Socialiniai tyrimai

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ISSN / EISSN : 1392-3110 / 2351-6712
Published by: Vilnius University Press (10.15388)
Total articles ≅ 90
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Adomas Vincas Rakšnys, Deimantė Žilinskienė
Socialiniai tyrimai, Volume 44, pp 29-39; doi:10.15388/soctyr.44.1.2

Abstract:
Relevance and problem of the topic. Global product and service innovations are driving changes in consumer behavior. Business organizations try to apply a variety of marketing strategies to take into account changing consumer values and behaviors, to form new relationships and emotional experiences for their clientele (Cova, Dalli, 2009, p. 315; Sanz-Marcos, 2020, p. 473). Retrospectively, modernized society was dominated by developed and stable social structures and hierarchies, while postmodern society was dominated by social networks of micro-groups, in which individuals establish strong emotional connections and attitudes toward life. In order to ensure effective attraction of new customers and loyalty of existing customers in a postmodern society, business organizations should take into account and acess cultural change, societal fragmentation, and declining social connections. Renewing these social connections in the form of a consumer tribe in connection with the consumption of a product or service is a marketing opportunity and necessity. The concept of tribal marketing in the context of marketing application is related to the recurring quasi-archaic values of consumers: group identity, religiosity, syncretism, group narcissism (Necualaesei, 2017, pp. 122–125; Pinto de Lima, Brito, 2012, p. 293; Cova, Cova, 2002, p. 4). The reintegration of these values in the new conditions is extremely important, especially emphasizing the long-term tendencies of social rationalization of society in many spheres of life, the importance of qualitative indicators in the modernist period. In postmodern society, there is a growing impulse to distance oneself from rational forms of life and return to a natural or primitive state, and this need can be exploited through tribal marketing, when analyzing tribal communities in surfing, where marketing ideals become freedom, simplicity, escape from everyday life and strong impressions. (Canniford, Shankar, 2011, p. 35–46). Other significant tribes such as the Goths, (Cova, Dalli, 2009, p. 323), Harley-Davidson motorcyclists, pipe collectors, and smokers can also be mentioned (Pace et al., 2011, pp. 314-320). V. Badrinarayanan, et. al., is of the opinion that communities of various online games can also be assigned to tribes (Barnes and Mattsson, 2016, p. 98).The problem analyzed in this article can be defined by the following questions: What promotes the formation of tribal marketing and what are the specifics of its application? What are the differences between tribal marketing and traditional marketing? How virtual tribe could formed?The object of the article is the development of tribal marketing and application possibilitiesThe aim of the article is to find out the development and application possibilities of tribal marketing in the postmodern society.Tasks: 1) to theoretically define the concept and essential principles of tribal marketing; 2) to reveal the cultural origins of tribal marketing and the reasons for its formation; 3) to identify the essential differences of tribal marketing in comparison with traditional marketing tools; 4) to reveal the changes related to the transition to the formation of virtual tribes.Methods: methods of analysis, synthesis, generalization and comparative analysis of scientific literature. An analysis of the scientific literature has revealed that tribal marketing is a theory that focuses on specific subcultures, and specific products or services become cult objects and emblems that represent belonging to these subcultures, encouraging individual consumption behavior. Tribal subcultures are characterized by strong emotional ties and experiences, common interests, and specific activities. These individuals exist in a peculiar subculture characterized by peculiar myths, values, rituals, language, and hierarchy. It is important to understand that individuals can belong to several tribes at the same time, and tribes are not limited by physical boundaries. The cultural origins of tribal marketing are related to the fragmented and individualized state of postmodern society and the need to reconstruct social ties. In postmodern society, the reintegration of archaic relations takes place under new conditions. The structure of tribal marketing integrates cultural aspects, linking them with the sentiments of primitive society, nostalgia for naturalness, the need for a closer social relationship with the group.However, with the changing technological environment and socio - cultural changes, the formation of tribes is moving into a virtual space. Technological changes have led to the formation of virtual tribes. In a virtual space, individuals and their groups can share the same emotions, opinions, information about a brand, product, or service. Technological change has made it possible for individuals from all over the world to find a group or groups united by common cultural elements. The essential criteria of a virtual tribe are that the tribe has a collective consciousness, rituals and traditions, duties, a sense of commitment to both the whole tribal community and its members. When analyzing virtual tribes, it is useful to rely on the 8E model, as it covers a systematic perspective in assessing the structure and functioning of virtual tribes. The processes of creating new social connections and forms are intensified by modern technologies. Users can interact with each other, regardless of territorial barriers, share information, form virtual tribes (Pinto de Lima, Brito, 2012, pp. 291– 292). It is becoming more important for business organizations not only to take advantage of traditional tribal marketing opportunities, but also to adapt to the opportunities provided by virtual space. However, the topic of tribal marketing is poorly researched in Lithuania.
Anželika Gumuliauskienė
Socialiniai tyrimai, Volume 44, pp 77-88; doi:10.15388/soctyr.44.1.5

Abstract:
The article analyzes the management of the influence of organized interests on public policy. The article reveals the concept of organized interests, the essential differences in comparing the concepts of organized interests and interest groups. The article takes the view that organized interests are a more neutral concept that better explains the nature of all actors seeking to influence public policy-making. The author of the article is of the opinion that the concept of interest groups – due to the disagreement of scientists in defining it – causes a lot of confusion when comparing the results of different researches and using the theoretical insights of other scientists. Organized interests interact with other public policy makers to influence policy outcomes. This article analyzes the ways in which organized interests can influence public policy. According to the author of the article, by identifying the ways of influencing public policy, it is possible to envisage ways to manage that influence. The article applies methods of analysis, synthesis, generalization and comparative analysis of scientific literature.
Severina Šeštokaitė, Justinas Kisieliauskas
Socialiniai tyrimai, Volume 44, pp 40-52; doi:10.15388/soctyr.44.1.3

Abstract:
This paper presents an analysis of the impact that cultural activities have on community building. Recently, more and more people begin to understand the importance of community: they bring about local communities, and they begin to get involved in its activities. Cultural activities, in this case, offer a significant assistance. They are regarded as part of a typical community building stage. In this paper, the local community is perceived as a localized, cohesive social group with its own traditions, established norms, values, share the same interests, place of residence or attendance, and the most important – emotional connection. Community building begins with a motivated human leader, then leader create a group of people, that is next step on community building, and then community influenced by cultural activities and other motives is building. Cultural activities, joint celebrations have a huge impact on community building; therefore, there is a legitimate reason for further considerations. Different art projects worldwide are flexible and bring results, furthermore, they are economically effective ways to solve community building problems. The experts substantiate the cultural activity benefits for the community and confirm the importance of a leader at the primary stage of community building.The object of this thesis is a the impact of cultural activities on community building.The goal of this thesis is after a theoretical analysis of the relationship between cultural activities and the community, to carry out a study to assess the formation of the community through cultural activities.Cultural regions of Lithuania are experiencing the decline in population which results in the decline of supply of cultural activities and activities related to arts. In the context of dwindling communities and eroding communality a research question of this thesis arises: how to build a community based on cultural activities?Research methods of this thesis include different types of methods. In the first chapter a comparative theoretical analysis and synthesis of sources of literature method is used. In this part of thesis, the concepts of culture and community, the impact of cultural activities on society and community building are examined.In the second chapter of this thesis, having the intention to receive practical advice, and to acquire know-how on event planning for communities, a qualitative method has been chosen in a form of semi-structured interview with representatives of communities in Šilainiai (Kaunas microdistrict), Balsiai (in Šilalė distr.) and Akademija (in Kaunas distr.). After finishing the process of analysis of and structuring all the results of quantitative research indicate: has revealed such results: communities form for different reasons, and they face similar challenges (lack of human and financial resources), communality is expressed differently in each community, and the events are being held in accordance with the needs of the respective community.The following conclusions are published after analyzing the impact of cultural activities on the community building theoretically and qualitative studies with community presidents-experts:• The community is a group of people connected by common interests, places, communications, but the most important thing is the feeling. When we talk about the local community, we need to perceive it as a localised group of people.• In community building activities, the classic path takes place through cultural activities. Artistic cultural phenomena create more cohesive and sustainable communities, making it easier to involve people in the community. There are many art projects around the world that seek to bring divisive societies into communities through cultural activities. Such projects are flexible, proven and cost-effective ways to address community development problems.After reviewing the collected interview material, the following recommendations can be made for those who want to build a community in their place:• At the beginning of the community building, it is important person-leader with enthusiasm, energy and charisma. The leader can‘t be to strong – have just his ideas, his vision. The good leader for community is person, who can accept other ideas, who can listen community wishes, needs and say thank you to community members. It is small thing that humans needs.• It is important for people that their wishes, needs, ideas are heard and to be allowed to implement them;• It is worth involving members of the community in the process of organizing events – it is important for them to feel necessary and useful, but after involving the community, the process of organizing takes longer. And here comes challenge for leader to be able to properly moderate and distribute the work for community;• It is very important to co-create the process with community, to communicate, let them to feel like the creators of the celebration;• The number of cultural activities to be organised varies according to the needs of the community, but it is important to maintain a cyclicality, quantity and quality ratio. It is worth having a few bigger celebrations for the whole community with a variety of activities, while other events are organized for smaller and target audiences. Activities must be non-binding, but innovative, modern and;• The community is made up of people of all ages and none of them should be forgotten – everyone has to find the right activities for themselves, but young mothers and seniors usually join communities, so at the beginning of the community it is the target audience to which cultural activities must be adapted;• News about community events works best in a word-of-mouth format, but all possible channels need to be used to invite people to events: networks, local newspapers, libraries or even churches.Every community is unique...
Laima Liukinevičienė, Audra Jokubauskienė
Socialiniai tyrimai, Volume 44, pp 53-76; doi:10.15388/soctyr.44.1.4

Abstract:
The article analyzes the implementation of the transparency principle in implementing the performance audit in the municipality. The performance audit is qualified as a specific control function in order to objectively assess the functionality of public sector entities in terms of economy, efficiency and effectiveness, initiating operational and governance advancement. It is important to investigate this object in municipalities due to the following factors: 1) according to the assessment of the transparency of Lithuanian municipalities published in 2019 by “Transparency International” of the Lithuanian branch, municipalities have become more transparent as well as the recommendations were provided to municipalities; 2) Recent research conducted in foreign countries shows broader audit opportunities for initiating positive change in organizations. The aim of the research: having established the principle of transparency as one of the most important indications of good governance, to provide for the possibilities of increasing the transparency of municipal activities during the performance audits. Research methods: analysis of scientific literature, the content of documents, qualitative analysis of the expert interview and the content of the material collected during it, and categorization.The analyzed sources show how during these two decades of developing the theoretical concept of good governance the importance of the principle of transparency has grown, it has become one of the most important features of good governance; the concept of implementing transparency in public sector organizations has developed as well. Today, the principle of operational transparency is implemented both through strictly formalized government activities and by involving citizens in public governance that requires much honesty, competencies and non-traditional solutions of civil servants. How can a performance audit contribute to this? In order to gain new insights, experts were interviewed: researchers and practicians. Recommendations from external evaluators on transparency in municipalities were used to develop the guidelines for the expert interviews. The research revealed that in municipalities it is important to create greater opportunities for the citizens to participate in monitoring and involvement in decision-making. The directions for increasing the transparency of municipal activities through performance audits that have been highlighted by experts are as follows: 1) periodic performance transparency audits by including constantly updated performance transparency criteria in the audit; 2) creation of a non-corruption organization; 3) increasing the transparency of budgeting and implementation; 4) submission of budget reports with audit conclusions; 5) attention to the clarity of the content of audit reports, diversity of accessibility; 6) periodic monitoring of the effectiveness of audit findings; 7) integration of audits of social responsibility activities into other forms of performance evaluation, thus not increasing the number of audits but seeking greater integration of the principle of transparency. The experts proposed transparency evaluation criteria that can be easily integrated into the evaluation process.
Aurimas Šidlauskas
Socialiniai tyrimai, Volume 44, pp 8-26; doi:10.15388/soctyr.44.1.1

Abstract:
Following the entry into force of the General Data Protection Regulation (hereafter referred to as the GDPR), organizations that process personal data must ensure and demonstrate compliance with all of its principles. A new post, known as the Data Protection Officer (hereafter referred to as the DPO), has been created. The appointment of this official may be one of the measures necessary to implement the principle of accountability. The purpose of the article is to analyze the institute of the DPO as part of the regulatory framework laid down in the Regulation, and to provide generalized recommendations to organizations.
Šarūnas Banevičius
Published: 6 December 2020
Socialiniai tyrimai, Volume 43, pp 26-34; doi:10.21277/st.v43i2.316

Abstract:
Tourism, as the third largest export sector in the world, is of great importance to global communities (UNWTO, 2018). Global Wellness Institute (2018) until 2022 predicted for the medical tourism industry an average of ≈8% of annual growth; however, with one of the highest risks, i.e. disease risk (in this case COVID-19), since April 6 2020, 96% of the world’s countries have travel restrictions: About 43 percent of states have closed all or part of their borders. About 21 percent of states have introduced travel bans for passengers from certain countries affected by COVID-19. About 27 percent of states have suspended all or part of their international flights to their The remaining 9% of states have applied the following travel restrictions: (i) the requirement to immediately dissociate or quarantine, normally within 14 days since the arrival at destination; (ii) annulment or revocation of the visa upon arrival; (iii) travel bans for passengers arriving from certain regions (UNWTO, 2020). As a result, the tourism industry, alongside with medical tourism, is experiencing a major recession and the GWI (2018) forecast for 2022 loses its meaning. As a new form of tourism, medical tourism has become one of the fastest growing sectors of the tourism industry. Medical tourism can be defined as a “purposeful trip abroad to receive medical care” (Keckley and Underwood, 2008). Medical tourism can be viewed from two perspectives (Plianbangchang, 2018): Reactive means medical care that pays special attention to the treatment or elimination of existing diseases; Rehabilitation of the disabled is a conventional medicine that is sometimes called the sickness Proactive approach to health ensures/preserves the well-being, these services are focused on health promotion and disease Heung et al. (2011), Ganguli and Ebrahim (2017), Tham (2018), Nilashia et al. (2019) found that the development of medical tourism in Australia, Hong Kong and Singapore is mainly influenced by the following factors: competence/human capital, infrastructure and superstructure, government approach/policy/regulation, the range of developed services, communication between different market segments, investment opportunities, lack of strategic planning, underdeveloped public-private partnerships and international cooperation, shortcomings in marketing and branding strategies, lack of a unified accreditation and certification system. However, the authors did not single out and assess one of the most important phenomena hindering development – the consequences caused by risk factors. Lithuanian researchers studied the risk in various aspects: patient safety, adverse event management, risk factor management and assessment (Kaleininkaitė and Trumpaitė, 2007; Buškevičiūtė and Leškevičiūtė, 2008; Kanapeckienė and Jurkuvėnas, 2009; Staliūnienė, 2009; Mekšriūnaitė and Rudaitis, 2013; Paškevičius, 2014; Stasytytė and Aleksienė, 2016; Jankauskienė and Kostereva, 2019; Babinskas and Kanapeckienė, 2019, etc.), however, the management of tourism risk factors has not been sufficiently studied yet. The following authors have examined the risk management of medical tourism in foreign literature: Wybo, 2004; Camillo, 2015; Mutalib et al., 2016; Winsena et al., 2016; Hasan et al., 2017; Plianbangchang, 2018; Ravulakollu et al., 2018; Nilashia et al., 2019; Lubowiecki-Vikuk and Dryglas, 2019; Hyder et al., 2019. The problem of the research is how to effectively manage the risk factors of medical tourism. The aim of the research is to develop a management model after analysing the risk factors of medical tourism. Objectives of the study: (1) to define medical tourism risk factors; (2) to analyse risk management algorithms. Research methods: comparative logical analysis of scientific literature, modelling, generalization. Medical tourism organizations can be called complex socio-technical organizations that operate in a complex dynamic environment. As a result, these organizations are exposed to external and internal risk factors that need to be identified, analysed, assessed, prioritized, and managed. In this work, the author solved the problem: how to effectively manage the risk factors of medical tourism. During the analysis of the performed scientific literature, it was found that we can ensure a successful risk cleaning process by keeping with the following consistency: risk analysis, anticipation of possible accidents/factors, strategic planning, ensuring control and feedback, risk profiling, during which all possible risk factors are classified and prioritized. The risk of medical tourism involves two stages: first, when patients are abroad and second, when patients leave the hospital and return to their place of residence. Lack of information and insufficient communication between the doctor abroad and in the home country is another negative effect of medical tourism as the continuity of patient care is interrupted. Health information is not transferred from foreign hospitals to the home country, which can lead to several consequences, such as the inability to identify potential complications in a timely manner and the toxicity caused by the drugs used (Carrera and Lunt, 2010). Cammillo (2015) has attributed the emergence of medical tourism risk to the lack or scarcity of strategic managementskillsatthedestination.Strategicmanagement is a dynamic process in which the current situation is constantly assessed and each step is planned/forecasted. This requires a strong understanding of the organization as well as an understanding of the global environment in which the organization operates. This includes situation analysis SWOT. In this context, strategic management is forced to include risk assessment, risk management, crisis management and prevention strategies, and effective interdepartmental...
Giedrė Balkytė, Milda Kvekšienė, Lina Striaukaitė
Published: 6 December 2020
Socialiniai tyrimai, Volume 43, pp 5-14; doi:10.21277/st.v43i2.314

Abstract:
At the end of the financial year, companies’ accounting departments prepare sets of financial statements which are the most important regulated information source for assessing the company’s financial state and its performance. Article 16 of the Law on Financial Statements of Enterprises of the Republic of Lithuania states that financial statements are prepared in accordance with this Law, Business Accounting Standards (BAS) or International Accounting Standards. In the Explanatory Note it must be indicated according to which accounting standards the financial statements were prepared. According to the Lithuanian Department of Statistics, the domestic market is dominated by very small and small enterprises. These companies have a significant impact on the country’s economy. The financial statements of most of them are not audited and this lack of audit can cause some country-wide problems. The audit of annual reports according to Article 24 of the Law on Financial Statements of Enterprises of the Republic of Lithuania must be performed in enterprises if at least two indicators on the last day of the financial year exceed the following values: 1) the value of assets is 1,800 thousand euros; 2) net sales revenue during the budgetary year are 3,500 thousand euros; 3) the average annual number of employees according to the list during the budgetary year is 50 employees. The issue of accounting and financial statements’ quality were examined in various aspects not only by Lithuanian authors Legenzova (2016), Legenzova and Kancereviciute (2012), Guptor and Rudzioniene (2018), Lakis and Miniotaite (2016), Miniotaite (2017), Deveikis (2018, 2020), but also foreign authors such as Abbod et al. (2018), Franczak (2019), and Goncharenko et al. (2016). Most of these authors indicate compliance with the provisions of the regulations to be among the important factors determining the quality of financial statements. In order to improve the quality of financial statements in Lithuania, new initiatives are regularly brought forward to the Ministry of Finance and the Parliament to introduce measures in legislation that would improve the quality of financial statements of for-profit limited liability units. In 2015, the Parliament’s Audit Committee drafted a package of legislative changes. It proposed measures to improve the quality of financial statements as well as obliged entities to provide mentioned statements to the Register of Legal Entities for proper monitoring of the submitted documents. Those changes in the legislation, however, were not implemented. To implement public policy in the field of financial liability, the Authority of Audit, Accounting, Property Valuation and Insolvency Management (AVNT) for several years has been conducting a quality survey of the financial statements (Explanatory Notes) of 100 companies. In performing the analysis of the financial statements of the companies, AVNT assessed whether they comply with the provisions of the Business Accounting Standards and the submission of compulsory information in accordance with the requirements of the 6th Business Accounting Standard of “Explanatory Note”. For this study, unaudited companies are selected on the basis of the highest net sales revenue and the highest value of assets on the balance sheet. The results of this study show that the quality of financial statements is not improving (AVNT, 2020). It is difficult for small and very small companies to constantly monitor and comply with the requirements and alterations of the financial statements preparation standards. This gives rise to the following question: How much do the financial statements of small and very small companies match with the provisions of the Business Accounting Standards? Linartas (2020) argues that the quality of financial statements is poor in companies that are managed by one or more owners. This might be due to the fact that the owners of such companies receive the information about their companies’ financial state and performance directly and have no interest in disclosing it in the financial statements. The object of the research are sets of financial statements of small and very small enterprises. The aim of the research is to analyse the compliance of the financial statements of small and very small enterprises with the provisions of the Business Accounting Standards. The objectives of the research are the following: 1. To assess the compliance of the general composition of financial statements of small and very small enterprises submitted to the General Meeting of Shareholders and the Register of Legal Entities with the provisions of 1st BAS “Financial Statements” and the Law on Financial Statements of Enterprises; 2. To analyse the compliance of the individual parts of financial statements of small and very small companies with the provisions of the Business Accounting Standards. The chosen methodology for this research includes systematization, grouping and summarization of data as well as document content analysis. The research methods are the analysis and synthesis of legal acts regulating the composition of financial statements and requirements for the preparation of separate reports, as well as of scientific literature. Furthermore, systematization, grouping and summarization of data and analysis of document content were applied to the analysis of financial statement data. In order to analyze the compliance of the financial statements of small and very small enterprises with the provisions of the Business Accounting Standards, 72 sets of financial statements of private limited companies operating in Western Lithuania were obtained. The criteria for small and very small enterprises were met by unaudited reports of 66 companies. The research shows that in some companies the General Meeting of Shareholders approves financial statement set forms that do not comply with the Law of...
Justinas Statkus, Zita Tamašauskienė
Published: 6 December 2020
Socialiniai tyrimai, Volume 43, pp 15-25; doi:10.21277/st.v43i2.315

Abstract:
Over the past decades, there have been significant changes in the functional income distribution. The decreasing wage share in national income, the causes and consequences of this phenomenon have become the subject of both research and political debate. Over the past decade, research in the most developed countries has shown that economic growth has been influenced by wage share rather than a profit share. The decline in the wage share in countries’ incomes may have been the cause of slowing economic growth or a sluggish post- crisis recovery (Blecker, 2016). The decline in the wage share is one of the key aspects of changes in income change, which also includes an increase in personal income inequality (Hein, 2015). Although much research has been done on changes in the distribution of personal income, the problem of the functional income distribution has not been sufficiently explored. The concepts of income distribution and functional income distribution seem similar at first glance, but this is not the case. The distribution of income is described as the income earned in a country’s economy distributed among the total population. This indicator is usually calculated at the household level (i.e. the total income of all household members is calculated), taking into account the number of household members and their age. Meanwhile, the functional distribution of income is described as the distribution of national income between the two factors of production – labour and capital. This means that income is distributed between employees and capital owners. Theoretically, it is stated that 2/3 of income goes to labour and 1/3 to capital. The impact of changes in wage and profit shares on aggregate demand is quite complex and depends, among other things, on the country specification, data sources and coverage, the measurement of different variables and the statistical methods used in the surveys. Bhaduri and Marglin (1990) analyzed the impact of changes in the functional distribution of income on consumption, investment, exports, and imports. The essence of the model is that wage share has a dual effect on the economy, at the same time it is business expenditures and the main factor of private household consumption (Storm andNaastepad, 2017). As the effects of changes in the functional distribution of income impact the components of aggregate demand in national income differently, the ultimate impact on aggregate demand is not clear. If the decline in the wage share has a positive effect on aggregate demand, it is considered to be profit- led aggregate demand, if it has a negative effect, demand is wage-led. In the macroeconomic field, aggregate demand is understood as the total amount of final products and services produced in a country over a period of time that buyers can and want to purchase at a certain price level. Gross demand consists of 4 components: consumption, investment, exports and imports. This is the demand for the country’s gross domestic product (Basu and Gautham, 2019). By way of analysis, the main determinants of aggregate demand included in the researches can be identified. The most frequently included factors in the investment function are income, wage, profit, less frequently used factors are inequality of personal income and marginal propensity of employees to consume. In investment functions, the main factors are income, profit and wage income. Factors such as capacity utilization and business expectations are less frequently included in investment functions. The rest of the world’s income and export prices are usually included factors in the export function. However, less frequently included factors in the export function are housing assets. On the other hand, import prices and unit labor costs are the most commonly influenced factors in the import function. Less commonly used factors in the import function are investment costs. Based on the Bhaduri and Marglin model, a number of studies have been conducted to assess the impact on consumption, investment, import, export and to determine whether the economy is wage-led or profit-led (Naastepad and Storm, 2006; Hein and Vogel, 2008; Stockhammer and Ederer, 2007; Stockhammer and Stehrer, 2011; Onaran and Galanis, 2014). In their research, the authors make a clear distinction in which countries aggregate demand is profit-led and which is wage-led. In empirical studies, economic growth is stimulated either by exports or domestic demand. In the post-war period, most studies found wage-led domestic demand in almost all countries, but net exports can turn a particular economy into a profit-led one. Some researchers have studied the impact of changes in the functional income distribution on aggregate demand in individual countries, while others in groups of countries. In most of the countries (UK, Italy, Netherlands, Austria, Norway, Sweden, Denmark) analyzed in the empirical studies, domestic and aggregate demand was wage-led. Also, economic growth in most countries was driven more by domestic demand than by export. One of the worst examples of increasing economic growth is noticeable in Spain. The aim was to do this through internal devaluation – by reducing unit labor costs. However, the increase in net exports was smaller than the decrease in domestic demand, which had a negative impact on economic growth.
Rytis Milkintas
Published: 12 October 2020
Socialiniai tyrimai, Volume 43, pp 5-19; doi:10.21277/st.v43i1.300

Abstract:
The goal of the research is to prepare a theoretical model of smart cultural governance and to evaluate the smart cultural management of Šiauliai city according to it. The background of creating a smart culture governance model is to define the theoretical constructs of smart city and smart culture management by looking for correlations between these concepts in order to closely link cultural management with the implementation of cultural policy in city management processes and to highlight the specifics of smart cultural management. A systematic model of a smart city is formed and presented, of which cultural management is an integral part. The model highlights the links between cultural management and other dimensions of the smart city. The theoretical model of smart culture management, which was adapted to investigate the expression of smart culture management in Šiauliai city, is presented. This kind of research has not been done so far in analyzing smart culture management in Šiauliai city. The need for the research was inspired by culture specialists of Šiauliai City Municipality Administration and heads of cultural institutions. The qualitative content analysis of theoretical sources of foreign countries and Lithuania was conducted as well as in-depth interviews to collect information that was processed through qualitative content analysis and systematized using matrices. The assessment of model expression based on the informants’ attitudes enabled the researcher to draw substantive conclusions. The research is relevant to Šiauliai city culture field institutions (private, subordinate municipality, subordinate to the Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Lithuania), Šiauliai city culture field policymakers. In a broader sense, the improvement in the quality of the intelligent social system highlighted in the study will significantly contribute to the general level of culture in Šiauliai. These positive changes will be experienced by the recipients of cultural services. Further research in the field of smart city cultural management is planned to analyze not only the situation of Šiauliai city but also the cultural field of Lithuania as a whole, in connection with the practices of the international cultural field. It is planned to study the smoothness of the transformation of cultural field institutions, adaptation to smart cultural management, and the emerging challenges. Further research is planned to analyze the scientific studies prepared by smart cities, to look for specific actions highlighted in them, challenges for the cultural sector in adapting to the gradual transformation of cities into smart cities.
Rytis Milkintas
Published: 12 October 2020
Socialiniai tyrimai, Volume 43, pp 20-31; doi:10.21277/st.v43i1.301

Abstract:
The aim of the research is the investigation of the essential theoretical aspects of smart culture management. The article formulates the theoretical construct of smart culture management by combining cultural management and management concepts, closely linking cultural management with the implementation of cultural policy and seeing the specifics of smart cultural management.Qualitative analysis was performed of theoretical sources of foreign countries and Lithuania. Also, a comparative analysis of different concepts was carried out, highlighting similarities and differences of concepts (in order to discern correlations between them).Five groups of cultural management concepts are distinguished: cultural management as specific management in art and culture; cultural management as a phenomenon, process reflecting the formation and implementation of cultural policy; cultural management as an institution management; cultural management as a profession and academic discipline; cultural management as leadership-based management. Theoretical analysis of the phenomenon of smartness in cultural management allowed us to distinguish six dimensions of smartness: strategic, creative development, harmonization of interests in the cultural sector, empowered cultural sector parties, the harmony of intellectual and technological capital, the culture of shared value creation.Exploring the urban cultural field situation, using a model that reflects the 6 dimensions of smart culture management and 18 qualities of a smart social system, will highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the cultural field. By analyzing the weaknesses, the researchers will be able to make recommendations on how to improve the current situation. Improving the cultural field at the local level will significantly increase the quality of cultural services provided to the population.In future research, it is planned to apply the theoretical model of smart culture management to the analysis of situation analysis in the selected city. Analysis based on this theoretical model can also be performed at the state level, thus providing a comprehensive view of the cultural field situation.
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