Journal of Agricultural Extension

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ISSN / EISSN : 1119-944X / 1119-944X
Total articles ≅ 549
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Ejeje Igwe Agube, Edwin M. Igbokwe, Oluwasegun Felix Ojo
Journal of Agricultural Extension, Volume 25, pp 69-80; https://doi.org/10.4314/jae.v25i3.7

Abstract:
This study assessed role of extension forest officers in forest conservation in Cross River State, Nigeria. All the forest officers under the employment of the Cross River State Forestry Commission (CRSFC) formed the population of the study. Systematic sampling technique was employed to select 78 respondents for the study out of a population of 314 forest officers. Data were collected through validated structured interview schedule. Data were analyzed using percentage and mean scores. The major effective extension role of forest officers in forest conservation were creating awareness through environmental enlightenment campaign in forest communities ( x̄= 2.61) and dissemination of information in relation to public participation in forest conservation (x̄ = 2.61). The Major training needs of forest officers in forest conservation were sustainable forest management practices (x̄ = 3.39), forestry extension practices ( x̄= 3.32) and developing group participation. The most serious constraints to effective forestry extension service delivery were inadequate funding ( x̄= 2.97), and lack of vehicles for field staff logistics (x̄ = 2.80). ). Forestry extension service delivery in forest conservation was less effective, owing to a great number of constraints militating against the service delivery. For extension role of forest officers in forest conservation to be more effective in the state, there is need for extension unit to be created by the Cross River State Forestry Commission and specifically saddled with the responsibility of carrying out forestry extension functions along with the readiness of the state government to adequately coordinate and fund forestry extension services.
Kehinde Paul Adeosun, Bolarin Titus Omonona
Journal of Agricultural Extension, Volume 25, pp 13-25; https://doi.org/10.4314/jae.v25i3.2

Abstract:
The study examined the influence of socioeconomic factors on the utilization of rainwater among households in Ibadan metropolis, Oyo-State, Nigeria. Primary data were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire from 126 randomly selected households. A double-hurdle estimation model using Ordered Probit with sample selection and Probit-Truncated Negative Binomial model were used. The findings of the study indicated that the sex of the household head, marital status, female household size, education, occupation, size of rainwater collection material, root-top structure are important determinants of extent of rainwater usage. Male headed household, education, and size of rainwater collection material positively and significantly influenced the frequency of rainwater usage, while sex and occupation inversely and significantly influenced the frequency of rainwater usage. Likewise, education, size of rainwater collection material, roof-top structure positively associated with the number of uses of rainwater. The study concludes that the socioeconomic status of the household is an important determining factor in the harvesting and utilization of rainwater. Therefore, policy on rainwater harvesting and usage should consider the significant socioeconomic factors of the household as a starting point in the decision process.
Rasak B. Olajide, Lateef. O. Sanni, Godwin Atser, Alfred Dixon, Ibukunoluwa. O. Oladokun
Journal of Agricultural Extension, Volume 25, pp 36-48; https://doi.org/10.4314/jae.v25i3.4

Abstract:
This study investigated the information needs of cassava farmer-processors on cassava value addition technologies in Oyo State, Nigeria, to ascertain areas of information gap for farmers to maximally exploit the opportunities inherent in the product value addition. Using a multistage sampling procedure, 130 registered cassava farmer-processors were sampled and interviewed. Data were collected on respondents’ enterprise characteristics, access to information, perceived benefits and constraints to accessing information and information needs on cassava value addition. Data were analysed using percentage, mean and correlational analysis at p=0.05. Results reveal that respondents had farm size and farming experience of 2.3 ha and 20.1±13.8 years, respectively, while income was ₦273,784.6±₦458281.3. Though respondents were constrained with low income (70.0%), they reckoned that if they had access to information on value addition, their postharvest loss would be reduced (89.2%). Respondents had information gap on information needs on value addition technologies for producing cassava adhesives (1st), glucose syrups (2nd) and confectionaries (3rd). Farming experience (r = -.236), constraints (r = -.288) and access to sources of information were significantly related to respondents’ information needs. It is recommended that information on improved cassava value addition technologies be made available to cassava farmers through relevant sources, especially during emergencies coupled with hands –on training for effective application of information acquired.
Samson Ejike Onu, Kenneth C. Ekwe, Gideon Chinedu Onuekwusi
Journal of Agricultural Extension, Volume 25, pp 26-35; https://doi.org/10.4314/jae.v25i3.3

Abstract:
The study provided empirical evidence of rural household’s engagement in processing of oil palm produce in South east Nigeria. The study specifically identified the methods of processing oil palm produce, ascertained the level of household’s engagement in oil palm processing, identified the constraints to oil palm processing in the study area. Multi-stage random sampling procedure in selecting 540 respondents. Data for the study were collected with the use of structured questionnaire and analyzed with the use of both descriptive (frequency, percentage and mean) and inferential statistics (ANOVA model). The results showed that 58.1% of the respondents used semi-modern/mechanized in processing of oil palm produce. There was high level of engagement in the processing of oil palm produce (pooled grand mean = 3.67). The result revealed that lack of modern processing equipment (86.5%), instability of government policy (80.0%) and high cost of labour (76.7%) were the major constraints to engagement in oil palm processing. There was a statistically significant difference in the level of engagement of rural households in processing of oil palm produce across the states in South East Nigeria at 5% level of probability. The study concluded that most of the processors used a combination of both traditional and modern method in the processing of their oil palm produce and were highly engaged in the processing of oil palm produce as a profitable livelihood activity. The study therefore recommended that State and Federal Government should gear up efforts in providing basic infrastructure such as electricity and good, motorable roads in the study area so that the efficiency of processing of oil palm products can be guaranteed.
Omolola Oladoyin Ayodeji, Jonathan Jeremiah Atungwu, James Olasupo Fadeyi, Dennis Ugochukwu Ifezue, Harvester Onyibor Okoye, Adeola Moyosoluwa Akinwale
Journal of Agricultural Extension, Volume 25, pp 49-59; https://doi.org/10.4314/jae.v25i3.5

Abstract:
The study determined the profitability of three different cropping systems. Data collected include cost of fixed assets, cost of variable inputs, yields and prices of outputs. Data were subjected to budgetary technique; analysis of variance and significant means were separated using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test at 5% level of probability. Results of the gross margin analysis showed that both the intercropping and only sole Amaranth vegetable production were profitable. The intercrop production had a gross margin of N567,920/ha with a total revenue of N1, 600,000 /ha and having the highest output of 8000kg/ha while the sole Amaranth vegetable production had a gross margin of N179, 920/ha with a total revenue of N1,200,000/ha and having an output of 6000kg/ha. Also, the intercrop vegetable production had a benefit cost ratio, rate of return and gross ratio of 1.51, 0.52 and 0.66, respectively while sole Amaranth production had a benefit cost ratio, rate of return and gross ratio of 1.15, 0.15 and 0.87, respectively. The result indicates that the two vegetable productions were profitable. Further analysis revealed that intercropping did not have significant (p<0.05) effect on the growth (plant height, number of leaves) of both vegetables. However, Jute yield was significantly (p<0.01) affected by Amaranth-Jute intercropping. Both the intercrop and sole Amaranth enterprises were profitable, but there was a significant difference in the profitability of the intercrop cropping system practised as the Amaranth/Jute intercrop was more profitable. The intercrop is, therefore, recommended to farmers since it is more profitable and provides a variety of income generation for the farmer’s thereby ensuring food and income security.
Abdulmumini Umar, Man Norsida, Hirawaty Kamarulzaman Nitty, Bahiah Mohd Haris Nur
Journal of Agricultural Extension, Volume 25, pp 60-68; https://doi.org/10.4314/jae.v25i3.6

Abstract:
This study examined the perception of rural women farmers on information dissemination skills of agricultural extension workers. Using multistage sampling procedure 378 respondents were randomly selected from the population of 6758 women farmers. Questionnaire was administered to the sampled farmers. Data were analysed using mean, and standard deviation. Findings reveals that women farmers participated moderately in agricultural practices with overall mean value of 2.65. Also, agricultural extension workers had a lower level of information dissemination skill in dealing with women farmers with overall mean value of 2.25. There is the need for training and retraining of extension workers to boost their skills for information delivery to women farmers. Extension programme for rural women should be designed to ensure extension workers are well informed and knowledgeable enough to work with them.
Kevin Orangi Mauti, Samuel Njiri Ndirangu, Samuel Chege Mwangi
Journal of Agricultural Extension, Volume 25, pp 81-92; https://doi.org/10.4314/jae.v25i3.8

Abstract:
This study examined the factors influencing the choice of information and communication technology (ICT) tools used in tomato marketing by smallholder farmers in Kirinyaga County, Kenya. Households were selected through a combination of purposive, two-stage stratified and probability proportionate to size sampling techniques. The study employed Semi-structured interview schedules to collect data from the sampled small-scale tomato farmers. Factors affecting the choice of ICT tools in tomato marketing were identified using multivariate model. The study revealed that age, income, level of education, farmers’ experience, and farm size, tomato production, willingness to pay for ICT tools, tomato prices and knowledge on ICT are predictors of choice of ICT use. ICT should be given in such a way that all farmers can get information as per their need. Policy makers and agricultural extension agents should create awareness on the use and importance of ICT tools for farmers to accept and use available ICT tools.
Hezron Nyarindo Isaboke
Journal of Agricultural Extension, Volume 25, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.4314/jae.v25i3.1

Abstract:
The study examined how multiple factors influence participation of farmers in Weather Index Insurance WII in Embu County, Kenya. Data wer e collected from a sample of 401 smallholders following multi stage sampling technique The study employed the Cragg ’s Double Hurdle model in determining factors that influence participation and extent of participation in WII. Results revealed th at short rain season, household size, land size, perception of the household head on WII , owners h ip of a mobile phone a nd location of the farm were important factors in explaining participation in WII. The distance to a registered agro veterinary products outlet, insurance premium , group membership, the weather station in Runyenjes station and distan c e to the local weather station influenced probability to participate negatively. Similarly, ownership of mobile phone had a positive influence on the extent of participation in WII while the size of the household, distance to a registered agro veterinary p roducts outlet and land size were significant with a negative influence. The findings of this study highlight the importance of shaping farmers’ perceptions to wards WII, promotion of policies that allow for access and use of information and communication t echnologies ( such as mobile phones by the farming households as a pathway to providing smart so lutions to smallholder farmers in dealing with weather rela ted risks . Further, the research recommends for development of policies that would ensure modest WII insurance premiums that are aligned to the unique need s of the smallholder farmers.
Abera Alemu
Journal of Agricultural Extension, Volume 25, pp 86-95; https://doi.org/10.4314/jae.v25i2.8

Abstract:
The study assessed the determinants of farmers’ participation in farmers training center based trainings and its outcome on maize, haricot bean and coffee productivity. Data were collected from randomly selected 194 households. Outcomes of the FTC based training on maize, haricot bean and coffee productivity was analyzed using t-test whereas binary logistic regression model was used to identify factors determining farmers’ participation in FTC based training. The result showed that education, land size, contact with development agent, access to road, wealth status and livestock holding of the household positively determine households’ decision to participate whereas distance from FTC negatively determines households’ decision to participate. There was positive outcome of the FTC basedtraining on maize, haricot bean and coffee productivity. The study recommends that governmental, public and private sectors should expand access to education, access to road and strength linkage between famers and agricultural development agents. Keywords: Farmers training centers, crop productivity
Francis Lekololi Ambetsa, Samuel Njiri Ndirangu, Samuel Chege Mwangi
Journal of Agricultural Extension, Volume 25, pp 54-65; https://doi.org/10.4314/jae.v25i2.5

Abstract:
This study evaluated the effect of participation in factory contracted services on the profitability of smallholder sugarcane farmers inMalava Sub-county in Western Kenya. Primary data were collected using structured questionnaire from a sample of 384 farmers usingsystematic random sampling and proportionate sampling. Analysis of variance was applied to determine if there was a significant difference between profitability of contracted and non-contracted farmers. The effect of contracted services on profitability among contract farmers was analyzed by multiple linear regression. The results showed that contracted extension, labour and credit services had significant effect on farmers’ gross margins. The Kenyan government should formulate policies that enhance provision of contracted extension, labour and credit services. The need for a review of the existing contract engagement terms among sugarcane farmers is also evident in this study. Keywords: smallholder farms, sugarcane, contracted services, gross margins
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