Socialiniai tyrimai

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1392-3110 / 2351-6712
Published by: Vilnius University Press (10.15388)
Total articles ≅ 105
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Justina Paluckaitė
Published: 20 February 2022
Socialiniai tyrimai, Volume 45, pp 36-47; https://doi.org/10.15388/soctyr.45.1.2

Abstract:
As suggested by previous research, individuals with high self-control report greater autonomous motivation, and the Self-Determination Theory of autonomous motivation implies that exercising self-control should be less necessary, i.e., require lower levels for those having a self-schema in the relevant domain. Based on this, the present study explored whether the healthy eater self-schema status decreases (moderates) the effect of the trait self-control on the healthy eating behavior. In a cross-sectional design, a total of 149 people participated in this research. Results confirmed the role of the healthy eater self-schema status as a moderator. These findings highlighted the effect of the self-description as a healthy eater and one’s perceived importance of healthy eating in the exercising of trait self-control towards healthy food consumption. This study could also be helpful in tailoring future self-control interventions for individuals who have difficulties in exercising self-control toward healthy food consumption.
Laima Liukinevičienė, Jurgita Blažienė
Published: 20 February 2022
Socialiniai tyrimai, Volume 45, pp 8-35; https://doi.org/10.15388/soctyr.45.1.1

Abstract:
Recovery and resilience, the ability to operate under the conditions of uncertainty – these challenges are now becoming the key tasks for each organisation. The research of the organisation’s concept of resilience is primarily linked to ecological sciences, followed by studies in social sciences linked to vulnerability and resilience of social groups, communities, cities, and organizations as systems. The efforts of scientists to develop the analysis, measurement instruments of resilience, observable resilience indicators systems, indices, regional vulnerability maps, development of regional resilience policies, etc. are visible. Scientists indicate that resilience is a complex ability and process and can be defined differently, depending on the contexts, but all of them are united by the notion that it is a positive effect in preparing for or after challenges, that it must be encouraged (Lee et al., 2016). The organisation’s theoretical concept of resilience is not widely developed and there is a lack of information on how organisations become resilient.The research aims to define the concept of organisation’s resilience, its features and factors as well as to reveal the concept of the resilience of hospitals in the theoretical context of the resilience of the organisation. The following research methods were used: the analysis, generalization and systematization of the content of scientific literature, synthesis of ideas based on scientific analysis.The definition of the concept of organisation’s resilience is based on a previous empirical research conducted by Barasa et al. (2018) as well as on the latest scientific insights: According to Jucevičius et al. (2017), resilience as the ability to regain strength after changes or errors is conceptually different from the concept of robustness, which describes systems that ignore environmental impacts. The resilience of an organization is the intrinsic ability of an organization to maintain and return to a dynamically stable state. It is the maintenance of resources in a sufficiently flexible form to allow them to be spontaneously adapted in the event of an unforeseen threat. Continuous harmonisation of the monitoring of small errors with improvisation provides employees with expert and wider competencies for more flexible adaptation. The idea proposed by Gricevičius (2019) to link the resilience of the organization to the ability to survive and even thrive during a crisis supports the idea of Gečienė and Raišienė (2019, 2020) that the resilience of the organization should be understood more as a capacity and process than a result, and as adaptation rather than stability (Gečienė et al., 2020). Insight into the fact that we are constantly strengthening the resilience of organisations by adapting to changes at three levels: the potential of the resources available in the system, participants in the internal communication system and variables, creative and flexible responses to the challenges (Holling and Gunderson, 2002, cited in Gečienė, 2020); that the resilience of the organisation must be perceived as a long-term goal (Litz, 2005, cited in Gečienė, 2020). Beuran and Santos (2019) consider that three definitions are important in the organisation’s conceptualisation of resilience: resilience as an organisational characteristic; resilience as a result of the organisation’s activities; resilience as an identification of disorders that the organisation can tolerate. The theoretical concept of organization’s resilience is developed by defining external and internal factors of resilience. The external factors of the resilience of public sector organisations include the following: 1) political factors that directly or indirectly influence organisations’ involvement in a greater focus on the organisation’s sustainable development, unforeseen challenges in the long term; 2) economic factors (e.g. availability of financial resources); 3) technological factors (e.g. availability of hardware and software; digital progress), social factors (e.g. decentralisation as management practice in the public sector, coordination of systems, greater awareness of resilience in society, etc.). Disseminating the experience of business organisations in adapting to challenges in the media has also become a social factor.According to scientific practice (Barasa et al. (2018); Gečienė (2020)), to analyse the passive and active resilience of the organisation, we have divided the internal factors of the organization’s resilience into two groups: 1. Passive or operational, adaptive resilience of the organisation. The factors are as follows: 1) prudent management of public (physical, economic, organisational, social, human) capital, assets held or entrusted with management; management of organisational change management, absorption, adaptability, reconstruction capacity is essential; 2) a balanced organisational routine and structure; 3) management and continuous improvement of internal information and communication systems; 4) management (managerial) practices; 5) organizational culture.2. Active or planned, strategic, otherwise capability-oriented resilience of the organization. The factors are as follows: 1) the organisation’s resilience planning, strategy; 2) the organisation’s external policy focused on strengthening resilience; 3) continuous involvement in the analysis, application, development of managerial innovations; 4) leadership and continuous improvement of the organisation’s resilience competencies.Hospitals are organisations whose management is subject to the same managerial principles as in budgetary institutions in general, and therefore the analyzed resilience features of organizations are also applicable to hospitals. Due to the specific purpose of organisations (human health is one of the most...
Modesta Morkevičiūtė, Auksė Endriulaitienė
Published: 20 February 2022
Socialiniai tyrimai, Volume 45, pp 65-76; https://doi.org/10.15388/soctyr.45.1.4

Abstract:
The aim of the present study was to investigate the moderating role of perceived dedication-to-work promoting organization for the relationship between employees’ perfectionism and workaholism. A total of 964 employees (514 females and 450 males) working in different Lithuanian organizations participated in the cross-sectional study. Data were collected by means of online self-administered questionnaires. Workaholism was measured using DUWAS-10 proposed by Schaufeli et al. (2009). To measure perfectionism, a short version of the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS; Hewitt and Flett, 1991) was used. A questionnaire proposed by Allen (2001) was used to assess the perceptions of whether an organization encourages employees to focus solely on work or whether it supports their family responsibilities as well. It was hypothesized that the positive relationship between perfectionism and workaholism was stronger for employees working in dedication-to-work promoting organizations. The assumption was confirmed. It was obtained that the risk of workaholism was higher for employees having high levels of perfectionism and perceiving organization as promoting dedication to work.
Irina Canco
Published: 20 February 2022
Socialiniai tyrimai, Volume 45, pp 91-103; https://doi.org/10.15388/soctyr.45.1.6

Abstract:
In the way of fast and complex developments of businesses, the inventory plays as well an important role. The complexity of the economic environment where the businesses operate and the problems they encounter orient the manager’s attention towards the management of inventory. This refers to the inventory’s specifics in general and his constituent elements. Despite these the common characteristic of the inventory is its double character, as on one hand it represents necessary, inevitable elements for the development of the productive activity of every business, and on the other the inventory requires considerable commitments of the financial sources. This has made the efficient management of the inventory a central problem, on which a series of researches have been concentrated.This paper is an effort to deal with some problems of efficient management of the inventory in the business organizations, regarding the quantity, quality, and time dimensions on the inventory because inventories are the focal point in business performance. But, the greatest part of businesses in Albania operate in the conditions when information about inventory management missing. Problems addressed in this paper can be serve the managers for improvement their job in the future.
Andželika Bylaitė, Ernesta Jonaitienė, Vilma Kalinovienė
Published: 20 February 2022
Socialiniai tyrimai, Volume 45, pp 48-64; https://doi.org/10.15388/soctyr.45.1.3

Abstract:
Employee competencies are considered to be the most important factor, which determines competitiveness among job seekers and an essential capital in most sectors of the economy. Today, due to the changing conditions in the labor market, the once acquired knowledge and abilities no longer meet the changed requirements, it is becoming important to develop generic and subject specific competencies. The article analyzes the generic and subject specific competencies of future specialists in the Lithuanian tourism sector, which are needed in the labor market of Lithuania from the point of view of employers. Therefore, using a semi-structured in-depth interview, a pilot professional activity field research was carried out in December 2020 – February 2021 in the economically strongest Lithuanian cities. The results of the research showed that due to the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic case, which is resonant and indefinite, the tourism market will never be the same again. It is observed that a person with a broader qualification (i.e. more competencies) easier integrates into the labour market. In this context, priority should be given to the ability of future specialists to be proactive and flexible, entrepreneurial and creative (to understand the specificities, future directions and trends of tourism and recreation services), to use information, smart and other technologies effectively. The specialist will not fear the competition of a professional who already has work experience in tourism sector.
Rytis Milkintas, Teodoras Tamošiūnas
Published: 20 February 2022
Socialiniai tyrimai, Volume 45, pp 77-90; https://doi.org/10.15388/soctyr.45.1.5

Abstract:
The aim of the research is to substantiate the methodological foundations of empirical research by revealing the concept of the expression of dimensions of smartness in cultural management. The article formulates theoretical construct based on expression of smartness dimensions in cultural management. This construct is formulating by combining cultural management and smart governance concepts and closely linking cultural management with the implementation of cultural policy and seeing the specifics of smart cultural management. The expression of smartness dimensions at culture management model consist of six main dimensions: strategics, creative development, harmonization of interests in the cultural sector, empowered cultural sector parties, harmony of intellectual and technological capital, the culture of shared value creation. Methodology strategy is based on two philosophical approaches by combining induction and deduction which result is abduction approach. Qualitative analysis was performed of theoretical sources of foreign countries and Lithuania. Another part of qualitative research is based on the interviewing chosen respondents to get information about the expression of smartness dimensions at culture management model functioning. There would be chosen about 30 experts (till data saturation) by using quadruple helix. Experts are chosen from government, science, business and nongovernmental organizations’ sphere. Gained results let to form research results conception which consists of three parts: theoretical model, current situation model, perspective situation model. The trajectory of the change from the current situation model to the perspective situation model helps to highlight the areas requiring improvement of the functioning of the cultural field, planned directions (trends) of change.In future research, it is planned to form the indicators for all 6 theoretical dimensions of the expression of smartness dimensions at culture management model. Analysis based on this theoretical model also will be performed at the state level which provide a comprehensive view of the cultural field current situation and hypothetical perspective situation.
Agota Giedrė Raišienė, Laura Gardziulevičienė
Published: 10 August 2021
Socialiniai tyrimai, Volume 44, pp 34-48; https://doi.org/10.15388/soctyr.44.2.2

Abstract:
The phenomenon of the welfare state is characterized by complexity of indicators. To determine in which areas the country is closer to the welfare state, various areas of social policy are analysed. In this article, we set out to investigate one of them, i.e., the accessibility of social services for children with disabilities. The European Union ensures the basic preconditions for the well-being of children with disabilities and emphasizes the compatibility of health, social and educational services (European Commission, 2021). In addition, Member States are free to introduce specific measures for social inclusion (COM, 2021). The well-being of children with disabilities is inseparable from that of adults, usually the family in which the children live. Depending on the child’s disability, the family has to devote time to the child’s special needs, so opportunities to function in society, such as working and earning an income, become dependent on the social assistance received for the disabled child. Research shows that participation in labour market processes reduces the social exclusion of families with children with disabilities and improves quality of life indicators in general (Stefanidis & Strogilos 2020). However, analysis of good practice is more common, while information about the lack of services that parents face difficulties remains overboard. Thus, our research contributes to a better understanding of how families raising children with disabilities use state-provided social services and what solutions and measures are needed to improve the quality of life of children with disabilities and their relatives. The practical implications of our article are revealed through the possibility of more confidently shaping the decisions and measures of the welfare state.The article presents results of a survey of 68 families with disabled children. Our research was conducted in Druskininkai municipality which has typical infrastructure of social services for the disabled and their families in Lithuania.Our study has shown that social services in Lithuania poorly meet needs of families with disabled children. Though social inclusion is one of the most important features of the welfare state, the provision of social services to disabled and their families goes beyond the concept in Druskininkai municipality at least. Families have little information about social guarantees and support provided by the state and municipality. The families are limited to services reported by health care and education institutions. Moreover, the most significant problem hindering social integration of disabled and their families is a small portion of disabled children using services of day care centre. As a result, children suffer at risk of social exclusion while disabled children’s parents lack of opportunities to fully participate in the labour market.Based on the results of the study we state that increasing the availability of social services that meet the needs of families with disabled children is a necessary social policy solution, without which the development of a welfare state in Lithuania is hardly possible.
Justinas Staliūnas, Andrius Stasiukynas, Aušra Šukvietienė
Published: 10 August 2021
Socialiniai tyrimai, Volume 44, pp 49-60; https://doi.org/10.15388/soctyr.44.2.3

Abstract:
The level of social capital in society is one of the most important elements for the success of state development, which is increasingly emphasized on political agendas. In research, social capital covers a wide range of areas due to the interdisciplinarity of social capital. Still, the dominant components stand out: trust in society, trust in public authorities, involvement in civic activities. While trust in public authorities and trust in other members of society are more often used in research and heard in the media, civic activities often lack such interest. However, it is one of the most effective ways for government decisions to invest most effectively in improving social capital in society. The primary tool for the state to increase public involvement in civic activities is the promotion of voluntary activities, which contributes to the state’s sustainable development, and the creation of the welfare state is enshrined in international documents. With this article, the authors seek to examine the peculiarities of Lithuanian volunteering in the context of social capital formation. The aim is to: 1) examine the theoretical assumptions of the impact of volunteering on the formation of social capital; 2) study the expression of social capital and voluntary activity in the context of state performance evaluation indicators; 3) carry out empirical research (expert interview) examining the peculiarities of volunteering in Lithuania. It should be noted that some of the results of the empirical research were used in the report of the applied research “Development of Youth Volunteering in Lithuania” (prepared by the Lithuanian Council of Youth Organizations (LiJOT) project “Strengthening the Participation of the Lithuanian Council of Youth Organizations in Public Management Decision Making”). The development of volunteering and the improvement of social capital indicators are named Lithuania’s long-term strategic goals, but the indicators in international indices are low compared to other countries.The analysis of the results of the empirical research allows us to state that: 1) In Lithuania, volunteering is often treated in various ways, e.g., in connection with unpaid work or other activities which are not, in principle, activities carried out of the person’s own free will; outstanding long-term and short-term volunteering (up to 6 months); 2) organizers of voluntary activities (usually non-governmental non-profit organizations (NGOs)) lack managerial skills; 3) In recent years, Lithuania has started to develop long-term volunteering programs, which are associated with better social capital formation, and it is expected that this measure will help to improve the quality and indicators of volunteering, especially among young people.
Eglė Juozėnaitė
Published: 10 August 2021
Socialiniai tyrimai, Volume 44, pp 84-97; https://doi.org/10.15388/soctyr.44.2.5

Abstract:
Relevance and problem of the topic. Exploring the influence of brand communication on different audiences is a complex and responsible process because the same communicated message to different audiences can be understood differently. An improperly communicated message may not reach the audience, be misunderstood, or provoke a hostile reaction, however, a properly chosen communication message may have the desired influence to the audience. How to communicate with different audiences and what methods to choose are especially important in today’s rapidly changing context.The problem analyzed in this article can be defined by the following questions: How to communicate with the audience? What influences to choose from? Based on this information, it will be possible to continue research in the field of public relations management to reveal the influence of brand communication on the audience, it can help brands to gain a competitive advantage in the markets and create greater added value.Problems. It is not entirely known what impact brand communication has on audiences. It is important for brands not only to create a brand image but also to find and choose the most appropriate ways to communicate with the audience so that individuals receive the communication message sent to them in the most acceptable and understandable ways. Improper communication, inaccurately chosen methods of communication with the audience can lead to undesirable consequences. The message sent by the brand can be misunderstood and interpreted, it can lead to undesirable negative consequences and cause reputational crises, leading to significant psychological, social, financial losses. Properly selected communication can help brands gain a competitive edge in the markets and create greater added value.Objective. To review and analyze the ways of brand’s communication, which aims to influence the audiences.The object: the influence of communication in brand managementTasks: 1) To analyze the concept of the brand; 2) To analyze the concept of the audience; 3) To review the ways of brand communication influence.Methods of comparative theoretical analysis and synthesis of the literature, generalization.Brand management consists of the role of the brand and the symbolic elements of the brand (brand name, logo, text). The brand is the most durable asset of the company. Good results are achieved by companies that are able to choose a brand strategy that meets consumer expectations. Brands can also make the influence by creating compelling knowledge and news by communicating in ways that reduce cognitive stress. In order to influence other people, it is possible to do so by appealing to the feelings of the audience, realizing the main emotions - anger, fear, sadness, feeling of happiness, disgust. It is important to monitor what kind of emotions brand communication causes to the audience, pay attention to the feedback. An audience can be interpreted as everything that an individual or organization communicates. In order to present news to the audience as convincingly and persuasively as possible, it is important to segment the audience and create a description of the target user.
Modesta Morkevičiūtė, Auksė Endriulaitienė
Published: 10 August 2021
Socialiniai tyrimai, Volume 44, pp 129-138; https://doi.org/10.15388/soctyr.44.2.8

Abstract:
The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the way of doing work for the relationship between workload and workaholism during COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 668 employees working in different Lithuanian organizations participated in a study. A sample included employees who worked in the workplace (n = 331), as well as those who worked completely from home (n = 337). The levels of workaholism were measured using DUWAS-10 (Schaufeli et al., 2009). Workload was assessed with the help of the Quantitative Workload Inventory (QWI; Spector & Jex, 1998). It was revealed in a study that the higher levels of workload experienced by employees were related to the increased workaholism. It was further found that the positive relationship between workload and worka­holism was stronger in the group of complete remote workers. Overall, the findings support the idea that remote work is an important variable increasing a risk for workaholism especially for those employees who experience a heavy workload. Therefore, the ways of doing work must be considered when addressing well-being of employees.
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