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Results in Journal Animal Genetic Resources/Ressources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales: 383

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Moses Okpeku, , , Kyle C. Caires, Varun K. Sharma, , Rakesh Tamang, Adeyemi S. Adenaike, Michael O. Ozoje,
Animal Genetic Resources/Ressources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales pp 1-1;

, R. Parra Molina, M.A. Peña Joya, J.L. Parra Arango, A. Góngora
Animal Genetic Resources/Ressources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales, Volume 59, pp 97-103;

Resumen En bovinos, la reducción de la eficiencia reproductiva de los sistemas de producción de carne y doble propósito se atribuye a factores nutricionales, sanitarios, climáticos y en última instancia a características genéticas de los animales. Sin embargo, en condiciones de trópico cálido húmedo, variaciones genéticas entre razas podrían reducir la edad al primer parto, el intervalo entre partos y aumentar la vida útil de las vacas. Las razas Sanmartinero y Casanareño podrían mejorar los sistemas de producción bovina debido al aporte de variantes genéticas que emergieron en el proceso de adaptación a las duras condiciones de la Orinoquía Colombiana. Actualmente, los genes con función biológica conocida se usan como marcadores moleculares para estimar parámetros de diversidad genética pecuaria facilitando la identificación y ubicación dentro del genoma de regiones que codifican o regulan la expresión de rasgos de interés económico. En ganado criollo colombiano Romosinuano se han identificado genes candidatos del eje Hormona de crecimiento/Factor de crecimiento similar a la insulina que se asocian positivamente con edad al primer parto, intervalo entre partos, longevidad y protección del embrión al estrés calórico. No obstante en las razas criollas Sanmartinero y Casanareño reconocidas empíricamente por estas características, no han sido sometidas a dichos análisis de genes candidatos que permitan promover un valor agregado a los animales. El objetivo de esta revisión es documentar algunos parámetros reproductivos y genéticos de las razas criollas Sanmartinero y Casanareño que soportan la necesidad de desarrollar estudios moleculares y justificar su uso en los sistemas de producción de carne y doble propósito de la Orinoquía colombiana.
, Jigme Dorji, Tashi Dorji, Yoshi Kawamoto
Animal Genetic Resources/Ressources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales, Volume 59, pp 1-6;

Summary: Genetic diversity of Mithun population in Bhutan was studied using 14 microsatellite markers. Two sets of two-step polymerase chain reactions were performed with multiplex and individual markers for genotyping 105 hair samples collected from Arong in Samdrupjongkhar (AS, 36) and Wangdigang in Zhemgang (WZ, 69). Fifty-three alleles were detected with average of 3.89 alleles and polymorphism information content of 0.44 ± 0.03 per locus. A low level of genetic variability within population was present with observed heterozygosity at 0.50 ± 0.06 and expected heterozygosity at 0.48 ± 0.06. Analysis of molecular variance attributed 58 percent of total variation to within the individuals. Mean FIS and FIT were −0.056 and 0.005 respectively, indicated low level of population differentiation and limited out-breeding. The normal L-shaped distribution of allelic frequencies without any mode-shift revealed the absence of recent genetic bottleneck in Mithun populations. Therefore to manage inbreeding in the small Mithun population of Bhutan, periodic assessment of inbreeding levels and exchange of animals between farms is recommended to reduce frequency of introduction of animals from India.
M.F. Islam, M.M. Mia, M.A. Rahman, N. Bhowmik
Animal Genetic Resources/Ressources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales, Volume 59, pp 37-45;

Summary: The study was aimed to identify, characterize and describe the phenotypic variation of indigenous goose populations in Bangladesh. The research was conducted at Sylhet Sadar Upazilla in Sylhet district and encompassed about 141 geese (74 brown type and 67 white type). Least Square Mean ± SE of body length, wing span, shank length, beak length and head length of mature indigenous goose were 73.47 ± 0.95, 134.53 ± 1.38, 9.27 ± 0.09, 8.88 ± 0.10 and 6.42 ± 0.02 cm, respectively. Males were significantly (p < 0.01) higher than their female counterparts for all morphometric traits but no significant differences (p > 0.05) were found between two types. The body weight of indigenous goose at day old, 2-week, 1-month, 2-month and 10-month of age were 95.45 ± 0.88, 148.59 ± 1.55, 407.34 ± 7.27 gm, 1.19 ± 0.03 kg and 3.65 ± 0.06 kg, respectively. Males were significantly (p < 0.01) heavier than females in all age groups except day old gosling but no significant difference (p > 0.05) were observed for body weights between two types of goose. Egg weight, egg length, egg width, incubation period, clutch size, number of eggs in a breeding season and age at first egg were 131.85 ± 1.70 gm, 7.40 ± 0.02 cm, 5.22 ± 0.02 cm, 30.30 ± 0.07 days, 7.42 ± 0.08, 20.52 ± 0.38 and 313.22 ± 3.03 days, respectively. The number of eggs in a breeding season of brown type were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than that of white type goose. This study provides a bench mark for the morphometric traits and performance of goose in Bangladesh.
, , D.K. Enahoro, A.M. Okeyo
Animal Genetic Resources/Ressources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales, Volume 59, pp 81-95;

Summary Development of the livestock industry and its role in poverty alleviation in developing countries depends on how adaptive the production systems are to changing global environmental and economic trends. This paper characterizes dairy production systems in India, Tanzania, Kenya and Nicaragua, and describes the genetic and breeding technologies that hold promise for the advancement of global development goals. The dairy value chain has been prioritized for development under the CGIAR research programme on Livestock and Fish in Tanzania (East Africa), India (South Asia) and Nicaragua (Latin America), while ILRI is involved in research on dairy development in Kenya. In all the countries, a large number of smallholder farmers operating mixed crop–livestock production systems play a significant role in dairy production. In Tanzania, Kenya and Nicaragua, milk is predominantly produced by cattle of genotypes that differ both across countries and among production systems within the same country. In India, buffaloes contribute to a larger proportion of the national milk than cattle. Information on productivity per animal and on optimal genotypes to utilize within the smallholder production systems of all the countries is however limited. Crossbreeding and artificial insemination were identified as the most widely utilized breeding and reproductive technologies. Only in Kenya is there a national organization conducting livestock recording and monitoring productivity, however, the proportion of the dairy cattle population enrolled in the recording system is small (<2.5 percent). In all the countries, enhanced and adequately planned use of breeding and reproductive technologies, complemented with the relevant infrastructure, is needed to sustainably increase dairy productivity. The capacities of actors in the dairy value chain need to be developed in order to properly implement and manage improvements.
B. Hilal, S. El Otmani, M. Chentouf,
Animal Genetic Resources/Ressources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales, Volume 59, pp 55-62;

Summary The goal of this study was to characterize the Hamra goat population and to determine if Hamra goats of Beni Arouss and Rommani regions belong to the same population. Eleven morphometric traits of 157 Hamra animals (94 from Beni Arouss and 63 from Rommani) were used for this study. Overall, heart girth, body length, height at withers (HaW), height at rump (HS), chest depth (ChD), pelvis width (PW), chest width (CW), cannon circumference, head length (HeL), head width (HeW) and horn length (HL) of Hamra goats averaged 81.3, 61.5, 64.8, 65.3, 40.9, 19.3, 20.2, 9.67, 28.0, 26.3 and 23.4 cm, respectively. The effect of region was significant only on HaW, PW, HeL, HeW and HL, indicating certain homogeneity among goats of the two regions. Moreover, the inter region variance component ranged from 0 percent (absence of variability) for HS, CW, ChD and ChD to 18.5 percent for HeL, suggesting that the variability of body measurements between Beni Arouss and Rommani regions is very low. The factor analysis revealed four factors, which accounted for 73.5 percent of the total variance. The most discriminant variables between the two populations were HeL, HeW, PW and CW. The Mahalanobis distance between the two populations was 1.197, suggesting that there was genetic exchange between the two populations. The discriminant analysis showed that 80.9 percent of Rommani and 50.0 percent of Beni Arouss individuals were classified into their respective population. Results obtained will help in developing improvement and preservation strategies for the Hamra goat population.
S. Mwangi, T.K. Muasya, E.D. Ilatsia, A.K. Kahi
Animal Genetic Resources/Ressources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales, Volume 59, pp 7-14;

Summary: Pedigree analysis using genealogical information of 18 315 animals born between 1949 and 2008 was done to quantify genetic variability of the Sahiwal population in Kenya. Generation intervals for sire pathways were longer than dam pathways and increased over year periods, from about 4–16 years. The later was due to use of old bulls for breeding in the last 2 year groups and cessation of progeny testing in the year 2000. Average inbreeding level in last year period studied was 1.2 percent. Genetic variability of the population as assessed based on gene origin statistics decreased over the years. The ratio of effective number of founders to founders of 0.06 showed unequal contribution of founders to the reference population. However, since the founding population, ancestors contributed equally as shown by the ratio of fe/fa of 0.94, which could also be due to lack of effective selection in this population. The ratio of fg/fa of 0.63 indicated genetic loss of genetic variability occurred through genetic drift in the Kenyan Sahiwal population. The small number of ancestors (16) that accounted for 50 percent of the total variation in the reference population suggested overuse of a small number of some animals as parents over generations. The smaller ratio of fg/fe compared with fa/fe also confirms loss of genetic variability in the population by genetic drift than bottlenecks. Therefore the breeding strategy for the Sahiwal population in Kenya should incorporate tools that balance rate of genetic gain and the future rate of inbreeding.
Kefyalew Alemayehu, Addis Getu
Animal Genetic Resources/Ressources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales, Volume 59, pp 113-121;

Summary: Climate change affects the livestock populations. As temperature increases, the rainfall distribution patterns shifts. These indirectly change the ecosystems like changes in crop yield, alter the distribution of animal diseases, geographically restriction of rare breed populations and increased competition for resources. Therefore, the objective of the study was to quantify impacts of climate variability on livestock population dynamics and breed distribution patterns. The study was conducted in Gondar Zuria, Farta and Bahir Dar Zuria districts. The sites were selected based on agro-ecology and livestock distribution potential. Data were collected through desk reviews of different documents and studies, focused group discussions, key informants interviews and different projection models. The results revealed that 70 percent of respondents believed that the trends of livestock breed distribution varied from year to year and from agro-ecology to agro-ecology. The number of cattle and equines are decreasing from year to year due to climate variability. Particularly, the crossbred cattle population decreased in 1998, 2002 and 2008 due to shortage of rainfall, increments of temperature and feed shortage. A correlation analysis was used to quantify impacts of temperature and rainfall on livestock population dynamics and breed distribution. The analyses revealed that sheep (r = −0.535, P < 0.05) and cattle (r = −0. 512, P < 0.05) were negatively affected by climate variability. Whereas goats were having positive relationship (r = 0.345, P < 0.001). As the average maximum temperature steadily increases, the population dynamics of ruminant livestock fluctuated after the year 1996. About 92.2, 78 and 83.3 percent respondents in Farta, Gondar Zuria and Bahir Dar Zuria districts, respectively, stated that there is a fluctuation in amount of rainfall distribution during the main rainy seasons. About 84.5 percent of respondent of the three districts also believed that climate change made variation in rainfall distribution. About 52 percent of the respondents also suggested that if livestock is to be protected from climate change and related effects, changing the farming system with appropriate breed is important and can be achieved with the zero-grazing system. The farmers also recommended with stocking climate change adaptive and productive breeds. In conclusion, climate variability affected livestock population dynamics and breed distribution pattern negatively.
, Solomon Abegaz, Abraham Assefa, Manaye Misganaw, Yibrehu Emshaw, Abebe Hailu, Misikire Tessema, Cleopas Okore
Animal Genetic Resources/Ressources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales, Volume 59, pp 15-25;

Summary: An exploratory survey to phenotypically characterize indigenous chicken populations was carried out in Metekel zone of Northwestern Ethiopia in April 2013. A total of 69 males and 244 females were sampled to record their qualitative and quantitative traits. Eight quantitative and 16 qualitative variables were measured. Sampling included three districts representing different agroecological zones. Coefficient of variation for quantitative variables ranged from 6.38 to 52.37 percent in male sample populations and 4.59–21.4 percent in females. The chi-square tests for plumage colour of the neck, ear lobe colour and skeletal variant type were highly significant (χ2 < 0.05). The correct classification percentage from discriminant analysis was 93.73 and 98.41 percent for male and female sample populations, respectively, indicating the homogeneity of the chicken populations within districts. The stepwise discriminant analysis identified five variables for male and three variables for female sample populations, which had the highest discriminating power. Canonical analyses showed that differences in body measurements between indigenous chicken populations were highly significant (P &lt;0.0001). The results obtained from on-farm performance evaluation indicated that the average age at first lay of hens, number of chicks weaned and mean number of eggs laid per bird per year were 5.5 months, 6.5, 50.1, respectively. This information will constitute the basis for further characterization and development of conservation strategies for indigenous chicken populations of Northwestern Ethiopia.
P.G. Kumar, R.R. Churchil, A. Jalaludeen, K. Narayanankutty, P.A. Peethambaran, P.E. Praveena, B. Chacko, B. Ajithbabu
Animal Genetic Resources/Ressources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales, Volume 59, pp 27-36;

Summary: A survey to document the behaviour characteristics and mortality pattern of indigenous chicken of Kerala and a field egg recording study to record egg production characteristics of these birds were conducted. Flight distance and height was 13.29 and 3.97 m, respectively. The territory radius of cocks was 121.15 m. The chick survivability at 4 weeks of age was 64.98 percent. The day-old and 8th week body weights were 28.83 and 347.24 g, respectively. The 20th and 40th week body weight of males were 1,428.42 and 1,936.67 g and that of females were 1,114.04 and 1,445.63 g, respectively. The mortality up to 72 weeks was 69.38 percent and major cause of mortality during chick, grower and layer stage were mongoose (44.63 percent), wolf (24.29 percent) and diseases (52.18 percent) respectively. The fertility was 71.22 percent and hatchability on total and fertile egg set were 62.26 and 87.42 percent, respectively. There were 2.13 clutches in a laying cycle with inter-clutch intervals of 1.11 days. The average clutch size and number of eggs per cycle were 7.27 and 14.32, respectively. The egg number up to 72 weeks on hen-day and hen-housed basis was 116.81 and 85.84, respectively and the eggs were laid in 7.7 cycles. The age at first egg and average age at sexual maturity were 155 and 199.26 days, respectively. The egg weight at 28, 40 and 72 weeks of age was 37.80, 40.74 and 43.31 g, respectively, and egg mass per bird was 4,659.04 g. The broodiness and incubation pause were 26.03 and 121.75 days, respectively.
Moses Okpeku, , Ikhide G. Imumorin, Kyle C. Caires, Varun K. Sharma, Mathew Wheto, Rakesh Tamang, Adeyemi S. Adenaike, Michael O. Ozoje, Kumarasamy Thangaraj
Animal Genetic Resources/Ressources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales, Volume 59, pp 47-54;

Summary: Goats make up the largest group of ruminant livestock in Nigeria and are strategic in bridging animal protein supply gap and improving the economy of rural households. The hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of the caprine mitochondrial genome was investigated to better understand genetic diversity important for improving selection for animal breeding and conservation programs. We sequenced and analysed the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) HVR1 in 291 unrelated indigenous Nigerian goats (West African Dwarf (WAD), Red Sokoto (RSO) and Sahel (SAH)), randomly sampled from around the country, and compared them with the HVR1 sequences of 336 Indian goats and 12 other sequences in five different species in the genusCapra(C. falconeri, C. ibex nubiana, C. aegagrus, C. cylindricornisandC. sibirica). A total of 139 polymorphic sites from 291 individuals were captured in 204 haplotypes. Within and among population variations were 77.25 and 22.74 percent, respectively. Nigerian goats showed high genetic diversity (0.87) and high FST values, and separate from Indian goats and other wild species. Haplogroups in WAD separates it from RSO and SAH concomitant with a different demographic history. Clear genetic structure was found among Nigerian goat breeds with appreciable variation in mtDNA HVR1 region. This study grouped Nigerian goat breeds into two major groups suggesting two different demographic origins for Northern and Southern breeds. High genetic admixing denotes different maternal origins and in contrast to evidence from goats from Levant and Central Asia, where goats were originally domesticated.
E.K. Githui, , J.M. Kamau, S.K. Mutura, Z.A. Okwany, D.M. Ngigi, E.W. Mwangi
Animal Genetic Resources/Ressources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales, Volume 59, pp 73-80;

Summary: Kenya indigenous goat breeds (Capra hircus) have not been accurately described. Therefore, there is threat of erosion of unique genotypes such as those associated with adaptability and disease resistance, through indiscriminate crossbreeding. The Kenyan goats classification based on phenotype/morphology identifies three breeds: Small East African (SEA) goats, the Galla goat and crosses of SEA and the Galla. In the present study, we sampled goats from two main geographic regions of Kenya with pastoralist communities, the Maasai and Somali/Boran. DNA was extracted from whole blood and polymerase chain reaction amplified using primers flanking a fragment of Cytocrome-b and D-loop regions of mitochondria DNA. The sequences derived were analysed both within Kenya goat populations and also compared with phylogeographic-related datasets. These data show that the majority of Kenyan indigenous goats are not distinct and their genetic structure is very diverse; however, distinct haplogroups were present. Genetic diversity showed weak positive in Tajima D test for Kenyan indigenous goats, while the Iberian/Mediterranean/Middle-East dataset had a more pronounced negative value indicating that the two populations are under different selection pressure. These analyses enabled phylogenetic relationships between and within species and the comparisons of local goats to related breeds geographically. The information can be applied management of conservation-guided breeding programmes by crossing the indigenous breed's unique genes with high productivity traits from another source.
Morten Hertz, Iben Ravnborg Jensen, Laura Østergaard Jensen, Iben Vejrum Nielsen, Jacob Winde, Astrid Vik Stronen, Torsten Nygaard Kristensen,
Animal Genetic Resources/Ressources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales, Volume 59, pp 105-112;

Summary: Many domestic breeds face challenges concerning genetic variability, because of their small population sizes along with a high risk of inbreeding. Therefore, it is important to obtain knowledge on their extinction risk, along with the possible benefits of certain breeding strategies. Since many domestic breeds face the same problems, results from such studies can be applied across breeds and species. Here a Population Viability Analysis (PVA) was implemented to simulate the future probability of extinction for a population of the endangered Danish Jutland cattle (Bos taurus), based on the software Vortex. A PVA evaluates the extinction risk of a population by including threats and demographic values. According to the results from the PVA the population will go extinct after 122 years with the current management. Four scenarios were created to investigate which changes in the breeding scheme would have the largest effect on the survival probabilities, including Scenario 1: More females in the breeding pool, scenario 2: More males in the breeding pool, scenario 3: Increased carrying capacity, and scenario 4: Supplementing males to the population through artificial insemination using semen from bulls used in the populations in past generations. All scenarios showed a positive effect on the population's probability of survival, and with a combination of the different scenarios, the population size seems to be stabilized.
O.N. Stevanovic, M. Stojiljkovic, R. Trailovic, S. Ivanov, D.N. Nedic
Animal Genetic Resources/Ressources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales, Volume 59, pp 63-72;

Summary: The Pirot sheep is a small Zackel that has been developed in the region of Pirot and the neighbouring municipalities in Serbia. Pirot sheep population has been reduced to only 60 animals in the Republic of Serbia. An overview of qualitative phenotypical and morphometrical characteristics of Pirot sheep from the Stara Planina is presented in this paper. The sheep included in this study belong to the last flock of the breed. The evaluation aims to obtain the phenotypical description of this indigenous breed as a phase of preservation strategy. Therefore, a total of 51 ewes and two rams were measured to obtain the detailed data concerning conformation. The phenotypical characteristics of animals included were also described. Based on the results, the Pirot sheep is a small breed with compact, slightly rectangular body frame (body length 115.40 percent of height at withers). The investigated sheep population was homogeneous, and morphological variations were limited to the data obtained in our research. The differences detected among different age groups were significant and reflected late maturing and slow growth of individuals. The comparison of the data determined by the evaluation of the modern population of Pirot sheep with the description from the older literature did not reveal that many significant changes of the morphological characteristics have occurred during the last 30 years. The small effective population and increasing inbreeding can threaten the efforts to preserve this sheep. The cultural heritage of the local community is also in danger due to the fact that the cornerstones of rural tradition in the area have been production of the three nationally important agricultural brands in Serbia – Pirot kilim (Pirot rug), Pirot/Stara Planina lamb and Pirot/Stara Planina Kachkaval cheese, all of which are depending on the Pirot sheep breeding. Additionally, some problems affecting the preservation of animal genetic resources in Serbia are reviewed with the focus on the Stara Planina. The research indicated that ex situ conservation should also be considered in the case of the Pirot sheep.
Ahmed Seid, Kefelegn Kebede, Kefena Effa
Animal Genetic Resources/Ressources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales, Volume 58, pp 53-62;

Summary: An exploratory field survey was conducted in Horro Guduru Wollega Zone, Ethiopia, to phenotypically characterize indigenous goats. Eight qualitative and fifteen quantitative traits from 612 goats were considered. All data were analysed using SAS 9.2, version 2008. The dominant coat colour types in Guduru district were black (35.29 percent), whereas in Amuru district, the dominant coat colour types were white and brown with brown dominant (18.63 percent) and brown (17.65 percent). In Horro district, the dominant coat colour types were grey (21.57 percent) and black and white with black dominant (15.69 percent). Morphometric measurements (body weight (BW), heart girth and body length) indicated that the Amuru and Horro goats were significantly (P< 0.05) higher than the Guduru goats. Male goats were consistently higher than female goats in all variables except pelvic width (PW). BW could be predicted from the regression equationy= −45.22 + 1.04xfor does andy= −59.71 + 1.25xfor bucks, whereyandxare the BW and the heart girth, respectively. This phenotypic information serves as a basis for designing appropriate conservation and breeding strategies for goats in the study area. However, it should be substantiated with genetic characterization to guide the overall goat breeding and conservation programmes.
Destaw Worku, Kefyalew Alemayehu, Mussie H/melekote
Animal Genetic Resources/Ressources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales, Volume 58, pp 31-42;

Summary: Comparative study was conducted at Alage and Ardaita Agricultural Technical and Vocational Education Training College dairy farm to evaluate the reproductive performance of Holstein Friesian (HF) and associated factors in the two farms. The data collected from 2000 to 2015 on reproductive traits (n= 1688) were analyzed using general linear model procedures of SAS version 9.2 (SAS, 2008). The result revealed that an overall least square means and standard errors for Age at first Service (AFS), Age at first calving (AFC), Calving interval (CI), Days open (DO) and Number of services per conception were 29.70 ± 0.49 months, 39.75 ± 0.53 months, 465.76 ± 7.22 days, 188.11 ± 7.22 days and 1.31 ± 0.04, respectively. AFC was significantly influenced by agro ecology (P< 0.001) and year of birth (P< 0.01). Besides this, agro ecology (P< 0.001) and year of birth (P< 0.05) was significantly influenced by AFC. Year of calving and parity had significant effect (P< 0.001) on CI and DO. Except CI, agro ecology had significant effect on all traits. Service per conception was significantly influenced by agro ecology (P< 0.05) and year of calving (P< 0.01). Season of birth and season of calving was not significant on all reproductive traits. Except SPC, the result obtained for AFS, AFC, CI and DO were below the standard expected from commercial dairy farm. Poor efficiency of estrus detection and expression were the most probable management factors accounted for longer period of AFS, AFC, CI and DO. Improving the level of nutrition as well as efficiency of estrus detection system is required for optimal reproduction performance of HF breed in the area.
, D. Petit
Animal Genetic Resources/Ressources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales, Volume 58, pp 91-100;

Summary: The objective of this study was a morphological characterization of five Moroccan sheep breeds (Béni Guil, Boujaâd, D'man, Sardi and Timahdite) to assess between- and within-breed variability using multivariate analyses. Fourteen morphological measurements were collected on 876 adult animals of both sexes in 98 different flocks located in 22 geographic localities of five breeds. The multiple analysis of variance revealed that significant morphological differences existed between breeds. The overall proportion of total variance due to between-breed component was 28.3 percent. The factor analysis revealed three factors accounting for 50.1, 11.8 and 7.54 percent of total variance. The first factor had high loadings for variables relating to body size, whilst the second factor had high association with traits reflecting tail length and ear size. The third factor had high loadings for wool trait. The squared Mahalanobis distance between the five sheep breeds were highly significant (P< 0.001). The largest morphological divergence was shown between Béni Guil and Sardi breeds (23.5) and the smallest one was between Boujaâd and Sardi breeds (3.54). The discriminant functions clearly discriminated and assigned 94.4 percent of Béni Guil, 79.7 of Boujaâd, 88.5 percent of D'man, 86.7 of Sardi and 80.1 percent of Timahdite sheep into their breed of origin. Overall morphological differences observed within-breeds were due for 18.1 percent to geographic locality and for 20.7 percent to flock management. It was concluded that the information reported in this study will be the basis for the establishment of characterization and selection strategies for Moroccan sheep.
C. Palacios, I. Revilla, M.A. Lurueña-Martínez, S. Álvarez, J.A. Abecia
Animal Genetic Resources/Ressources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales, Volume 58, pp 83-89;

Summary Alcarreña is an endangered Spanish sheep breed (8 009 breeding animals) characterized by its adaptation to a particularly harsh environment and by having a sustainable pasture-based, small-scale, production model. The first objective of this study was to identify the technical-economic aspects of the Alcarreña farms, based on information obtained from surveys. The second objective was to quantify the influence of slaughter weight (12, 19 and 23 kg) on the sensory characteristics of the lamb meat. The mean age of the Alcarreña sheep farmers was lower than the average age of Spanish sheep farmers; however, generational renewal is not assured because most of the farmers’ children were still in school. Mean flock size was higher than the average Spanish sheep flock. Alcarreña sheep were reared under an extensive management system, grazed year-round and had a reproductive schedule of three lambings within 2 years. The carcass and meat qualities of the 12 and 19 kg lambs did not differ significantly, although the lightest lambs had the softest meat and the clearest subcutaneous fat. The most important differences between the lighter lambs and the 23-kg lambs were in meat and fat colour and lipid composition. Among the sensorial characteristics, the 19-kg lambs had the lowest meat fibrosity, and meat colour and slaughter weight were negatively correlated.
Netsanet Zergaw, Tadelle Dessie, Kefelegn Kebede
Animal Genetic Resources/Ressources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales, Volume 58, pp 43-51;

Summary: The study examines phenotypic characterization of Central Highland and Woyto-Guji goat breeds at Meta Robi and Konso districts of Ethiopia. Purposive and random sampling techniques were employed to select sample villages and respondent. For administration of semi-structured questionnaire and phenotypic characterization, a total of 240 households and 601 adult animals, respectively, were selected. The average goat flock size (31.25 ± 22.46) owned per household of Konso was significantly (P< 0.01) higher than Meta Robi (12.73 ± 8). In Konso, natural pasture was the most frequently mentioned feed source during wet season, while hay was the most important feed source during dry season. On the other hand, in Meta Robi, natural pasture was the most frequently mentioned feed source during wet and dry seasons. Coat colour type, horn shape, ear orientation, wattle and beard were found to differ highly significantly (P< 0.001) among the two goat breeds. Goat breed had a significant effect (P< 0.001) on body weight and other body measurements except pelvic width (P> 0.05). The least-square means of body weight, body length, height at wither, chest girth, chest width, ramp length, horn length, ear length and pelvic width of Central Highland female goats were 29.5 ± 0.2 kg, 62.2 ± 0.2 cm, 67.5 ± 0.2 cm, 72.9 ± 0.2 cm, 13.4 ± 0.1 cm, 19.7 ± 0.1 cm, 12.8 ± 0.2 cm, 14.6 ± 0.1 cm and 13.5 ± 0.1 cm, respectively. The corresponding values for Woyto-Guji female goats were 24.8 ± 0.3 kg, 57.4 ± 0.2 cm, 61.9 ± 0.2 cm, 68.3 ± 0.2 cm, 12.1 ± 0.1 cm, 17.3 ± 0.1 cm, 10 ± 0.2 cm, 13 ± 0.1 cm and 13.4 ± 0.1 cm, respectively. The observed variations in production system and morphological traits among the sample populations coupled with their adaptive traits would indeed justify the need for designing breed improvement programme for both breeds.
, J. Audho, E. Oyieng, , A.M. Okeyo, J. Kinyangi, A.W.T. Muigai
Animal Genetic Resources/Ressources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales, Volume 58, pp 101-110;

Summary The CGIAR research programme on Climate Change Agriculture and Food Security, in collaboration with several partners is testing a portfolio of interventions to address the threat of changing climatic conditions for smallholder farming communities living beside river flood plains, grouped into “Climate Smart Villages” (CSVs). We present characteristics of farms in CSV in relation to small ruminant (SR) production and the scenario for a breeding and improvement programme. Information was collated using participatory systems research methods from 140 households in seven CSVs in Nyando basin, Kenya. Although most households were headed by men, there were a higher proportion of adult women within the communities, and literacy levels were moderate. A total of 58 percent of the population owned <1 ha of land for growing crops and rearing on average 6.96 ± 3.35 Tropical Livestock Units comprising different species of animals. Women headed households owned more sheep which were mainly crosses of unspecified local breeds, than Goats which were mainly the Small East African breed-type. Mating among the SR was random, with no control of inbreeding as flocks mixed in grazing fields and at water points. Farmers desired large and resilient animals for better market prices; however, growth rates were slow. The SR flocks were dynamic with 31 percent of the animals moving in and out of flocks in a year. A community breeding programme optimally using available resources and incorporating gender integrated innovative technologies could be implemented for the CSV, alongside strong capacity development on animal husbandry, health and marketing of products.
Endalkachew Girma, Kefyalew Alemayehu, Solomon Abegaze, Damitie Kebede
Animal Genetic Resources/Ressources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales, Volume 58, pp 13-29;

Summary: The study was carried out in selected districts in the Northwestern Amhara, from October 2012 to May 2013. The objective of the study were to undertake on-farm and on-station phenotypic characterization of Fogera Cattle in comparison with two different local cattle population, to characterize the population structure and to identifying trait preferences, breeding management and to recommend breeding strategy for Fogera cattle. Both purposive and random samplings were employed. Data were gathered through semi-structured questionnaire, focus group discussions, field observations, census data, direct count and body measurements. About 126 smallholder farmers were interviewed. About 21 quantitative and 17 qualitative phenotypic data types were also generated from 332 cattle. The Effective population size (Ne) and rate of inbreeding (ΔF) were calculated from the counted population structure data. Both GLM procedures of SAS and descriptive statistics of SPSS software's were employed for data analyses. The results indicated that Fogera cattle were kept mostly for milk (97.62 percent). The main threats identified for the survival of Fogera cattle were scarcity of feed resources and interbreeding with other indigenous cattle, which are less demanding in terms of feed. Fogera cattle population has specific morphological appearance. Generally about 65.2 percent of male pure-Fogera cattle population are having large hump and large dewlap (93.5 percent) with cervico-thoracic (82.6 percent) hump position and long tail (97.8 percent), respectively. The coat pattern of male pure-Fogera cattle is dominated by the spotted coat pattern (82.6 percent) with 43.5 percent white black and 39.1 percent black white coat colour. Female Fogera cattle have medium (94.4 percent) hump size at cervico-thoracic positions (73.2 percent), large dewlap (62.7 percent) and long tail which is well below the hock (91.5 percent). The coat pattern of female pure-Fogera cattle is dominated by white spotted (80.3 percent) with 43.0 percent white black and 33.1 percent black white coat colour Most of the quantitative traits were highly significantly (P≤ 0.001) affected by breed type. Except horn length and horn space all of quantitative traits for both sexes of pure-Fogera cattle from on-station were significantly (P≤ 0.05) larger than those of the on-farm. The average linear body measurement taken on a total of 46 male pure-Fogera cattle populations were 42.68 ± 0.56 cm (mouth circumference), 16.35 ± 0.72 cm (horn length), 37.04 ± 1.16 cm (dewlap width) and 129.17 ± 1.33 cm (height at wither). The average linear body measurements for female pure-Fogera cattle were 38.23 ± 0.18 cm (mouth circumference), 13.81 ± 0.37 cm (horn length), 27.20 ± 0.42 cm (dewlap width) and 123.68 ± 0.52 cm (height at wither). The population structure were dominated by Pure-Fogera constituting 37.02 percent, Interbred with Fogera (33.71 percent) and non-Fogera (29.23 percent). The effective population size of pure-Fogera cattle was 4295, with 9016 total population. The average inbreeding level for the population was 0.012 percent. Inbreeding is at a low level and the effective population size is large. The calculated parameters indicate satisfactory genetic diversity in Fogera cattle. Milk yield, colour, power, body size and growth rate of Fogera were the most dominant traits perceived to be good by the respondents. The special qualification of this breed is to live at high amount of flooding areas with adapting other very challenging environment. Pure breeding of pure-Fogera, interbred with Fogera and non-Fogera type of breeds was used for breeding practice with natural mating. The Andassa Research Center established in 1964 as Fogera cattle population improving centre, but according to different source, population viability and population structure indicated that the population are not viable and highly admixture with other indigenous cattle breeds. According to this in order to improve the population status of Fogera cattle we recommended control with open-nucleus breeding strategy. So in order to minimize the risk status of this breed and conserve for the future generation any responsible agent should be given priority.
R. Venkataramanan, A. Subramanian, S.N. Sivaselvam, T. Sivakumar, C. Sreekumar, M. Iyue
Animal Genetic Resources/Ressources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales, Volume 58, pp 63-71;

Summary: Individual increase in inbreeding coefficients (ΔFi) has been recommended as an alternate measure of inbreeding. It can account for the differences in pedigree knowledge of individual animals and avoids overestimation due to increased number of known generations. The effect of inbreeding (F) and equivalent inbreeding (EF) calculated fromΔFi, on growth traits were studied in Nilagiri and Sandyno flocks of sheep. The study was based on data maintained at the Sheep Breeding Research Station, Sandynallah. The pedigree information and equivalent number of generations were less in Sandyno compared with Nilagiri sheep. The average F and EF for the Nilagiri population were 2.17 and 2.44, respectively and the corresponding values for Sandyno sheep were 0.83 and 0.84, respectively. The trend of inbreeding over years in both the populations indicated that EF was higher during earlier generations when pedigree information was shallow. Among the significant effects of inbreeding, the depression in growth per 1 percent increase in inbreeding ranged from 0.04 kg in weaning weight to 0.10 kg in yearling weight. In general, more traits were affected by inbreeding in Nilagiri sheep, in which greater regression of growth traits was noticed with F compared with EF. Higher values of EF than F in earlier generations in both the populations indicate that EF avoided the potential overestimation of inbreeding coefficient during recent generations. In the Sandyno population, the magnitude of depression noticed among growth traits with significant effects of inbreeding was higher. The differences in response to F and EF noticed in the two populations and possible causes for the trait wise differences in response to F and EF are appropriately discussed.
L. Shiotsuki, P.H.T. Silva, K.M. Silva, A.V. Landim, O.R. Morais, O. Facó
Animal Genetic Resources/Ressources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales, Volume 58, pp 73-82;

Summary The objective of the present study was to describe the frequency of the main racial traits of Morada Nova sheep and simulate the impact of this culling on the response to selection for birth weight. The data from sex, coat colour, hoof pigmentation, muzzle pigmentation, polled and cryptorchidism were collected individually at weaning from 385 Morada Nova sheep of the red variety, born between 2010 and 2012, which belonged to four different flocks in the state of Ceará, Brazil. To estimate the impact of culling of animals due to racial pattern on the genetic improvement of the Morada Nova population, the genetic gains in birth weight per generation were calculated considering the following different scenarios of culling due to racial pattern in a simulated population. The present results indicate that the most urgent step is flexibilization of the requirement of dark muzzles and hooves. The selection of Morada Nova sheep based on racial pattern has caused losses in the genetic gain for productive traits such as birth weight. Readaptation of the official racial pattern established for Morada Nova sheep is necessary so that the racial pattern is achieved and an adequate number of animals will be available for selection.
Ahmad Ebrahimzadeh-Allahabad, Zhila Mahmodian, , A. Mollaei
Animal Genetic Resources/Ressources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales, Volume 57, pp 99-103;

Summary: The purpose of this study was the estimation of genetic and phenotypic parameters of important economic traits in Khazak native hens in Iran. The registered records of 7 434 Khazak native chickens containing 5 238 hens and 2 196 cocks in the research centre of Zabol University from 2007 to 2011 were used. The results of this study were compared with the results of studies on other native chickens breeding in Iran (Yazd: 4198, Mazandaran: 49 536, Esfahan: 23 108, West Azarbaijan: 24 890 and Fars: 30 279). Genotypic and phenotypic correlations between traits and heritability of traits were evaluated by univariate and bivariate animal models using ASREML software. The quantity of some traits such as the average egg production, weight of eggs produced, fertility, hatchability, age of sexual maturity and broodiness were a month 120, 45.15 g, 65.25 percent, 74.83 percent, 5.54 and 1.90, respectively. The heritability of sexual maturity age, the number of eggs produced and egg weight were 0.22 ± 0.41, 0.16 ± 0.13 and 0.50, respectively. The genetic correlation between the age of sexual maturity and the number of eggs produced were 0.95 ± 0.02 and 0.29 ± 0.07, respectively. The results of the study showed that decreasing the sexual age of maturity will lead to an increase in the number of eggs produced. The results of variance analysis showed that some factors such as hen age, broodiness (P< 0.01) and the weight of hens have a significant effect on hatchability.
M. Ould Ahmed, A. N'Daw
Animal Genetic Resources/Ressources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales, Volume 57, pp 89-97;

Résumé: Cette étude a été entreprise dans trois villages de la région de Trarza en Mauritanie, afin de caractériser la poule locale. Dans les trois villages enquêtés tous les éleveurs ont été interviewés suivant un questionnaire rédigé en français et traduit oralement enhassanyaou enpoular(langues nationales) si nécessaire. Au total, 56 ménages ont été enquêtés et 260 oiseaux (69 coqs et 191 poules) ont été pesés et mesurés. Il ressort de l’étude que l'aviculture familiale est une activité sous la responsabilité des femmes. Malgré son importance socio-économique, elle n'est pas considérée comme une activité principale chez les enquêtés. L'alimentation, la santé et la faible productivité des poules ont été déclarées comme les principales préoccupations des éleveurs. L’âge moyen des poules à l'entrée en ponte est de 6 mois. Le poids moyen des mâles est de 1324 ± 249 g. Celui des femelles est de 1028 ± 229 g. Le poids moyen pour les deux sexes confondus est de 1107 ± 268 g. Le poids moyen de l’œuf est de 31 ± 4,81 g. Le poids moyen de poussin d'un jour est de 26 ± 6,03 g. Toutes les mensurations corporelles considérées sont plus élevées significativement (p < 0,05) chez les mâles. La variabilité observée des caractères permet d'envisager des possibilités de sélection de souches répondant aux besoins des éleveurs. Chez la poule locale le plumage est très varié et présente plusieurs colorations.
Fredrick Kabi, Vincent Muwanika, Charles Masembe
Animal Genetic Resources/Ressources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales, Volume 58, pp 1-12;

Summary: Indigenous cattle support approximately 26.1 percent of Ugandan families through provision of food and income in addition to the supply of socio-cultural wealth and security. Cattle keepers have developed and maintained variations of indigenous cattle phenotypes and genotypes suited to their agro-ecological zones through traditional management practices and socio-cultural aspects. The Ankole (Bos taurus indicus), East African shorthorn Zebu (Bos indicus) and their crossbred cattle constitute the main indigenous breeds, adding up to 93.3 percent of the Ugandan herd. With intensions to increase productivity, state policies encourage livestock farmers to upgrade local genotypes towards high yielding exotic dairy cattle. This if not appropriately planned is likely to result into loss of local genetic diversity, well endowed with resilience to local climatic conditions, endemic diseases and feed resource constraints. Here in, we review literature related to indigenous cattle in Uganda including how diverse landscapes, local management practices and socio-cultural aspects have enriched patterns of indigenous cattle variations. Then we highlight potential challenges of intensive management, increased selection for higher productivity and threats to genetic diversity of indigenous cattle populations. Since indigenous cattle vary with landscapes and socio-cultural values, have taken decades to establish, efforts to save them through genetic diversity studies, conservation and farmers sensitization should be undertaken immediately.
Sandip Banerjee
Animal Genetic Resources/Ressources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales, Volume 57, pp 57-71;

Summary The study was conducted to phenotypically characterize the Bengal (Desi) sheep in some purposively selected villages of Nadia and Murshidabad districts of West Bengal, India. The Bengal sheep is reared as mutton sheep and has not been studied or characterized. Qualitative (coat colour and tail type) and quantitative (height at withers, height at rump, chest circumference, paunch girth, oblique body length, head length, head width, ear length, horn length, shoulder width, ear width, pelvic width, canon length, length of the fore leg, length of the hind leg, fore canon circumference, neck circumference, neck length, body weight) traits were included in the study. Phenotypic traits indicated that the sheep is of a small, thin tailed type adapted to grazing in water logged areas and lowly to moderately prolific. The structural indices indicate that the sheep is forward aligned, robust and rectangular in shape; it is well balanced and adapted for humid climates. The wool is coarse and hairy type, used for making blankets and durries. The reproductive parameters indicate that the age at first service was 295 days for ewes and 252 days for rams while the age at first lambing averaged around 425 days. Conservation efforts and genetic characterization are needed to maintain the breed purity and further studies regarding the carcass and mutton quality traits need to be carried out
Animal Genetic Resources/Ressources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales, Volume 57, pp 81-87;

Summary The Moroccan goat livestock is characterized by the existence of different phenotypes distributed among diverse geographic locations. The objective of this study was to analyse the morphometric traits that differentiate the Draa breed from the other local populations raised in areas close to its cradle zone. Eight morphometric measurements were taken on 287 goats in South-eastern and Southern Morocco. The variance analysis, fitting a model that included the random effect of animal and the fixed effects of population, gender and age of animal, was used. Mahalanobis distances were calculated between identified populations and an Unweighted Pairs Group Method Analysis tree was built. Draa goats had the highest height at withers (61.5 cm), heart girth (74.4 cm), body length (64.6 cm) and live body weight (27.2 kg). These morphometric traits varied significantly among populations as well as the age and the gender of animal. The most discriminating traits between the identified populations were the body length, the heart girth, the hair length, the horn length, the ear length and the live body weight. Draa animals had the largest genetic distances from the other populations and appeared more distinguished from them. This differentiation can contribute in defining the phenotypic standard of the breed and in orienting its genetic improvement programs in the future.
R.M. Al-Atiyat, R.S. Aljumaah, A.M. Abudabos, A.A. Alghamdi, A.S. Alharthi, H.S. AlJooan, M.N. Alotybi
Animal Genetic Resources/Ressources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales, Volume 57, pp 39-49;

Summary: This study aims to evaluate the current situation and diversity of indigenous cattle breeds in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). A survey was executed in five regions of the KSA. We recorded population sizes, phenotypes and rearing conditions. TaurineBos taurusand zebuBos indicuspopulations were found. The zebu cattle include two breeds; the Hassawi and the Janobi. The Hassawi breed was found in the eastern region and it is in decreasing number. It may become extinct soon in the absence of conservation plan. Janobi remains common with thousand animals in the south-western part of the country. Only one indigenous taurine cow, showing no phenotypic evidence of zebu introgression, was found in the Central region of KSA (Najd Plateau). This cow might be the last pure indigenous Saudi Arabia taurine animal and therefore, the breed is now close to extinction. We advocate the urgency to design conservation plan for the indigenous livestock of the KSA and to complement these with phenotypic as well as genotypic information.
T.S.M. Widi, H.M.J. Udo, K. Oldenbroek, I.G.S. Budisatria, E. Baliarti, T.C. Viets, A.J. van der Zijpp
Animal Genetic Resources/Ressources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales, Volume 57, pp 1-13;

Summary: Cross-breeding with European beef breeds has become a standard approach for the intensification of smallholder cattle production in Indonesia. This study assessed the environmental impact of cross-breeding, in terms of Global Warming Potential (GWP) and land use. We sampled 90 local Ongole and 162 cross-bred (Simmental × Ongole) cattle farms in four study areas. Expressed per kilogram of live weight of young stock produced, GWP (26.9 kg CO2–equivalents) and land use (34.2 m2) of farms with Ongole breeding stock were not significantly different from the GWP (28.9 kg CO2–equivalents) and land use (37.4 m2) of cross-bred farms. Cross-bred young stock grew faster, but in general cross-bred cattle required more feed. In the current smallholder production system, the dominant cross-breeding practice of using Simmental semen on Ongole andF1cross-bred cows does not result in lower greenhouse gas emissions or land use per kilogram of live weight produced compared with farms with Ongole cows. The advantage from the faster growth of cross-breds is counteracted by the higher emissions from feed production for cross-breds.
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