adult mortality, suppression of population and grain damage as well as seed viability preservation and repellency. The leaf powder and aqueous extracts of the plant were tested at 2, 4, 8 and 16 g/kg on bruchid adult for toxicity and damage bioassays. Repellency test was carried out using the plant aqueous, methanolic and ethyl acetate extracts at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mg/cm2. The seed viability was evaluated using seeds preserved for three months at the single concentration of 16 g/kg of each plant extract. Significant mortality of cowpea beetle was induced by the plant aqueous extract and leaf powder. LC50 values decreased with the increasing exposure period, and aqueous extract and leaf powder recorded 33.42 and 9.48 g/kg respectively within 3 days whereas within 5 days, the same extracts in the same order recorded LC50 of 1.31 and 8.73 g/kg respectively. These extracts significantly reduced damage by suppressing almost completely the bruchid population growth. The non-infested grain preserved recorded high grain viability compared to the infested ones. The non-treated infested recorded the lowest germination rate (11.33%). The repellency rate ranged from 38.75% to 83.75%. Ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts were classified as the class III repellent product, while aqueous extract ranged as class IV in repellency. Considering these findings, the extracts of P. kirbii could favourably replace the synthetic insecticides used in the cowpea protection during storage.
Jamila A. Datti, Muhammad M. Mukhtar, Maimuna T. Usman, Bilkisu I. Abba, Binta G. Kurfi, Sulaiman S. Ibrahim
Published: 1 January 2022
Advances in Entomology, Volume 10, pp 186-203; https://doi.org/10.4236/ae.2022.102014

Abstract:
Information on Culex mosquitoes (vectors of filarial worm and viral encephalitis) from northern Nigeria is scanty, hindering evidence-based control. Here, two Culex populations (Kano and Kaduna) were characterized. Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex pipiens were found breeding in sympatry, with some hybrid individuals identified. Larval bioassays revealed high temephos resistance (LC50s = 1.34 mg/mL and 3.01 mg/mL for Kano and Kaduna, respectively). Larvae were more sensitive to α-cypermethrin (LC50s = 0.026 mg/mL and 0.067 mg/mL for Kano and Kaduna). WHO adult tube bioassays revealed high pyrethroid and DDT resistance, with mortalities of 44.01% ± 6.79%, 35.83% ± 12.58%, 29.69% ± 9.97% and 52.47% ± 4.34% for permethrin, deltamethrin, α-cypermethrin and DDT, respectively. Highest resistance was observed with bendiocarb (mortality = 13.58% ± 3.98%). High resistance was obtained with fenitrothion and malathion (mortalities = 21% ± 4.76% and 56.47% ± 8.67%, respectively), while a full susceptibility was observed with pirimiphos-methyl. Pre-exposure to piperonylbutoxide (PBO) significantly recovered α-cypermethrin susceptibility (mortality = 82% ± 5.16%, χ2 = 50.99, p kdr genotype and resistance phenotype. Sequencing of fragments of the acetylcholinesterase-1 gene detected no G119S mutation, in malathion-alive and malathion-dead females. These suggest a preeminent role of metabolic resistance in these Culex populations.
Ameka Caleb, Oyieke Helida, Elisheba Amolo, Muok Benard
Published: 1 January 2022
Advances in Entomology, Volume 10, pp 159-174; https://doi.org/10.4236/ae.2022.102012

Abstract:
Termites are social insects that live in colonies underground. Globally, there are 3000 termite species, of which 39% are found in Africa. Termites are used as food and livestock feed in most communities of the world. In Kenya, termites are consumed by many communities, especially in the western region. Termite species diversity across different parts of the Luanda sub-county was established as there are many edible and non-edible species in the area. This study assessed the species diversity of termites in Luanda sub-county, and characterized them morphologically. Termites were sampled in Luanda sub-county using the line transect method. The collected termites were preserved in tubes containing 70% Ethanol. The preserved samples were taken to the National Museums of Kenya for morphological identification up to species level. Species richness of each habitat was analyzed for diversity (Shannon-Wiener) index and Shannon index by using Vegan package version 1.16 - 32 in R. The differences in species composition and diversity of termites were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Morphological identification recorded seven species, namely, Macrotermes herus, Macrotermes spp1, Macrotermes sp1, Pseudocanthotermes grandiceps, Macrotermes bellicosus, Macrotermes spp2 and Pseudocanthotermes militaris. The results of this study showed that the Shannon diversity index H was 0.3606 while Simpson index D was 0.20644, which implied a high species diversity of termites in Luanda sub-county a leading producer of edible termites in Kenya.
A. K. M. Quamruzzaman, Ferdouse Islam, Limu Akter, M. Shahadath Hossain, Sharmilla Rani Mallick
Published: 1 January 2022
Advances in Entomology, Volume 10, pp 223-232; https://doi.org/10.4236/ae.2022.103016

Abstract:
In this study, the effects of different types of nethouses viz., NH1, NH2, and NH3, were investigated at the research farm of the Olericulture Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI) from Sep 2021 to Mar 2022 and compared to control (open field) in terms of the incidence of white fly, aphid, leaf miners, mites, and eggplant shoot and fruit borer (ESFB). This study included six vegetables 1) Tomato, 2) Eggplant, 3) Sweet pepper, 4) Broccoli, 5) Cucumber; 6) Okra, as well as four nethouse treatments: 1) UV stabilized transparent polyethylene film with 60 mesh insect net along with green shade net (NH1); 2) UV stabilized transparent polyethylene film with 60 mesh insect net (NH2); 3) 60 mesh insect net (NH3); 4) Open field infestation of white fly, aphid, leaf miners, mites, and ESFB was observed under open field conditions followed by NH1 conditions, while the lower infestation was observed in NH2 and NH3 for all vegetables. From the study, we found the use of stabilized transparent polyethylene film with a 60 mesh insect nethouse provided a negative effect on the presence of different types of notorious insects on vegetables. So, this type of protected nethouse will provide a new dimension to producing safe and quality vegetables in Bangladesh.
Davine Atieno Ondede, Dennis Otieno Ochuodho, Monica A. Ayieko
Published: 1 January 2022
Advances in Entomology, Volume 10, pp 233-251; https://doi.org/10.4236/ae.2022.103017

Abstract:
Black ant, Carebara vidua (Smith) is an edible insect of critical value in nutrition. The population abundance of black ants has reduced drastically and they have become scarce in all the agro ecological zones in Western Kenya. Understanding factors influencing the distribution and abundance of C. vidua remains a challenge as C. vidua is an endangered species in many parts of Country Kenya. The decline in the insect population is worrying since black ants are an important source of food across the world. Our study aimed at determining the eco-climatic conditions influencing the distribution of black ants. Several factors and conditions have contributed to the decline in the population of black ants. The study was carried out in different agro ecological zones of Kisumu, Siaya, and Homabay Counties. The research presumed a cross-sectional approach to community representation. The purposive sampling technique was used to select the population for the qualitative study. Data was collected through Focused Group Discussion and Key Informant Interviews to get in-depth knowledge on the factors contributing to the change in the distribution of back ants. Verbatim transcription was done to the audio recorded data then data was translated into English. Thematic analysis was done using ATLAS.ti software version 7.5. The results showed various factors that led to the change in distribution and reduction of the population of black ants emerging across the lower midland zones, the factors include; climate change, advancement in agricultural equipment, land degradation, and habitat destruction. These factors made the emergence of the insect unpredictable. Over the years across the Lower midland zones, there have been changes in the distribution of C. vidua and the population of insects emerging has reduced hence the insect is disappearing.
Walter Eduardo Quezada-Yaguachi, Americo D. Rodriguez, Francisco Solís-Santoyo, Alma D. Lopez-Solis, William C. Black Iv, Karla Saavedra-Rodriguez, Diego Morales-Viteri, Patricia Penilla-Navarro
Published: 1 January 2022
Advances in Entomology, Volume 10, pp 77-84; https://doi.org/10.4236/ae.2022.101006

Abstract:
Objective: The objective is to compare a regular ovitrap versus an innovated larvitrap for monitoring Aedes spp. populations. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 regular ovitraps and 20 innovated larvitraps were placed in pairs in 20 houses from the 5 de Febrero neighborhood in Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico. The innovation consisted in the incorporation of a valve in the lower part of a half tire to drain the contents in a 2 L collection container. The evaluation was carried out during five weeks, collecting eggs and larvae from the ovitraps and innovated larvitraps, respectively. Positivity indexes and insectary production of adult Aedes spp. mosquitoes were compared by collection type. Results: Average positivity index for the five weeks period were 60% for ovitraps and 91.25% for innovated larvitraps. During the five weeks, 4043 Ae. aegypti and 703 Ae. albopictus adult mosquitoes were produced in the insectary from the eggs collected from ovitraps, while from innovated larvitraps were 9014 Ae. aegypti, 1205 Ae. albopictus, and 15 Culex spp. Conclusion: Collection by the innovated larvitrap was more efficient, collecting 3.56 times more Ae. aegypti than with ovitraps, using approximately the same effort in time for replacing the filter paper from traditional 1 L ovitraps. Since the logistics for the storage and placement of larvitraps may still be a disadvantage in comparison with ovitraps, their use could be specifically intended in sentinel sites for mosquito population monitoring for entomological surveillance purposes.
C. M. Ameka, Benard Muok, Helida Oyieke
Published: 1 January 2022
Advances in Entomology, Volume 10, pp 52-62; https://doi.org/10.4236/ae.2022.101004

Abstract:
Termites are social insects that inhabit colonies in the soil. Termites feed on a wide range of plants found within diverse habitats of Luanda Sub-County. This study aimed at assessing feed preference of edible termites and analyzing their phytochemical composition. Termites were exposed to ten different test plants in their natural habitats to assess feed preference. Forty-seven study sites were selected as they had high termite abundance from previous studies. The test plants were Grevillea robusta, sugarcane, maize, blue citronella grass, Eucalyptus, mango, avocado, neem, bamboo and a mixture of all the ten plants. Small pits were dug in the ground where the ten treatments were placed and replicated four times each. The test plants were placed in the evening then covered with soil block. The number of termites feeding on the test plants was counted after 12 hours the following day. There were separate trials for crushed and uncrushed feed substrates. The feed substrates that showed high feed preference was selected for phytochemical analysis. The plants whose crude extract was obtained were Grevillea robusta, bamboo, Eucalyptus, cypress, maize and sugarcane. The results for this study were analysed using one-way ANOVA. The study revealed that crushed feed substrates had a high level of feed preference by termites p a. Phytochemical analysis of the crude plant extracts revealed that Eucalyptus had the highest number of phytochemicals present 9 out of 12. The identified phytochemicals were saponins, tannins, alkaloids, resins, cardiac glycosides, carbohydrates, phenols and flavones.
Kopya Edmond, Foko Dadji Gisele Aurelie, Sonhafouo-Chiana Nadège, Bamou Roland, Djamouko-Djonkam Landre, Talipouo Abdou, Delogko Serges, Njiokou Flobert, Awono-Ambene Parfait, Wondji Charles Sinclair, et al.
Published: 1 January 2022
Advances in Entomology, Volume 10, pp 34-51; https://doi.org/10.4236/ae.2022.101003

Abstract:
Background: With the rapid expansion of insecticide resistance limiting the effectiveness of insecticide-based vector control interventions, integrated control strategies associating larviciding could be appropriate to improve current control efforts. The present experimental study assesses laboratory and field efficacy of the larvicide VectoMax®G on Anopheline and Culicine larval stages in Yaoundé. Methods: The effect of the larvicide VectoMax®G, a combination of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) and Bacillus sphaericus (Bs), on larval development was assessed during both laboratory and open field trial experiments. Laboratory experiments permitted the evaluation of five different concentrations with four replicates/experiments. Laboratory experiments were conducted with Anopheles coluzzii “Ngousso” and Culex quinquefasciatus laboratory strains. Open field trials were conducted using sixteen plastic containers with a diameter of 0.31 m buried in an array of four rows with 4 containers each. Distance between rows and between containers in a row was 1 meter. This experiment permitted to test the effect of the microbial larvicide VectoMax®G under operational application conditions on field mosquito populations. Results: The time to induce 100% mortality after exposure to serial concentrations of the larvicide varied according to the dose from 4 - 12 hours for An. coluzzii and 6 - 9 hours for Cx. quinquefasciatus in laboratory experiments. Measurements of the residual activity indicated that all VectoMax®G concentrations were still active after 35 days and killed 86% - 100% of larvae. Lethal dose of VectoMax®G killing 50% of larvae was estimated at 5.24 × 10-8 mg/m2 for An. coluzzii and 1.25 × 10-8 mg/m2 for Cx. quinquefasciatus. The lethal concentration inducing 95% mortality was estimated at 3.13 × 10-7 mg/m2 for An. coluzzii and 2.5 × 10-8 mg/m2 for Cx. quinquefasciatus. Open field trials tests indicated that sub-lethal concentrations of VectoMax®G successfully killed 100% An. gambiae s.l. larvae within 24 hours, while with Culex spp. larvae, 100% mortality was recorded after 48 hours post-treatment. Natural recolonization of water containers by larvae was recorded between 3 and 6 days respectively after the treatment with sublethal doses. Late instar larvae were recorded 5 and 6 days after treatment. When the jars were treated with reference dosage or supra doses of VectoMax®G, recolonization of water containers was observed six days after treatments. No pupae of both species were found 6 and 7 days post-treatment. Conclusions: The study indicated high efficacy of the microbial larvicide VectoMax®G against Anopheline and Culex larvae. Microbial larvicides such as VectoMax®G could be appropriate for controlling mosquito population particularly in areas experiencing high insecticide resistance or outdoor biting mosquitoes.
Kenechukwu C. Ojukwu, Joseph Chabi, Kwadwo Frempong, Delphina A. Adabie-Gomez, Joseph Harold Nyarko Osei, Andy Asafu-Adjaye, Sellase Pi-Bansa, Michelle Adimazoya, Kojo Y. Sakyi, Kwaku O. Akuoko, et al.
Published: 1 January 2022
Advances in Entomology, Volume 10, pp 135-148; https://doi.org/10.4236/ae.2022.102010

Abstract:
Aedes-borne diseases remain a public health challenge for many countries globally. The extent of spread of invasive species of Aedes mosquitoes and risk of transmission of the diseases especially around the point of entry of goods such as ports is not well known in Ghana. This study investigated the ecology, distribution and risk of transmission of viral haemorrhagic fevers by Aedes mosquitoes around the port areas of Tema, Southern Ghana. The mosquitoes from this study were collected using human landing catches, ovitraps and larval collections for a period of six months. A total of 1092 containers were inspected in both seasons and of these, 237 (21.7%) were positive for mosquito larvae or pupae in rainy season while 181 (16.6%) were positive in dry season. A total of 6498 mosquitoes were collected and identified morphologically using taxonomic keys. 6038 (92.9%) were Aedes aegypti, 337 (5.2%) were Culex spp. and 123 (1.9%) were Anopheles gambiae. The Ae. aegypti larvae were found breeding in a series of water-holding containers which included disposed plastic containers, earthenware pots, car tyres, plastic barrels, plastic basins, buckets, metal drums, jerrycans and poly tank. A high proportion of Aedes aegypti eggs were found in the ovitraps during the rainy season than in the dry season in the study sites. Ae. aegypti was the most common mosquitoes biting mostly outdoors (65.6%) with more bites occurring in the rainy season (63.6%) in the two residential sites (Tema Community One and Tema New Town). The risk of transmission of viral haemorrhagic fever in the study sites was assessed using House Index, Container Index, Breteau Index and was found to be higher in Tema New town area with seasonal variations within the sites. The man-vector contact rates for the two residential sites were also found to be higher in rainy season than the dry season. These observations indicate that the risk of transmission of viral haemorrhagic fevers in the study areas is high especially in the rainy season. The implications of the findings in the formulation of future vector control programmes around the port areas in the country are discussed in the paper.
Edmond Kopya, Cyrille Ndo, Landre Djamouko-Djonkam, Leslie Nkahe, Parfait Awono-Ambene, Flobert Njiokou, Charles Sinclair Wondji, Christophe Antonio-Nkondjio
Published: 1 January 2022
Advances in Entomology, Volume 10, pp 99-109; https://doi.org/10.4236/ae.2022.101008

Abstract:
Background: Understanding the biology of Anopheles malaria vector species is essential to planning effective and sustainable malaria control strategies in endemic countries. This study reported the implication of Anopheles leesoni in malaria transmission in Cameroon, Central Africa. Methods: Mosquitoes were collected in three localities from May 2015 to March 2018 using electric aspirators and Centers for Disease Control light traps (CDC-LT). Anopheles funestus sensu lato (s.l.) mosquitoes were identified as species using polymerase chain reaction assay (PCR). Furthermore, Plasmodium falciparum infection status was determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Results: A total of 12,744 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected by electric aspirator (N = 4844) and CDC-LT (N = 7900). Anopheles funestus s.l. (86.95%) was the major species and the main malaria vector in rural savannah and rural forest sites followed by A. gambiae s.l. (13.05%) whereas in urban areas, A. gambiae s.l. was by far the most abundant representing 91.45% of Anopheles mosquitoes collected. Two members of the A. funestus group were identified among 1389 analysed by PCR: 1307 A. funestus sensu stricto (s.s.) (94.10%) and 82 A. leesoni (5.9%). Plasmodium falciparum infection rate was 21.04% in A. funestus s.s. For the first time, A. leesoni was found positive for P. falciparum (infection rate: 10.98%) in Cameroon. Conclusion: A very high P. falciparum infection rate was observed in this study in A. funestus s.s., highlighting its high implication in malaria transmission in Cameroon. Furthermore, the detection of P. falciparum infection in A. leesoni calls for more attention towards this neglected vector species.
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