Tobacco Induced Diseases

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ISSN / EISSN : 2070-7266 / 1617-9625
Published by: E.U. European Publishing (10.18332)
Total articles ≅ 1,868
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Tobacco Induced Diseases, Volume 19, pp 1-11; doi:10.18332/tid/138227

Abstract:
This study aimed to elucidate the biological implication of miR-937 in cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells and to further investigate its possible regulatory mechanism. Public datasets were downloaded to identify differentially expressed genes and subjected to Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Online prediction site and luciferase reporter assay were applied to determine the target correlation between miR-937 and IL1B. RT-qPCR, Western blot and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) analyses were used to evaluate the expressions of indicated molecules. HBE cells were exposed with CSE (20 μg/mL) to construct the in vitro COPD model. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were measured through cell counting kit 8 and Annexin-V/propidium iodide (PI) staining assays. IL1B was found to be up-regulated in COPD samples compared with healthy controls and had a high correlation with the TNF and IL-17 pathways according to the data from GSE57148. Moreover, IL1B was predicted to be a target of miR-937, and it was negatively regulated by miR-937. CSE treatment reduced the miR-937 expression, meanwhile decreased the HBE cells proliferation, enhanced cells apoptosis, and elevated the expression of IL-6, IL-17, and TNF-α. Moreover, in the CSE model, upregulation of miR-937 promoted cells viability, restrained cells apoptosis, and decreased levels of IL-6, IL-17, and TNF-α were noted, which could be abolished by overexpression IL1B. In contrast, inhibiting miR-937 impeded cells proliferation, promoted cells apoptosis and elevated levels of IL-6, IL-17 and TNF-α, which could be rescued by IL1B-knockdown in CSE-induced HBEs. These findings suggest that miR-937 plays a protective role on the HBEs after CSE damage, which may be achieved via targeting IL1B and inhibiting the TNF-α/IL-17 signaling pathway.
Indu Sinha, Jennifer Modesto, Nicolle M. Krebs, Anne E. Stanley, Vonn A. Walter, John P. Richie Jr., Joshua E. Muscat, Raghu Sinha
Tobacco Induced Diseases, Volume 19, pp 1-15; doi:10.18332/tid/138336

Abstract:
Smoking is the leading cause of preventable disease. Although smoking results in an acute effect of relaxation and positive mood through dopamine release, smoking is thought to increase stress symptoms such as heart rate and blood pressure from nicotine-induced effects on the HPA axis and increased cortisol. Despite the importance in understanding the mechanisms in smoking maintenance, little is known about the overall protein and physiological response to smoking. There may be multiple functions involved that if identified might help in improving methods for behavioral and pharmacological interventions. Therefore, our goal for this pilot study was to identify proteins in the saliva that change in response to an acute smoking event versus acute sham smoking event in smokers and non-smokers, respectively. We employed the iTRAQ technique followed by Mass Spectrometry to identify differentially expressed proteins in saliva of smokers and non-smokers after smoking cigarettes and sham smoking, respectively. We also validated some of the salivary proteins by ELISA or western blotting. In addition, salivary cortisol and salivary amylase (sAA) activity were measured. In all, 484 salivary proteins were identified. Several proteins were elevated as well as decreased in smokers compared to non-smokers. Among these were proteins associated with stress response including fibrinogen alpha, cystatin A and sAA. Our investigation also highlights methodological considerations in study design, sampling and iTRAQ analysis. We suggest further investigation of other differentially expressed proteins in this study including ACBP, A2ML1, APOA4, BPIB1, BPIA2, CAH1, CAH6, CYTA, DSG1, EST1, GRP78, GSTO1, sAA, SAP, STAT, TCO1, and TGM3 that might assist in improving methods for behavioral and pharmacological interventions for smokers.
, Juhee Cho, Kevin Welding, Kate Smith, Joanna E. Cohen
Tobacco Induced Diseases, Volume 19, pp 1-8; doi:10.18332/tid/136421

Abstract:
South Koreans continue to smoke at high rates. Tobacco manufacturers have a history of branding cigarettes with misleading descriptors including the introduction of low or ultra-low tar brand variants. The government bans traditional misleading descriptors (low, mild) but requires the presence of machine-assessed tar yields on cigarette packages. Literature suggests the presence of quantitative constituents can be misleading for smokers. We analyzed the machine-assessed tar value branding and the presence of additional branding that highlight tar levels on South Korean cigarette packs. In August 2018, we analyzed 178 unique cigarette packs purchased in Seoul and Busan, South Korea using a systematic protocol. Cigarette packs were coded for tar levels and classified as ultra-low, low, mid, and high tar. The presence of misleading descriptors and any additional branding relating to tar or potentially indicating strength were also coded. Machine-assessed tar yields ranged from 0.1 to 8 mg. Cigarettes with a 1 mg machine-assessed tar yield accounted for 38% of all packs purchased. A majority (80%) of packs with tar values <3 mg had additional marketing present on the pack that highlighted tar yields, compared to 45% for packs with tar values 3 mg or greater. Many (85%) of the 1 mg packs and all of the 0.1 and 0.5 mg packs had additional marketing present that referenced tar levels. These findings suggest that tobacco manufacturers are highlighting and reinforcing the tar yields of lower tar cigarettes by the deliberate use of tar level branding. These actions have the potential to mislead South Korean consumers that some cigarettes are less harmful than others. Strengthening of tobacco packaging regulations to prohibit references to tar yields on packs are needed to further protect consumers.
Dimitra P. Mpousiou, Nikolaos Sakkas, Elpidoforos S. Soteriades, Michalis Toumbis, Stavros Patrinos, Anna Karakatsani, Areti Karathanassi, Vasilios Raftopoulos, Christina G. Gratziou,
Published: 23 June 2021
Tobacco Induced Diseases, Volume 19, pp 1-10; doi:10.18332/tid/134605

Abstract:
School-based tobacco control programs exhibit great variety. Our study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an experiential learning smoking prevention program in facilitating knowledge acquisition, forging healthy attitudes, and decreasing intention to smoke. A school-based intervention-control study was implemented during the 2016–2017 academic year among middle-school students in Athens, Greece. The experiential learning intervention was delivered using an interdisciplinary approach, bridging excerpts from ancient classical Greek myths, Aesop fables and ancient classical literature (Aristotle, Herodotus, Plutarch, Xenophon, Homer’s Epics), with their decoded archetypal symbols applied in a smoking and tobacco control paradigm. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was used at baseline and at follow-up at 3 months to evaluate program effectiveness. A total of 351 students participated in our study; 181 (51.6%) in the intervention group and 170 (48.4%) in the control group. The mean age of student participants was 13 years (SD=0.96). Students in the intervention group were more likely to improve their knowledge of the adverse effects of smoking, develop attitudes against smoking and report a negative intention to smoke in the first year following the intervention, compared to the control group. This study provides evidence that school-based experiential learning smoking prevention programs improve smoking-related knowledge, enhance anti-smoking attitudes and reinforce negative intentions toward tobacco products.
Chung-Yuan Yang, Jerry Cheng-Yen Lai, Wei-Lun Huang, Chiao-Lin Hsu,
Published: 17 June 2021
Tobacco Induced Diseases, Volume 19, pp 1-8; doi:10.18332/tid/136419

Abstract:
Osteoporosis is major public health concern, but the long-term impacts of tobacco and alcohol consumption on its development are unclear. This study analyzed the relationship between tobacco and alcohol use and osteoporosis by using data from the Taiwan Biobank (TWB), established in 2012. Participants in TWB were included in our study, with a total of 18394 respondents included for analysis. To investigate the relationship between tobacco and alcohol use and osteoporosis, we surveyed their bone mineral density (BMD), consumption of tobacco and alcohol and other covariate data. We found that participants in the tobacco smoking only group (OR=1.24; 95% CI: 1.08–1.42, p=0.003) and the group that both smoked and consumed alcohol (OR=1.39; 95% CI: 1.09–1.77, p=0.008) were more likely to develop osteoporosis than were participants who neither drank alcohol nor smoked. Menopause is strongly associated with osteoporosis in women, and we found that women who used alcohol or tobacco were not at a significantly higher risk than those in the reference group (tobacco only, OR=1.15; 95% CI: 0.86–1.53, p=0.345; both tobacco and alcohol, OR=0.61; 95% CI: 0.14–2.60, p=0.5040). However, men in these groups were at a significantly higher risk than the reference group (tobacco only, OR=1.26; 95% CI: 1.07–1.48, p=0.006; both tobacco and alcohol, OR=1.32; 95% CI: 1.03–1.70, p=0.030). Menopause was a significant risk factor for osteoporosis (OR=2.46; 95% CI: 1.77–3.41, p<0.001). The influence of tobacco use on osteoporosis was significant, particularly in men, but the effects of alcohol consumption were equivocal in our study. The interactions between tobacco use, alcohol use, and menopausal status on osteoporosis should be considered in future studies.
, Seyma Baslilar,
Published: 16 June 2021
Tobacco Induced Diseases, Volume 19, pp 1-9; doi:10.18332/tid/136422

Abstract:
Long-term outcomes of smoking cessation treatments are crucial to optimize standards of cessation services, which are known to prevent excess morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to evaluate long-term outcomes of a smoking cessation program, to compare the success rates of interventions, to assess relapse rates after quitting, and to determine the duration until relapse. Patients admitted for smoking cessation between 2010–2018 were contacted to evaluate short- and long-term treatment outcomes. The patients were asked whether they were currently smoking, and whether they quit after smoking cessation treatment and the duration of abstinence. The study included 579 patients (341 males) with a mean age of 50±12 years. The median time from the date of visit to the smoking cessation clinic to analysis was 5 years (range: 2–10). Of the patient, 436 used medications, including varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). The overall quit rate was 31.8% by the primary intervention (varenicline: 45.5%, bupropion: 38.2%, NRT: 33%, psychosocial support: 4.2%), and quit rate was similar in the intervention groups (p=0.073). In the long-term, the quit rates were 19.6, 22.5, 25.9, and 21.7%, respectively (p=0.405). About 9% of the patients failed to quit smoking initially but succeeded for a while after the first intervention at the cessation clinic. The relapse rate after initial cessation was 19%. The longest period of abstinence was in patients using NRT (14±17 months), followed by the patients using varenicline (9.5±12.7 months) and bupropion (8.2±14.8 months). Both short- and long-term quit rates with varenicline, bupropion, and NRT, were similar. The long-term quit rates among patients who did not use medication and received psychosocial support initially were comparable to those who used a smoking cessation drug.
Kuang Hock Lim, Sumarni Mohd Ghazali, Hui Li Lim, Yoon Ling Cheong, Chee Cheong Kee, Pei Pei Heng, Tsye Yih Tiunh, Mohd Hazilas Mat Hashim, Jia Hui Lim
Published: 16 June 2021
Tobacco Induced Diseases, Volume 19, pp 1-9; doi:10.18332/tid/136029

Abstract:
Secondhand (SHS) smoke exposure has caused various health problems. Therefore, continuous monitoring of SHS exposure is important to determine the efficacy of various anti-tobacco measure implemented. The study aims to compare the prevalence and factor(s) associated with SHS exposure among secondary school-going adolescents in Malaysia during 2012 and 2017. We derived data from the Global School Health Survey (GSHS) 2012 and GSHS 2017, which was carried out in Malaysia using multistage sampling to select representative samples of secondary school-going adolescents. Both surveys used similar questionnaires to measure SHS exposure. Descriptive and multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the prevalence and factors associated with SHS exposure. Approximately four in ten respondents were exposed to SHS in the past week in both surveys (41.5% in GSHS 2012 and 42.0% in GSHS 2017, respectively). Both surveys revealed a significantly higher SHS exposure among respondents who smoked than among non-smokers and higher among males compared to females. The likelihood of SHS exposure in both surveys was also similar, with a higher likelihood of SHS exposure among smoking adolescents and non-smoking adolescents who had at least one smoking parent/guardian, regardless of their own smoking status. Male adolescents had a higher risk of SHS exposure compared to their female counterparts. Meanwhile, SHS risk also increased with age, regardless of smoking status. Our findings suggested that there were no changes in the prevalence of SHS exposure and recorded only a slight change in the factors associated with exposure to SHS among school-going adolescents in Malaysia between the years 2012 and 2017. A more pro-active, extensive and comprehensive programme should be implemented to address the problem of SHS exposure. Parents should be advised to stop smoking or abstain from smoking in the presence of their children, and smoking cessation interventions are necessary for smoking adolescents and their parents.
Kelsey Romeo-Stuppy, Laurent Huber, Patricia Lambert, Mira B. Aghi, Soon-Young Yoon, Daniel Thomas,
Published: 11 June 2021
Tobacco Induced Diseases, Volume 19, pp 1-4; doi:10.18332/tid/137473

, Burak G. Yildirim, Mehmet Mimaroglu, Muhammet B. Yavuz
Published: 11 June 2021
Tobacco Induced Diseases, Volume 19, pp 1-8; doi:10.18332/tid/136418

Abstract:
Dentists are in a critical position to help patients quit smoking. This study analyses the effectiveness of Turkish dentists in smoking cessation as part of routine patient care. An in-person cross-sectional survey on previous dental visit experiences was completed by 226 patients recruited from the Department of Periodontology, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Turkey, from March 2019 to September 2019. The questionnaire included topics on patient’s smoking/quit characteristics, experiences on smoking cessation from their dentists, and willingness for the implementation of smoking cessation advice by dentists. In all, 38% of the patients were current smokers, 8% were former smokers, and 68% tried to quit previously. Smokers demonstrated consistently higher scores for plaque index, gingival index, and probing depth, than former/non-smokers (p<0.05). Patients’ knowledge of adverse effects was high, and the patients presented a positive attitude toward receiving cessation activities from dentists (86.7%). A total of 89% responded positively to be asked about their smoking behavior. However, the dentists’ approach for cessation discussions did not go any further than listing the harmful effects. Only 32% of the patients were informed about side effects of smoking and one-third were encouraged to quit. In general, offering smoking cessation advice was relatively infrequent, and the majority of patients tried to quit smoking by themselves (76%) without using any nicotine replacement product (84%). Smoking leads to oral health problems. Dentists in Turkey may ask their patients’ about their smoking habits but less frequently offer practical help to quit.
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