Jurnal Biologi Tropis

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1411-9587 / 2549-7863
Current Publisher: Mataram University (10.29303)
Total articles ≅ 230
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Putri Alfianti Sriwinahyu, Prapti Sedijani, Lalu Zulkifli
Published: 26 November 2020
Jurnal Biologi Tropis, Volume 20, pp 446-451; doi:10.29303/jbt.v20i3.2099

Abstract:
White pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is one of potential plant that can be use as an antimicrobial. The objective of this study was to determine antimicrobial activity of endophytic bacteria from white pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) in inhibiting the growth of pathogenic microbia (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus viridans, Shigella dysentriae, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Fusarium sp. fungi). The stages of the research were isolation endophytic bacteria, antimicrobial assay, and characterization of potential endophytic bacterial. Endophytic bacterial were isolated from bark, leaves, flower, and fruit peel of white pomegranate taken from Gebang Baru, Mataram District. Antimicrobial assay was then performed using agar diffusion method, using supernatant of endophytic bacteria, water as negative control or ciprofloxacin as positive control. The potential isolates were characterized using Gram staining and biochemical test. The results showed that 2 endophytic bacterial isolates (DNX2 and BNG1) show strong activity against S. aureus, 3 endophytic bacterial isolates (BTG1, DNX11, and BNG1) show strong activity against S dysentriae, and 1 isolate KLBX11 shows medium activity against Fusarium sp. fungi. Those isolates are gram-possitive with bacill-shaped and produce spores. It can be concluded that it is possible to obtain potential endophytic bacterial from white pomegranate are potential as an alternative source for antimicrobial compounds.
Trasna Arman Jani, Aliefman Hakim, Yohanes Juliantoni
Published: 24 November 2020
Jurnal Biologi Tropis, Volume 20, pp 438-445; doi:10.29303/jbt.v20i3.2157

Abstract:
Peel-Off face mask is one of the cosmetics that is used to treat skin from free radicals. Peel-off face mask can minimize the effects of free radicals because it contains antioxidant. One of the antioxidant sources is red dragon fruit’s rind (Hylocereuspolyrhizus Haw.). The aim of this study is to obtain Peel-Off face mask of red dragon fruit’s rind extract that contains anthocyanin. Red dragon fruit’s rind was macerated by ethanol 96%, ethyl acetate and n-hexane added citric acid (4:1) solvents. TLC test used Chloroform: ethyl acetate: n-butanol (5:4:1) eluent and sprayed by AlCl3. Antioxidant activity of extract was tested using DPPH (1,1-Diphenyl-2-Picryhidrazyl) method. Peel-Off face mask was made using PVA, HPMC, methyl paraben, propylparaben, propylenglycol, extract, ethanol 96% and aquadest. The rendemen of ethanol 96% extract was 9,476%, ethyl acetate extract was 0,783% and n-hexane extract was 0,631%. The results of TLC test showed yellow spots on the ethyl acetate and ethanol 96% extracts which indicated that extract contained flavonoids (anthocyanin). The results of antioxidant activity test showed that IC50 value of ethanol 96% extract was 189,7422 (AAI=0,2087), ethyl acetate extract was 196,9398 (AAI=0,2011), and n-hexane extract was 385,3664 (AAI=0,1027). The result of the product evaluations showed that all the formulas complied the product requirements such as the organoleptic, homogenity, pH, dispersive power and drying time. Peel-off face mask already meet the product requirements but further research is needed to test the product stability and activity.
Daniel Wolo, Anna S. Rahmawati, Melania Priska, Insar Damopolii
Published: 21 November 2020
Jurnal Biologi Tropis, Volume 20; doi:10.29303/jbt.v20i3.2135

Abstract:
The dug well water quality in community settlements needs assessment to ensure its quality. The water has to meet the required physical, chemical, and bacteriological standards. This initial research aimed to determine the dug well water quality in Kampung Ujung, Komodo District, Labuan Bajo City, WestManggarai Regency in September 2019. The research method was used survey and laboratory. The two dug well was taken used a purposive sampling technique. The test parameters include temperature, turbidity, pH, smell, Total Suspended Solid (TSS), sulfate, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), nitrate, nitrite, Total Hardness, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), nitrogen ammonia, total coliforms, and Escherichia coli. The analysis physically, chemically, and biologically of two dug well water samples were had done examined. The result showed that the parameters of TDS, nitrate, nitrite, E. coli, and DO exceed the Class I Water Quality Standard. The research concluded that the quality of both dug well water in the Kampung Ujung Labuan Bajo area was not suitable for use as material raw drinking water. Furthermore, the government should provide other water sources such as the addition of storage tanks for raw water, so that people do not entirely depend on dug well water.
Dyke Gita Wirasisya, Nisa Isneni Hanifa, Wahida Hajrin
Published: 17 November 2020
Jurnal Biologi Tropis, Volume 20; doi:10.29303/jbt.v20i3.2119

Abstract:
Degenerative diseases have become a complex problem around the world. Until now, degenerative diseases have become the biggest cause of death in the world. Approximately, 17 million people die early each year due to the global epidemic of degenerative diseases. Peoples in developing countries still rely on medicinal plants for primary health care. The knowledge for medicinal plant were passed down through generation with little written documentation. This study aimed to document the indigenous medicinal plants used for the treatment for degenerative diseases in East Lombok, Indonesia and to find leads on prospective plants for further ethnopharmacology research based on quantitative ethnobotany index. The ethnomedicinal data were collected through interview and discussion among local healers and plant collected with the help of local guide also herbarium was made to aid specimen confirmation. Ethnomedicinal data was analyzed using use value (UV) along with fidelity level (FL). A total of 20 informants (traditional healers) were interviewed and from the study we can documented the use of 63 plants for the treatment of degenerative diseases. The UV ranged from 0,05 (Sesbania grandiflora) to 0,35 (Carica papaya), while the highest FL (100%) was found for 29 species. Based on the ethnobotanical index (UV and FL) from each plant we can recommend 15 species for further ethnopharmacological study to determine their therapeutic effects and mechanism of action. This study revealed rich ethnomedicinal knowledge from the community in East Lombok for the treatment of degenerative disease.
Yohanes Juliantoni, Wahida Hajrin, Windah Anugrah Subaidah
Published: 17 November 2020
Jurnal Biologi Tropis, Volume 20; doi:10.29303/jbt.v20i3.2124

Abstract:
Diabetes is a degenerative disease whose numbers continue to increase from year to year. Treatment with oral antidiabetic drugs can cause harmful side effects for patients. One of the plants that can be used for diabetes therapy is juwet (Syzygium cumini L.). Flavonoid compounds of juwet seed is easily oxidized and hydrolyzed in intestinal fluids with low absorption. This problem can be overcome by forming nanoparticle of juwet seed extract. The aims of this study was to obtain the formula for juwet seed nanoparticles. Nanoparticle of juwet seed extract made by ionic gelation method with chitosan and Na-TPP polymers which are varied. The formula optimization design in this study was determined using a simplex lattice design by 3 variations of materials based on the parameters %entrapment efficiency, %transmittant, particle size, polydisperse index, and zeta potential. The results showed that the yield of duwet seed extract was 7,44%. Juwet seed ethanolic extract contains 3.33 mg of quercetin per 1 g of extract. Based on the desirability value approach, the optimum formula was produced with an extract composition of 1.650 mL; chitosan 0.500 mL; and Na-TPP 0.010 mL can give optimal results with a desirability value of 0.772 which results in the criteria of 63.66% entrapment efficiency; 50.56% transmittant; 615,833nm particle size; 0.620 PDI; and zeta potential of +13.89 mV. Juwet seeds extract can be formulated into the form of nanoparticles. To get better parameters, it is advisable to optimize the mixing time and mixing speed in the ionic gelation method.
Wd. Syarni Tala
Published: 12 November 2020
Jurnal Biologi Tropis, Volume 20; doi:10.29303/jbt.v20i3.2091

Abstract:
Kendari Bay is directly adjacent to the Kendari City area, so that it receives a lot of pressure mainly from community activities. This pressure causes the declining of mangrove forest area every year. Reproductive phenology of mangroves can be used in planning, collecting seeds, and seeding propagules for rehabilitation of degraded mangrove forest area. The aims of this research were to know the morphological characteristics of mangrove reprodutive organs and mangrove reproductive phenology of Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Ceriops tagal, Rhizophora apiculata, and Rhizophora mucronata in Kendari Bay. The method using in this research was observation method that conducted directly in the field. Morphology and phenology of mangrove reproduction divided into 6 phases, i.e. flower bud, blooming flower, ovary, fruit, young propagule and mature propagule. The data was analysed descriptively. According to the result, the morphological characteristics of 4 mangrove species were different. Flower of B. gymnorrhiza was single, whereas flowers of C. tagal, R. apiculata and R. mucronata were inflorescences. Ovary of B. gymnorrhiza was hemi inferous, whereas ovaries of C. tagal, R. apiculata and R. mucronata were superous. R. mucronata had the largest propagule compared to other mangroves observed. The timing of mangrove reproductive phenology also showed different result. B. gymnorrhiza required 299 days to develop from flower bud to mature propagule and R. apiculata required 262 days, whereas C. tagal and R. mucronata had not been able known its phenological period because the timing data from ovary to fruit had not been obtained. Further research is needed to resolve this issue.
Published: 6 November 2020
Jurnal Biologi Tropis, Volume 20, pp 396-405; doi:10.29303/jbt.v20i3.2068

Abstract:
Urban development and population growth in the Palembang city, lowland swamps have been converted into swamps (SW) and land conversion (LC). Changes in habitat certainly have an impact on the composition, abundance, and diversity of the insect family of the Hymenoptera order. The purpose of writing this article is to inform the composition, abundance, and diversity of insect families of the Hymenoptera order in the SW and LC lands of Palembang city. This study used a survey method by exploring each research location four times. Determination of the research location using purposive sampling method with the reason to get different habitat conditions. The collection of insects is carried out in two ways, namely trapping and hands collecting. The results showed that 18 families of the Hymenoptera order, namely 4 to 7 families were found in SW land and 8 families were found in LC land. The number of individuals on SW land was 6,351 and on LC land was 2,297. The Apidae, Formicidae, Ichneumonidae, Platygastridae, Sphecidae, and Vespidae families are found in almost all fields. The total abundance index of the Hymenoptera order family in SW land (73.438%) was higher than the index of the total abundance of the Hymenoptera order family in the LC land (26.561%). The highest family abundance index was Formicidae, namely 65.101%, followed by the Vespidae family (26.237%) and the Apidae family (5.087%). The diversity index of the Hymenoptera order in the LC land had a higher value (2.741) than the diversity index in the SW field (2.165). The conclusion is that the composition of the insect family of the Hymenoptera order in LC land was higher than in SW land, but the number of individual insects in SW land was higher than in LC land. The abundance index of the Hymenoptera order in SW land was higher than that in LC land. The insect diversity index of the Hymenoptera order in LC land was higher than in SW land. It is recommended to research the role of various insect species from the Hymenoptera order in the SW land and LC land of the Palembang city.
Febiayu Aloatuan, Centhya Victorin Maitimu
Published: 1 November 2020
Jurnal Biologi Tropis, Volume 20, pp 388-395; doi:10.29303/jbt.v20i3.2058

Abstract:
Mustard greens (Brassica rapa var. Parachinensis) are known vegetables among consumers and have high economic value. Besides being used as a vegetable, mustard greens are also used for the treatment of various diseases so that they are included in the vegetable group which has an important role in meeting the needs of food, nutrition and medicine for the community. To increase the growth and production of green mustard plants, it is necessary to apply liquid bio-organic fertilizers that are sourced from organic materials with good nutrients needed by plants, one of which is water hyacinth weed. To improve the quality of water hyacinth liquid bio-organic fertilizer, it can be applied with the bio-activator Trichoderma sp which functions to produce liquid bio-organic fertilizer with high nutrients for plant growth and production. The purpose of this study was to determine the growth of mustard greens including plant height, number of leaves and leaf width and to test the production of mustard greens including caratenoids and vitamin C content. This study used a completely randomized design (CRD) with a single factor, namely fertilizer. Liquid organic (POC) water hyacinth fermented using Trichoderma sp. which consists of 5 levels of fertilization doses, namely A (0 ml / L), B (8 ml / L), C (16 ml / L), D (24 ml/L) and E (32 ml/L) with 5 repetitions. Based on the results of analysis of variance, it showed that the dosage treatment of water hyacinth bio-organic fertilizer with the bio-activator Trichoderma sp had a significant effect on p
Angelina Putri Ayu Lestari, I Putu Artayasa, Prapti Sedijani
Published: 29 October 2020
Jurnal Biologi Tropis, Volume 20, pp 369-377; doi:10.29303/jbt.v20i3.2070

Abstract:
The tropical climate in Indonesia supports the presence of many types of plants that have the potential to produce abundant vegetables and fruit, however the presence of fruit flies is an obstacle to fruit and vegetable productivity. Lemongrass and basil have been studied to contain several compounds that have the potential to control fruit fly attacks. This study aims to determine the effect of the ethanol extract of lemongrass pseudo stem (Cymbopogon citrates) and basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaves on the catch of Bactrocera fruit flies and to determine the concentration of the extract that has the highest number of catches. The method used in sampling was factorial randomized block design (RBD). The ethanol extract of the pseudo-lemongrass, the extract of basil leaves or the mixture of both extract (1:1) that was given at concentrations of 15%, 30% and 45% was dropped onto a piece of cotton and for then be put within a trap before placing on the tree. The cathes obtained from each extract at each concentration were observed if they show a significant difference in the number of fruit fly. Data were tested using analysis of variance (F test) at α = 0.05, followed by the Honest Significant Difference test (HSD). The results showed that the catch obtained from ethanol extract of lemongrass pseudo stem or from basil leaf ectract as well as from their mixture had a significantly higher number of Bactrocera fruit flies than without using these extracts. The difference in extract concentration did not cause a difference in the ability to attract fruit flies. The conclusion of this study is that there is an effect of the pseudo stem ethanol extract of lemongrass or basil leaf ectract as well as their mixture on the catch of Bactrocera fruit flies and these extract are recommended as non-synthetic pesticidesalternatives.
Angreni Beaktris Liunokas, Nonci Melinda Uki
Published: 29 October 2020
Jurnal Biologi Tropis, Volume 20, pp 378-387; doi:10.29303/jbt.v20i3.2065

Abstract:
The culture of using plants as traditional medicine by a group of local people is always related to regional identity, rituals, and plant diversity that need to be studied in depth. This study is known as ethnobotany study. This study aims to determine, describe, and analyze the level of ethnobotany knowledge of plants in their use as traditional medicine by the Obesi village community, North Mollo district, South Central Timor district. The methods used were surveys and direct interviews which were guided by a list of questions for several Obesi villagers with the snowball sampling technique. The data obtained were presented in tabulated form and analyzed descriptively with a quantitative approach to determine the ethnobotany level of medicinal plants. The results showed that there were 40 types of plants from 28 families that were used by the community to treat various diseases such as rheumatism, appendicitis, hypertension, fever, convulsions, diarrhea, flatulence, and itching with the most used plant parts, namely leaves, fruit, roots/rhizomes, tubers, midrib, bark, and seeds and flowers in a very simple or traditional way. Ethnobotany level of knowledge based on age class is at a moderate level where the lowest (KU1) 0.574 and the highest (KU4) 0.899, and based on gender, women have a higher level of knowledge than men. The research results are expected to be used as a reference source for important information in the utilization of various types of medicinal plants in the surrounding environment.
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