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Results in Journal International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology: 45

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Shah Zaman, Hussain Ibrar, Jan Sanaullah, Mahar P S, Ishaq Mazhar, Rizvi Fawad
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 6, pp 015-025; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001045

Abstract:
Commonly referred to as an ecstatic, non-inflammatory disease, Keratoconus, usually bilateral and asymmetric, is characterized by progressive steeping and thinning of the cornea. This results in irregular astigmatism which compromises vision [1,2]. Traditionally, early Keratoconus stages have been treated by prescribing a hard contact lens to obtain a regular anterior optical surface. This tendency was discontinued when contact lens intolerance in advanced stages required the use of penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) or deep anterior lamellar Keratoplasty (DALK). An alternative technique of corneal cross-linking was designed in 2003 as a treatment option for keratoconus. The cornea measured at least 400 um thickness after epithelium removal and pre-operative maximum keratometry (Kmax) measured 58D or less. As a result, no corneal transplantation was required or postponed [3].
Kaushal Himanshu, Sulena
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 6, pp 013-014; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001044

Abstract:
Papilledema is optic disc swelling due to high intracranial pressure. Possible conditions causing high intracranial pressure and papilledema include intracerebral mass lesions, cerebral hemorrhage, head trauma, meningitis, hydroce-phalus, spinal cord lesions, impairment of cerebral sinus drainage, anomalies of the cranium, and idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) [1].
, Worku Martha Degefu
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 6, pp 007-012; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001043

Abstract:
Background: Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) is a bilateral visual impairment that affects children in all industrialized countries. It has become more common in low-income countries as a result of the increased survival rates of children who suffer from severe neurological conditions during the perinatal period. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of children with CVI in a tertiary children’s eye care center population. Methods: From October 2020 to September 2021, a cross-sectional study was conducted to select all consecutive patients with a diagnosis of cerebral visual impairment aged 6 months to 16 years. On the neurological deficit, information was gathered from the patient’s referral: parental interviews, observations, and direct assessment were used for functional vision characteristics, and an ophthalmic examination was performed for eye findings. The interviewees’ responses were matched to the ten specific behavioral characteristics shared by children with CVI. Cortical visual impairment was diagnosed using three criteria: [the vision loss is not explained by abnormalities found on the eye examination, a neurological medical diagnosis, and the child exhibits one of the unique visual and behavioral characteristics described by Roman Lantz]. A descriptive statistical analysis (frequency, mean, and range) was calculated. Results: Forty children with CVI (1.96% of total children) were seen. The mean age was 2.56 ( 1.98) years. There were 24 (60%) males. On a referral paper of 28, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy was the commonest cause mentioned (70.0%). Seizures were the most frequent neurological deficit at presentation. Ophthalmic and neurologic impairments were found in 42.5% of children with CVI. Based on Roman-Lantzy’s three phases of the CVI Range, 90% of children with CVI at the test time had Phase I or Phase II vision. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, visual impairment is critical in the diagnosis of CVI. The prevalence of CVI as a cause of childhood vision impairment is significant. Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is the most common cause of CVI. All children with CVI have serious neurological issues, and the majority have associated ophthalmic abnormalities.
Nargis Neha, Channabasappa Seema, Balakrishna Nischala, Niharika Singri
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 5, pp 029-038; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001041

Abstract:
Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common causes of preventable blindness. Patients with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) develop not only DR but also corneal endothelial damage leading to anatomical and physiological changes in cornea. Central corneal thickness (CCT) is a key parameter of refractive surgery and Intraocular pressure (IOP) estimation. The role of CCT and higher glycemic index in DR needs to be researched upon. Objectives: To identify the corneal endothelial morphology in patients with type 2 DM, to measure the Central Corneal thickness (CCT) in patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, to assess the relationship of CCT with HbA1C levels in the study group and to correlate the CCT with the severity of Diabetic retinopathy in the study group. Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted between January 2018 and June 2019 in Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Bangalore. The study included 100 subjects with type 2 DM for 5 years or more. Patients with comorbidities that may affect the severity of DR or alter CCT and other corneal endothelial parameters such as glaucoma, previous ocular surgery or trauma, corneal degenerations and dystrophies, chronic kidney disease and Hypertension were excluded. DR was assessed by dilated fundoscopy, fundus photography and optical coherence imaging of the macula and graded as per the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) classification. CCT and other corneal endothelial parameters were measured through specular microscopy. Relevant blood investigations including blood sugar levels were done for all patients. Statistical analysis: Relationship between CCT and grades of DR and HbA1c levels were established using the Chi-Square test. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: The mean CCT in patients with no diabetic retinopathy, very mild and mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), moderate NPDR, severe and very severe NPDR and PDR was 526.62 ± 8.084 μm, 542.07 ± 8.713 μm, 562.16 ± 8.255 μm, 582.79 ± 7.368 μm and 610.43 ± 18.256 μm respectively. Analysis of the relationship between CCT and severity of DR showed a statistically significant positive correlation between the two parameters (Pearson r = 0.933, P=0.001). Beyond this, a correlation was found between all the corneal endothelial parameters and severity of DR. Multivariate analysis showed that advanced DR was positively correlated with CV (r = 0.917) and CCT (r = 0.933); while it was negatively correlated with ECD (r = -0.872) and Hex (r = -0.811). A statistically significant correlation was also found between CCT and HbA1c. Also increasing age, duration of DM and higher glycemic index were positively correlated with severity of DR. Conclusion: This study, by demonstrating a strong correlation between the central corneal thickness to the severity of DR and HbA1c levels emphasizes the importance of evaluation of corneal endothelial morphology in the early screening and diagnosis of microvascular complications of DM.
Engin Kaya N, Yiğit Ulviye, Bayramoğlu Sibel Töreyen, Güner Nurten Turan, Özyurt Onur, Tufan Kutlay, Ağaçhan Ahmet, Çağatay Penbe
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 6, pp 001-006; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001042

Abstract:
Aim: Accumulating data imply that glaucoma may represent a neurodegenerative disorder affecting the entire visual system. We evaluated retrobulbar glaucomatous damage with favorable techniques for 1.5T diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance imaging and we compared those techniques with clinical data in a large case series. Material and methods: This Cross-sectional study included 130 eyes of 65 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. Patients with no known ocular or systemic concomitant disorders, neurological diseases, previous glaucoma surgeries, or antioxidant usage were selected. A decrease in thickness and deterioration in the optic nerve diffusion of severely glaucomatous eyes of patients with asymmetrical involvement was observed in optic nerve tractography. Optical coherence tomography and visual field results of the subjects were recorded. Glaucoma analysis with optical coherence tomography and standard automated perimetry results of the subjects were recorded. Diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance imaging analysis of optic nerves and radiations were performed, computing fractional anisotropy, apparent diffusion coefficient, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity. Correlation between the diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance imaging and clinical eye parameters of glaucomatous neurodegeneration were statistically evaluated. Results: The correlations between diffusion parameters and age were highly significant. Statistically significant correlations were found between ganglion cell complex and apparent diffusion coefficient, axial and radial diffusivities of optic nerves. Conclusion: Eye-brain connection in glaucoma can be evaluated with routine clinical instruments. Our study also revealed a limited correlation of retrobulbar glaucomatous neurodegeneration with ophthalmic damage. A better understanding of retrobulbar damage will enable us to develop more efficient strategies and a more accurate understanding of glaucoma.
Naik Gajaraj T
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 5, pp 025-028; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001040

Abstract:
Progeria syndromes are very rare genetic diseases characterized by premature aging changes. There are several phenotypes and variables noted in literature in some cases difficult to specifically classify a specific syndrome. It occurs due to mutation in DNA repair genes. The most common ocular findings are loss of eyebrow and eyelashes, brow ptosis, lid margin changes, entropion, Meibomian gland dysfunction, severe dry eye, corneal opacity, cataract, poor mydriasis, and rod-cone dystrophy. We report this case with all the above ocular manifestations in 19year old teenager with additional finding being retinal detachment.
Chaimae Khodriss, Ahmed Bennis, Fouad Chraibi, Meriem Abdellaoui, Idriss Benatiya Andaloussi
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 5, pp 023-024; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001039

Abstract:
Vitamin A is a fat-soluble discovered in 1913. Hypo-vitaminosis A can cause blindness by various mechanisms. The aim of this case report is to emphasize the severity of Vitamin A deficiency and its local consequences on the eyes causing corneal ulcerations, abscess and even blindness.
, Channabasappa Seema, Aluri Balasubrahmanyam, Cyriac Divya Rose, Seema Channabasappa
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 5, pp 016-018; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001037

Abstract:
Introduction: A dermoid cyst is a developmental choristoma lined with epithelium and filled with keratinized material arising from ectodermal rests pinched off at suture lines. These are the most common orbital tumors in childhood. They are categorized into superficial and deep. Superficial orbital dermoid tumors usually occur in the area of the lateral brow adjacent to the frontozygomatic suture. Infrequently a tumor may be encountered in the medial canthal area [1], which is the second most common site of orbital dermoids. We report a case where a swelling presented in the medial canthal area without involving the lacrimal system. Case report: A 43 year old lady presented with complaint of swelling near the (RE; Right eye) since 2 years duration. She presented with a solitary 1.5 cm x 1 cm ovoid, non-tender, non-pulsatile, firm, non-compressible mobile swelling with smooth surface over the medial canthus of right eye. (MRI; Magnetic Resonance Imaging) brain and orbit showed right periorbital extraconal lesion and the (FNAC; Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology) suggested of Dermoid Cyst. RE canthal dermoid cyst excision was done under Local Anasthesia. Conclusion: Complete surgical excision in to be treatment of choice for dermoids. Since medial canthal mass can involve the lacrimal system, it becomes necessary to perform preoperative assessments using (CT; Computed Tomography), MRI or dacryocystography while planning the surgical approach. Silicone intubation at the beginning of the surgery is an easy and effective way of identifying canaliculi and of preventing canalicular laceration during dermoid excision if the lacrimal system is found to be involved.
, Saha Tapes Kanti
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 5, pp 009-015; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001036

Abstract:
Background: In developing countries, manual small incision cataract surgery is a better alternative and less expensive in comparison to phacoemulsification and thus the incision is an important factor causing high rates of postoperative astigmatism resulting into poor visual outcome. Thus, modifications to the site of the incision is needed to reduce the pre-existing astigmatism and also to prevent postoperative astigmatism. Modification to superotemporal incision relieves pre-existing astigmatism majorly due to its characteristic of neutralizing against-the-rule astigmatism, which is more prevalent among elderly population and thus improves the visual outcome. Aims: To study the incidence, amount and type of surgically induced astigmatism in superior and superotemporal scleral incision in manual SICS. Methodology: It is a randomized, comparative clinical study done on 100 patients attending the OPD of Ophthalmology at a tertiary care hospital, with senile cataract within a period of one year and underwent manual SICS. 50 of them chosen randomly for superior incision and rest 50 with superotemporal incision. MSICS with PCIOL implantation were performed through unsutured 6.5 mm scleral incision in all. Patients were examined post-operatively on 1st day, 7th day, 2nd week and 4th week and astigmatism was evaluated and compared in both groups. Results: It is seen that on postoperative follow up on 4th week, 77.78% of the patients with ATR astigmatism who underwent superior incision had increased astigmatism whereas, only 13.63% of the patients with ATR astigmatism who underwent supero-temporal incision, had increased astigmatism but 81.82% had decreased ATR astigmatism. However, 77.78% of the patients with preoperative WTR astigmatism who underwent supero-temporal incision, had increased astigmatism, whereas 44.45% of the patients with WTR astigmatism preoperatively, had increased astigmatism in contrast to 50% had decreased amount of astigmatism. It is also seen that the supero-temporal incision group had more number of patients (78%) with visual acuity better than 6/9 at 4th postoperative week than superior incision group (42%). Conclusion: This study concludes that superior incision cause more ATR astigmatism postoperatively whereas superotemporal incision causes lower magnitude of WTR astigmatism, which is advantageous for the elderly. Besides superotemporal incision provides better and early visual acuity postoperatively.
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 5, pp 005-008; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001035

Abstract:
Background: The present study was conducted to study the donor profile and to assess the trends of cornea donation. Methodology: This was conducted as a hospital based cross sectional study at a tertiary care centre in Central India for a period of 5 years. Data was retrieved from 70 patients from eye bank who filled form of eye donation at Eye bank of our institution. Sociodemographic profile of donors, cause of death and time since death was recorded. Source of information regarding corneal donation and reason for not willing to donate the cornea for research purpose was recorded from the filled form. Further cornea enucleated were subjected to serology and their utilization for various purposes were recorded in questionnaire. Results: The present study retrieved data from a total of 70 donor forms with mean age of 65.84 ± 18.4 years. Cornea obtained from younger patients were mainly utilized for corneal transplantation whereas that from elderly age group > 60 years were mainly utilized for research/training purpose and the observed difference was statistically significant (p < 0.01). The corneas retrieved and utilized immediately after death were significantly used for optical or therapeutic purposes (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The present highlights the donor profile and trends of corneal donation at the tertiary care facility of Central India. It was observed that though the younger population and older population both are aware regarding corneal donation but still they are less aware on purpose for which cornea can be utilized. Quality of donor cornea is better when death to enucleation time interval was less.
, Mercan Kadir, Demir Nesrin, Ilhan Nevin, Çatak Onur
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 5, pp 001-004; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001034

Abstract:
Purpose: To evaluate the levels of salusin-beta (β-SAL) in the serum in patients with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). Methods: Our study was designed as a controlled comparative clinical study. The β-SAL levels in serums of age and sex-matched 20 healthy volunteers as controls (Group 1), 20 patients with dry-age related macular degeneration (d-ARMD) (Group 2) and 20 patients with wet-age related macular degeneration (w-ARMD) (Group 3) were measured with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Results: In our study, it was found that age and gender didn’t show a statistically significant difference among the study groups (p > 0. 05). The mean serum β-SAL levels in Group 1, Group 2 and Group 3 were 1372,17 ± 1126.69 pg/mL; 1423,71 ± 1196.84 pg/mL and 940,57 ± 1092.05 pg/mL, respectively. Although the meanβ-SAL levels in w-ARMD seem numerically lower than both the control and d-ARMD groups, this difference among the study groups was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Our study suggests that β-SAL levels in the patients with ARMD and healthy controls were not different than each other. Further studies with large numbers may reveal possible relationships between β-SAL and ARMD.
, Mahalingu Darshan Shivaura, Anjenappa Rakesha, Joy Tintu Susan
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 4, pp 012-014; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001027

, Cameron F Parsa, Jonathan Benesty, Neila Sedira, Raphaël Thouvenin, Emmanuel Héron, José-Alain Sahel
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2, pp 021-021; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001016

Mishra D, Deepak Mishra, Megha Gulati, Prashant Bhushan, Nilesh Mohan, Bibhuti Sinha P
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 1, pp 066-070; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001010

Turgut B, Burak Turgut, Feyza Çaliş Karanfil, Fatoş Altun Turgut
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 1, pp 060-066; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001009

Ayena Kd, Santos Kam, Vonor K, Amedome Km, Wodome A, Strauss G, Nagbe Ye, Koffi-Ametooyona A, Balo K
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 1, pp 001-008; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.hceo.1001001

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