Review of European Studies

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1918-7173 / 1918-7181
Total articles ≅ 1,076
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Nikolaos Manesis, Elisavet Vlachou, Niki Anastasiou, Antonia Konstantinopoulou, Foteini Peristeropoulou, Danai Tsoli
Review of European Studies, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v14n2p64

Abstract:
In Greece, the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in the schools' closure during the 2019-2020 school year. The Ministry of Education tried to develop online platforms so that the students could have access to education. The use of distance learning came to the fore. The teachers used the online teaching tools available as a response to this challenging situation. Nevertheless, most of them had not received any relevant training and had at their disposal minimal resources, mainly of their own and not public ones. A nationwide survey was designed investigating teachers' views on distance learning benefits. 515 teachers working in Greek primary education sector - both at kindergartens and primary schools- participated in the research. Their answers show three main benefits from the distance learning implementation at school education: (a), it enabled some students to access school education. Those students could not otherwise attend school education (b) it contributed to the communication among students as well as between students and teachers, and (c) it increased the ICT use by teachers. Despite these benefits mentioned, teachers stated that distance learning is not a substitute for ordinary classes and face-to-face learning.
Noémie Chaniaud, Pauline Jeanpierre, Vanessa Laguette, Emilie Loup-Escande
Review of European Studies, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v14n2p54

Abstract:
The COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with an infodemic which impacts on vaccination perceptions and intentions. E-health literacy seems to be the key to searching health information on the web. Age and income level impact vaccine hesitancy and resistance. It is important to know more about the population who are hesitant to get vaccinated in order to develop appropriate and accessible information. We focused on four factors that impact vaccination perceptions and intentions: socio-demographic characteristics (age and education level), e-health literacy and sources of information about COVID-19. An anonymous online survey was completed by 368 participants, who reported their age, level of education, F-eHEALS (the level of e-health literacy), preferred sources of COVID-19 information, and their vaccination perceptions and intentions (vaccine score). The vaccine score is measured by a combination of two preview questionnaires adapted to COVID-19. We first assessed our questionnaire construct on intentions and perceptions of COVID-19 vaccination. We obtained a unidimensional scale that we correlated with other factors and related to clusters (k-means). The results then showed that age, education level, and sources of COVID-19 information (radio, internet and “no channel”) impact vaccination perceptions and intentions. E-health literacy appears to be a co-variant without direct link with vaccination perceptions and intentions but linked to age and sources of COVID-19 information. This study shows how age, education level, sources of COVID-19 information and e-health literacy can impact COVID-19 vaccination perceptions and intentions.
Roger Sik
Review of European Studies, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v14n2p47

Abstract:
This paper investigates the transportation, labor, quarrying, and time expenses of the 50ft column shafts that possibly were ordered originally for the famous Pantheon in Rome, Italy. The Pantheon currently includes 40ft column shafts though there is evidence showing that it may have been meant for 50ft column shafts as other parts of the monument are set up as so for the insertion of it; for example, as seen when looking at the pediment, there is a second one three meters higher behind it, displaying that the pediment is thought to originally be supported by a larger portico, hence using larger column shafts. A plausible explanation for this is that the 50ft column shafts were the original choice, but were lost in transit while being transported from the quarries in Egypt to Rome. And due to the loss of such expensive labor costing components and likely imperial budget issues, there is an order of 40ft column shafts instead. Assuming that the explanation is true, calculations made using the works by those such as Wilson Jones, Simon Barker, Ben Russel, and Justin Leidwanger are found for comparisons, analyses, and conclusions. Through the evaluations and results, one can interpret the rather great effect the loss had on the entire project and the display of a sense of importance that the Pantheon has during the Hadrian reign and even now.
Javier Mula-Falcón, Iñaki Moya-Roselló, Alberto Ruiz-Ariza
Review of European Studies, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v14n2p32

Abstract:
Gamification is an active methodology that involves using game elements in a non-game situation. Gamification has shown to increase motivation and learning in different types of academic students; however, the educational literature shows inconclusive findings. The aim of this meta-analysis is to analyse the effects of gamification on motivation and academic performance in an educational context. Sixteen interventions carried out between January 2010 and the end of January 2022 were retrieved from the databases and included in this meta-analysis. One study was carried out in Primary school, three in Secondary school, and twelve in universities. Four papers analysed the effects on motivation, five on academic performance and seven on both. Results showed that gamification could increase the motivation (SMD = 0.51; 95% CI [0.29, 0.73]; I2 59%; p < 0.00001) and academic performance (SMD = 0.89; 95% CI [0.45, 1.32]; I2 90%; p < 0.0001) in all the educational stages. The implications of including gamification programmes in the educational context are discussed.
Monica Mastrantonio
Review of European Studies, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v14n2p23

Abstract:
This article aims to argue about the colonization of the future and its narratives. Historically, the future has been determined by a linear Jewish-Christian timeline with a beginning, and an end. Beyond Apocalypse (Armageddon), and Utopia (the dream of Paradise on Earth), the turn of the millennium (the year 2.000) introduced new narratives to these. Technology, the bug of the millennium, and data science become predominant aspects to which the future relates to. This paper argues that the colonization of the future is the act of producing a future in which dominance is still in the power of some, and not available to all. Unless equality and equal distribution of forces win the battle, humanity will continue being a prisoner of the organizations that control and discourse about the future. The colonization of the future, likewise the Church and its final days, or Utopia’s discoveries of Lost Paradise, is being set to determine the future using technology and predictability. It is concluded that the turn of the millennium posts a new time to society, but again, it does not seem that all individuals have been invited. The colonization of the future is a key concept to discuss the forces that are creating the future, and it highlights the necessity to decolonize it.  
Herman Matthijs
Review of European Studies, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v14n2p13

Abstract:
The European Union (E.U.) has a specific system of financing its institutions. The system has been the subject of political discussion since the beginning in 1970 and the recent modification in 2020. This system has come under increasing pressure as a result of the growth of the number of member states and growing economic disparity between the Northern versus Southern and Western versus Eastern member states of the Union. The question of whether to rely on its own sources of finance or on contributions from its members is the subject of a separate political argument.
Aneta Stepien
Review of European Studies, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v14n2p1

Abstract:
This article investigates two literary texts, House of Day, House of Night (2002) by Olga Tokarczuk and Piaskowa Góra [Sand Mountain] (2009) by Joanna Bator and how they overcome the divisive and politicized narration of the post-WWII population expulsions and resettlement in Poland. The article argues that by employing the “tender narrator,” (Tokarczuk, 2019) e.g. directing readers’ attention to the former German items of everyday use and their stories, the writers create a more empathetic version of this period of history, thus recovering the memories of the, largely silenced, Polish and German experiences of displacement. Adopting postcolonial approaches, the article draws from affect theories and studies of how displaced populations relate emotionally to the changing material environment (Svašek, 2012) to examine the attitudes and emotions of the Poles dealing with the objects, landscape and property of the German deportees. These texts raise important questions about the foundations of the communities in the Polish-German borderlands, and their wider implications for Polish-German relations.
Robert John Zagar, James Garbarino, Brad Randmark, Ishup Singh, Joseph Kovach, Emma Cenzon, Michael Benko, Steve Tippins, Kenneth G. Busch
Review of European Studies, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v14n1p54

Abstract:
Study 1: 630 spree-shooters [1936-2021] (1,650 deaths; 3,123 injuries; 194 suicides [31%]), 623 controls logistic regression differences (F= 260.44, df=10/1242, R=.82, R2 =.68, p<.01): (1) homicidal ideation; (2) planning-preparation; (3) stressful-life-event; (4) revenge-motive; (5) acquired-multiple-weapons; (6) elicited-concern; (7) school-location; (8) personal-grievance; (9) suicide; (10) current-student. Study 2: 15 spree-shooters differences, adult, teen: [SP] violence (F=17.48, 123.09); [MMPI-2/A] infrequency (F=92.15, 17.22); lie (F=13.13, 33.91); depression (F=37.76, 26.18); psychopathic-deviance (F=44.66, 57.45); paranoia (F=50.58, 23.92); schizophrenia (F=53.85, 21.69); alcohol (F=42.01, 16.84); addiction (F=57.34, 38.88) compared with 23 homicidal, 36 controls. Spree-shooter loss (1936-2021) = [$2,416,042,490 (630 @ $3,834,988.08) + $6,327,730,332 (1,650 @ $3,834,988.08) + $105,474,702.96 (3,123 @ $33,773.52) = $8,849,247,525.36] + [insurance, tax-increases $11,504,021,782.97 ($8,849,247,525.36 x 1.3] =$20,353,269,308.33. Projecting 2021 to 2105 insurance industry with no computer tests, machine learning equations, $40,706,538,616.66, 3,330 deaths, 6,246 injuries, 388 suicides. Projecting 2017 U.S. Church pedophilia loss (2012-2037, 2038-2056, 2057-2082, 2083-2107), $5,719,865,400 x 5 = $28,599,327,000, 5,679 x 5 = 28,395 victims.
Paige Dou
Review of European Studies, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v14n1p87

Abstract:
Reviewer Acknowledgements for Review of European Studies, Vol. 14, No. 1
Bernardeau- Moreau
Review of European Studies, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v14n1p28

Abstract:
A range of scientific works show that sociological intervention is rooted in two main theoretical branches – psychosociology and microsociology. Although the concepts and foundations of these two major scientific branches are, of course, different, their relationships with the subject mix proximity and self-analysis, resulting in an enlightening common factor. Our intention with this article is not only to identify the primary theories and concepts developed over the past two centuries, but also, and above all, to be able to look beyond their unique features to better visualize the probable points of convergence so as to provide a coherent framework that unifies the different psychosociological forms of intervention.
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