Journal of Education and Learning

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 19275250 / 19275269
Current Publisher: Canadian Center of Science and Education (10.5539)
Total articles ≅ 849
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Vahit Çiriş, Turan Başkonuş
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 9; doi:10.5539/jel.v9n5p248

Abstract:
The purpose of this research is to determine the attitudes of classroom teachers towards sports. Within this scope, in the first part of this study, it is aimed to describe the attitudes of classroom teachers towards sports. In the second part of the study, it was investigated whether gender, participation in sports activities and years of service differ significantly on the attitudes of classroom teachers towards sports. The screening method was used in this research. The study was carried out with 308 classroom teachers working in Kırşehir. They participated in the study on a volunteer basis. “Personal Information Form” and “The Sports-Oriented Attitude Scale” were used in the data collection process. When testing the research data, a 0.05 significance level was taken. In the analysis of the data, the items related to the sub-problem were grouped and Mann Whitney U and Kruskall Wallis techniques were used together with descriptive statistics such as frequency (f), percent (%), weighted mean (X̅) and standard deviation (SD). The attitudes of classroom teachers towards sports generally high (X̅ = 4.42). While their attitudes towards sports do not differ significantly according to their gender (U = 10381,500; p > .05); it differs significantly according to their participation in sports activities (U = 8686,000; p < .05) and years of service (X2 = 8,364; p < .05). Research results show that attitudes of classroom teachers towards sports are generally at a high level. However, it was concluded that the attitudes of classroom teachers towards sports differed significantly according to their participation in sports activities and years of service, but did not differ by gender.
Olimpia Gómez, Benilde García-Cabrero, Michael L. Hoover, Sandra Castañeda-Figueiras, Yolanda Guevara Benítez
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 9; doi:10.5539/jel.v9n5p233

Abstract:
The Inventory of Emotions Experienced by Adolescents when Solving Mathematical Tasks (INETAM, for its acronym in Spanish), measures four influential emotions related to Math performance: Enthusiasm, Frustration, Enjoyment, and Boredom. Content validity, construct validation and item calibration analyses were performed to obtain evidence of its validity, using a sample of 448 adolescents enrolled in ninth grade. Factor analysis showed adequate reliability coefficients and fit indices. Calibration analysis showed that the items are highly informative and discriminate between response levels. Regression analysis indicated that emotions are predictors of math achievement. INETAM is solid psychometrically, suitable for measuring academic emotions of adolescents, and can contribute to improve our understanding of their influence on academic achievement in mathematics.
Einat Heled, Nitza Davidovitch
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 9; doi:10.5539/jel.v9n5p215

Abstract:
This study will focus on the professional identity of school counseling, which is a key function in Israeli schools. Forming a professional identity is part of the process of professional development that begins with academic training and continues throughout one’s professional career. Professional identity distinguishes between different occupations and provides practitioners with a safe base that lets them better understand their work and form a team spirit within their field of occupation. The research literature indicates an association between one’s professional identity and her professional functioning and success, sense of stability, confidence, and pride in practicing the occupation. The professional identity of school counseling is related to gender. This is a predominantly female occupation and most of its practitioners in Israel are women. Few studies have been conducted on the professional identity of school counselors (Note 1) and its impact on the quality of their work. It appears that the definition of the school counselor’s role is neither clear nor unambiguous, both in Israel and elsewhere, and this affects the professional identity of counselors and the quality of their work. The current study included semi-structured interviews with 15 school counselors, in which they spoke about the structure of their work, their professional vision, satisfaction, and sense of self-fulfillment as a result of their job, as well as their professional self-efficacy. The research findings show that the structure of the counselor’s work, her role definition and workload, are related to her professional identity, including how she perceives the counseling occupation, her satisfaction and sense of self-fulfillment. Based on the interviews, no differences were found between the narratives of counselors with different levels of seniority in the profession with regard to professional identity, satisfaction, and self-fulfillment. The research findings indicate the need to define the school counseling occupation and its place in the school in order to help school counselors establish a clearer professional identity, with the aim of adapting the role to the challenges of the school system in the 21st century, in the world in general and in Israel in particular.
Belis Feyza Güllü, Hüseyin Serin
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 9; doi:10.5539/jel.v9n5p205

Abstract:
The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between teachers’ fear of missing out (FoMO) levels and their cyberloafing behaviour and to reveal whether teachers’ FoMO and their cyberloafing behaviour differ according to their gender. The sample of the research consisted of 702 secondary school teachers working in state schools within the borders of Istanbul in 2019-2020 education year. According to the research, it was identified that the level of teachers’ FoMO levels and cyberloafing behaviours were moderate. It was detected that teachers’ FoMO levels differed significantly according to gender. With this result, male teachers’ FoMO levels were higher than female teachers’ FoMO levels. Similarly, it was observed that there was a significant difference between teachers’ cyberloafing behaviour and gender. According to this result, it was found that male teachers’ mean score of cyberloafing behaviour was higher than female teachers’ mean score of cyberloafing behaviour in all sub-scales. In addition, a positive significant relationship between teachers’ FoMO and their cyberloafing behaviour was observed.
Agnitra Roy Choudhury, Mariano Runco
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 9; doi:10.5539/jel.v9n5p198

Abstract:
Student retention is a major concern for many universities. We use observational data from a regional university located in Alabama to test whether taking a first-year seminar improves student retention rates. Using a linear probit model, we find that taking a first-year seminar course is negatively correlated with retention rates, after controlling for several confounding effects. We perform survival analysis and find that the students who take first year seminar courses have a better survival rate for retention than those that do not take the course. We also find that other macro and micro economic factors are equally important in improving student retention rates, such as labor market opportunities and competition from similar universities.
Fatemah A. Alhazmi
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 9; doi:10.5539/jel.v9n5p151

Abstract:
Higher education institutions (HEIs), like any other organizations, consider the customer experience to be an intrinsic component of their strategic plans, decision-making processes, and development. In the higher education (HE) context, the students are the customers and demand high service quality to inform their decisions. This article evaluates the perception of quality of service (QoS) in a HE setting from the perspective of students studying at King Khalid University (KKU) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). A modified service quality (SERVQUAL) instrument is used to measure five constructs: tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy. The research also assesses whether there is a connection between the participants’ responses and key demographic variables. Permission was granted to distribute 500 questionnaires to all the students in the selected college. Of these, 350 questionnaires were returned, and 298 were deemed useful. The data collected to assess perceptions of QoS was analyzed using SPSS, a t-test, and a cutoff point (3.4). The table of variance analysis and ETA square identified relationships between the participants’ answers and the demographic variables. Evaluation of all the services was lower than predicted. The highest rated construct was assurance with mean (3.0116), responsiveness with mean (2.8465), tangibles with mean (2.7843), reliability with mean (2.6914), and empathy with mean (2.5558). There were statistically significant differences found in the students’ evaluation for the first dimension (tangibles) associated with gender difference, with the average evaluation by male students being (2.9532), and the average evaluation by female students (2.6685); otherwise demographic characteristics had no statistically significant influence on students’ evaluations.
Thomas Samuel, Razia Azen, Naira Campbell-Kyureghyan
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 9; doi:10.5539/jel.v9n5p134

Abstract:
Safety training programs are a popular method, in industry globally, to increase awareness of risks to employees and employers and plays a critical part in reducing safety incidents. The most frequently used method to assess the effectiveness of the training is to have the participants answer Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) and True/False (T/F) questions after the training. The metrics used to report the outcome of the assessments have drawbacks that make it difficult for the trainer and organization to easily identify the concepts that need more focus and those that do not. The goal of this research study is to compare how the methods used to measure training effectiveness of concepts in Level 2 post training assessment differ in how they assess training effectiveness using actual training results. Pre- and Post-training assessments were administered to the participants in 3 different utility industries and were analyzed for training effectiveness using the traditional metrics as well as using ATEAL method. The results were then compared and detailed recommendations of the best and least learned concepts by industry are presented based on these comparative analyses. The ATEAL method is further used to quantify the opportunities for improvement in the training programs based on the participant prior knowledge and any negative training impact observed. Results of the comparison of the various methods show that the proposed ATEAL method provides a quick, accurate and easy way to assesses the effectiveness of the training of concepts and the method identified that for 40% of the concepts trained a higher percentage of participants exhibited more prior knowledge than positive learning and for 6% of the concepts a higher percentage exhibited negative training. These results also provide a directional guide on the improvements that can be made to improve the training effectiveness of the programs. Additionally, it also shows that the ATEAL method can be used in any learning environment where there is a pre-/post-test evaluation of the change and is not limited in application to MCQ and T/F questions.
Hatice Vatansever Bayraktar, Sinan Girgin
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 9; doi:10.5539/jel.v9n5p170

Abstract:
This study aims to investigate the levels of organizational happiness of teachers working in primary, secondary, and high schools and to determine whether there is a significant difference in terms of some demographic characteristics. The screening model was employed in the study. The study population consists of teachers working in the Küçükçekmece, Bağcılar, Avcılar, and Esenyurt districts during the 2017-2018 academic year. The sample of the study comprises 297 teachers working in the Küçükçekmece, Bağcılar, Avcılar, and Esenyurt districts and selected via the convenience/incidental sampling method. In the study, the “Personal Information Form” created by the researchers and the “School Happiness Scale” developed by Bulut (2015) were used as data collection tools. The SPSS packaged software was used in the data analysis. According to the results of the data analysis, teachers’ general happiness perceptions and organizational happiness perceptions were observed to be high according to the subdimensions of management processes, attitudes towards the teaching profession, communication, commitment and economic provision of the School Happiness Scale. Teachers’ perceptions of organizational happiness differed significantly according to the level of education taught by teachers in the subdimensions of management processes and economic provision of the School Happiness Scale. Teachers’ perceptions of organizational happiness differed significantly according to professional seniority in the management processes subdimension of the School Happiness Scale. Teachers’ perceptions of organizational happiness differed significantly in the subdimensions of management processes, attitudes towards the teaching profession, commitment, and economic provision of the School Happiness Scale and according to the branch variable in the overall total. Teachers’ perceptions of organizational happiness did not differ significantly according to the variables of gender, educational status, age, and seniority in the school where they worked.
Fatma Alkaaf, Durayra AlMaqbali, Yousra Al-Sinani
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 9; doi:10.5539/jel.v9n5p184

Abstract:
This study aims to identify the acquisition of linguistic competencies by pre-service physical education teachers at the College of Education, Sultan Qaboos University, and in-service physical education teachers in Muscat and Dhofar Governorates in Oman, as well as any statistical differences between these two groups. The population of the study consisted of 30 pre-service teachers and 28 in-service teachers. The observation card instrument was used to collect data. The results showed that the acquisition level of the linguistic competencies of pre-service physical education teachers was medium. However, the acquisition level of the linguistic competencies of in-service physical education teachers was high. Furthermore, there were significant differences between the acquisition level of linguistic competencies in pre-service and in-service teachers in favor of in-service teachers. Based on these findings, we recommend developing these competencies in pre-service teachers during the teacher education program by focusing particularly on planning, implementation, and assessment.
Thomas Samuel, Razia Azen, Naira Campbell-Kyureghyan
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 9; doi:10.5539/jel.v9n5p121

Abstract:
Training programs are a popular method, in industry globally, to increase awareness of desired concepts to employees and employers and play a critical part in changing or supporting performance improvements. The predominant method to assess the effectiveness of training programs is to have the participants answer Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) and True/False (T/F) questions after the training; however, the metrics typically used to report the outcome of such assessments have drawbacks that make it difficult for the trainer and organization to easily identify the concepts that need more focus and those that do not. This study introduces measures of the Assessment of Training Effectiveness Adjusted for Learning (ATEAL) method, which compensate the assessment scores for prior knowledge and negative training impact in quantifying the effectiveness of each concept taught. The results of this method are compared to the results of the most popular methods currently used. A simulation of various scenarios and the training effectiveness metrics that result from them is used to illustrate the sensitivity and limitation of each method. Results show that the proposed coefficients are more sensitive in detecting prior knowledge and negative training impact. Additionally, the proposed ATEAL method provides a quick and easy way to assess the effectiveness of the training concept based on the assessment results and provides a directional guide on the changes that need to be made to improve the training program for the participants. A companion paper expands the concepts using results from actual training sessions in multiple industries.
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