#### IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices

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ISSN / EISSN : 0018-9383 / 1557-9646
Published by: IEEE (10.1109)
Total articles ≅ 22,216
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Yuriy K. Kalynov, Ivan V. Osharin,
Published: 28 July 2021
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, pp 1-6; doi:10.1109/ted.2021.3099765

Abstract:
Weakness of the electron-wave coupling in compact low-power terahertz-frequency-range gyrotrons due to relatively low electron beam currents and operation at high cyclotron harmonics results in the use of long-length cavities with high diffraction Q-factors, and, therefore, with a high share of the ohmic loss of the radiated wave power. In this work, we demonstrate a possibility for stable operation at higher axial modes possessing relatively low diffraction Q-factors. Enhanced efficiency of the electron-wave interaction is provided due to the excitation of higher axial modes in the traveling-wave-tube regime.
Qianwen Wang, Pengpeng Sang, Fei Wang, Wei Wei,
Published: 28 July 2021
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, pp 1-4; doi:10.1109/ted.2021.3098256

Abstract:
In ultrascaled field-effect transistors (FETs), the thermionic limit to subthreshold swing (SS) represents a serious issue impeding their low-power application. Here, we propose a novel tunneling cold source FET (TCS-FET) to realize steep-slope (with SS less than 60 mV/dec) lowpower devices, in which a p-n junction serves as cold source as a result of self-filtering of the electronic thermionic tail. Our first-principles calculations on the electrical properties of the TCS-FET based on monolayer MoS₂ predict that large on/off current ratio ( $I_{on}$ / $I_{off}$ ) up to 1.6 x 10⁹ and steep SS as small as 32 mV/dec can be obtained. Moreover, by considering atomic doping at the source, we demonstrate that defects engineering is effective in optimizing both $I_{on}$ / $I_{off}$ and SS of the devices. This study is important for guiding the design of nanoscale steep-slope FETs based on 2-D materials.
Chuanzhong Xu, Ying Liang, Xiaofang Sun, Gongyi Huang,
Published: 27 July 2021
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, pp 1-7; doi:10.1109/ted.2021.3099088

Abstract:
As a key to simulate electrostatic characteristics of solar cells and implement single-diode model into simulators, a noniterative parameter-extraction method is proposed to determine five parameters of single-diode model. It is straightforwardly derived from the transcend equation set of terminal I-V equations to overcome the imperfections of poor efficiency in numerical iteration methods, low accuracy in semiempirical approaches, and absence of physical meaning in optimization algorithms. As a result, such a parameter-extraction method actually serves as a useful tool to acquire model parameters, analyze preparing process' results, and expand practicability of lumped parameter model.
, Pragya Kushwaha, , , Chenming Hu
Published: 27 July 2021
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, pp 1-8; doi:10.1109/ted.2021.3097971

Abstract:
We present compact models that capture published cryogenic temperature effects on silicon carrier mobility and velocity saturation, as well as fully depleted silicon on insulator (FDSOI) and fin field effect transistor (FinFET) devices characteristics within the industry-standard Berkeley short-channel IGFET model (BSIM) framework for cryogenic IC applications such as quantum computing. For the core model charge density/surface potential calculation, we introduce an effective temperature formulation to capture the effects of the band tail states. We also present a compact model that corrects the low-temperature threshold voltage for the band-tail states, Fermi-Dirac statistics, and interface traps. New temperature-dependent mobility and velocity saturation models are accurate down to cryogenic temperature. In addition, we propose that experimentally observed $I_{D}$ dependence of subthreshold swing (SS) at cryogenic temperatures is a consequence of the expectedly higher rate of Coulomb scattering of free carriers.
, Zhihao Wang, Wei Zeng, Ping Li, Shengdong Hu, Jianlin Zhou,
Published: 27 July 2021
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, pp 1-5; doi:10.1109/ted.2021.3099079

Abstract:
The charge-discharge-related loss of the output capacitance ( $C_{O}$ ) in off-state Superjunction (SJ) MOSFETs, $E_{DISS}$ , is a new source of energy loss limiting the frequency of soft-switched SJ MOSFETs. This article studies the electrothermal effect in $C_{O}$ during the charging and discharging processes with the help of numerical electrothermal simulations. The results show that energy is lost during both charging and discharging processes, mainly contributed by Joule heat that is caused by the movement of carriers in lightly doped drift regions. The fluctuant doping profile in a SJ MOSFET constructed with the multi-implant multi-epitaxy technology compresses the width of the path of charging and discharging currents at concentration valleys and causes high-current density. Then, its $E_{DISS}$ is larger than that of the SJ MOSFET constructed with the trench-filling epitaxial growth technology. For an advanced device with a smaller cell-pitch, the width of the current path becomes narrower. Then, the current density decreases, and so does its $E_{DISS}$ .
Xuhui Chen, Feilong Ding, Xiaoqing Huang, Xinnan Lin, , , , Ru Huang
Published: 27 July 2021
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, pp 1-7; doi:10.1109/ted.2021.3098656

Abstract:
A phase-change memory (PCM) model for robust and efficient simulations of circuits including neuromorphic ones is reported in this work. The features of a hysteretic dynamic resistance in the voltage domain, and the incubation in the crystallization, are covered in the model. The Landau-Khalatnikov (LK)-type equation for ferroelectric is used to develop the PCM hysteresis module. A voltage-controlled relaxation oscillation is successfully simulated for the Ge₂Sb₂Te₅ (GST) PCM. A technique of direct evaluation (DE) is then developed to reformulate the PCM model without any internal node. A significant enhancement of simulation efficiency is achieved compared with the traditional approach without sacrificing the accuracy. The functional correctness of the PCM device model and the acceleration effect in circuit simulations are verified.
Guangan Yang, Mengyao Li, Zuoxu Yu, Yong Xu, , , ,
Published: 27 July 2021
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, pp 1-5; doi:10.1109/ted.2021.3098250

Abstract:
In this work, a high-voltage amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) thin-film-transistors (TFTs) with the stair gate-dielectric at the drain side were demonstrated. The electrical properties of the proposed TFTs were comprehensively investigated. The breakdown voltage (V $_{BD}$ ) was significantly enhanced, and the V $_{BD}$ of over 60 V is achieved in the TFT with the stair length (L $_{stair}$ ) of 3 μm. The TCAD simulation and emission microscope (EMMI) measurements are performed to reveal the working and breakdown mechanisms of the proposed stair gate-dielectric TFTs. The descending electron current density in the channel lowers the stair-gate TFTs' on-current. Meanwhile, the stair-gate-dielectric region endures a strong electric field and improves the V $_{BD}$ of the device. Finally, the exponential trade-off relationship between the V $_{BD}$ and the on-state resistance (R $_{on}$ ) was established.
Yongjie Zhou, Yi Zhang, ,
Published: 27 July 2021
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, pp 1-7; doi:10.1109/ted.2021.3097317

Abstract:
Magnetron is an important microwave device because of its advantages of high power, small size, lightweight, and low cost. However, due to the instability of magnetron spectrum, it is difficult to use magnetron when we need high-stability spectrum. In order to improve the output spectrum of the magnetron, many efforts have been made and we find that the ripple of magnetron power supply has a great influence on the spectrum. So this article studies this influence systematically. First, we start from the equivalent circuit of magnetron, from which we can derive the equation of high-voltage power supply ripple and magnetron's time-domain output. Then we obtain the relationship between power supply ripple and magnetron's frequency-domain output spectrum by fast Fourier transform. Through theoretical derivation, numerical simulation analysis and experiment, we find that with the increase of ripple, the spectrum is gradually disordered, noise frequency point appears, center frequency point remains unchanged, and output energy reduces. The research results of this article provide theoretical guidance for the realization of high-stability spectrum magnetron.
, Akash Levy, Tony F. Wu, Robert M. Radway, E. Ray Hsieh, Xin Zheng, Mark Nelson, Priyanka Raina, , Simon Wong, et al.
Published: 27 July 2021
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, pp 1-7; doi:10.1109/ted.2021.3097975

Abstract:
HfO₂-based resistive RAM (RRAM) is an emerging nonvolatile memory technology that has recently been shown capable of storing multiple bits-per-cell. The energy/delay costs of an RRAM write operation are dependent on the number of pulses required for RRAM programming. The pulse count is often large when existing programming approaches are used for multiple bits-per-cell RRAM, especially when resistance ranges are allocated to account for retention. We present a new technique, Range-Dependent Adaptive Resistance (RADAR) Tuning, for fast and energy-efficient programming of multiple bits-per-cell RRAM arrays, using a combination of coarse- and fine-grained RRAM resistance tuning. Experimental data are collected on 16k cells from two 1Megacell (1M physical cells) 1T1R HfO₂-based RRAM arrays fabricated in a 130-nm CMOS process. RADAR reduces the programming pulse count by 2.4X (for both uncycled cells and cells that have undergone 8k cycles) on average over existing programming techniques tested on the same RRAM arrays, with the same bit error rate targets.
, Sara Helal, Heba Almorad, Husam A. Bayoud, Ghassan Abufoudeh, M. A. Majid
Published: 27 July 2021
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, pp 1-7; doi:10.1109/ted.2021.3097974

Abstract:
Usually, researchers adopt Weibull distribution as the best fitting lifetime model of several electronics/optoelectronics devices, including organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). They justify the adoption based on a few statistical goodness-of-fit (GoF) tests, which are not always applicable due to violating some of the assumptions of the tests. In this article, several standard and valid GoF tests show that the lognormal distribution is a better fitting model than the Weibull distribution for OLEDs and performs better when a censoring scheme is applied.
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