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Eva-Lena Lindster Norberg
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 11, pp 547-563; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-06-2016-0020

Abstract:
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an empirical contribution by exploring how secondary school students are governed and shaped when entrepreneurship is emphasised in school curricula, and if female and male students are governed in different ways through different techniques connected with entrepreneurship in school. Design/methodology/approach: This study takes its departure in Michel Foucault’s concept of governmentality. In total, 90 students in gendered focus groups from three upper secondary schools were interviewed about how entrepreneurship in school was implemented and experienced. The schools were geographically dispersed. Findings: The analysis indicates, the three schools included in the study provide different prerequisites for students to become an active subject. This partly depends on where the individual school is geographically located, but also on the students gender. When entrepreneurship in school is implemented throughout the entire curriculum, female students tend to adopt male-coded entrepreneurial abilities. The neoliberal agenda, with an aim of fostering entrepreneurial self, appears to have permeated the awareness of students, especially female students. Originality/value: First, the paper contributes with an empirical research regarding students’ experiences of entrepreneurship in school. Second, the paper contributes to a gender perspective on entrepreneurship in school. Third, the paper contributes to the understanding of how entrepreneurship in school is realised in a different school context.
Mark Christopher McPherson
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 11, pp 564-589; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-04-2016-0012

Abstract:
Purpose This paper, which is part of a larger study, aims to discuss from an ethno-cultural perspective, the notion of self-identification and difference pertaining to first and second-generation South Asian male entrepreneurs. In essence, previous studies have not explored this dimension to any sufficient depth. Therefore, evidence is unclear as to how ethno-culture has informed entrepreneurial identity and difference. Design/methodology/approach Adopting a phenomenological research paradigm, 42 semi-structured interviews were conducted with first- and second-generation Sikh and Pakistani Muslim male entrepreneurs in Greater London. A typology of second-generation entrepreneurs is developed and a research agenda proposed. Findings First-generation respondents regard the UK as home and do not suffer from shifts in identity. These particular respondents identify themselves as Sikh or Pakistani Muslim or a Businessman. However, the second-generation identify themselves via three distinct labels. Here respondents stress their ethnicity by using Hyphenated British identities or hide their ethnicity behind the term a Normal Businessman, or appear opportunists by using ethnicity as a resource to espouse a true entrepreneurial identity. Research limitations/implications The research environment within the Greater London area where the respondents are located may not be as generalisable when compared with other parts of the UK. Originality/value This paper offers a unique insight into self-prescribed identity and difference noted among London’s ethnic entrepreneurs.
, Fikret Berkes
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 11, pp 530-546; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-06-2016-0018

Abstract:
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the function of an Indigenous commercial fishery at Norway House Cree Nation as a social enterprise, and to examine its potential to enhance community economic development. Design/methodology/approach The research was conducted in three phases, and the outcome of each phase was used as an input for the next phase. In the first phase, questionnaire surveys were administered among commercial fishing households. In the second phase, semi-structured interviews were conducted with key informants, and in the third, with fisheries experts, food development experts and government officials. Findings Norway House Fisherman’s Co-op functions as a social enterprise mainly because commercial fishers contribute to local food security by sharing fish, and the Co-op operates additional businesses which contribute to job creation and community economic development. Research limitations/implications The study was carried out in only one community and commercial fishery from northern Manitoba, and the results will not be directly applicable elsewhere. Practical implications This research provides recommendations for further development of commercial fisheries at Norway House: fuller use of existing fish resources, value-added economic development and creative use of regulatory options. Originality/value The Co-op is identified as the engine of community development. It functions well, but there are additional opportunities for development, such as reducing the discard of lower value fish, which is consistent with indigenous Cree cultural values of not wasting resources.
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 11, pp 590-608; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-07-2016-0025

Abstract:
Purpose This study aims to intend to appraise the characteristics of returnee entrepreneurship and its contributions to development in form of transfer of knowledge and skills in the Nigerian context. Design/methodology/approach A case study approach complemented with situational observations was used. The lived experiences of two returnees were interrogated in semi-structured interviews for an in-depth analysis. Findings Findings illustrate the dilemmas and challenges returnee entrepreneurs from the developed host countries confronted in their entrepreneurial endeavors in the homeland. Originality/value This paper highlights the misconceptions around relocation of immigrants’ business people back to their homeland. It contributes to the growing literature on the social and economic impacts of returnee entrepreneurs (as opposed to diaspora and transnational entrepreneurs) to their homelands’ development.
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 1, pp 38-53; https://doi.org/10.1108/17506200710736258

Abstract:
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to offer the economic theory of clubs as a potential unifying paradigm for the study of ethnic economies and social capital. Design/methodology/approach – The paper examines the basic concepts of club theory, and reviews the empirical literature. It then applies club theory to the notion of social capital within the context of ethnic communities. It is argued that although various sociological frameworks of social capital and social networks have provided powerful descriptive models of ethnic and immigrant population behaviors, social capital needs to be examined from an economic perspective to increase prescriptive capabilities. Findings – Using club theory the paper conceptualizes the benefits derived from an ethnic grouping – among which social capital can be considered the most important – as a “club” good, supplied at the co-ethnic level and demanded by the various key stakeholders within an ethnic community. While these benefits are at least partially non-rivalrous, they have clear characteristics of excludability and therefore form a “pseudo-public” good. Four propositions are then offered regarding the behavior of ethnic entrepreneurs who draw from these important ethnic resources. Originality/value – This paper offers a new way to examine social capital within ethnic communities. It also provides an economic foundation to begin analyzing optimal economic and social structures within these communities.
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 1, pp 27-37; https://doi.org/10.1108/17506200710736249

Abstract:
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate critically the discourse that entrepreneurship and enterprise culture are inextricably inter-twinned with profit-driven capitalist endeavour by seeking to understand whether amongst some populations, the culture of entrepreneurship is more socially-oriented than profit-driven. Design/methodology/approach – To do this, a secondary analysis is undertaken of the results of the UK Global Entrepreneurship Monitor in general, and UK Social Entrepreneurship Monitor more particularly. It compares the levels and ratios of commercial-to-social entrepreneurship across various population groups and areas in the UK. Findings – The finding is that there are different cultures of entrepreneurship across varying population groups. Many marginalized groups are more socially-orientated than profit-driven. This is particularly the case amongst the long-term registered disabled (2.3 times more likely to engage in social rather than commercial entrepreneurship than the average UK entrepreneur), other non-White groups (2.2 times more likely) and the retired (twice as likely). Similarly, people living in rural areas display a greater propinquity to engage in social rather than commercial entrepreneurship than those living in urban areas. Research limitations/implications – The findings raise questions about whether it is appropriate to parachute into some populations a culture of commercial entrepreneurship that might be “foreign” to their enterprise culture and whether a focus on social entrepreneurship in the enterprise culture agenda will promote greater inclusiveness of populations traditionally under-represented. Originality/value – This paper is one of the first to document the varying ratios of commercial-to-social entrepreneurship amongst different population groups and areas.
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 11, pp 480-490; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-11-2015-0053

Abstract:
PurposeThis article draws on data from a qualitative study conducted in Italy that explored the effects of performance-related pay (PRP) among five hundred high school teachers. Design/methodology/approachQualitative StudiesFindingsThese results are consistent with theoretical predictions that monetary incentives for activities with a strong social impact may crowd out employee image motivation. This study documents that the use of monetary incentives is neither necessary nor desirable and the pay-for-performance does not affect the intrinsic motivation of teaching staff employees.Originality/valueThis work advances the conversation on relative pay in the field of Higher Education in Italy.
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 11, pp 491-513; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-11-2015-0052

Abstract:
Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the rise of a Chinese fashion cluster in Lombardy. Design/methodology/approach: Three approaches and descending levels of analysis are integrated: a quantitative analysis based on demographic data to highlight the evolution of the regional distribution of the Chinese community and Chinese entrepreneurship in Lombardy; a literature review to reconstruct the historical development of Chinatown in Milan; and few in-depth interviews and a survey to represent how the Chinese living in Chinatown perceive the changing role of the enclave. Findings: The Chinese in Lombardy are rising as a regional ethnic fashion cluster. This cluster is rising out of three major drivers: ethnic social capital as a source of community-based entrepreneurship; the crisis of traditional industrial districts in the 1990s as a trigger opportunity; and the trans-regionalization of the fashion industry as a main driver of its current development. The rise of this cluster is bottom-up. Research limitations/implications: The findings are based on a single case study. There are evidences showing that the Chinese are rising as regional and/or inter-regional clusters in other institutional settings. However, this study may benefit from comparisons with other institutional and national contexts. Practical implications: Chinese entrepreneurship may foster regional growth as a complementary source of cultural variety, internationalization and multi-regional co-specialization. Social implications: Entrepreneurship may foster social cohesion and collaboration. Originality/value: This paper contributes to existing literature by proposing a would-be theory of the evolution of regional ethnic clusters.
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 11, pp 438-455; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-09-2015-0049

Abstract:
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyze the potential of remote areas in Indonesia and find out the important variables that influence key success factors of Local Economic Regional Development (LERD) program in several areas. Design/methodology/approach A series of structured interviews were conducted with the chairman and staff of local government, academician, private sectors and locals who are induced to work together to improve quality of life, create new opportunities and fight poverty in Bau-Bau, Singkawang and Kupang. Subsequently, the results from the structured interviews were analyzed using qualitative analysis to arrive at the model of LERD in Indonesia. Findings The findings show that variables that influence the key success factors of LERD in this research are resources endowment, social capital and local support as independent variables; entrepreneurial strategy as moderating variable; and perceived performance as dependent variable. Research limitations/implications This study was conducted only in Indonesia which focused on local economic regional development in Indonesia. Despite this limitation, the findings of this study enable the construction of a general model that highlights LERD in chosen areas. The model is also expected to give an idea of how to develop economic region. Originality/value The paper adds to the literature on LERD by enabling researchers and practitioners to understand the model of LERD in Indonesia.
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 11, pp 456-479; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-07-2015-0036

Abstract:
Purpose: Startups play a significant role in improving societies. This paper concentrates on the concept of “startups” and attempts to present a more comprehensive view of this phenomenon. Also, the focus of this paper is on investigating enterprising communities and the startup ecosystem in Iran.Design/methodology/approach: The existing literature is carefully reviewed, definition and views are explored and the story of this phenomenon is told from the formation to the exit stage. The author elaborates the existing stages and challenges of startups in Iran. To do so, 65 tech startup founders are interviewed. Semi-structured interviews (SI) were based on previous studies mentioning the lifecycle of the startups, and were fully recorded. Moreover, secondary sources of data (SS) were used to support the findings.Findings: The paper classifies the extant theories of startups in two levels, i.e. macro level, and micro and meso levels. Also, it defines some steps for the formation of startups and studies the Iranian startup ecosystem. Last but not the least the paper contributes to the startup ecosystem of Iran which is changing disruptively, especially in the last couple of years.Research limitations/implications: Findings of this research shed light on the existing ecosystem of startups in Iran, which is rarely studied in previous research. Lack of enough evidence in the existing literature of startup ecosystem in Iran was the most significant limitation of the research which increased the need for more investigation and elaboration.Originality/value: The paper contributes to understanding the startup ecosystem in Iran, and the challenges.
Gisele M. Arruda,
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 11, pp 514-528; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-08-2015-0041

Abstract:
Purpose: This paper aims to place a discussion of traditional knowledge and the indigenous voice within the framework of Arctic governance.Design/methodology/approach: The study involves literature review spanning different disciplines and highlighting important case studies.Findings: The advance of low-cost, portable technology has brought about tremendous opportunities for indigenous people. Knowledge and observation are no longer monopolised by scholars, filmmakers or politicians based in the West. Film has proved to be a powerful tool for cultural preservation while the internet (video sharing sites and social media platforms in particular) have empowered local communities and facilitated their involvement in political activism and local governance. New ways to represent themselves have been a crucial step forward, yet the new goal is to work towards greater recognition of the “indigenous voice” and ensure traditional knowledge is not treated as anecdotal and irrelevant in managing Arctic affairs..Research limitations/implications: The conclusions reached in the discussion need to be further explored by extending the research into Inuit communities to survey how technology can facilitate and impact collaborative forms of governance in the Arctic.Practical implications: This research provides an increased understanding of how technology transforms power relations. Policymakers can see that the indigenous community in the Arctic is not lodged in the past. Their increased use of new technology can serve as an effective oversight of political decisions and economic initiatives, particularly those relating to oil and gas exploration in the region.Social implications: Indigenous views and knowledge are literally crossing borders through media. Initially perceived as a cultural threat, film, video and internet are now regarded as powerful technology tools for cultural preservation and empowerment of local communities. In other words, the modern communication patterns are a crucial mean of indigenous population take part of the current global debate, express their concerns, reinforce their values and traditions and have an active voice in the globalised world.Originality/value: This paper illustrates how technology helps indigenous communities to address different economic, environmental, cultural, educational, research and other issues in the Arctic. Robust evidence is presented to support the call for traditional knowledge to become an integral part of decision-making processes across all institutions of governance in the Arctic.
Leo‐Paul Dana, Leo‐Paul Dana, Aldene Meis‐Mason, Aldene Meis‐Mason, Robert B. Anderson, Robert B. Anderson
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 2, pp 151-167; https://doi.org/10.1108/17506200810879970

Abstract:
Purpose: To learn how Inuvialuit people feel about the oil and gas activities on their land.Design/methodology/approach: Interviews were administered to a stratified sample, on Inuvialuit land. Participants included: Inuvialuit elders; entrepreneurs; public servants; employees of the private sector; managers of oil companies; unemployed persons; housewives; the mayor of Inuvik; and the first aboriginal woman leader in Canada.Findings: It was reported that oil and gas industry activities are having a positive impact on the regional economy, creating indirect as well as direct financial benefits for the Inuvialuit among others. However, some residents qualified their support saying that they are in favour of continued activity only if benefits filter to them as opposed to being enjoyed only by oil companies and migrant employees. Concern was also expressed for the environment and for the threat that development brings to wildlife upon which people rely on as a food source.Research limitations/implications: This study should have a longitudinal follow‐up.Practical implications: While oil and gas exploration and the building of a pipeline may have economic advantages, this might have social, cultural and environment costs for the Inuvialuit.Originality/value: The paper illustrates how oil and gas activities on Inuvialuit land will transform the lives of these people.
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 11, pp 113-128; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-02-2015-0016

Abstract:
Purpose: This purpose of this paper is to introduce and analyze the concept of place-based business models, by which entrepreneurs use highly context-specific strategies and linkages to a “sense of place” as sources of value creation. To illustrate how place-based business models create unique value, case studies are reviewed from three sectors in Italy: Slow Food (Coop Italia and Eataly), agritourism (Spannocchia) and the albergo diffuso (Sextantio). Design/methodology/approach: This is a conceptual paper with case studies from qualitative data and external sources. Findings: The case studies demonstrate the value-creating potential of opportunities for the implementation of place-based business models. In contrast with conventional harm reduction perspectives, these models show how organizational contributions to local and regional resilience may also directly generate competitive advantage. The cases also illustrate challenges such as scaling up while maintaining authenticity, and coping with the public goods-nature of place-based resources. Originality/value: Conventional management theory and practice treat environmental context as a distraction from which the technical core of the organization must be protected. Place-based business models diverge from convention by using tight coupling with local context to create value, enhance local economic resilience and contribute to a “sense of place”.
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 11, pp 129-148; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-12-2014-0028

Abstract:
Purpose This paper aims to examine the experiences of an ecopreneurial venture that was operating before, during and after the 2010-2011 series of earthquakes in Christchurch, New Zealand. The aim is to elucidate on the tension existing between an ecopreneur’s personal green values/ethics and his need to be resilient and do what was necessary to ensure his business’s survival, which was operating before, during and after an extreme event – the 2010-2011 series of earthquakes in Christchurch, New Zealand. Design/methodology/approach The data are gathered from a longitudinal case study of Just Organic Ltd (an organic fruit and vegetable delivery service) over a five-year period which covers time before and after the earthquakes. Data were gathered via two in-depth face-to-face interviews with the ecopreneur, along with a number of email and telephone follow-ups. Findings Findings indicate that an extreme event such as an earthquake will inhibit the green values of an ecopreneur as the ecopreneur works to ensure business survival. To continue to operate successfully, the ecopreneur developed a resilient and hardy nature and adapted operational processes to run in a more entrepreneurial fashion. It would seem that holding firmly to green values irrespective of a changed business environment is detrimental to business viability and survivability. The ecopreneur bounced forward, rather than bouncing back from the disaster. Research limitations/implications The implications for research, policy makers and ecopreneurs and entrepreneurs in general are discussed. There are lessons to be learned from the experiences of the ecopreneur who is operating Just Organic Limited. Originality/value This paper is one of the few that has examined the impact the Christchurch earthquakes had on an existing eco-business. The longitudinal data enable a unique insight into the operational aspects of an eco-business before and after a series of earthquakes.
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 11, pp 78-94; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-02-2015-0017

Abstract:
Purpose: This paper aims to demonstrate the potential of virtual communities in enabling community-based entrepreneurship and resilience. Resilience is an important attribute for a community to overcome adverse circumstances it may face. Design/methodology/approach: Weaving together diverse strands of scholarship, the authors show how virtual communities centered around specific interests (Obst et al., 2002) can endow geographic communities with resilience. Findings: The paper establishes the desirability of resilience in contemporary communities, which can be enhanced through internet-mediated entrepreneurship. Five specific phenomena are identified as facilitating the emergence of community-based entrepreneurship through membership in virtual communities. Community-based entrepreneurship can augment or even replace institutional support that has until recently been considered by policy makers as the only means of addressing resilience issues, especially in disadvantaged communities. Research limitations/implications: This paper is conceptual in nature; the conceptualization provides a rich opportunity to empirically validate the argumentation advanced here. Social implications: This research points to major policy implications, as internet-enabled, community-based entrepreneurship may be an important key to overcome many of the adverse circumstances faced by communities the world over, such as climate change, terrorism and paucity of funds for social action. Originality/value: The paper contributes to the literature on community-based entrepreneurship by developing the notion of internet-enabled community resilience, showing how internet-enabled communities can prompt entrepreneurial behavior and result in the enhanced resilience of geographic communities.
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 11, pp 95-112; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-02-2015-0020

Abstract:
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to understand the processes whereby social entrepreneurs can contribute to community resilience and sustainability. Design/methodology/approach The study used a qualitative case study approach with 15 island communities located off the north and west coasts of Scotland and who were engaged in the development and implementation of renewable energy initiatives. Findings Peripheral communities provide an environment where entrepreneurial activities can flourish. Through a model of social enterprise, they were able to develop the necessary mechanisms to increase socio-economic resilience. The study indicates the importance of social capital in this process. Research limitations/implications External networks provide part of the framework to overcome market imperfections caused by distance and remoteness so that social entrepreneurs can develop their ability to build resilience and sustainability. More research is needed on how this framework can be utilised. Social implications In spite of the challenges presented in remote areas, these communities have shown the ability to adapt. This is an important component of resilience building. Originality/value This paper makes a unique contribution to the knowledge base through the interconnected concepts of social entrepreneurship and social capital. It provides new empirical insights into social enterprises and describes the mechanisms that help to build resilient rural communities in the context of renewable energy endeavours.
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 11, pp 39-60; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-01-2015-0014

Abstract:
Purpose: This paper aims to explore the relationship between entrepreneurship and resilience in an indigenous context. The overarching research questions are: What are the mechanisms that link entrepreneurial thought and action to resilience in a marginalized context? How can entrepreneurial thought and actions lead to building economic, community and cultural resilience?Design/methodology/approach: An exploratory-naturalistic case study methodology was used to examine the entrepreneurial journey of the Boruca. Data were collected from in-depth semi-structured and unstructured interviews among 10 informants over a five-year period. Constant comparative method was used to analyze the data.Findings: Due to the need to survive, the Boruca engaged in entrepreneurial thought and action, which, in turn, led to the development of community, cultural and economic resilience. The authors developed a conceptual model to illustrate how individual resiliency gained through entrepreneurial thought and action led to community, cultural and economic resiliency of the Boruca.Research limitations/implications: This paper examines the entrepreneurial journey of one of the eight indigenous tribes of Costa Rica. Future research should expand their sample to include the other indigenous contexts.Practical implications: From a practical standpoint, this paper suggests the need for entrepreneurial training among indigenous businesses as a key factor in developing resiliency. This is applicable for non-profit, for-profit and public organizations interested in preserving world ethnic cultures and empowering indigenous people.Social implications: Gaining deeper and richer insights into the linkages of resilience and entrepreneurial success is important for supporting efforts of those seeking to forge pathways out of poverty.Originality/value: This paper suggests a different view of the relationship between resilience and entrepreneurship when the context is outside of the resource-rich context of the developed world.
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 11, pp 2-19; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-01-2016-0002

Abstract:
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to introduce the special issue on links between entrepreneurship and resilience. Design/methodology/approach The authors discuss some key themes in this emerging area of research and reflect on how the papers in the issue contribute to debates in the literature on resilience. Findings While the papers in the special issue make important contributions, there is still scope for more research. Originality/value This is one of the first issues of a journal devoted to investigating this topic.
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 11, pp 149-165; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-01-2015-0013

Abstract:
Purpose Since 4 September 2010, the greater Christchurch region has endured a series of destructive earthquakes. As a result, food resilience, as a component of community resilience, has become highly relevant. This paper aims to explore the role of social entrepreneurs and the local food system in building community resilience. Design/methodology/approach Using a quasi-case study method, four social enterprise food initiatives are presented to illustrate conceptually how these local food systems contribute to community resilience in the post-earthquake context in Christchurch. Findings The results suggest that a generation of social entrepreneurs have emerged, giving rise to networked local food system initiatives that share the common goals of building multiple and unique forms of capital (human, social, natural, financial and physical). In doing so, they have contributed to creating conditions that support community resilience as both a process and an outcome in post-earthquake Christchurch. Research limitations/implications This research included only four enterprises as the case study, all located in central Christchurch. As such, the results are indicative and may not represent those found in other contexts. Practical implications The research suggests that social entrepreneurs make a significant contribution to both enhancing food security and building community resilience post-disaster. How policy infrastructure can empower and enable entrepreneurs’ post-disaster warrants further consideration. Social implications Collectively, the four enterprises included in the research were found to have created local solutions in response to local problems. This embeddedness with and responsiveness to the community is a characteristic of resilient communities. Originality/value Post-earthquake Christchurch is a living laboratory in relation to understanding community resilience. The processes by which it is occurring, how it is sustained over time and the shapes it will take in the future in such a dynamic environment are not yet understood. This paper contributes to understanding local food systems as part of this process.
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 11, pp 186-210; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-02-2015-0015

Abstract:
Purpose: The purpose of this paper, according to the evolutionary perspective of resilience, is to provide a revised adaptive cycle model that explains how organisations that are embedded in a local system can foster their resilience.Design/methodology/approach: An exploratory case study analysis was carried out. The study adopted the methods and principles proposed by Eisenhardt (1989). Case studies were selected according the match-pair method and consist of two Italian wineries operating into the same wine cluster. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected and analysed through descriptive statistics and qualitative data analysis techniques.Findings: The study proposes a revised model for the resilience strategies of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) which combines firm and cluster level. Findings show that the resilience of SMEs is primarily driven by internal resilience strategies, and their surviving and adapting capacity, from a certain point of the evolutionary cycle, is fostered by internal decisions rather than by the influence of the external environment.Research limitations/implications: The study has some limitations. In particular, the exploratory survey does not permit the generalisation of results, and further empirical evidence is required. This research represents an initial step toward the development of a more exhaustive understanding of how the relationship SMEs-cluster can positively or negatively affect the resilience of organisations.Practical implications: The proposed model for the resilience strategies of SMEs offers also insights for managers and entrepreneurs.Originality/value: This study significantly contributes to theory on resilience in the management field, that is largely related to economic geography, while investigations about the resilience at the firm level are limited and inconclusive.
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 11, pp 61-77; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-01-2015-0008

Abstract:
Purpose: This paper aims to contribute to entrepreneurship theorising by highlighting the salience of feminine caring positions in creating novel entrepreneurial roles and investigating how these roles contribute to community resilience. Using a critical feminist economics lens, alternative conceptualisations of the economy are expanded upon to reveal how an economic externality influences entrepreneurial discourse, gender roles and community resilience.Design/methodology/approach: In this interpretive approach, empirical evidence is drawn from six months of intensive ethnographic research with 20 tourism handicraft micro-entrepreneurs in Crete and Epirus, Greece, in 2012 and hence in the context of a macroeconomic crisis. Ethnographic interviewing and participant observation are used as the methods to achieve the research objectives.Findings: Thematic analysis is used to investigate how gender roles and entrepreneurial roles interact and how this interaction influences community resilience to an economic crisis. Using the critical theory to critique neoclassical economics interpretations of entrepreneurship, it becomes evident that politico-economic structures perpetuating feminised responsibility for social reproduction configure feminine entrepreneurial roles, and these roles have a positive effect on increasing community resilience. By conceptualising entrepreneurial involvement as being primarily for community gain, participants highlight how feminine entrepreneurial discourse differs from the neoclassical economics entrepreneurial discourse of entrepreneurial involvement being primarily for individual gain.Social implications: This paper contributes to theoretical advancements on the role of gender in entrepreneurship and community resilience by investigating the entrepreneurs’ gendered responses to an exogenous shock. Providing insight into the role gender has in entrepreneurial adaptation and sustainable business practices means that new policies to combat social exclusion and promote rural development can be formulated.Originality/value: The theoretical interplay between gender and entrepreneurship is investigated from a novel angle, that of critical feminist economics. The relationship between feminised interpretations of entrepreneurship and community resilience is brought to light, providing a unique insight into entrepreneurial resilience.
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 11, pp 20-38; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-01-2015-0010

Abstract:
Purpose Exploring the links between resilience, sustainability and entrepreneurship from an indigenous perspective means exploring the historic and socio-cultural context out of which a community originates. From this perspective, informed insight into a community’s ability to adapt and to transform without major structural collapse when confronted with exogenous challenges or crises can be gained. This paper explores the interplay between resilience and entrepreneurship in a New Zealand indigenous setting. Design/methodology/approach The authors provide a theoretical and case study approach, exploring four intersecting leadership roles, their guiding value system and application at a micro kin family level through a tourism venture and at a macro kin tribal level through an urban land development venture. Findings The findings demonstrate the importance of historical precedent and socio-cultural values in shaping the leadership matrix that addresses exogenous challenges and crises in an entrepreneurship context. Research limitations/implications The research is limited to New Zealand, but the findings have synergies with other indigenous entrepreneurship elsewhere. Further cross-cultural research in this field includes examining the interplay between rights and duties within indigenous communities as contributing facets to indigenous resilience and entrepreneurship. Originality/value This research is a contribution to theory and to indigenous community entrepreneurship in demonstrating what values and behaviours are assistive in confronting shocks, crises and challenges. Its originality is in the multi-disciplinary approach, combining economic and social anthropological, indigenous and non-indigenous perspectives. The originality of this paper also includes an analysis of contexts that appear to fall outside contemporary entrepreneurship, but are in fact directly linked.
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 11, pp 166-185; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-01-2015-0005

Abstract:
Purpose The paper aims to examine the conditions under which disaster entrepreneurship contributes to community-level resilience. The authors define disaster entrepreneurship as attempts by the private sector to create or maintain value during and in the immediate aftermath of a natural disaster by taking advantage of business opportunities and providing goods and services required by community stakeholders. Design/methodology/approach This paper builds a typology of disaster entrepreneurial responses by drawing on the dimensions of structural expansion and role change. The authors use illustrative case examples to conceptualize how these responses improve community resilience by filling critical resource voids in the aftermath of natural disasters. Findings The typology identifies four different disaster entrepreneurship approaches: entrepreneurial business continuity, scaling of organizational response through activating latent structures, improvising and emergence. The authors formulate proposition regarding how each of the approaches is related to community-level resilience. Practical implications While disaster entrepreneurship can offer for-profit opportunities for engaging in community-wide disaster response and recovery efforts, firms should carefully consider the financial, legal, reputational and organizational implications of disaster entrepreneurship. Social implications Communities should consider how best to harness disaster entrepreneurship in designing their disaster response strategies. Originality/value This research offers a novel typology to explore the role that for-profit firms play in disaster contexts and adds to prior research which has mostly focused on government agencies, non-governmental organizations and emergency personnel.
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 11, pp 258-276; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-05-2015-0029

Abstract:
Purpose This paper aims to address the rural and gender gaps in the immigrant entrepreneurship literature by exploring the start-up stories of 18 female immigrants who currently run a business in northernmost Norway. Design/methodology/approach The paper is based on a qualitative fieldwork including business visits and in-depth interviews. The transcripts from the interviews were analysed using a constructivist grounded theory (CGT) approach. Findings Four modes of entry to entrepreneurship were identified: entrepreneurship as a way out of unemployment; entrepreneurship as a means to avoid underemployment, entrepreneurship as a means to live in a region of perceived attraction; and entrepreneurship as a preferred choice for women in satisfactory wage labour. In addition, the paper reveals the importance of family support and of spatial embeddedness among immigrant entrepreneurs living in a rural context. Practical implications This study notes that the modes of entry to rural immigrant entrepreneurship are diverse, but that they are often partly related to the pursuit of an initial feeling of belonging in the new region of settlement. Hence, developing the knowledge of how to not only attract but also retain and increase the feeling of local belonging of immigrants may be important for many rural regions in the Western world. This is because rural immigrants not only represent a much needed in-flow of younger people in a typically decreasing and ageing population but also entail cultural variation and job creation, thus contributing to place development. Social implications The paper argues for the importance of considering immigrant entrepreneurs as significant actors of rural development. Originality/value While immigrant entrepreneurship has emerged as an important field of study, it has been criticised for focusing predominantly on men and for neglecting contextual variations in the analysis. The rural context especially has been largely omitted. By focusing on female immigrants having established a business in a rural context, the paper adds to the literature, firstly, by highlighting the experiences of female immigrant entrepreneurs. Secondly, it reveals that rural immigrant entrepreneurship cannot be conceived in terms of “ethnic resources” or “enclave economy” that are often central explanatory dimensions in megacity studies. Thirdly, it argues for the importance of considering both the spatial as well as the family contexts in the author’s theoretical conceptualizations of the (immigrant) entrepreneurial start-up phase.
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 11, pp 393-413; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-12-2016-0046

Abstract:
Purpose This study aims to examine the entrepreneurial intentions of university students at the International University of Sarajevo. For this purpose, the entrepreneurial desires and entrepreneurial orientations of the students across several demographic variables were measured. These variables included prior entrepreneurial experience, student’s gender, faculty, year of study and attitude towards more courses on entrepreneurship. Nevertheless, the research also examined how business environment influences the entrepreneurial intentions of students by considering the same set of variables. Design/methodology/approach The objectives of this paper have been achieved by using a quantitative research instrument, where the cross-sectional survey method for collecting primary data is used. In total, 173 usable responses have been collected from the beginning of April to the end of May in the academic year 2015/2016. Findings The results indicate that the greater the demotivation with the current business surrounding, the smaller the entrepreneurial intentions of the students are when the prior entrepreneurial experience, gender, year of study and attitude towards more courses on entrepreneurship are considered. The study suggests that improving the overall business surrounding and entrepreneurial education might increase the entrepreneurial intentions of the students. Originality/value This is the first paper that treats entrepreneurial intentions of University students in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 11, pp 310-315; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-03-2017-0021

Abstract:
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to introduce the special issue about entrepreneurial universities. The paper focuses on the reasons for their importance in global communities. Design/methodology/approach The literature about entrepreneurial universities is reviewed with a focus on the role of communities, people and places. Findings Entrepreneurial universities need to consider the people in society in terms of how they relate to learning, education and teaching about new ideas and business practices. Research limitations/implications It is important in the increasingly connected global economy that universities be seen as the drivers of the entrepreneurial society, which helps place people at the centre of educational communities. Practical implications This paper has suggestions for educational managers and business people interested in connecting with entrepreneurial universities and their place in the society. Originality/value This value of this paper is that it includes the main ideas from the special issue in terms of how entrepreneurial universities are fostering a connected society that places people, places and communities at the forefront of the change.
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 11, pp 373-392; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-12-2016-0043

Abstract:
Purpose: Since the number of Entrepreneur Education Programs (EEPs) is constantly increasing, there is an ongoing debate on their effectiveness on entrepreneurial intention, but mixed results were found. This paper aims to analyse the impact of an EEP on the antecedents of the entrepreneurial intention in Ghana.Design/methodology/approach: Following the theory of planned behaviour, we analysed the impact of the EEP on 30 participants of the “E4impact MBA” managed in Accra (Ghana), using an explanatory approach with a mixed-method quasi-experimental design featuring pre and post-testing as well as methods for measuring students’ self-perceived change.Findings: Results show that EEPs strongly and positively affect some physiological characteristics, skills, and knowledge of participants, which are antecedents of entrepreneurial intentions.Originality/value: The study offers a perspective of EEPs programs in a fast-expanding market, covering the lack of studies on entrepreneurship in these areas, and it is focus on a post-graduate program covering the lacks of studies on these level of education.
Chanphirun Sam
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 11, pp 414-434; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-11-2015-0051

Abstract:
The paper aims to ascertain the governance arrangements of higher education providers in Cambodia and to seek insights into institutional governance while its higher education sector is in a significant transition towards the market model. The empirical research underpinning this paper applies a qualitative method, based on an interpretivist approach to inquiry. The study uses semi-structured interviews with 38 key research participants from relevant institutions. The data analysis follows a thematic coding approach. The study has found that despite their divergent governance arrangements, three forms of higher education providers – public institution, public administrative institution and private institution – have become increasingly similar because of their convergent trend towards commercialization and politicization. These two critical issues are considered threats to institutional development in Cambodia. The interviews were conducted with the key actors at leadership and management levels. This leaves room for future research to investigate the institutional governance issue at faculty and student levels to develop a deeper understanding about the on-the-ground implementation. This paper is a useful information source for policymakers, institutional leaders and educational practitioners. This paper addresses the under-researched issue of institutional governance in Cambodia and critically examines the assumption that devolution and privatization of higher education in Cambodia will help advance the sector for economic development. The paper contributes to the ongoing academic debate in the higher education domain while higher education institutions are struggling to sustain their place in the competitive marketplace.
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 11, pp 316-338; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-02-2017-0019

Abstract:
Purpose This study aims to explore and analyse the literature, related to the Entrepreneurial University, published in the ISI Web of Science, from 1900 to present. The objectives of this paper are, first, to describe how this field of research is organised in terms of publications, authors and sources (i.e. documents), and, second, to identify the main references cited and ways in which they are grouped (i.e. clusters). In addition, this paper discusses how this literature presents challenges. Namely, from this bibliometric study, what has already been studied and the limits of these studies, as well as the research opportunities for this area, can be understood. Design/methodology/approach The documents obtained from a search of the ISI Web of Science were subjected to a bibliometric analysis using VOSviewer software. Findings A systematic literature review showed that universities are increasingly dedicated to the commercialisation of knowledge. The results include three clusters: Cluster one – “Entrepreneurial Universities” focuses on changes in the university paradigm; Cluster two – “Academic Entrepreneurship” refers to the commercialisation of knowledge; and Cluster three – “Creation of Technology-Based Companies” focuses on spin-off creation. Originality/value By studying the citation profile of documents on the entrepreneurial university, this study has contributed to a better understanding of the flow of production and scientific practices since the beginning of the 21st century. This study also examined research tendencies to identify the emergent areas of this field.
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 11, pp 339-353; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-01-2017-0007

Abstract:
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the survival of university spin-offs (USOs) in Spain. First, the survival rates of USOs are compared with those of a group of similar firms. Second, the firm-specific characteristics of surviving USOs are compared with those of failed USOs. Design/methodology/approach The study is based on two subsamples consisting of 469 USOs and 469 non-USOs. A matching procedure is used for identifying a valid control group that allows for an outcome comparison between USOs and non-USOs. A longitudinal data set (2000-2010) is constructed, combining data regarding firm-specific characteristics and patent activity. The survival rates of both USOs and non-USOs are described first, and then, the firm-specific characteristics of the surviving USOs are discussed and compared with those of the failed USOs. Findings The authors find that the survival rates of the USOs are slightly lower than those of the non-USOs. In addition, the failed USOs have a longer average life span than the failed non-USOs. Finally, the data show that the surviving USOs are more likely to have venture capital investors, exports and patents than the failed USOs. Research limitations/implications This study carries out an explanatory analysis of the survival of Spanish USOs. As the results showed no significant differences between the characteristics of the surviving USOs and those that failed, except for subtle differences in the profiles of the two groups, it is necessary to analyse the underlying causes of this situation. Practical/implications In many countries, large amounts of public funds have been invested in the creation of USOs. This policy only makes sense if these firms increase the business value and create jobs. The support of USOs with a low expectation of survival or economic viability opens a debate on the amount of public funds invested in these firms. In the current context, funding obtained by these companies could be considered to drain resources from those projects that really deserve to be targeted. Originality/value The creation of USOs has become a mainstay of universities’ entrepreneurship strategies. Analysing USOs’ survival is therefore crucial for understanding the contribution of entrepreneurial universities to society. Survival is not another measure of this performance, but it is a pre-condition for university-based entrepreneurship to have an effect on society.
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 11, pp 354-372; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-01-2017-0006

Abstract:
Purpose Over the past few decades, higher education institutions (HEIs) have become key players in regional economic development and knowledge transfer, which has led to a third mission for HEIs and the entrepreneurial university. The purpose of this paper is to assess the challenges of HEIs in fulfilling the third mission for economic development and the changing role of being an entrepreneurial university, and the changes that need to be implemented to fulfill this new mission. Design/methodology/approach The authors have drawn on current literature to examine academic entrepreneurism and the entrepreneurial university, and how universities are fulfilling their third mission. Findings The findings from our review of the literature demonstrated the varied economic and social benefit of universities conducting external third mission/entrepreneurial activities in the community, as well as how the changing role and expectations of universities to become more entrepreneurial, has not only changed the expectations and role of university administrators, faculty and staff but also the business community which they serve. The review also showed the varied challenges for universities in fulfilling the third mission of economic development. Research limitations/implications Although ample literature and cases about universities’ third mission of economic development and the new entrepreneurial university (especially with research universities) were available, literature or research was limited on the specific challenges and obstacles faced by administrators, faculty and departments in fulfilling this mission, and few studies recommended changes that needed to be implemented in HEIs to support this new mission. Practical/implications The paper supports the potential role that HEIs play in implementing economic development in their communities or region. The paper also highlights some of the necessary resources and policy changes that policymakers and university administrators need to implement to reward and recognize faculty in conducting outreach activities as part of the university’s third mission. Originality/value The findings from this study highlight the challenges and barriers for faculty, staff and HEIs in fulfilling the third mission and becoming an entrepreneurial university.
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 11, pp 237-257; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-06-2015-0033

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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to review different microfinance products and services that can be offered to reduce the financial vulnerabilities of communities at risk. Following a detail literature review, the effectiveness of different forms of microfinance services in creating resilience in the affected communities was analysed and whether they can be applied to mitigate the risk of future disasters was assessed. In addition, the study was conducted to assess whether microcredit can help reduce direct risk exposure of the poor through income smoothing. Design/methodology/approach This study is based on a review of existing theories. Findings The notion that most vulnerable communities are financially weak is evident from studies. This study finds that microcredit can help reduce direct risk exposure of poor through income smoothing, while saving can help them recover from the losses of disasters. Our review also suggests that there is no specific model of microfinance services which can have a holistic impact on the financial capacity-building, particularly during the rehabilitation process. Research limitations/implications There are different categories of microfinance products with distinct characteristics and associated benefits to the communities. Some of the major microfinance products as identified in this study are, saving products, credit products and insurance products. These products have multidimensional benefits, as there are many approaches adopted by microfinance institutions (MFIs) and clients regarding the use of these products. However this study focuses on the use of these products towards resilience development in the community. Other applications of these products still need to be explored. Practical implications There is a need for a comprehensive financial tool that can be effectively applied to expedite the process of rehabilitation and reduce the financial impact of disasters on the community, particularly the poor. Major issues in the context of disasters faced by MFIs to design their products in the affected areas are also highlighted in the study. Social implications The study throws lights on different microfinancial tools such as microloans, microcredits and cash for work, etc. offered by banks and other organizations and highlights their role in the rehabilitation and reconstruction of those affected by disasters in different parts of the world. Originality/value This paper contributes to the discourse of microfinance and its social applications in developing countries. It provides original role of microfinance as a tool for creating community resilience to the impacts of disasters.
, Timo Toikko
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 11, pp 289-306; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-10-2014-0021

Abstract:
Purpose: This study aims to analyze the relationship between individualist values and entrepreneurial intentions. Previous surveys have shown that major national differences in entrepreneurial intentions can be observed within Europe and that part of this variation can be explained by cultural values, especially the individualism–collectivism dimension. However, previous findings about the relationship between individualism and entrepreneurship remain contradictory. Design/methodology/approach: This study is a micro-level analysis of the influence of individualistic values. The theoretical framework of the study is based on the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991, 2001) and theories of individualism advanced by Hofstede (1980) and Triandis and Gelfand (1998). The research data were gathered from a survey of Finnish students (N = 725). Findings: The results show that the relationship between cultural values and entrepreneurial intention is very complex. In contrast to Hofstede (1980), the study assumes individualism and collectivism to be two separate and independent dimensions of cultural values, both of which have a positive, indirect effect on entrepreneurial intention by way of subjective norms and perceived control. Practical implications: Both individualist and collectivist values promote entrepreneurial intentions. From this point of view, general citizenship education, which supports the development of young people’s cultural values, can be seen as a significant element in entrepreneurship education. This suggests an instance of holistic education, the aim of which is for individuals’ autonomy and contestability to be combined with community and collective responsibility. Originality/value: The analysis of Triandis and Gelfand (1998) has not been systematically utilized in the previous studies on entrepreneurial intentions. The findings of this study address not only the influence of psychological factors over entrepreneurial intentions but also the impact of individualist and collectivist values. The results complement the results of previous studies.
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 11, pp 277-288; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-08-2015-0040

Abstract:
Purpose This paper aims to explore the socio-political implications of climate change as the melting ice ignites new debates over territorial sovereignty of Arctic coastal states. Previously ice-jammed waterways are now open, and a number of recent geological surveys have identified new potential sites with vast energy resources. Competition over resources causes states to question each other’s jurisdiction over specific parts of the Arctic. What used to be internal waters of one particular state can now be referred to as international waters by other actors interested in the benefits of resource extraction. Arctic indigenous groups, especially the Inuit, and Sami are directly affected by the current governance patterns that are fragmented across too many different bodies dealing with maritime navigation, tourism, fisheries and administration. Design/methodology/approach The paper uses a comparative study based on literature review combined with regional reports related to climatic and social impacts analysed jointly with live elements provided by international conferences discussions, workshops and direct conversations in “petit comités” style held in Norway, Greenland and Canada in the period of October 2014 until the first quarter of July 2015, with the representatives of Sami and Inuit communities. Findings The paper demonstrates that Arctic governance is currently fragmented and the largest inter-governmental organisation in the region, the Arctic Council, has only advisory powers, and although its norm-making method helps with the design, it is not effective to implement Arctic-wide policies for responsible management of energy resources. Research limitations/implications The research considered methodological aspects like the difficulty in measuring the elements researched mainly when dealing with the diverse nature of responses from the indigenous populations to environmental impacts and the varied nature of effects in different studied areas. Practical implications As the Arctic is set to become the main global resource base and a major trade corridor, it is crucial to identify the dangers that poor institutional design can cause in relation to the control of extractive industries, sustainable development and the well-being of the region’s indigenous population. Social implications In addition to governance reform, social arrangements should follow to ensure the indigenous populations can also participate in the process to adapt and mitigate the impact of climate change on their traditional livelihood strategies. Originality/value The paper provides an overview on governance reform and social arrangements to ensure that indigenous populations can also participate in the process to adapt and mitigate the impact of climate change on their traditional livelihood strategies. As the Arctic is set to become the main global resource base and a major trade corridor, the paper identified the risks of poor institutional design in relation to the control of extractive industries, sustainable development and the well-being of the region’s indigenous population.
Bettina Lynda Bastian,
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 11, pp 214-236; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-03-2015-0023

Abstract:
Purpose Entrepreneurs interact with others and, through this, benefit from access to knowledge, resources and skills that enhance their own entrepreneurial and organizational capabilities. This paper aims to contribute to the literature interested in identifying and analyzing important antecedents of entrepreneurs’ choices regarding social relations. The study shows how the venture stage, innovativeness and internationalization of the firm potentially influence entrepreneurial choices regarding their social sources of advice. Design/methodology/approach The analysis is based on cross-sectional survey data for the years 2009 and 2010, involving 13 Middle East and North African (MENA) countries. Respondents include future prospective entrepreneurs, start-ups and owner-managers of operating businesses, a total of 13,251 respondents across all countries for the entire period. Findings Entrepreneurs with innovative ventures draw more on advice sources that are able to give information useful for the commercialization of innovative products, and entrepreneurs of internationally exposed ventures rely on a broad base of advice sources that can connect them with a foreign market. However, the outcomes regarding the impact of “different venture stages” point to social interaction patterns that are strongly influenced by local culture and that do not support the assumption of universal entrepreneurship behavior. This study shows that social interactions decline in quantity the more as the venture progresses in age. However, the type of social interaction (e.g. private or professional sources) that entrepreneurs engage throughout the different venture stages remains essentially the same and does not change across different entrepreneurial phases. In the MENA sample, private relations remain the most important source of advice throughout all phases, and they are not replaced by other contacts. Research limitations/implications Limitations of this paper refer to the use of a large-scale database that cannot address certain issues without more direct observation, such as the quality of different social relations. Future research could address this issue by offering more fine-grained items for the different advice sources. Originality/value The paper contributes to the debate on whether entrepreneurship is universal in nature. It focuses on data from emerging and developing countries in the Arab world, which is has not been studied very much in the entrepreneurship literature.
Mohammed S. Chowdhury
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 1, pp 240-251; https://doi.org/10.1108/17506200710779549

Abstract:
Purpose – This study aims to investigate the constraints that entrepreneurs face in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Bangladesh and suggests measures to remove the constraints to entrepreneurship development. Design/methodology/approach – Survey data were collected from 60 entrepreneurs to investigate problems and evaluate the effectiveness and relevance of the government policies and programs as perceived by the entrepreneurs. Secondary data were also used for this purpose. Findings – The findings indicated that to the extent that the political stability and rule of laws were enforced, infrastructure facilities were improved, and corruptions were rooted out, education and training were imparted, and financial help was provided, new and energetic entrepreneurs, for the development of SMEs, would emerge in the country. Research limitations/implications – This study implies that a positive environment through encouragement and positive reinforcement of a stable socio-political climate for a sound market economy and specialized schools of entrepreneurs will foster a positive climate for the development of SMEs in Bangladesh. The limitations of the study are that it does not concentrate on a particular company type and does not include a region comprising many cities. Originality/value – Built on theories and researches on entrepreneurship, this paper captures the essence of identification of the constraints facing entrepreneurs and facilitating the identification of implementable strategies and approaches necessary for the promotion and strengthening of entrepreneurship in Bangladesh, thus constituting an aid to the policy makers, researchers, and businesses for improving the various aspects of entrepreneurship in Bangladesh in particular and in developing countries in general. Further research can be undertaken in this direction.
, , Ellis I. Idemobi
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 2, pp 285-299; https://doi.org/10.1108/17506200810913881

Abstract:
Purpose – With the increasing research attention given to the culture-entrepreneurship research, the need to explore the apparently neglected cultures has continued to escalate. The Nnewi culture of Anambra State in Nigeria is a culture known for high incidence of productive entrepreneurship, but unfortunately has received limited research attention. Using this as a point of departure, this paper aims to examine the influence of cultural traits of the Nnewi people that propel entrepreneurial emergence and success. Design/methodology/approach – A survey of 30 owner-managers (chief executives) and 236 top management staff (cutting across gender, class, age and religious lines) of select Nnewi indigenously owned firms were surveyed. Findings – Culture had a strong and positive impact on the entrepreneurial and managerial performance of the Nnewi people. The critical aspects of the Nnewi cultural traits that propel entrepreneurial zeal and managerial performance include prudence, individualism, innovativeness, trust, intimacy and openness in the workplace, submissive apprenticeship as well as perseverance. Furthermore, the results suggested that the “Afia Olu” and “Ikwu Aru” festivals celebrated yearly, are the basis for the industrious cultural attributes of Nnewi people. Originality/value – The paper lends an “African voice” to the culture-entrepreneurship literature by providing an empirical basis for sub Saharan African (SSA) cultures to look inwards for the purposes of identifying social values, ethos, beliefs, and practices that could propel entrepreneurship development in the same manner the Nnewi community has evolved. Overall, the paper provides an update on a decade old enterprising community – Nnewi, drawing inspiration from other native communities such as the Taos Pueblo in North America and the Kibbutz communities in Israel.
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 2, pp 204-224; https://doi.org/10.1108/17506200810897204

Abstract:
Purpose – The purpose this paper is to determine the impact that culture and social capital has on indigenous entrepreneurs' business networking. Design/methodology/approach – A comparative case study analysis was undertaken on a three-nation sample of indigenous entrepreneurs in Australia, Hawaii and New Zealand. The specific research questions investigated were: does culture influence indigenous entrepreneurs' networking, and does social capital influence indigenous entrepreneurs' networking? Participants were stand-alone commercial operators. Findings – Reduced social capital for indigenous Australians resulted in active social networking to be a necessity in the operation of their basic business functions, the role of the family was negligible to negative, they were dependent on racial acceptance, they experienced little diversity in their networking, their business relationships were often that of dependence with a distinct separation between social and business networking interactions. The Hawaiians displayed a solid cultural capital base with spontaneous drivers in the interaction of relationships, networks were culturally accepted, the family role was supportive, a dynamic networking interaction ensued, networking was diverse and well maintained, they took an avid interest in their networking relationship which for many was personal and their networking relationships were highly integrated between their social and business spheres. Maori displayed a solid cultural capital base. Networks were culturally accepted, the family role was supportive, a dynamic networking interaction ensued with strong economic motivators, networking was diverse and well maintained, they took an avid interest in their networking relationship which culturally supported and their networking relationships were highly integrated between their social and business spheres. Practical implications – This research provides an increased understanding of the business environment for policy makers, NGOs, business support organisations and the indigenous entrepreneurs themselves. The relationship between culture and social networking which is stimulated or reduced by the presence of varying levels of social capital can and will assist the indigenous entrepreneurs in their business planning. Originality/value – This paper provides the reader with a new perspective on how the existence of social capital impacts on networking for indigenous entrepreneurs.
Karin Berglund, Anders W. Johansson
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 1, pp 77-102; https://doi.org/10.1108/17506200710736276

Abstract:
Purpose – The purpose of this research paper is to investigate opposing versions of entrepreneurship and to introduce a metaphor to stimulate a dialogue about the diversity and complexity of enterprising communities. Design/methodology/approach – A discourse framework is developed in order to describe dominating – and even new and challenging – versions of entrepreneurship. The discourse analysis is presented in three steps: the introductory text to a handbook of entrepreneurship is deconstructed to expose some basic assumptions of entrepreneurship; drawing on several research articles, some dominating versions of entrepreneurship are analysed; drawing on research articles which have recently been published in two special issues in entrepreneurship journals, alternative versions of entrepreneurship are analysed. Findings – This paper compares three dominating and three alternative versions of entrepreneurship. All the versions are related to the idea of entrepreneurship as a story of creation for our times, where it is implied that entrepreneurship appears to be something inherently good for society and for people. The versions share a common denominator but are also distinguished by different ontological and epistemological assumptions that make a dialogue between the versions problematic. Research limitations/implications – The results of this research paper have obvious limitations because of the methodology employed and due to the limited number of texts analysed. Originality/value – The concept of a discursive web to analyse the world of entrepreneurship is introduced.
Aree Naipinit, Thongphon Promsaka Na Sakolnakorn, Patarapong Kroeksakul
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 10, pp 346-362; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-06-2015-0032

Abstract:
Purpose The aims of this study are to study the problems and challenges of community enterprises; to analyze their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats; and to examine the guidelines of strategy management for community enterprises. Design/methodology/approach The authors utilized a qualitative method using in-depth interviews with 25 community enterprises and a focus group of 10 specialists to discuss strategy management of community enterprises, then analyzed the data using content analysis and descriptive analysis. Findings The study found that community enterprises face numerous problems, such as marketing challenges and the inability to transfer businesses to the next generation. However, the strong points of community enterprises include the involvement and support of a lot of government agencies and the opportunity presented by consumer requirements for the handicraft of goods and products. In this paper, the authors recommend eight strategic guidelines for the management of community enterprises; they also recommend that the government use the model of the Bangsai Royal Folk Arts and Crafts Centre of Her Majesty Queen Sirikit of Thailand to set up policies that support community enterprises. Originality/value This study will be beneficial for the Department of Agricultural Extension, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperative, Royal Thai Government, as a guideline for support of community enterprises in Thailand, and this study will benefit other countries with similarities to Thailand.
Michael William-Patrick Fortunato, Theodore Roberts Alter
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 10, pp 447-476; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-04-2015-0026

Abstract:
Purpose This paper aims to underscore the role of culture in situating and embedding opportunistic action differently in high- and low-entrepreneurship communities in the USA. It challenges the idea that opportunity is either exclusively discovered or created – two themes commonly found in the literature. Design/methodology/approach The approach utilizes a multiple case study across one high- and one low-entrepreneurship community in rural areas in each of three states – Pennsylvania, Wisconsin and Maine. Community profiling, key informant interviews and survey analysis with entrepreneurs and local institutional actors are used to develop a greater understanding of how these individuals conceptualize and utilize opportunity in ways that lead to entrepreneurship development. Findings Quantitative and qualitative findings are presented supporting the idea that in these rural areas, discovery and creation fail to capture the nuances of how entrepreneurs think about opportunistic action. Practical implications This research offers insights for both researchers and practitioners about more effective ways to think about entrepreneurial opportunity and provides a glimpse as to how different community actors may hold different, but equally-valid, views on how opportunity arises – an idea with significant policy and practice implications. Originality/value The research contributes empirical support challenging the current discussion on entrepreneurial opportunity and advances the conversation as it pertains to rural entrepreneurship development using original research from the field.
, , Gareth Wise, Banduk Marika
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 10, pp 397-424; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-10-2015-0050

Abstract:
Purpose Using an integrated framework for performance management of nonprofit organizations, this paper aims to present an analysis of the activities of an Indigenous social enterprise in the town of Yirrkala in northeast Arnhem Land in the Northern Territory of Australia. The evaluation focuses on the social effectiveness of the organization and its ability to help generate income and employment and drive social capital creation. Design/methodology/approach The analysis is informed by data derived from “yarns” with social enterprise staff and semi-structured interviews conducted with key informants who were selected using snowball sampling. Data were transcribed and analyzed thematically. Findings The analysis reveals that the organization provides a successful community-based pathway for increasing Indigenous economic participation on local terms at a time of regional economic decline and high levels of Indigenous unemployment nationally. Practical implications The measured effectiveness of Nuwul highlights the need for targeted policy support for Indigenous enterprises and that social entrepreneurship is far more likely to be successful in a supportive government policy environment, a critical need for government-initiated policies to encourage the formation of Indigenous social enterprises that are entrepreneurial and innovative in their solutions to poverty and marginalization. Such policies should not only aid the establishment of Indigenous ventures but also facilitate their long-term growth and sustainability. Originality/value Although Indigenous entrepreneurial activities have been found to be effective in addressing Indigenous disadvantage in Australia, little is known about their community impact. The article provides original empirically grounded research on the measurement of Indigenous entrepreneurial activities and their wider community impact. The data show, against the backdrop of mixed results of government efforts to drive Indigenous economic mainstreaming, that the entrepreneurial activities analyzed in this paper are an example of more flexible and culturally appropriate pathways for achieving Indigenous equality in rural and remote regions of Australia.
Tua A. Björklund, Norris F. Krueger
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 10, pp 477-498; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-10-2016-063

Abstract:
Purpose The emerging perspectives of entrepreneurial ecosystems, bricolage and effectuation highlight the interaction between the entrepreneur and the surrounding community, and its potential for creative resource acquisition and utilization. However, empirical work on how this process actually unfolds remains scarce. This paper aims to study the interaction between the opportunity construction process and the development of resources in the surrounding ecosystem. Design/methodology/approach This paper is a qualitative analysis of the extreme case of Aalto Entrepreneurship Society (Aaltoes), a newly founded organization successfully promoting entrepreneurship within a university merger with virtually no resources, based on interviews of six key contributors and four stakeholder organizations. Findings The opportunity construction process both supported and was supported by two key resource generating mechanisms. Formulating and opportunistically reformulating the agenda for increasing potential synergy laid the groundwork for mutual benefit. Proactive concretization enhanced both initial resource allocation and sustaining input to the process through offering tangible instances of specific opportunities and feedback. Research limitations/implications Although based on a single case study in a university setting, proactive concretization emerges as a promising direction for further investigations of the benefits and dynamics of entrepreneur–ecosystem interaction in the opportunity construction process. Practical implications Intentionally creating beneficial entrepreneur–ecosystem interaction and teaching proactive concretization becomes a key goal for educators of entrepreneurship. Originality/value The paper extends an understanding of creative resource generation and utilization in the opportunity construction process. The role of proactive concretization was emphasized in the interaction of the entrepreneur and the ecosystem, creating virtuous spirals of entrepreneurial activity.
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 10, pp 363-396; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-04-2015-0025

Abstract:
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to define the way of influence of national culture on the performance of entrepreneurship. As a possible channel of this influence, the perceptions of public policy by entrepreneurs have been analysed. Design/methodology/approach The data were collected from a survey conducted in 2014-2015, which consist of 207 surveyed entrepreneurs from Slovakia and 197 from Ukraine. The author analyses the perception of government policy in the field of entrepreneurship, institutional and personal trust and personal characteristics of respondents. Findings The main finding is that the coherence of formal and informal institutions in the representations of entrepreneurs affects the performance of their business. Perceptions of government actions seems to be endogenous to unobservable national culture. Entrepreneurs’ trust was found to be important in countries with different institutional environment. Practical implications Based on these findings, it would be possible to improve the stimulation of government policies for business by taking into account the most important types of policies for business performance in the definite institutional environment. Originality/value This is the first study in examining the exact mechanisms of the national culture’s influence on business development through entrepreneurs’ perceptions.
Torbjörn Ljungkvist, Börje Boers
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 10, pp 425-446; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-05-2015-0030

Abstract:
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to understand the interdependence between regional culture and resilience in family business-dominated regions. Design/methodology/approach The study is based on a literature review and helps to fill the knowledge gap regarding regional culture and resilience in family business-dominated contexts. Findings The authors highlight similarities and differences between two regions of Sweden with distinct regional cultures that support resilience. A number of norms that are significant in generating resilient regions are identified. One key finding is that the regional culture developed during the proto-industrial era, in connection with home production, still affects and contributes to resilience in these family business-dominated regions. Research limitations/implications The study is based on two case studies, so no generalizable conclusions can be drawn. Practical implications For policy makers, this study shows that structural crises can be overcome with a strong regional culture, as it can foster resilience. However, regional culture is hard to implement by political decisions. For owners and managers of organizations, this study suggests that it is essential to consider regional culture as an important factor for the organization. Originality/value This study draws on a comparison of two regions in Sweden with explicit regional cultures.
Rocky J. Dwyer, Ana Azevedo
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 10, pp 281-305; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-08-2013-0025

Abstract:
Purpose This paper aims to advocate the need for educational leadership to understand and consider the immediate role and challenges associated with the unique values and characteristics of an age-diverse population and their impact on teaching and the facilitation of learning. Design/methodology/approach The paper draws on the review of the generational and diversity literatures and related organizational best practices to identify key definitions and empirical findings and to develop recommendations which can be deployed in future research and practice in different types of organizational settings. Findings This paper provides insights into how organizational leaders can promote a multicultural environment that leverages multi-generational differences. Also, the present study offers innovative pedagogical approaches that can help better prepare future business leaders for these challenges. Research limitations/implications The study attempts to reignite the debate through a detailed review that describes the current understanding of generational differences among four generational cohorts. Given the research approach, the recommendations may lack generalizability. Practical implications This paper advocates the need to understand generational differences to manage the challenges associated with differences in attitudes, values and preferences regarding leadership, human resource practices and organizational change initiatives. Social implications Organizations which create environments that are value-based and that support divergent views and values of each of the cohorts, create a positive outcome for both the organization and its employees. Originality/value This paper enhances knowledge and understanding at the theoretical and practical levels, enabling business leaders and faculty to gain insight regarding the generational differences and unique characteristics of four organizational workgroups – Veterans, Baby Boomers, Generation X and Generation Y.
Muhammad-Bashir Owolabi Yusuf, Nasim Shah Shirazi,
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 10, pp 306-320; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-10-2014-0023

Abstract:
Purpose This study aims to examine the determinants of poverty among microcredit beneficiaries in Pakistan Poverty Alleviation Fund. Design/methodology/approach The study is based on a nationwide survey of microcredit beneficiaries of Pakistan Poverty Alleviation Fund. Using the national poverty line, this study classified borrowers into the poor and the non-poor. A Tobit model was estimated to examine the determinants of poverty among the borrowers. Findings The model was found to fit the data well and six out of the ten specified independent variables are found to be statistically significant. Practical implications The results of the study can be helpful in fully characterizing poverty dynamics and in policy formulation in using microcredit to reduce poverty. Originality/value The paper is the first to examine the determinants of poverty among Pakistan Poverty Alleviation Fund recipients.
Avichai Shuv-Ami
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 10, pp 249-261; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-11-2013-0038

Abstract:
Purpose This paper aims to present changes in customer brand commitment and its components in relation to the cellular and financial markets using three sets of data that were collected before, during and after the social protests of the Summer of 2011 in Israel. Design/methodology/approach The four data sets for this study were collected from an internet panel and represent the Hebrew-speaking segment of Israel’s population. The current study examines two markets; cellular provider companies and financial service companies. The surveys were carried out at different points in time which extended from April 2011 to March 2012. The first two surveys were carried out in March 2011 and May 2011, before the outbreak of the protests the Summer of 2011. A third survey was conducted in August 2011 during the protest. The last and the fourth survey was conducted in March 2012 after the wave of protests had died down. Findings The current research shows that as a result of the social protest movement, consumers have changed. They perceive brands as not being as good (perceived performance) as they were before the protest; they are less satisfied with the brands they used previously; and they are less loyal and committed to them. Practical implications The findings of this study signify a major change in marketing and in basic aspects of consumer behavior. Brands have become less important than before the protest. Testing two markets, cellular and financial, this research suggests that the social protest movement reduced the attachment of consumers to brands they most often bought. Originality/value No study has tested the impact over time of the social protest on several consumer behavior variables, including brand loyalty, brand involvement, satisfaction, consumer perceptions of their brands’ performance and brand commitment.
Jan Velvin, Kristian Bjørnstad, Erling Krogh
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 10, pp 262-280; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-08-2014-0015

Abstract:
Purpose This study aims to explore the shift in social and cultural values in the wake of ongoing change; specifically, the degree of embeddedness of these values among farm-based entrepreneurs. The authors examine how this value-change-embeddedness continuum can further the development of theories in the field of social entrepreneurship. Design/methodology/approach The authors use an exploratory and a descriptive approach when interviewing eight farmers and members of their respective households. The sample encompasses almost all the providers of farm-based tourism in this particular area of rural Norway. The empirical materials form the basis for selecting our theoretical approach, one of which is a structural life-mode analysis. Findings The findings show that the social value of self-reliance, when taken to extremes, can hinder the growth of deeper commercial cooperation between farmers. This constitutes a challenge to efficiency and effectiveness on a larger scale, given a need for both independence and interdependence together with flexible entrepreneurial network cooperation in social entrepreneurship. The findings also indicate that social entrepreneurship does not necessarily have to include a cognitive shift in values and roles for the exclusion of a productive entrepreneurial identity. Originality/value By focusing on value changes in social entrepreneurship, this paper addresses a significant gap in the entrepreneurship literature relating to the process of value creation. By using the structural life-mode analysis, this study identifies the underlying value changes that are fundamental to entrepreneurial processes, allowing that process to unfold and take hold to the betterment of affected farm-based communities.
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Volume 10, pp 226-248; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-10-2014-0020

Abstract:
Purpose This paper aims to study the different factors that determine the performance or success of small-scale, non-farm enterprises in Lesotho. Evidence shows that small-scale enterprises in developing countries are confronted with different challenges and problems that make them less viable. As a result, the capacity of small-scale, non-farm enterprises in employment creation, income generation and providing the means of livelihood to the poor people is not significant. In Lesotho, many people who are retrenched from the South African mines are absorbed in small-scale, non-farm enterprises to make a living. However, small-scale enterprises are faced with different challenges. The research findings suggest that factors leading to success/performance of rural non-farm enterprises in Lesotho include gender of the entrepreneur, age of the entrepreneur, ability of the entrepreneur to establish wider social networks, large population/market, availability of communication networks and infrastructure, participation of enterprises in the international market and costs of doing business and competition. In this regard, the paper makes policy recommendations that can be used to improve performance/success of small-scale, non-farm enterprises. Design/methodology/approach This research uses both qualitative and quantitative research methods to analyse data. Findings The main finding of the research is that foreign competition hinders the success of non-farm enterprises in Lesotho. The research findings further reveal that enterprises owned by women make the highest turnover compared to those owned by men. Practical implications This study brings in different factors that can ensure or hinder success/performance of small-scale, rural non-enterprises. Originality/value The research paper is of value in that it is the first study in Lesotho that considers different factors that determine business success in relation to employment creation, turnover and profitability.
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