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Results in Journal Journal of ICT Standardization: 145

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Péter Szilágyi
Journal of ICT Standardization pp 159–200-159–200; https://doi.org/10.13052/jicts2245-800x.926

Abstract:
Intent based network management reduces the complexity of network programming from a growing set of deeply technical APIs to context-free high-level objectives that the network should autonomously achieve and keep. The practical implementation of an intent based network requires substantial automation technology embedded in the network. Automation should cover the entire lifecycle of intents, from their ingestion to fulfillment and assurance. This article investigates the feasibility of automatically assembling interworking implementation units into intent specific automation pipelines, where units are reusable self-learning closed loop micro-services with self-declared capabilities. Each closed loop may gain knowledge and respond to dynamically changing network conditions, thereby enabling network autonomy in reaching the declared intent objectives. The human-network intent interface for expressing intents is proposed to be based on the aggregation of the deployed network and service automation capabilities, rather than a formalism decoupled from the actual network implementation. This principle removes the ambiguity and compatibility gap between human intent definition and machine intent fulfillment, while retaining the flexibility and extendibility of the intents offered by any specific system via onboarding additional micro-services with novel capabilities. The concepts discussed by the article fit into the architecture and closed loop work items already defined by ETSI ZSM and provides considerations towards new areas such as intent driven autonomous networks and enablers for automation.
Biswadeb Dutta, Andreas Krichel, Marie-Paule Odini
Journal of ICT Standardization pp 147–158-147–158; https://doi.org/10.13052/jicts2245-800x.925

Abstract:
With ever increasing complexity and dynamicity in digital service provider networks, especially with the emergence of 5G, operators seek more automation to reduce the cost of operations, time to service and revenue of new and innovative services, and increase the efficiency of resource utilization, Complex algorithms leveraging ML (machine learning) are introduced, often with the need for frequent training as the networks evolve. Inference is then applied either in the core directly, or in the management stack to trigger actions and configuration changes automatically. This is the essence of Zero Touch. The challenge that analysts are often faced with is to trace back from the inference or prediction to the original events or symptoms that led to the triggered action, which ML model version or pipeline was used. This paper describes the challenges faced by analysts and provides some solutions.
Antonio Pastor, , Jose Ordonez-Lucena, Sonia Fernández, Jesús Folgueira
Journal of ICT Standardization pp 291–310-291–310; https://doi.org/10.13052/jicts2245-800x.9210

Abstract:
The essential propellant for any closed-loop management mechanism is data related to the managed entity. While this is a general evidence, it becomes even more true when dealing with advanced closed-loop systems like the ones supported by Artificial Intelligence (AI), as they require a trustworthy, up-to-date and steady flow of state data to be applicable. Modern network infrastructures provide a vast amount of disparate data sources, especially in the multi-domain scenarios considered by the ETSI Industry Specification Group (ISG) Zero Touch Network and Service Management (ZSM) framework, and proper mechanisms for data aggregation, pre-processing and normalization are required to make possible AI-enabled closed-loop management. So far, solutions proposed for these data aggregation tasks have been specific to concrete data sources and consumers, following ad-hoc approaches unsuitable to address the vast heterogeneity of data sources and potential data consumers. This paper presents a model-based approach to a data aggregator framework, relying on standardized data models and telemetry protocols, and integrated with an open-source network orchestration stack to support their incorporation within network service lifecycles.
Mehdi Bezahaf, Stephen Cassidy, , , , Charalampos Rotsos
Journal of ICT Standardization pp 229–256-229–256; https://doi.org/10.13052/jicts2245-800x.928

Abstract:
As corporate networks continue to expand, the technologies that underpin these enterprises must be capable of meeting the operational goals of the operators that own and manage them. Automation has enabled the impressive scaling of networks from the days of Strowger. The challenge now is not only to keep pace with the continuing huge expansion of capacity but at the same time to manage a huge increase in complexity – driven by the range of customer solutions and technologies. Recent advances in automation, programmable network interfaces, and model-driven networking will provide the possibility of closed-loop, self-optimizing, and self-healing networks. Collectively these support the goals of a truly automated network, commonly understood as “autonomic networking” even though this is a prospect yet to be achieved. This paper outlines the progress made towards autonomic networking and the framework and procedures developed during the UK Next Generation Converged Digital Infrastructure (NG-CDI) project. It outlines the operator-driven requirements and capabilities that have been identified, and proposes an autonomic management framework, and summarizes current art and the challenges that remain.
Paul Harvey, Alexandru Tatar, Pierre Imai, Leon Wong, Laurent Bringuier
Journal of ICT Standardization pp 201–228-201–228; https://doi.org/10.13052/jicts2245-800x.927

Abstract:
The communication networks of today can greatly benefit from autonomous operation and adaptation, not only due to the implicit cost savings, but also because autonomy will enable functionalities that are infeasible today. Across industry, academia and standardisation bodies there has been an increased interest in achieving the autonomous goal, but a path on how to attain this goal is still unclear. In this paper we present our vision for the future of autonomous networking. We introduce the concepts and technological means to achieve autonomy and propose an architecture which emerges directly through the application of these concepts, highlighting opportunities and challenges for standardisation. We argue that only a holistic architecture based on hierarchies of hybrid learning, functional composition, and online experimental evaluation is expressive and capable enough to realise true autonomy within communication networks.
, Magnus Buhrgard, János Harmatos, Swarup Kumar Mohalik, Dinand Roeland,
Journal of ICT Standardization pp 257–290-257–290; https://doi.org/10.13052/jicts2245-800x.929

Abstract:
Closed loops are key enablers for automation that have been successfully used in many industries for long, and more recently for computing and networking applications. The Zero-touch network and service management (ZSM) framework introduced standardized components that allow the creation, execution, and governance of multiple closed loops, enabling zero-touch management of end-to-end services across different management domains. However, the coordinated and optimal instantiation and operation of multiple closed loops is an open question that is left for implementation by the ZSM specifications. In this paper, we propose a methodology that uses intents as a way of communicating requirements to be considered by autonomous management domains to coordinate hierarchies of closed loops. The intent-driven methodology facilitates hierarchical and peer interactions for delegation and escalation of intents. Furthermore, it extends the existing management capabilities of the ZSM framework and facilitates conflict-free integration of closed loops by setting optimal (and non-conflicting) goals that each closed loop in the hierarchy needs to account for. We show an example of the application of the proposed methodology in a network slicing assurance use case. The new capabilities introduced in this paper can be considered as an extension of the ZSM framework to be used in scenarios where multiple intent-driven closed loops exist.
Konstantinos Trichias, Panagiotis Demestichas, Nikolaos Mitrou
Journal of ICT Standardization pp 113–146-113–146; https://doi.org/10.13052/jicts2245-800x.924

Abstract:
As the first 5G networks are being deployed across the world, new services enabled by the superior performance of 5G in terms of throughput, latency and reliability are emerging. Connected and Automated Mobility (CAM) services are perhaps among the most demanding applications that 5G networks will have to support and their deployment, performance and potential for improvement has been well investigated over the past few years. However, CAM operation in multi-operator environments and the inevitable inter-PLMN handover caused by the inherent mobility of CAM services have not been studied in length. Moreover, the multiple domains, multi-vendor components and inherent high mobility of the cross-border vehicular environment, introduce multiple challenges in terms of network management and dynamic slicing, making Zero-touch network and Service Management (ZSM) solutions an attractive alternative for these environments. The work presented in this study attempts to analyse the requirements for cross-border CAM operation for the five main CAM use cases selected by 3GPP, based on input from key European stakeholders (Network Operators, vendors, Automotive Manufacturers etc.). A detailed analysis and categorization into four categories of the main challenges for cross-border CAM service provisioning is performed, namely Telecommunication, Application, Security/Privacy and Regulatory issues, while potential solutions based on existing and upcoming technological enablers are discussed for each of them. The role of standardization and relevant regulatory and administrative bodies is analysed, leading to insights regarding the most promising future research directions in the field of cross-border CAM services.
Journal of ICT Standardization pp 91–112-91–112; https://doi.org/10.13052/jicts2245-800x.923

Abstract:
Autonomous management capability is the main pillar for paving Zero-touch Networks and efficiently deliver and operate use cases under the light of 5G requirements. To this end, Closed Control Loop (CCL), Intent-Based Networking (IBN), and Machine Learning (ML) are regarded as enablers to automatically executed all operational processes, ideally without human intervention. In this context, the ETSI Zero-touch network and Service Management (ZSM) framework specifies an end-to-end network and service management reference architecture for managing the full lifecycle of services. However, the whole process of service monitoring is not yet well-consolidated in ETSI ZSM. In this work, we propose the Monitoring Model Generator (MMG) component to automatically construct templates for service monitoring. MMG implements a novel methodology where service deployment models and standard information models are used as inputs to generate a high-level monitoring template, called Service Monitoring Model (SMM) and built upon an ontology-based schema based on the Resource Description Framework (RDF) vocabulary. We present a proof of concept implementation along with an experimental functional validation of the MMG and using RDF data in turtle syntax and format. The resulting monitoring models are then used to define actual monitoring KPIs and construct management policies in a control loop architecture.
Karthikeyan Ganesan, Prateek Basu Mallick, Joachim Löhr
Journal of ICT Standardization pp 79–90-79–90; https://doi.org/10.13052/jicts2245-800x.922

Abstract:
3GPP is currently studying enhancements to Sidelink (SL) operations for 5G New Radio (NR) in a Release 17 Work Item which is planned to be finished by end of 2021. The NR Sidelink (SL) Work Item in Release 17 includes several key features targeting reliability enhancements, power saving and coverage enhancements by expanding the scope of NR sidelink to target V2X, commercial D2D use-case and Public safety. This paper provides an insight on the current 3GPP Release 17 NR SL design describing necessary enhancements in the physical, protocol layer to support inter-UE coordination message for reliability enhancement for autonomous resource selection procedure by providing feedback on the half-duplex, persistent collision and hidden nodes. In addition, the power saving feature is addressed by introducing a SL DRX mechanism for the PC5 interface which defines active reception and transmission periods between a TX and the peer Rx UE(s) and also between Tx UE and gNB. Furthermore, this paper outlines details on the Sidelink Relay feature for coverage enhancement by describing possible solutions for UE to Network relay and UE to UE relay.
Xiaoting Huang, Takahito Yoshizawa, Sheeba Backia Mary Baskaran
Journal of ICT Standardization pp 61–78-61–78; https://doi.org/10.13052/jicts2245-800x.921

Abstract:
The 5G system introduces multiple new authentication mechanisms. The initial 5G specification in 3GPP Release 15 defines the initial security solution including primary and secondary authentication. Further enhancements and additional security features are added in Release 16; some of them introduce new types of authentication. As a result, the scope and meaning of ‘authentication’ has expanded. This is a new trend in the 5G system as it introduces new concepts that did not exist in the preceding generation systems. One such example is the slice authentication for which the authentication is performed at the network slice level. As a result, the authentication mechanisms become more complex. This paper clarifies the details of each of these different authentication mechanisms.
Jaeseung Song, Andreas Kunz
Journal of ICT Standardization pp 109-122; https://doi.org/10.13052/jicts2245-800x.126

Abstract:
The world of communication technology is changing fast and the means of communication are moving towards a packet switched transmission systems such as Voice over IP (VoIP). Formerly call identity spoofing of the displayed number in circuit switched (CS) networks was too difficult to perform so that people could be sure that when receiving a call on their mobile phone or at home, the displayed number is the one as it is supposed to be. Nowadays this is not the case anymore, voice communication from the internet with VoIP is cheap and spam calls can be easily realized without any costs, also it is getting easier to perform spoofed calls with wrong display name or number. The mobile network operators have no mechanisms to tackle those threats, but standardization activities are already in place within the security group SA3 of 3GPP. This paper provides an overview of the current status of the standards activities and shows the most promising solutions that are proposed up to now. The proposed solutions detect unsolicited communications and spoofed calls by tracing back to the displayed number used in the attack.
Olivier Seller
Journal of ICT Standardization pp 47–60-47–60; https://doi.org/10.13052/jicts2245-800x.915

Abstract:
The LoRaWAN security design adheres to state-of-the-art principles: use of standard, well-vetted algorithms, and end-to-end security. The fundamental properties supported in LoRaWAN security are mutual end-point authentication, data origin authentication, integrity and replay protection, and confidentiality. The use of symmetric cryptography and prior secret key sharing between a device and a server enables an extremely power efficient and network efficient activation procedure.
Derek Hunt
Journal of ICT Standardization pp 13–20-13–20; https://doi.org/10.13052/jicts2245-800x.912

Abstract:
LoRaWAN® Certification of devices is critical for effective and efficient mass deployment of LoRaWAN Networks, as it ensures devices will work on any network, under all conditions. Certified Devices significantly reduce the support costs as any product failures detected later when the device is deployed is far more expensive to repair and poor RF performance of the device increase number of gateways needed and cost of the network infostructure.
Olivier Seller
Journal of ICT Standardization pp 1–12-1–12; https://doi.org/10.13052/jicts2245-800x.911

Abstract:
The LoRaWAN Link Layer specification [1] is a communication protocol for the Internet of Things. It targets low power, long range, low cost communication using unlicensed spectrum. Network topology is collaborative, which reduces a lot protocol signalling compared to a cellular network. The device is connected to a network server, and protocol overhead is limited to 13 bytes for any data frame. There are three classes of operation. Class A is optimized for low power operation of end-devices, while class B and class C offer reduced downlink latency. The protocol specification offers several mechanisms to adjust the link layer parameters: adaptive data rate, adaptive power control, variable repetition rate, and channel selection.
Dave Kjendal
Journal of ICT Standardization pp 35–46-35–46; https://doi.org/10.13052/jicts2245-800x.914

Abstract:
The LoRaWAN® Regional Parameters specification defines the adaptation of the LoRaWAN® Link Layer specification to comply with the various regulations enforced throughout the world on the use of various frequency bands of unlicensed spectrum which are available. It defines default values for Link Layer parameters and channel plans. Each of the regional channel plans can be broadly characterized as dynamic channel plans, with a small number of default channels, or fixed channel plans, where all channels are defined then selectively activated by the network. Regional parameters are defined for a vast majority of countries in the world, using 9 main channel plans, and support for additional countries is regularly added.
Julien Catalano
Journal of ICT Standardization pp 21–34-21–34; https://doi.org/10.13052/jicts2245-800x.913

Abstract:
Firmware Update is a key feature for IoT, especially for LPWA end-devices with 10+ years of lifetime. LoRaWAN Firmware Update Over-The-Air is a set of application layer specifications, including Multicast Setup, Fragmentation, Clock Synchronization, Firmware Management as well as Multi-Package Access, enabling the delivery and management services of firmware updates to several end-devices.
Mark Hobart
Journal of ICT Standardization pp 199–216-199–216; https://doi.org/10.13052/jicts2245-800x.832

Abstract:
Back in 2016, IDC forecast a ten-fold increase on business data processed globally by 2025. Combine this with increasing regulatory compliance and demand for quality data, then it is perhaps not a surprise to find that many businesses are feeling somewhat over-whelmed by the enormity of the data management and governance task they face. But, don’t despair, there is a compelling business case, both in terms of efficiency gains and tangible financial savings in adopting a strategy for centralising information governance and automating the management of your data. This paper will explore the emerging problem domain of data and look at the business case for use of automated data management tools to better prepare your organisation for the tsunami of data coming its way.
Kaviarasu Balakrishnan, Sivabalan Arumugam, Guna Magesan
Journal of ICT Standardization pp 217–234-217–234; https://doi.org/10.13052/jicts2245-800x.833

Abstract:
This paper reports a design and fabrication of a functional nano robot “Sootha Vennai Parpamcutâvanai – Parpam – SVP” of 150-200 nm size which behaves more or less like a human physician in nano form inside the body. This nanorobot is a medicine which has artificial intelligence i.e. the distinguishing ability, decision making ability and some basic behavioral properties such as target detection ability, self-propelling capability and handling the infection in the case of breast cancer. This nanorobot can also aid in cancer therapy, site-specific or target drug delivery, and tissue repair.
Marc Hofmann
Journal of ICT Standardization pp 247–252-247–252; https://doi.org/10.13052/jicts2245-800x.835

Abstract:
The next generation of mobile networks (5G) aims to revolutionize the world of communication. New technologies and use cases spawn new opportunities. Many of the promised performance characteristics of 5G require that terrestrial networks are augmented by communication satellites. This paper describes where an integration of satellite and 5G will benefit both technologies.
Bharathkumar Ravichandran
Journal of ICT Standardization pp 235–246-235–246; https://doi.org/10.13052/jicts2245-800x.834

Abstract:
In the fifth generation mobile communication architecture (5G), network functions which traditionally existed as discrete hardware entities based on custom architectures, are replaced with dynamic, scalable Virtual Network Functions (VNF) that run on general purpose (x86) cloud computing platforms, under the paradigm Network Function Virtualization (NFV). The shift towards a virtualized infrastructure poses its own set of security challenges that need to be addressed. One such challenge that we seek to address in this paper is providing integrity, authenticity and confidentiality protection for VNFs.
Clément Vial, Vivien Gazeau
Journal of ICT Standardization pp 185–198-185–198; https://doi.org/10.13052/jicts2245-800x.831

Abstract:
Knowing the load of a transport system is one of the critical information of the operators and allows them to take strategic moves to optimize the line, involving more buses or changing the missions of the buses. Having this information in real-time and in the near future opens a new dimension in the management possibilities of the line. The paper describes a prototype that demonstrates this possibility and exposes the methodology used and some examples of the results. The study here presented was possible thanks to a new kind of data: the counting of passengers boarding and dropping out at each stop provide by sensors installed above the doors.
Journal of ICT Standardization pp 77–106-77–106; https://doi.org/10.13052/jicts2245-800x.821

Abstract:
Emerging Technologies like Artificial Intelligence (AI), Big Data, Internet of Things (IoT), Blockchain and 5G communications are innovation accelerators creating new products, processes and industries by disrupting the Information Communication Technologies status quo. International Standards Development Organisations (SDOs) and Standard Setting Organisations (SSOs) develop and evolve consensus documents of the state of the art and publish these international agreements as Standards. In this document the authors present uses cases where some of these emerging technologies can contribute significantly to achieving the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals.
, Bruce E. Peoples, Jaeho Lee
Journal of ICT Standardization pp 107-122; https://doi.org/10.13052/jicts2245-800x.822

Abstract:
Well-defined terminology and scope are essential in formal standardization work. In the broad domain of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) the necessity is even more so due to proliferation and appropriation of terms from other fields and public discourse – the term ‘smart’ is a classic example; as is ‘deep learning’. In reviewing the emerging impact of Artificial Intelligence (AI) on the field of Information Technology for Learning, Education, and Training (ITLET), this paper highlights several questions that might assist in developing scope statements of new work items.While learners and teachers are very much foregrounded in past and present standardization efforts in ITLET, little attention has been placed until recently on whether these learners and teachers are necessarily human. Now that AI is a hot spot of innovation it is receiving considerable attention from standardization bodies such as ISO/IEC, IEEE and pan-European initiatives such as the Next Generation Internet. Thus, terminology such as ‘blended learning’ necessarily now spans not just humans in a mix of online and offline learning, but also mixed reality and AI paradigms, developed to assist human learners in environments such as Adaptive Instructional Systems (AIS) that extend the scope and design of a learning experience where a symbiosis is formed between humans and AI. Although the fields of LET and AI may utilize similar terms, the language of AI is mathematics and terms can mean different things in each field. Nonetheless, in ‘symbiotic learning’ contexts where an AIS at times replaces a human teacher, a symbiosis between the human learner and the AIS occurs in such a way where both can exist as teacher and learner. While human ethics and values are preeminent in this new symbiosis, a shift towards a new ‘intelligence nexus’ is signalled where ethics and values can also apply to AI in learning, education, and training (LET) contexts. In making sense of the scope of standardization efforts in the context of LET based AI, issues for the human-computer interface become more complex than simply appropriating terminology such as ‘smart’ in the next era of standardization. Framed by ITLET perspectives, this paper focuses on detailing the implications for standardization and key questions arising from developments in Artificial Intelligence. At a high level, we need to ask: do the scopes of current LET related Standards Committees still apply and if not, what scope changes are needed?
Journal of ICT Standardization pp 123–150-123–150; https://doi.org/10.13052/jicts2245-800x.823

Abstract:
In this paper, we examine the challenges of developing international standards for Trustworthy AI that aim both to be global applicable and to address the ethical questions key to building trust at a commercial and societal level. We begin by examining the validity of grounding standards that aim for international reach on human right agreements, and the need to accommodate variations in prioritization and tradeoffs in implementing rights in different societal and cultural settings. We then examine the major recent proposals from the OECD, the EU and the IEEE on ethical governance of Trustworthy AI systems in terms of their scope and use of normative language. From this analysis, we propose a preliminary minimal model for the functional roles relevant to Trustworthy AI as a framing for further standards development in this area. We also identify the different types of interoperability reference points that may exist between these functional roles and remark on the potential role they could play in future standardization. Finally we examine a current AI standardization effort under ISO/IEC JTC1 to consider how future Trustworthy AI standards may be able to build on existing standards in developing ethical guidelines and in particular on the ISO standard on Social Responsibility.We conclude by proposing some future directions for research and development of Trustworthy AI standards.
Journal of ICT Standardization pp 151–184-151–184; https://doi.org/10.13052/jicts2245-800x.824

Abstract:
While projects, developments and applications addressing and using artificial intelligence (AI) are rather multifaceted and their number is constantly increasing, the standardisation activities in the field of artificial intelligence are limited, their number is significantly lower and does not increase at the same pace. The European funded project StandICT.eu aims at supporting European experts’ presence in and contributions to international standardisation activities in ICT. The focus of the project is on the 5 priority domains identified by the European Commission (Cloud Computing, IoT, Big Data, Cyber Security, 5G) and on Artificial Intelligence while being open for other relevant topics defined in the annual European Rolling Plan for ICT Standardisation. The project has two main outcomes: (i) increased contribution of European experts in international standardisation through support by providing grants for planned contributions of successful applications of experts, and (ii) an online observatory of published standards and ongoing standardisation activities in the areas mentioned before. This observatory (called Standards Watch) is accessible through the project’s web site and open for contributions and comments from registered users. As part of the effort for the Standards Watch the projects has prepared a comprehensive analysis of the international standardisation landscape in the AI field, that comprises a description of the ICT standards and ongoing work at international level in the field of AI across the standardisation organisations already active in the field. In this article we will present results of our work where we have analysed the work of the 5 international and European Standards Development Organisations (SDOs) IEEE,1 ISO/IEC,2 ITU-T,3 ETSI4 and CEN-CENELEC5 developing standards in the field of AI. The first 4 bodies have already been active several years in AI standardisation at the time of writing this article. CEN-CENELEC has launched a focus group in 2019 which aims at producing a roadmap for AI standardisation. For these 4 SDOs information on their active groups, details of their work and the respective state/outcome is provided in the main part of this article. Followed by the same exercise for the two identified Standards Settings Organisations (SSOs): W3C6 and IRTF,7 their active groups and the respective state/outcome. With this information an initial analysis of the AI standardisation landscape as Q3 2019 is performed with the main outcomes that (i) the number of working groups chaired by Europeans is significant and (ii) that there is room for European experts contributing to ongoing and future standardisation work. The article is concluded by considerations on future priorities.
, Apostolis Salkintzis
Published: 1 January 2020
Journal of ICT Standardization pp 41-56; https://doi.org/10.13052/jicts2245-800x.814

Abstract:
Non-3GPP Access technologies such as WLAN technologies can be connected to the 3GPP core network like EPC (Evolved Packet Core) in various ways based on the operator’s business models and architectural preferences. The desire to provide this access to the 5G core network, currently defined in 3GPP, requires the design of new protocols and procedures in order to fulfill all requirements. This paper describes the current status of the specification in Release 15 of the untrusted non-3GPP access where the mobile operator does not trust the access point and tunnels all traffic to a trusted gateway in the mobile network. Further, the paper provides an outlook of the new Release 16 feature for trusted non-3GPP access, i.e. the mobile operator trusts the access point, as well as the feature for 5G core network access from WLAN devices with 3GPP credentials that do not support the Non Access Stratum protocol.
Published: 1 January 2020
Journal of ICT Standardization pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.13052/jicts2245-800x.811

Abstract:
During the early development stages of the 5G specifications by 3GPP, it was quickly identified that it is not possible to address all the use cases of the 5G System within the normal Release timeframe. Therefore, it was decided to split the work in two phases. The 5G Phase 1 work focused on the foundation of the new system while 5G Phase 2 focused more on the needed enhancements to address the use cases. The work on the security in 5G Phase 1 was ample enough to deliver all the needed mechanisms not only to secure the communication between the different entities but also to protect the privacy of the user. Therefore, it is expected that the work on 5G Phase 2 will unlikely have impact on the security mechanisms. Nevertheless, some of the new features in 5G Phase 2 give rise to subtle security challenges which may require enhancements to the existing mechanisms. In this article, we consider some of the 5G Phase 2 features and shed light on such security aspects.
, Betsy Covell, Devaki Chandramouli, Ali Rezaki, Atte Lansisalmi, Juergen Merkel
Published: 1 January 2020
Journal of ICT Standardization pp 57-76; https://doi.org/10.13052/jicts2245-800x.815

Abstract:
The 3GPP Rel-16 5G System focuses on enabling support for Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) for Industry 4.0. Building blocks of 5G supporting use cases and requirements from the manufacturing sector are extreme mobile broadband, massive machine-type communication, ultra-reliable critical machine communication, non-public networks, time sensitive communication, 5G LAN communication, precise positioning. While for all of them, security plays an important role, the focus of this paper is on the 3GPP Rel-16 architecture and security concept of 5GS Non-Public Networks.We conclude with insights on the challenges for using 5G in the Operational Technology Industry.
Published: 1 January 2020
Journal of ICT Standardization pp 29-40; https://doi.org/10.13052/jicts2245-800x.813

Abstract:
If you ask anybody what is the name of the card inside his mobile phone, he will for sure answer SIM card, without knowing it is an acronym for Subscriber Identity Module. But, what about the USIM (Universal Subscriber Identity Module)? The USIM plays a key role in the mobile telecommunication services since it brings a host of fundamental features that are now perfected for 5G. This paper gives an overview of the new functionalities offered by the USIM in 5G system including new authentication schemes, subscriber privacy, Steering of Roaming, UE Parameters Update over NAS, and Long Term Key Update Procedure.
Alec Brusilovsky, Ira McDonald
Published: 1 January 2020
Journal of ICT Standardization pp 15-28; https://doi.org/10.13052/jicts2245-800x.812

Abstract:
Current cellular architecture will not be suitable for 5G because it will not scale to the anticipated number of connected endpoints and their rich diversity. The distribution of the previously centralized Core Network (CN) functionality, e.g., Access Authentication and Authorization, has to be decentralized, leading to the demise of the most utilized tool of network security engineering, Physical Security Perimeter. The asserted and attested Platform Integrity of the network nodes that comprise the edges of the network, the network cloud, “network fog”, and the endpoints will allow mobile network operators (MNOs) to create Virtual Network Perimeters and allow highly reliable, diverse, and flexible 5G networks. This article describes the reasons for such network transformation, provides references to applicable standardization activities, and uses the examples of support for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) and connected automobiles by 5G networks to justify the need for Platform Integrity.
, K. Jijo George, Sivabalan Arumugam, India Nec Technologies India Private Ltd. Chennai
Published: 1 January 2019
Journal of ICT Standardization, Volume 7, pp 43-60; https://doi.org/10.13052/jicts2245-800x.713

Abstract:
Security Study and Monitoring of LTE Networks
, , Ericsson Vice-Chairman Of Etsi Nfv Isg, Docomo Euro-Labs Technical Manager Of Etsi Nfv Isg
Published: 1 January 2019
Journal of ICT Standardization, Volume 7, pp 141-156; https://doi.org/10.13052/jicts2245-800x.7235

Published: 1 January 2019
Journal of ICT Standardization, Volume 7, pp 127-140; https://doi.org/10.13052/jicts2245-800x.7234

Abstract:
Network Resource Model for 5G Network and Network Slice
Published: 1 January 2019
Journal of ICT Standardization, Volume 7, pp 81-92; https://doi.org/10.13052/jicts2245-800x.7231

Abstract:
5G Management and Orchestration Architecture Framework
Published: 1 January 2019
Journal of ICT Standardization, Volume 7, pp 185-194; https://doi.org/10.13052/jicts2245-800x.7238

Abstract:
Charging and Billing Architecture for 5G Network
J. Horner, , Standards Australia Policy Manager
Published: 1 January 2019
Journal of ICT Standardization, Volume 7, pp 225-248; https://doi.org/10.13052/jicts2245-800x.733

Published: 1 January 2019
Journal of ICT Standardization, Volume 7, pp 93-108; https://doi.org/10.13052/jicts2245-800x.722

Abstract:
Performance Assurance for 5G Networks Including Network Slicing
, , Ericsson Vice-Chairman Of Etsi Nfv Isg, Docomo Euro-Labs Technical Manager Of Etsi Nfv Isg
Published: 1 January 2019
Journal of ICT Standardization, Volume 7, pp 141-156; https://doi.org/10.13052/jicts2245-800x.725

Published: 1 January 2019
Journal of ICT Standardization, Volume 7, pp 81-92; https://doi.org/10.13052/jicts2245-800x.721

Abstract:
5G Management and Orchestration Architecture Framework
Published: 1 January 2019
Journal of ICT Standardization, Volume 7, pp 93-108; https://doi.org/10.13052/jicts2245-800x.7232

Abstract:
Performance Assurance for 5G Networks Including Network Slicing
Published: 1 January 2019
Journal of ICT Standardization, Volume 7, pp 127-140; https://doi.org/10.13052/jicts2245-800x.724

Abstract:
Network Resource Model for 5G Network and Network Slice
, K. Jijo George, , , India Nec India Private Limited
Published: 1 January 2019
Journal of ICT Standardization, Volume 7, pp 61-80; https://doi.org/10.13052/jicts2245-800x.714

Abstract:
IPSec: Performance Analysis in IPv4 and IPv6
Lars Moltsen, Rune Hylsberg Jacobsen, Fadil Inceoglu, Victoria Antoci, Lars K. Alminde, Per Henrik Michaelsen, Christian Ingerslev S, Michael Jensen
Published: 1 January 2019
Journal of ICT Standardization, Volume 7, pp 109-126; https://doi.org/10.13052/jicts2245-800x.7233

Abstract:
Positioning 5G Management Interfaces for Mega-constellations Management (MegaMan)
Peter Gl Hunn, Uk Accord Project
Published: 1 January 2019
Journal of ICT Standardization, Volume 7, pp 269-286; https://doi.org/10.13052/jicts2245-800x.735

Gayan Benedict, Reserve Bank Of Australia Chief Information Officer
Published: 1 January 2019
Journal of ICT Standardization, Volume 7, pp 195-208; https://doi.org/10.13052/jicts2245-800x.731

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