IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices

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ISSN / EISSN : 0018-9383 / 1557-9646
Total articles ≅ 22,445
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IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1109/ted.2021.3117488

Abstract:
Complementary resistive switching (CRS) arises when two bipolar-mode memristive devices are antiserially connected, forming a single functional structure. The combined effect of both memristors leads to the appearance of high (HRS) and low (LRS) resistance windows in the current-voltage (I-V,) characteristic that finds application in fields such as neuromorphic computing and logic circuits. In this work, the electric behavior of HfO₂-based CRS devices intentionally fabricated with a common central electrode is investigated both from experimental and modeling viewpoints. Experiments reveal that the maximum voltage applied to the structure allows tuning the amplitude of the resistance window following a self-balance dynamics. The origin of the abrupt (digital) and gradual (analog) transitions between the HRS and LRS states is elucidated through the inclusion of the snapback and snapforward effects in the switching dynamics. The I-V characteristics of the CRS devices are compact modeled with two opposite-biased memdiodes and simulated in LTSpice using an equivalent three-terminal subcircuit. It is shown that the proposed model is able to reproduce with a high degree of accuracy not only the observed CRS behavior for HfO₂ but also the main features exhibited by devices with a wide variety of oxide/electrode materials.
Haiyong Wang, , , , , Ming Du, , Xuefeng Zheng, Chong Wang, , et al.
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1109/ted.2021.3118326

Abstract:
A lateral Schottky barrier diode (SBD) on p-GaN/AlGaN/GaN heterostructure with arrayed p-GaN islands termination (API-SBD) is proposed and investigated in this work. On the basis of the unique design approach, API-SBD presents a reduced reverse leakage current ( $I_{{R}}$ ) with one order of magnitude lower than that of counterpart SBD with the only recessed anode (R-SBD). The turn-on voltage ( $V_{{on}}$ ) of API-SBD is nearly the same as that of R-SBD, which shows an effective improvement of the tradeoff between $V_{{on}}$ and $I_{{R}}$ . The breakdown voltage (BV) of API-SBD is obviously improved due to the introduction of p-GaN islands termination by shielding the high electric field from the Schottky junction. In addition, the capacitance of API-SBD is approximately a half of that of R-SBD. The fabricated API-SBD with a 15-μm anode-cathode distance exhibits a $V_{{on}}$ of ~0.59 V, an $I_{{R}}$ of ~10 nA/mm (at -100 V), and a BV of 1070 V (at 1 μA/mm). It is worth noting that the fabrication process of API-SBD is fully compatible with that of p-GaN HEMT, which is helpful for the monolithic integration.
, Jingyan Shao, , , Yun Liu, Yanling Shi
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1109/ted.2021.3119006

Abstract:
In this article, the single-event-transient (SET) in reconfigurable field-effect transistor (RFET) is evaluated by 3-D technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulation for the first time. The effects of linear energy transfer (LET) values, electrical bias, strike location, and angle are investigated in detail. For heavy ion with LET of 10 MeV·cm²/mg and characteristic radius of 1 nm, the peak value of drain SET current is up to 0.237 mA for n-type program, which is much higher than the saturated conduction current of 2.22 μA/μm. The peak SET current increases from 0.18 to 0.36 mA as $V_{DS}$ ranges from 0.8 to 1.4 V. The drain voltage ( $V_{DS}$ ) has a great impact on SET response and a higher lateral electric field will worsen the SET effects. The most sensitive position is confirmed to be not only related to the electric field distribution, but also the distance away from drain terminal. A serious SET effect is observed with a smaller angle. Furthermore, the impact of SET effect on NAND2/NOR2 multifunctional logic gates circuit based on RFETs is also evaluated. When striking the end of the changing edge of the input signal, the rise and fall relative propagation delays of NAND2 logic gates circuit are up to 34.49% and 35.04% respectively, with LET of 6 MeV·cm²/mg. This work provides guidelines for RFET radiation-hardened technology in future extreme environment electronics applications.
Chun-Hsien Liu, Chin-An Hsien,
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1109/ted.2021.3119264

Abstract:
CMOS single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) array is a high-timing-resolution photon-counting image sensor. Pixel size shrinkage for high image resolution is highly desirable but hindered by the lowered photon-detection-probability (PDP) as the edge area becomes significant. We propose and demonstrate a parameter-free method for simulating PDP with the edge effect. Considering the doping profile, electric field, photon generation, and trigger probability distributions in two dimensions, the PDP reduction at the device edge is analyzed in a quantitative way. Besides, a novel guard-ring design for enhancing PDP of small SPAD has been proposed and simulated by our method. A threefold enhancement was obtained with the newly designed guard-ring structure compared with the original one. Our work is useful for developing small-pitch SPAD array for high-resolution imaging applications.
Shuwen Guo, , , Yahui Cai, Mingchao Yang, Xiaochuan Guo, Xianghe Fu, Liangliang Zhang
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1109/ted.2021.3117193

Abstract:
In this article, we report the first experimental results of a novel 4H-silicon carbide (SiC) p-i-n photodetector based on a vertical nanocone array (NCA). It is fabricated by electron beam lithography and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching technology. The performance of static and dynamic behavior was studied systematically. It shows the responsivity of ~41.9 mA/W under 360 nm at a bias voltage of -0.5 V and has a linear response to the ultraviolet (UV) light in a wide light intensity range of 0.1-10⁴ mW/cm². The response time decreased as the light intensity rose from 3 mW/cm² to 5 W/cm² and then leveled off at higher light intensity (>100 mW/cm²), which is about 0.25 ms. The photodetector -3-dB cutoff is ~3400 Hz at λ = 360 nm and light intensity = 100 mW/cm². Besides, the detector can respond to the UV light from 260 to 360 nm and the peak responsivity is ~78 mA/W at 320 nm. The analysis results have reference values for the development of an innovative 4H-SiC UV photodetector to some extent.
Daniel Sokol, Minoru Yamada,
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1109/ted.2021.3117934

Abstract:
This article discusses the design and performance of planar capacitors built as pairs of conductive plates by additive manufacturing as part of an electronic circuit board. This article covers several geometries and layers of parallel plates that allow for different capacitance values, from a few picofarads (pF) to several nanofarads (nF). The dc, ac, and radio frequency (RF) characterization demonstrated superior performance compared to off-the-shelve surface mount device (SMD) capacitors up to 20 GHz. The additively manufactured capacitors exhibit breakdown voltages in excess of 1 kV and subpicoampere leakage currents, while the change in RF impedance changes, as a function of frequency, is a factor of 3x smaller than SMD capacitors.
, , , Tapeshwar Tiwari, Ratnajit Bhattacharjee
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1109/ted.2021.3117894

Abstract:
A novel width-modulated sine waveguide traveling-wave tube (SWGTWT) is proposed for G-band operation. The broadband single-section and two-section SWGTWT are analyzed, which has the potential to address various technological challenges in the THz regime, such as fabrication difficulty, reflection, and attenuation of RF power. The two-section design has separate RF structures for input and output sections of the TWT, which helps to eliminate undesired reflection during high-power operation. The width modulation is employed to enhance the interaction impedance and also to realize the flat dispersion characteristic of the slow wave structure (SWS). The fabrication feasibility of the structure is demonstrated by fabricating the scaled structure at the Ku-band. A 20.4-kV, 50-mA cylindrical beam is employed in the particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. The single-section structure offers a maximum power of 53 W with a 5.19% efficiency at 210 GHz. The peak power and a 3-dB bandwidth for the two-section structure are estimated to be 38.9 W and 32.5 GHz, respectively. The structure produces greater than 10 W of output power over a 46-GHz frequency band covering the range of 200-246 GHz.
Yucheng Liu, , , Baogen Sun,
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.1109/ted.2021.3117903

Abstract:
The recently developed terahertz laser diode (TLD) promised a high-power and integrable free-electron terahertz (THz) source, which has broad potential applications. However, the power and efficiency of the original TLD are restricted by the low quality factors of the operation modes. In this article, we propose an enhanced TLD boosted by resonant cavities, in which the quality factor of the resonant modes is remarkably increased, and the output power is enhanced by more than an order of magnitude. In addition, the operation modes together with the operation frequency of the device can be adjusted by changing the shape of the cavity so that TLD can efficiently operate with high-order mode, increasing the output frequency without enhancing the difficulty of machining, which is attractive for developing high-power and high-frequency free-electron THz sources.
Siyu Zeng, Yu Li,
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.1109/ted.2021.3116534

Abstract:
The electrical properties of NiSiGe alloys with different compositions have been investigated, as a function of Si content. It is found that the resistivity of NiSiGe decreases with increasing the Si content. In addition, the NiSiGe exhibits a smaller Schottky barrier height (SBH) with p-Ge with a higher Si component, attributable to the increased work function. As a result, the high Si content NiSiGe alloy is a promising candidate for the contact metal in the Ge pMOSFETs with sufficiently suppressed source/drain (S/D) parasitic resistance. It is confirmed that the NiSiGe is feasible to satisfy the requirements as the contact metal material for Ge pMOSFETs in 5-nm node and above technology node, by modulating the Si content.
Juan Wang, , Genqiang Chen, Xiuliang Yan, Qi Li, Wangzhen Song, Yanfeng Wang, , Shuwei Fan, Chaoyang Zhang, et al.
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1109/ted.2021.3117897

Abstract:
We fabricated Zr/p-diamond Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) with and without a ultrathin atomic layer-deposited Al₂O₃ interlayer. The effects of the Al₂O₃ interlayer on the electrical properties of devices were investigated using the current-voltage (I-V,) and capacitance-voltage (C-V,) characteristics at room temperature. Compared with Zr/p-diamond SBDs without the interlayer, SBDs with a 2-nm-thick Al₂O₃ interlayer exhibited higher Schottky barrier height and breakdown voltage. The insertion of the Al₂O₃ layer effectively reduced the interface state and it is considered that the barrier enhancement is attributed to the significant reduction of interface state density. This work provides a simple method to passivate the diamond surface and modulate the barrier heights of diamond SBDs.
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