Advances in Entomology
ISSN / EISSN : 2331-1991 / 2331-2017
Current Publisher: Hans Publishers (10.4236)Former Publisher:
Total articles ≅ 147
Latest articles in this journal
Advances in Entomology, Volume 09, pp 1-19; doi:10.4236/ae.2021.91001
A long-term blood feeder, like the Hyalomma dromedarii tick, requires extended control over all hemostatic defense mechanisms generated by the host during feeding, including blood coagulation. To overcome this, ticks have evolved numerous molecules that target proteases in the blood coagulation cascade. New insights into the role of clotting factors in the development and progression of cancer have identified anticoagulant treatment as a potential therapeutic approach. In this context, the present work assessed the anticoagulation activities of crude and fractionated salivary gland extract (SGE) prepared from semi-fed H. dromedarii females. Additionally, the antitumor effects of the potent anti-thrombin fractions were determined against colon cancer (Caco-2) and normal skin (HFB4) cells. Crude SGE significantly prolonged clotting time in prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and thrombin time (TT) assays and inhibited thrombin in FII-activity assay. Using anion-exchange chromatography, the fractions that strongly inhibited thrombin (3.A4 and 3.A5) were eluted. Both fractions prolonged the aPTT and TT clotting times and reduced the activity of FII significantly. The protein profiles of both fractions indicated the presence of a single polypeptide band of about 99 kDa. Regarding anti-cancer potential of the tested fractions, Caco-2 cells showed reduced viability with obvious morphological changes, induced apoptosis and a reduced level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). G2/M cell cycle arrest was observed only in 3.A5-treated cells. No cytotoxic effects were observed in HFB4 cells. These results demonstrated the potential of tick-derived anticoagulants, specifically thrombin inhibitors, as effective tools in colorectal cancer treatment. Further purification of the effector molecule(s) is required to fully characterize their structures and mechanisms of action.
Advances in Entomology, Volume 09, pp 44-48; doi:10.4236/ae.2021.91004
Cabbage white butterfly (Pieris brassicae) is one of the important insect pests of cabbage crop which causes remarkable quantitative or qualitative crop losses. The research was conducted at Hazara Agricultural research station, Abbottabad (Pakistan) to study the effect of different new chemical insecticides, botanical oil and neem seed oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) on the population density of P. brassicae. The study showed that neem oil had a significant effect on population of P. brassicae in comparison to control treatment. So, neem oil alone or in combination with insecticides can be used for control of P. brassicae in vegetable crops for a safer food supply.
Advances in Entomology, Volume 09, pp 30-43; doi:10.4236/ae.2021.91003
In Senegal, millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) and rice (Oryza sativa (L., 1753)) are the most widely consumed foods. This study is part of improving the conservation of these two cereals in Senegal by assessing the quantitative and qualitative losses caused by a lepidopteran, Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton) subservient to millet and rice stocks. For this purpose, samples of millet and rice from an area of the center of the groundnut basin (Diourbel) were collected, sterilized in the cold and infected with C. cephalonica eggs from the same locality. These infected samples were tracked during a development period of two successive generations. The samples were scrutinized before being infected and after a larval cycle of codling moth. The results showed that rice grains are richer in water (10.75% ± 0.4249%, on average) than millet (9.40% ± 0.3944%, on average) and the difference in rank is very significant (p-value = 0.0001 Moreover, the attack percentage on millet grains is three times higher (36.31% ± 25.18%) than rice (12.95% ± 6.69%) with a non-significant difference (p-value = 0.296 > 0.05). A similar trend is observed at the loss percentage, which is four times higher with millet grains (8.67% ± 5.07%) than rice (2.86% ± 2.75%) with a non-significant difference (p-value = 0.835 > 0.05). A multiple linear regression showed a generation effect on millet for the attack percentage and a generation and cereal effect for the percentage of weight loss on rice.
Advances in Entomology, Volume 09, pp 49-58; doi:10.4236/ae.2021.91005
Mango is one of the largest commercial fruits in Myanmar and the fruit fly, B. dorsalis and B. correcta are the major pests. Mango is a kind of native fruit which can grow well as natural vegetation throughout the entire country under the various climatic conditions. We aimed to point out overuse of insecticide application in agricultural sector of Myanmar and further criteria of effective fruit fly control techniques were also proposed for worldwide ecosystem. Traditional fruit fly control is primarily focused on the uncoordinated use of insecticide applications which is orchard-by-orchard strategy. However, in view of flying distance, this localized strategy is not successful and harms the ecosystem. Occasionally, fruit bagging technique was applied by some farmers. In Myanmar’s agricultural sector, numerous varieties of cheap insecticides which mostly imported from China were plentiful. While conventional insecticide application controls were implemented annually, the population of fruit flies increased year after year, particularly in tropical region. The requirement of technical-scientific research reduced the worldwide fruit fly records. Furthermore, traditional insecticide application approach inhibits the yield and quality of mangoes that have adversely affected international trade. Importantly, in long term period of the entire previous decade, the conventional insecticide application controls make more fruit fly infestation.
Advances in Entomology, Volume 09, pp 70-84; doi:10.4236/ae.2021.92007
The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor, is a harmful pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum). Pioneer variety 25R78 is putatively tolerant, meaning that the plant can survive successful Hessian fly infestation with reduced growth effects. To understand if Hessian fly-tolerance in wheat results in reduced yield effects and to analyze the economic feasibility of tolerant wheat as a Hessian fly control method, this study focused on analyzing the effect of infestation on tolerant wheat yield. This study analyzed tolerant Pioneer variety 25R78, resistant Pioneer brand variety 25R32, and susceptible Pioneer brand variety 25R47 through harvest. Treated plants were infested using a plastic cover and allowing 1 - 2 female flies to lay eggs for two hours. We measured head, fertile head number and tiller number. Seeds were analyzed by measuring total seed number and weight, as well as average seed number and weight. Tolerant and resistant plants showed no significant effects on yield in comparison to susceptible wheat. The infested tolerant plants were comparable in yield to infested resistant plants. Therefore, we propose that tolerance incorporated into wheat varieties will lower selection pressure on Hessian fly populations and increase the durability of these wheat lines.
Advances in Entomology, Volume 09, pp 100-111; doi:10.4236/ae.2021.92009
The volatile compounds from horse and pony hairs and skin were analyzed to determine bioactive molecules that are kairomones used for host location by blood-feeding diptera. In this study, horse and pony hair samples were extracted with organic solvents (pentane or hexane) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (GC-MS) with closed electron ionization (CEI). Using the GC-MS analysis, we observed a compound peak, which could not be identified by comparison to mass spectra in the mass spectral library. This unknown compound was often the largest peak in the chromatogram and had a retention index and mass spectral fragmentation similar to nonanal. However, there were several differences in the fragmentation pattern. When compared to a nonanal reference standard, it was evident that this was a different compound. Hydrodistillation of pony hair was another extraction method to obtain the unknown component in higher concentrations. Analysis of this extract with GC-flame ionization detector (FID) with GC-MS confirmed the same unknown peak. Further experiments and analysis with the various mass spectroscopy tools gave the possible molecular ion with mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) 142, corresponding to the unknown component.
Advances in Entomology, Volume 09, pp 85-99; doi:10.4236/ae.2021.92008
Symbiotic relations are present in the nature and can contribute to the success of the organisms involved. Endophytic fungi live within the leaf tissues without causing any harm to the host plant, and some of them can be a defense mechanism against the attack by the leaf-cutting ants. Ants of the genus Atta are known as leaf-cutting ants and have an obligatory association with the fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, cutting pieces of leaves and bringing them back to the colony to the fungus. The present study aimed to find out the endophytic fungi community of an attractive plant (Acalypha wilkesiana) and a less attractive plant (Colocasia esculenta) to the ants Atta sexdens. We found out that the communities are different in quantity and in composition and 73% of the isolated fungi were from A. wilkesiana, which has fungi known as attractive to leaf-cutting ants, such as genus Colletotrichum, Pestalotiopsis, Phomopsis and Xylaria. On the other hand, in C. esculenta, there was found the genus Fusarium, known to be reject by the leaf-cutting ants, and less fungal diversity than in the attractive plant A. wilkesiana. Therefore, our data suggest that attractivity or repelence of a plant to the leaf-cutting ants could be related to presence or ausence of determinated fungi more than the quantity of fungi present in a leaf.
Advances in Entomology, Volume 09, pp 59-69; doi:10.4236/ae.2021.92006
The present economic challenges in Nigeria call for a serious sustainable environment-friendly agricultural enterprise with a great potential that improves export earnings. It is our fervent believe that the contribution of the apiculture sector to its sustainable human development and specifically increases the income of beekeepers and traders of bee products through improved commercialization of quality bee products in Nigeria which will in turn lead to a drastic increase in the GDP of the nation. The overall goal of the Nigeria Apiculture Value Chain (AVC) Development Program is to contribute to an increase income of beekeepers and other actors on the AVC through increase in production capacity, stimulate the efficiency and competitiveness of the AVC products by improving standards, processing capacity so as to access higher value niche markets through Fairtrade International (FLO) certification or organic certifications and to achieve a total sales value of over $5 million by 2035 (Sustainable Development Goal SDG) target on Food Security. Apiculture provides highly desirable products such as honey, comb/wax, pollen, propolis, bee venom, royal jelly, apilarnil and apilanil prop, value added products and pollination services. It is of note to stress the need to urgently embrace the use of modern techniques in keeping honeybees for industrial development of Nigeria and also to enhance exportation of the products to earn growth in the Nigeria’s GDP by diversifying the monolithic economy that is presently based on crude oil exportation.
Advances in Entomology, Volume 09, pp 20-29; doi:10.4236/ae.2021.91002
In Burkina Faso, the availability of Acacia macrostachya “Zamnè” seeds throughout the year is threatened by the attacks of pests. So, the effectiveness of airtight (hermetic) storage for the preservation of these seeds was evaluated using 20-litre plastic jars and 50 kg PICS bags as hermetic containers with 50 kg polypropylene bags as controls. Seeds of Acacia macrostachya (17.5 kg) were stored in each of these storage devices for six months under ambient conditions in the laboratory. The number of storage pest Bruchidius silaceus increased significantly in polypropylene bags from 235 to 715 individuals on average/500 g of seeds. But in PICS bags and plastic drums, the number of this pest did not vary significantly (191 and 239 individuals on average/500 g of seeds for plastic jars and PICS bags respectively). In both hermetic devices, we found few individuals of another major storage pest Caryedon furcatus. However, polypropylene bags, haboured more pests’ in addition high numbers of C. furcatus and Oryzaephilus mercator which were not found in the hermetic devices. Seeds damage and weight loss increased significantly in polypropylene bags from 7.40% to 20.23% and 0.50% to 3% respectively compared to PICS bags and plastic jars. The germination rate of A. macrostachya seeds decreased significantly in PICS bags, plastic jars and polypropylene bags with average percentages of 14%; 11% and 15% respectively compared to the initial average of 27%. PICS bags and plastic jars are therefore effective in preserving the quality of A. macrostachya seeds, but the effects of these hermetic devices on seed viability need to be explored further.
Advances in Entomology, Volume 08, pp 147-157; doi:10.4236/ae.2020.84011
The objective of this review article is to clarify the different interactions between entomopathogenic nematodes, as bio-control agents, against other bio-control agents (parasitoids and predators) proposed by the researchers. Thus, it gives clear information concerning the potential of combining them as a part of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs against insect pests. Some laboratory studies showed that the treatment of predacious insects by entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) at different concentrations can infect and kill the treated larva, nymphs and adults of predators. The percentages of mortality were found to be high (up to 100%), moderate (15% - 35%) or low (3% - 7%). Other studies revealed the resistant of treated predators to nematode-infection. Some predators that were offered infected prey avoid feeding on such prey and, in contrast, the soil predators (ants and mites) consumed the offered cadavers as well as the infective juvenile of the nematodes and did not show any detrimental effects. Mostly, parasitoids cannot complete their development inside or on nematode-infected hosts if parasitism occurs before or early after infection. The parasitoid females may avoid laying eggs in the infected hosts or cannot discriminate between healthy and infected hosts. A field study demonstrated that applying EPNs combined with the predator, Labidura riparia significantly reduced the population of the target pest compared to the nematode or the predator alone. Also, two field experiments indicated that the combination of parasitoids and nematodes can be successful for insect pest management.