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, Lame Elsie Othugile,
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/11377

Abstract:
Biomass is a source of low-cost adsorbents used in the removal of contaminants. In this study, shells from an indigenous tree in Southern Africa called Morula were pyrolyzed to produce biochar that was used to sequester heavy metals from coal wash water. The produced biochar was activated using hydrochloric acid (HCl) and parameters such as the cation exchange capacity (CEC), point of zero charge (pHzc), elemental composition, mineral composition, proximate analysis and surface functional groups were determined. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out at 150 rpm for 60 min and 25 ºC at different metal ion concentrations and adsorbent dosages. The metal ions of interest were Zn, Ni and Fe and it was found that Fe recorded higher removals for both raw and activated biochar. Generally higher removals were noticed for both raw and activated at lower dosages (0.2 – 1.0 g/100 mL) and lower metal ion concentration (between 40 and 60 ppm) while lower removals were found at higher dosages (1 – 5 g/100 mL) and higher metal ion concentrations (between 400 – 600 ppm).
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/11258

Abstract:
Modeling the estimation of cumulated methane production generated from batch anaerobic bioreactors is of paramount importance. In this context, there are two main modeling approaches. The first approach is based on developing mathematical expressions representing the processes involved in the bioreactors. The AM1 model is known as the most complete one. However, it is a complicated model as it requires about 80 parameters to be tuned. A model named AM2 which is a simplified version of AM1 has also been developed. It is based on only two microbial growth processes and requires only 13 parameters. Nevertheless, both AM1 and AM2 models do not provide explicit mathematical expressions that enable to estimate the temporal evolution of methane production with respect to the parameters involved in the considered models. These models are much more useful for simulations and graphical visualizations of the dynamical behavior of the state variables including methane production. On the other hand, the second approach suggests semi-empirical or data-driven models which are based on simple explicit mathematical expressions that provide an estimate of the cumulated methane production (Logistic model, Gompertz model, etc.). But, this type of models require the identification of few parameters which are extracted from experimental data. Usually, they are simplistic and use only one growth process and thus cannot exhibit the influence of the many parameters involved in such complex dynamic biotechnological systems. In this paper, to overcome the complexity of the first type of models and to avoid the dependency on experimental data in the second type; an explicit analytical mathematical expression is proposed for estimating the cumulated methane production for batch anaerobic bioreactors. This analytical expression is derived via the adoption of some appropriate approximations performed on the set of differential equations characterizing the AM2 model. Therefore, the proposed analytical expression can be considered as an approximation of the AM2 model itself and this is the first contribution of this paper. Graphical profiles of the cumulated methane production are presented showing that of the proposed logistic expression and that of the AM2 model considered as a reference. To the best of the author’s knowledge, no such approach and result have been encountered in the literature. On the other hand, this expression resembles formally to the semi-empiric logistic model. However, the equivalent parameters of the proposed expression as self-defined by the parameters of the AM2 model and do not require experimental data to be identified as it is for the semi-empiric logistic model. Moreover, by comparing the proposed logistic model to the semi-empiric logistic model, an identification of the parameters of the semi-empiric model is linked to the parameters of the AM2 model, providing more insight into the methane production. This can be considered as a second contribution of this paper.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/11202

Abstract:
Currently, (2019-2020) COVID-19 global pandemic is caused by a member of the Coronaviridae group. Some human viruses are spread from human to human by way of droplets or aerosols, but fewer viruses are persistently airborne in transmission, and the healthcare-associated epidemic of airborne viral infection are restricted to very few surrogates. In addition, it is one of the most efficient tools (i.e., the second one) for preventing inside air pollution through ventilation. To our aim was to perform a rapid literature review to answer the following question: does ventilation in healthcare facilities prevention of infection COVID-19? This study is a systematic review by searching among published articles in Embase, PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, PubMed Central (PMC), Google Scholar databases as well as medRxiv by using the following keywords: ‘COVID-19’, ‘healthcare settings’, ‘prevention’, ‘ventilation’, ‘Hospital, ‘Infection’, and ‘Air changes per hour. After investigating the information and quality of articles, 52 articles were included in this study. The literature denotes that temperature, relative humidity, and ventilation and air conditioning systems have beneficial effects to prevent COVID-19 infection. The results of this study demonstrated that many parameters basic strategy of control COVID-19 include: hand hygiene, social distancing, screening and case finding, isolation and separating, decontamination and disinfection, and effective ventilation. Thus, based on recommendations of CDC, WHO, and other studies effective ventilation is the most important transmission of respiratory disease control strategy, specially COVID-19.
, Sobia Siddique, Saddam Hussain, Tehzeeb Bano, Mehak Shahzad
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/11194

Abstract:
Human and educational development is a prerequisite for the socio-economic development of a country. Pakistan is struggling hard to enhance quality and access of primary education to children of all the regions. USAID’s partnership with local organizations and government has made gigantic efforts to raise level of equitable access to education particularly in less developed regions of the country through engagement in certain bilateral operations by providing assistance. Pakistan has multiple constraints in its educational sector; low budget, weak governance, corruption and insecurity. Since, it cannot overcome these obstacles without foreign assistance. This paper highlights the role and interventions of USAID in Pakistan for the improvement of primary education through secondary research methodology. Findings of the results shows that USAID has played a positive role in promoting the primary educational sector through improved curriculum, schools construction, teachers training and reduction in community specific barriers. Thus, it is concluded that USAID through its initiatives has driven towards fulfilling the gap in an efficient manner.
, Austin Anderson, Selso Gallegos, Fardad Azarmi
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/11132

Abstract:
Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D printing is a relatively new concept and promising technology for industrial production. It is important to investigate the environmental impact of the AM process in light of the environmental critical situation of the Earth. The elimination of some costly prefabrication processes such as molding or post-fabrication stages such as machining and welding required in traditional manufacturing methods favor the AM process and provide beneficial economic advantages. Furthermore, the reduction of manufacturing steps contributes to environmental protection through fewer operations, less material, and energy consumption, and reduced transportation. This study is a review for the assessment of environmental impact and life cycle of some well-known AM technologies for manufacturing metallic parts and components. The fabrication of a pump impeller is simulated through a well-known metal production AM technology and casting process for direct comparison. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is applied to measure the environmental impact in five different stages of pump impeller lifetime with the two different fabrication processes. AM compared to casting has an environmental impact reduction potential of 15%, 20%, 65%, 20%, and 10% respectively in Global Warming Potential (GWP), Acidifications Potential (AP), Water Aquatic Eco-toxicity Potential (FAETP), Human Toxicity Potential (HTP), and Stratospheric Ozone Depletion (ODP). Using hydroelectricity and renewable electricity mitigate the environmental impact of the AM process in pre-manufacturing and manufacturing stages temporarily until the advancement of AM technology for consuming less energy. Recommendations for future research to enhance the environmental sustainability of the AM process is proposed as outcomes of this study.
, Azmat Hayat Khan, Syed Ahsan Ali Bukhari, Khurram Riaz
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/11091

Abstract:
Numerical summaries of univariate climatic records, such as temperature and precipitation, are useful for making quantitative decisions for mitigation and adaptation measures. Climate simulations and projections often contain values that lie far away from substance of the data. These values can bias the summary statistics away from values representative for majority of the sample. This problem can be avoided by selecting ensembles approach as well as by using statistics that are resistant to the presence of such outliers. Hence, in addition to typical statistics, resistant statistics are used to investigate spatiotemporal changes in temperature and precipitation extremes over a versatile agro–climatic featured country of Pakistan, by engaging the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Projections (NEX‐GDDP) dataset under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5 that provides statistically downscaled Coupled Model Inter‐comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) climate baseline (1971–2000) and projections (2021–2050) based on Expert Team on Sector–specific Climate Indices (ET–SCI) method. The results show the following: (a) Shifts in the univariate count statistics under the RCP8.5 are highly prominent with 0.81 degrees deviation in 5th percentile and with a substantial 1.86 degrees deviation in the 95th percentile of the maximum of daily maximum temperature over the projected time series. (b) Standard deviation of historical summer days is placed at 3.7 days with a consistent change under the RCP4.5 emission scenario. Nevertheless, the standard deviation of the summer days hikes by 5.9 days under the RCP8.5 emission scenario. (c) A distressing condition is comprehended under the RCP8.5 emission scenario where changes of 16.5 percent in the 5th and of 19.7 percent in the 95th percentiles are revealed in the warm nights future projections. (d) The maximum rate of simple daily intensity of precipitation in the historical period exists at 0.2 mm/day, however, the RCP4.5 emission scenario thrusts that up to 0.6 mm/day in the projection period. (e) Under the RCP8.5 emission scenario, the standard deviation inflates by 36.4 days while range digresses by an enormous 95 days in the projection period of the consecutive dry days. The outcomes are of applied practice in improving local approaches for hydro–reservoirs and eco‐environment controlling, especially in the diverse climatic region of Pakistan.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/11092

Abstract:
Environmental ethics is a discipline, which specifies and analyzes how human being ought to behave. The significance of ethics is to provide guidelines for Subject-Object relationship (Ich-Es). Some may argue that “Ich-Es” is justified by environmental utilitarianism. The moral implications of environmental materialism/eco-individualism include modification of the ecosystem, scarcity of resources/energy, drought, flooding and extinction of species. The question is how eco-individualism would or environmental self be resolved if not eliminated? Applying the method of philosophical analysis, this research explores the ethical implications of eco-individualism. The objective of the research is to demonstrate how sustainable environmental education (SEE) could help to ameliorate the impacts of eco-individualism. Although sustainable environmental education is challenged by lack professional teaches and funds for its implementation but it reawakens environmental consciousness for the common good of humanity.
, Muhammad E. H. Chowdhury, Molla Ehsanul Majid, Azad Ashraf, Mazhar Hasan-Zia, Mohammad Nashbat, Aliyaru Kunju, Amin Esmaeili
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/11001

Abstract:
The Wind has the potential as an alternative source of renewable energy. Natural wind from the earth’s atmosphere is captured before converted into mechanical energy and then electrical energy. This paper presents a comparison of the efficiency of the horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) and vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT). The efficiency is determined using SOLIDWORKS Flow Simulation considering the wind scenario, a constant wind speed of 5 km/h with constant wind direction. It has been found that the drag coeffiecient of HAWT, VAWT–Savonius and VAWT– Darrieus are 0.5175, 0.2605 and 13.5622 respectively. This paper also proposes building a wind farm in Seamatan where the average wind speed is highest in Sarawak, Malaysia ranging from 4 km/h to 9 km/h.
, Patrick U. Okoye, Akindele Okewale, Kristinoba Olotu, Oluwasegun Muniru
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/11002

Abstract:
Biodiesel researchers need to understand the optimal conditions involved in the production of biodiesel from readily available biological sources, as several research works have reported on biodiesel production. Therefore, this paper emphasizes specifically, the process parameters involved in biodiesel production and how they affect biodiesel yields. These parameters include, but not limited to the feedstock selection, catalyst type to use, free fatty acid, temperature, kinetics, hydrodynamics and reactor conditions. In biodiesel synthesis, a high fatty acid methyl ester yield of up to 100%w/w at 60 oC has been reported, which occurred with a methanol to oil molar ratio of 3.75, and 60 min reaction time. Homogeneous catalysts seems promising for the production of biodiesel, although they possess disposal challenges and reusability issues. In addition, carbon-based catalysts from natural sources have been used to resolve the presence of free fatty acids in biodiesel synthesis that results in the formation of soap. These carbon-derived catalysts prove their efficiency when modified with acids. The reactor suitable for biodiesel reaction, assume several configurations, like the batch, fixed bed and semi-batch configurations, with their respective reaction conditions. Furthermore, in the design of a hydrodynamic cavitation reactor operating on the rotor-stator mechanism, research has shown that the ratio of rotor to stator diameter Dr/Ds is maintained at 0.73 for efficient operation. Hence, a proper understanding of the process chemistry and techniques involved in biodiesel synthesis would ensure a high desired yield and sustainable process route.
, Austin Anderson, Behnaz Rezaie
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/10952

Abstract:
Life without water is not possible on the earth, while modern humans need water not only for drinking, sanitization, and agriculture but also for industrial activities including electricity and cooling generations. Hence, emphasis on water sustainability through different sectors including thermoelectric and cooling plants is an intelligent strategy while the tight connections of water and energy guide study towards energy-water nexus investigations. Cooling towers are equipment for dissipating the excess heat by water evaporation or they hidden gates for wasting water. The objective of the present study is to elaborate on the role of cooling towers in improving environment sustainability by presenting various methods of energy and water modeling, categorizing various methods for modifying water and energy consumptions through past studies and mapping future studies. regarding cooling towers. Presenting a history of energy-water modeling methods of cooling towers, the Markel, the Poppe, and the effectiveness– Number of Transfer Unit (NTU) models, has followed by assessing the environmental impact of cooling towers in the form of excess water consumption, plume, and energy usage. Summarizing and organizing the past efforts for upgrading water management in cooling towers have been in two directions either providing more water supply, or modifications of the cooling tower to use less water. Then the different methodologies for each direction are introduced for further elaborations. This study’s practical outcome is proposing the methods of improving water sustainability for any cooling towers from past studies to assist engineers in the industry in modifying cooling towers water consumption. Showing the roadmap for the planning future investigations on the cooling towers based on the past efforts is another outcome of the present study to provide an insight for academia with research interest on cooling towers.
, Ana Carolina Gomes Mantovani, Darcio César Constante, Eduardo Di Mauro
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/10953

Abstract:
Biodiesel is a relevant source of renewable energy which has received a lot of attention due to the need to create a renewable fuel matrix. An important source of raw material for the biodiesel production is oilseeds. Considering the lack of studies characterizing magnetic species present in seeds, different types of oilseed samples were characterized and compared using X-band Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectroscopy, at room temperature and 30 K. It was identified the presence of the semiquinone radical in all seed’s samples. Besides the free radical resonance, the presence of ferritin was observed, that is an important Fe complex present in seeds and plants, which, although very studied, still lacks a precise description related with its storage and other processes. This study can potentially assist future research about biodiesel and other products that have seeds as raw material.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/10951

Abstract:
The current study presents an estimated environmental impact of CO2 emissions in the cargo transport process in the road modal, as part of the logistics chain for the distribution of horticultural items, highlighting the production of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), peppers (Capsicum annuum) and cucumbers (Cucumis sativus), from production centers in several Brazilian states to a food distribution center in Teresina, Northeast Brazil. In the next step, we added fresh vegetables purchased by an urban hospital at the distribution center to analyze the city’s food distribution system’s environmental impact. The data used were obtained at the distribution center Nova Ceasa and at an urban hospital to complete the last stage of the food distribution, corresponding to 2019. The Global Warming Potential (GWP) impact values correlated with horticulture production were recovered from the literature related to open-field vegetable crops under similar agricultural conditions. We computed the quantity of vegetables produced on-field, the distances traveled, the on-road transportation fuel, and the environmental impact using the GWP calculator. The study found a wide range of GWP values. From the studies and analyzes, the results indicated that the impact of GWP is greater in the production phase in the field, followed by urban transport except for fresh tomatoes. The tomato results showed greater environmental impact in the transport of more distant products and smaller quantities. Results suggest that crop production and the long traveled distances are the main factors in the environmental impact. We also concluded that the greater the amount of product transported in a trip, the lower the environmental impact.
, Delia Chilabade, Busiswa Ndaba, Sanette Marx
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/10875

Abstract:
Baobab (Adansonia digitata) is a promising bio-resource distributed across Africa. A variety of biofuels such as biodiesel, bioethanol, bio-oil and biogas can be prepared from feedstock derived from baobab. In this vein, different parts of baobab plant, for instance oil, fruit shells, and seed cakes can be utilized for biofuel synthesis. In this study, novozyme-435 (CAL-B) was used as a biocatalyst for biodiesel production. Oil to biodiesel conversion of 91.8±2.6% was obtained within 6 h reaction time at 50 °C when the molar ratio of oil to methanol was maintained at 1: 3. Biocatalysts are non-toxic and biodegradable, therefore sustainable for the process. The results showed potential use of baobab oil as a feedstock for biodiesel production.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/10843

Abstract:
Coastal and marine environments provide ecosystem services related to human well-being. However, the link between these ecosystem services and lifestyle of nearby populations is rarely recognized. This study proposes environmental events involving a series of hands-on activities, stimulating families’ awareness of both the local foods (rice, fish, and seaweed) and marine environment and linking them to the coastal environment. The present study quantitatively evaluated the changes in adults’ perceptions of Osaka Bay and attitudes on rice and fish consumption through a year-long program. We found that continuous participation (increased visit to the coastal area) effectively changed the participants’ perceptions of Osaka Bay and increased opportunities for eating local foods at home. In addition, the living experiences and realistic experiences increased the participants’ familiarity with Osaka Bay. These results suggest that the proposed program is a powerful tool that can assist marine and conservation education outside school.
, Tekle Leza Mega, Marisennayya Senapathy
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/10844

Abstract:
Poverty is one of the central issues and the most far-reaching social matters on the planet. It has no geological limit. Along these lines, this examination has done to distinguish the determinants of the rural household poverty in Sodo Zuria Woreda of Wolaita Zone, Ethiopia. To accomplish this goal, 152 rural family units were chosen using a systematic random sampling technique following the corresponding method’s likelihood. The primary and secondary data optional information just as quantitative and qualitative subjective details have been used. In this investigation, the Cost of Basic Needs approach has applied to determine the extent of the poverty line and Foster-Greer and Thorbecke Poverty Index has used to decide the degree of rural poverty. The aftereffect of the basic needs approach’s cost shows that the investigation zone’s poverty line was about 5348.073 Birr every year per adult equivalent consumption. Utilizing this poverty line as a benchmark, the investigation demonstrated that 39.47 per cent of the family units were poor. The headcount index, poverty gap and squared poverty gap indexes among poor people families are 0.3947, 0.1035 and 0.0427. The Binary Logit Regression model’s discoveries show eight significant variables at under 1%, 5% and 10% likelihood level among 15 factors. As needs are, the family size was a positive relationship with the rural family’s poverty and measurably significant. In the interim, sex, age, educational level, land size, total livestock unit, use of technology and participation of saving have a tangible negative relationship with the rural household poverty and factually huge up to under 10% likelihood level. There is a need to reinforce the link between rural development and poverty reduction programs that consider old aged and female-headed families in mediations, limit populace size through integrated family planning and education obligations introduce appropriate livestock packages, and create awareness of the farmers for using new agricultural technologies.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/10845

Abstract:
The main transmission mechanism of COVID-19 is through close contact, aerosols, droplets, and fomites transmission of the disease in closed spaces. In this study, the importance of ventilation in preventing the expansion of COVID-19 is reviewed. In total, 20 articles are reviewed. The obtained results show that ventilation has a crucial role in preventing COVID-19 expansion in indoor air environments. However, it should be used properly; otherwise, it will cause further expansion of the disease, as suggested for SARS. Appropriate ventilation can effectively prevent the expansion of COVID-19, and it will be more effective if be combined with particle filtration and air disinfection. The benefit of ventilation in highly polluted outdoor air conditions is an important field to be investigated in future studies. Finally, the results show that the six basic COVID-19 control strategies include: hand hygiene, social distancing, screening and case finding, isolation and separating, decontamination and disinfection, and effective ventilation. We hope that the results of the present study help researchers and health decision-makers in designing programs further perceive the importance of factors related to indoor conditions to control COVID-19 expansion.
, Isaac Abiodun Odesola, Obinna George Ogbuagu, Chukwuemeka Ngwu
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/10825

Abstract:
This study examined the factors influencing construction professionals and contractors’ resistance behaviours towards sustainable construction practices in Nigeria. 56 variables identified from literature were categorised into four main factors. Questionnaire was designed based on the extracted variables and distributed to construction professionals and contractors in South-East Nigeria. The data generated through the questionnaire survey were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Software. The result revealed that industry, policy, human, and environment factors were significantly influencing professionals and contractors’ resistance behaviours to implementation of sustainable construction practices. However, the Mean Score Index result revealed that policy factors with an average MSI of 4.68 exert the greatest influence on professionals’ and contractors’ resistance behaviours. The overall result showed that all the variables have significant influences on professionals’ and contractors’ resistance behaviours, but five sub-factors (limited knowledge and awareness, additional cost of change, the prevailing economic condition, incompatibility of change process and organisational culture, and laws and regulations) each with an average MSI of 5.00 have the greatest individual influences on construction stakeholders’ resistance behaviours towards sustainable construction practices in Nigeria. The Mann-Whitney U Test result affirmed that there is no significant difference (p>0.05) between the rankings of professionals and contractors on the factors influencing their resistance behaviours. In view of this, the study raised concern about the training routes of the construction practitioners, conventional construction practices and existing policy and legislative frameworks including government commitment towards implementing sustainable construction practices in Nigeria.
, , Modestus Anusi, Blessing Itabana, Lina Ekeh
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/10812

Abstract:
The review paper embodies the current trends and advancements involved in the transformation of biomass to enhanced products, bioenergy, and chemicals. Some selected chemical process like the slow-fast pyrolysis, catalytic fast pyrolysis, hydrothermal liquefaction, transesterification and lignin valorization by depolymerization are aptly suited for biorefinery processing, and were discussed in this review. The (catalytic) fast pyrolysis and hydrothermal liquefaction are quite similar, but differ in their feedstock preparations, reactor configuration and thermal or energy optimization. The review covers the biomass selection, chemical conversion techniques and most importantly the required heterogeneous catalysts (where applicable). The work further suggests the superiority of dedicated chemicals over drop-in and smart drop-in chemicals, due the complete usage of biomass. Relative to the oil refinery process, biorefining is quite novel and accompanied by its drawbacks. These challenges range from catalyst poisoning and deactivation to energy intensiveness and eventually as being cost-ineffective. The challenge encountered in biorefinery is in the economic feasibility, as it is inferred from this review that the pre-treatment process takes up to about 20% of the conversion cost. Although the biorefinery plant employ lignocellulosic biomass, but study shows that the use of biomass is largely under-utilized. The solid products/ wastes from pyrolysis for example, can be utilized as source of energy for the process. In the pursuit for sustainability, it is essential to ensure a balance-energy-mix, where every other type of energy will have a role to play to avoid dependence on only one solution for the future. Therefore, in contrast to the dwindling fossil fuels, it can be generally speculated that the future for biorefining is bright. It was concluded that with vast knowledge on the suitable heterogeneous catalysts and proper optimization of process parameters (temperatures, pressure, and reactant species); some of the biorefining processes will result into a significant increase in industrial fuels and bio-based drop-in chemicals leading towards commercialization.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/9759

Abstract:
The landscape is a part of the earth’s surface with a characteristic relief, formed by a set of functionally interconnected ecosystems and elements of civilization. The sustainability of the landscape and its territory is examined on the basis of its ecological stability. This means the ability of a given system to persist even under interfering influence and to reproduce its essential characteristics in the conditions of external disturbance. The aim of the paper is based on content analysis, description of selected landscape, vegetation stage, determination of megatype sensu Meeus and method of calculation of ecological stability coefficient according to Michal and Miklós to determine changes in landscape character of the studied area. The result of the paper is the identification of changes in the landscape character of the researched area, as well as the proposal of a strategic vision for the landscape plan in the researched municipality in the cadastre of the South Bohemian region in the Czech Republic. Despite several uncertainties, this article proves that it is feasible to analyze long‐term land‐use tendency to generate more meaningful, spatially explicit information, which can form the ground for landscape planning and ecosystem management.
, Juarez Dos Santos Azevedo
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/9675

Abstract:
The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) reported in Wuhan is continuing to impress the world by its fast spread and the number of affected persons attracting an unprecedented attention. In this article, the classical SEIR model and a generalized SEIR model called SEIRDP were applied to predict the evolution of COVID-19 in Algeria for a future period of 100 days using official reported data from early April to early August, 2020. Initial evaluation showed that the two models had a net correspondence with the reported data during this period for cumulative infected cases but the number of cumulative deaths was underestimated with the classical SEIR model. Model prediction with the SEIRDP concluded that the number of cumulative infected cases will increase in the next days reaching a number of about 60 k in middle November with a median of about 300 daily cases. Also, the number of estimated deaths will be around 2k. These results suggest that the COVID-19 is ongoing to infect more persons which may push national authorities to carefully act in the probable leaving of containment.
, Manfred A. Ibekwe
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/9676

Abstract:
This study aims to determine the extent to which the West African Monetary Zone (WAMZ) can fulfill the Expost conditions for achieving convergence. This study, therefore, evaluates the pattern of shock symmetry and convergence in connection to WAMZ’s Pillar III policy strategy. Time series data sourced from the World Bank for the period covering 1970 to 2017 were utilized for this study. Two basic econometric tools such as Impulse Response Function (IRF) and the ADF convergence test were employed to determine whether WAMZ can achieve selected Macroeconomic Convergence Criteria (MCC) in the long-run. From the study, we found that WAMZ is not a full potential candidate for ECO Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) due to the inability of the available results to show overall shock asymmetry in the entire models studied. Also, the study found that WAMZ could attain convergence in its inflation targets, but could not attain convergence in its GDP targets. Thus the results imply that in the long-run, WAMZ does not practically possess the attribute to achieve its MCC. Hence, it is imperative that for the adoption of the ECO currency, WAMZ should design and implement a short-run adjustment method to manage country-wise shocks and implement structural buffers to guard the WAMZ economies against structural shocks. Hence, we recommend that ECO currency be a reserve currency managed by the West African Currency Board (WACB) while the EMU member maintains its domestic currency. WAMZ is basically a quasi EMU.
, C. O. Okieimen, S. E. Ogbeide
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/9708

Abstract:
Parts of the Nigerian Niger Delta which also accommodates huge number of oil facilities has swamps in some parts with non – turbulent water bodies. These water bodies are negatively impacted from oil pollution but lack the capacities to self-clean like high flowing waters. The calm nature of these swamps result in higher than normal retention, partitioning and diffusion of hydrocarbon components. This study investigated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations at different depths for a period of ten months by simulating an oil spill site (8m by 5m and 1.5m deep) typical of a non-turbulent mangrove swamp with suspended sediments and vegetation polluted with 60 litres of crude oil. Impacted water samples were collected at depths of 0.25m, 0.5m, 0.75m and 1.0m. They were filtered and the petroleum aliphatic and aromatic contents analyzed using a GC-FID. The results obtained showed that petroleum hydrocarbons can dissolve and diffuse to different depths at concentrations above safe limits, thus posing great danger to aquatic life and its entire value chain.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/9346

Abstract:
Exergy is described as a tool for addressing climate change, in particular through identifying and explaining the benefits of sustainable energy, so the benefits can be appreciated by experts and non-experts alike and attained. Exergy can be used to understand climate change measures and to assess and improve energy systems. Exergy also can help better understand the benefits of utilizing sustainable energy by providing more useful and meaningful information than energy provides. Exergy clearly identifies efficiency improvements and reductions in wastes and environmental impacts attributable to sustainable energy. Exergy can also identify better than energy the environmental benefits and economics of energy technologies. Exergy should be applied by engineers and scientists, as well as decision and policy makers, involved in addressing climate change.
, Yannis Koliousis, Heather McLaughlin
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/9664

Abstract:
Sustainability development, as a concept, is becoming an important topic for discussion within the maritime industry due to its environmental impact and intensification of the compliance framework. Achieving sustainable development will require involvement from the industry diverse stakeholders. Yet the ongoing discussions and research studies on promoting sustainability within the maritime industry gave no attention to engaging the various stakeholders existing and/or operating within the industrial or professional cluster, whose absence from the decision-making processes may fail to address sustainability issues within the industry. This study argues in support of actively engaging the maritime industry diverse stakeholders to foster the implementation of sustainable development. Based on desk research and validation from subject experts, we propose a conceptual engagement framework that may be adopted by shipping entities to correctly identify and engage the industry key stakeholders towards promoting sustainable development.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/9305

Abstract:
Nuclear energy is often viewed as linked exclusively to electrical power generation. However, the applications for nuclear energy are significantly greater than only electricity, and include cogeneration, district heating and cooling, high-temperature process heating, hydrogen and alternative fuel production, transportation and desalination. These additional applications expand the prospects for nuclear energy notably, and enhance the benefits that can be derived from it, such as reduced environmental impact and climate change mitigation. Interest in non-electric applications of nuclear energy is growing for environmental, economic, security and other reasons. In this paper, non-electric applications of nuclear energy are reviewed, including technological, environmental and economic issues of such applications as well as future prospects and benefits of non-electric applications of nuclear energy.
, Jorika Theart, Sanette Marx
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/9291

Abstract:
Waste oil was extracted from lollipop effluent stream using a mixture of organic solvents viz. n-hexane and ethyl acetate. Lollipop effluent samples found to contain ~ 10-18 wt.% oil. Subsequently, the oil was subjected to biodiesel synthesis under solvent free condition using chemical and enzymatic catalysts. Among the base catalysts used, KOH catalyzed reaction gave highest biodiesel yield (99 %) in 20 minutes. Furthermore, nine different lipases were screened as catalysts for biodiesel preparation from lollipop effluent oil. The screening experiments revealed that Novozyme-435 was best among the lipases which gave 94 % biodiesel in 18 h at 40 0C.
, Chinedu Josiah Umembamalu, Emmanuel Ugochukwu Osuagwu, Stephen N. Oba, Lovet N. Emembolu
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/9285

Abstract:
The discharge of oil and grease (O&G) containing effluent without treatment may contaminate the aquatic environs and freshwater. The removal of O&G from simulated refinery desalter effluent (SRDE) by activated carbon (AC) originated from chemical activation/carbonization of corn cobs (CCs) was investigated through fixed-bed column studies. The corn cobs activated carbon (CCAC) was characterized to determine its physicochemical properties, and the functional groups presently active on it partaking in the column adsorption process. The CCAC size (150, 300 and 600 µm), initial adsorbate concentration (200, 300 and 400 mg/L), and bed height (100, 200 and 300 mm) were varied to observe their influence on the adsorption of O&G and breakthrough time (τ) at a constant flow rate of 10.5 mL/min in a 10 mm diameter column of length: 60 mm. The removal of O&G from SRDE was inspected using the Bohart-Adams (B-A) and Yoon-and-Nelson (Y-N) kinetic models. Breakthrough time and %O&G removal decreased with increasing CCAC particle size and feed concentration and improved with rising bed height (BH). The void fractions (ε) at BHs of 100, 200 and 300 mm were 0.0247, 0.0124 and 0.0082, respectively. The ideal residence time (tR ) was 4.49 min. The B-A model yielded the highest degree of fit to the data than the Y-N model with R2 within 0.8217 and 0.9771. This means that the B-A model can be used to predict the breakthrough curve of any desired values for the present study. This work also revealed that CCs could be packed in a fixed-bed column for O&G reduction from refinery desalter effluent.
, Felix Osarumhensen Aguele, Linus Ikechi Chiemenam, Kelechi Noble Akatobi, Kufre Osoh, Chinelo Scholastica Onyekwulu
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/9284

Abstract:
The creep and stress relaxation behavior of rice husk reinforced low density polyethylene composite was analyzed in this study. The exponential and power model were used to study the creep while the stress relaxation assessed the time required for the composites to maintain a certain strain level. The creep strain increased with increase in time, at various temperatures, with its highest creep at 70oC while the lowest is at 30oC, the power model provided an excellent fit than other models with a coefficient of determination of 0.9977 at 30oC, the neat low density polyethylene had a good stress relaxation behavior with 4.95 seconds for it to decay and subsequently decreased with increase in filler concentration.
, Charity Okieimen, Samuel Ogbeide
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/9144

Abstract:
Crude oil spill is a major source of water pollution. In water with wave and tides, the environment could be self-cleansed. This kind of environment has enjoyed tremendous research attention over the years with plethora of models available for the forecasting, monitoring and management of residual petroleum presence in imparted environments. On the other hand, parts of the Nigerian Niger Delta mangrove swamp contain stagnant water with suspended sediments. The heavy load of suspended sediments has the capacity to adsorb oil and dissolved hydrocarbon components. This paper reports on the development of models for the vertical transport and concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbon components at different strata of the water column by suspended sediments adsorption using governing equations of transport and mass transfer. The developed models were validated with data obtained from simulated stagnant water that was polluted with crude oil.
Hafiz Muhammad Bilal Ameer, Muhammad Faizan Ameer
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/8568

Abstract:
Global oil reserves are facing great stress because of massive fuel consumption worldwide and the booming world population. These fossil fuels, when processed, affect the environment by releasing greenhouse gases. The outstanding usage of oil inspired many countries to develop alternative fuels. Biodiesel is the future prospect to fulfil the energy needs. It is compatible, ready to use fuel and can easily be deployed in the existing engines by combining it with conventional fuel (diesel). Biodiesel emits a lower amount of greenhouse gases. In this experiment, we first synthesized biodiesel using methanol, NaOH and vegetable oil through transestrification process. After that, we prepared a sample for 14% biodiesel which was then used to run a 4-stroke compression ignition (CI) engine that was attached to the engine testbed. After that, we re-run the same 4-stroke CI Engine with pure-diesel. From the data obtained and subsequent data-analysis, the 14% biodiesel came out to be less efficient (avg. 3% lower brake power and 8.9% lower brake thermal efficiency) and more expensive (avg. 12.8% higher fuel consumption) as compared to pure-diesel.
, Ameya Bondre, Salil Vaidya, Parth Patankar, Yashraj Kanaskar, Hemlata Karne
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/8550

Abstract:
With the increase in population, the amount of food waste generated is increasing exponentially. Anaerobic digestion can serve the purpose of managing organic waste in an eco-friendly way. Microorganisms play a vital role in the process of anaerobic digestion. In this work, the effect of anaerobic digestion was analyzed using two organic cultures- Cow Dung and Horse waste which was in turn compared to an Industrial Culture with regards to the biogas produced over a cycle of 14 days. Between the two organic cultures, the volume of biogas produced by Horse waste was 35,366.03 cm3 which compared to the biogas produced by cow dung was considerably large. The use of Horse waste as potential biomass has the capacity to produce biogas which can be utilized as a biofuel. The experimental data were evaluated using mathematical models like the Modified Gompertz Model, Logistic Model, and First Order Kinetics Model. Of the three models used, Modified Gompertz Model and Logistic Model gave a good fit for the experimental data with 0.98 and 0.97 respectively as the Coefficient of Determination (R2). While the First Order Kinetics Model underperformed with an R2 value of 0.68. The Modified Gompertz gave accurate results which thus validated the experimental data.
, Lawrence Oghenemaro Ebelebe
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/8479

Abstract:
This study examined the impact of private domestic investment on manufacturing sector output in Nigeria from 1970 to 2017. The study specifically looked at the impact of private domestic investment on manufacturing sector’s output in a static and dynamic model. Six variables were employed in the study and were sourced from CBN statistical bulletin and World Development Indicators for the period covering from 1970 to 2017. The analysis of the variables undergoes three approaches, the pre-analysis of data, model estimation and the diagnostic analysis of the model. The first approach employed tables and graphs to explain the behaviour of the data, equally the univariate analysis of the data were examine with the Augmented Dickey-Fuller equations and the possibility of long-term relationship. The models were estimated with the ARDL estimator and model selected with the Akaike Information Criteria, and finally the models estimated were tested using the Jaque-Bera statistics, Ramsey RESET Test, Breusch-Godfrey and Harvey test for residual normality, specification bias, autocorrelation and heteroskedasticity respectively. The results from the analytical methods shows that there is over 82 percent increase in the output of Manufacturing sector in the late 1970s and early 1980s and over 98 percent increase the output of the manufacturing sector in the late within 2010 and 2015. Also, the study observed that the responses of output of the manufacturing sector to private domestic investment are positive and significant in the static and dynamic models. The study found that the impact of private domestic investment on manufacturing sector output were fairly elastic in the static model and fairly inelastic in the dynamic model. Finally, the study found that the model have a weak adjustment mechanism. The adjustment of disequilibrium between static and dynamic equilibrium is weak or just 24.9 percent. Since private domestic investment is significant and positively impacted on the performance of the manufacturing sector irrespective of the time zone, the study recommended for increase in the credit to private sector by the apex monetary authority.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/8433

Abstract:
COVID-19 has affected 213 countries around the world, killing more than 484,000 and infecting more than 9.5 million by June 25, 2020 (worldometer.info). Bangladesh, a South Asian low-middle-income economy, has experienced a demographic and epidemiological transition with rapid urbanization and a gradual increase in life expectancy. It is the seventh most populous country in the world and population of the country is expected to be nearly double by 2050. The increasing burden of communicable diseases in Bangladesh can be attributable to rapid urbanization and nearly 50% of all slum dwellers of the country live in Dhaka division. In 2017, National Rapid Response Team of IEDCR investigated 26 incidents of disease outbreak. The joint survey of the Power and Participation Research Centre and BRAC Institute of Governance and Development reveals that per capita daily income of urban slum and rural poor drops by 80% due to present countrywide shutdown enforced by the government to halt the spread of COVID-19. 40%-50% of these population took loans to meet the daily expenses. However, the country has just 127,000 hospital beds, 91,000 of them in government-run hospitals. Researchers say, the country’s economy is losing BDT 33 billion every day from its service and agriculture sectors during the nationwide shutdown.
, Marc A Rosen
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/8432

Abstract:
A critical overview of renewable energy is provided, including descriptions of renewable energy sources, technologies, assessments, comparisons and planning as well as energy technologies that facilitate renewable energy sources. The renewable energy types considered include solar, wind, geothermal, bioenergy and waste-derived energy, ocean thermal energy, tidal, wave and hydraulic. Also covered for contextual and broader purposes are energy systems more generally and their sustainability. In addition, recent research on new renewable energy sources as well as important recent developments in renewable energy are considered.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/8407

Abstract:
In the current investigation, a temperature sensitivity analysis of hard and softwood pyrolysis was conducted on an in silico platform. The selected samples were beech (hardwood), ailanthus (soft hardwood) and spruce (softwood). Upon the successful development of the model on ASPEN Plus v8.8, the results of the model prediction showed that the yield of bio-oil reduced with a rise in process temperature. Beech had the highest bio-oil yield of the feedstock investigated. At 350oC, oil yield was 36.72%, 35.13% and 32.89% for beech, ailanthus and spruce respectively. The syn-gas yield was 39.99%, 38.25% and 35.82% and bio-char yield was 45.44%, 47.58% and 50.77% for beech, ailanthus and spruce respectively (at 650oC). For the entirety of the temperature range studied, a gentle fall in char yield was observed for all feedstock type (though more significant at temperatures above 500oC). The model also predicted the yield of volatiles (bio-oil and syn-gas) to be higher for the hard and soft hardwood than for the softwood and this was vice versa for the char yield.
, Okechuku Onuchuku
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/8406

Abstract:
Two compelling structural break models that deal with a known break (Bai 1997, 2010) and unknown common break (Pesaran, 2006) exist in the literature. However, the methodological framework underpinning structural breaks have enjoyed robust attention and filed with highly technical papers. This study considered the Pesaran CD test for cross-section dependence test, Least Squares Dummy Variable (LSDV) to determine heterogeneity in WAMZ, and Panel-ARDL (PMG) with a dummy variable-calibrated known break date to measure the statistical significance of DUM_FDI, DUM_ODA, DUM_IBRD, and Panel ARDL (PMG) without structural dummy-variable breaks. The motivating question becomes how Kristalina Georgieva-led IMF prediction consequently cascades into an intractable long-run effect on the WAMZ system. Due to the demand shocks from COVID-19 pandemic and supply shocks-supply glut from a price war between Saudi Arabia-Russia which has put the global economy into recession. The stability of the global economy is threatened, thus, since FDI, ODA is an integral part of global reinvested earnings (UNCTAD, 2020), hence this study is apt to unravel the impact of structural breaks in WAMZ arising from prior shocks between 1970-2017 from data sourced from World Development Indicators. This study measured how dummy variable (0, 1) structural breaks in foreign capital inflows (proxy by FDI, ODA, and IBRD) have long-term impacts in stimulating instability in WAMZ. We represented the dummy variable values 0 and 1; where 1 is structural breakpoints dates and afterward and 0 is used to denote before the structural breakpoints date. From the study, we observed that there exists cross-dependence in WAMZ at 1% LOS, heterogeneity also exists in WAMZ. Also, the impacts of structural breakpoints on selected macroeconomic indicators are mixed. The study found that the statistical significance of structural breakpoint at 5% LOS traces the susceptibility WAMZ to the rampaging health-related demand shocks and supply shocks in the long-run. Hence, a recession is likely in WAMZ. The study recommends that the regional government should undertake reforms to consciously diversify their economies and create market fundamental buffers, stimulate productivity and competitive supply frontier with a view to jump-start WAMZ economies from the impact of shocks and disturbances. In addition, provide stabilization funds to mitigate the adverse impact of shock-structural breaks on WAMZ economies.
, B. S. Ajith, M. C. Math
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/8353

Abstract:
The novel garcinia gummi-gutta seed is used for extraction of biodiesel using transesterification process. The impact of diethyl ether (DEE) in biodiesel on the fuel properties was examined. The performance and emission characteristics of six fuels (B20DEE10, B30DEE10, B40DEE10, B100, B100DEE10 and D100) are tested on diesel engine from no-load to full load conditions. The addition of 10% diethyl ether to 20% biodiesel (B20) closely resemble the fuel properties of diesel fuel (D100) compared to other tested biodiesel blends. The performance parameters (brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and brake thermal efficiency (BTE)) and emission characteristics (carbon monoxide (CO), nitrous oxide (NOx) and hydrocarbon (HC)) are examined for six fuels at different engine load conditions. BSFC of all biodiesel showed comparatively higher value to that of diesel fuel at all engine loading conditions. BTE of diesel fuel showed higher values compared to other biofuels. Biodiesel blends resulted in reduced carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions compared to diesel fuel. NOx emissions are higher for biodiesel and its blends compared to diesel fuel at all loads. Addition of 10% diethyl ether to biodiesel (B100) fuel resulted in better performance and emission characteristics compared to B100 fuel tested at full load engine conditions.
, Moorthy Nair, Atya Kapley, Rakesh Kumar
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/8321

Abstract:
Economics being a major field in management has paved its way into environment to tackle the issues concerned with environmental/ecosystem services degradation and is acting as an aspect of human wellbeing and sustainability. Environmental degradation due to pollution is very well known and is measured thoroughly throughout the world. However, the end point impacts are seldom measured and not reported. There are very few responsible companies in the world who are aware about this fact and are reporting these externalities, or the third-party impacts, of their businesses. Various facets of ecosystem services on the other hand are known and have various measurement frameworks as well. The current paper discusses both the aspects i.e. ecosystem services and environmental externalities with respect to assessment techniques and highlights the way in which these fields have developed over the years along with their current methods and trends. The paper will help researchers and policy makers, working in this field, by making them aware about various means by which these estimations can be done so that the gap between environmental degradation and sustainability can be bridged.
, , Emmanuel O. Oke, Latifat T. Adewoye, Fawaz O. Motolani
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/8302

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of Luffa Cylindrica fibers in a biomass packed bed for the treatment of paint industry effluent before releasing into the environment. The fibers were modified by mercerisation in 0.5M NaOH for 24 h. Both modified and unmodified fibers were characterised using Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). A biomass packed bed was prepared for the study with a packing factor of 0.0617 and 0.0550 for the modified and unmodified fibers respectively. Measured parameters were the pH, colour, total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). Negative findings were achieved for TSS, DO and COD whilst positive findings were achieved for pH, colour, TDS and BOD. The extended residence time of 48 h was only of advantage for colour and BOD removal. In the domain of the positive results, the untreated fibers achieved 35% colour reduction, 5% TDS reduction and 77% BOD reduction all in 2 h. The treated fibers achieved 35% colour reduction in 30 minutes, 32.5% TDS reduction in 2 h and 82% BOD reduction in 30 minutes. The fibers treated with NaOH performed better in all indices where positive results were achieved except for pH. Luffa cylindrica fibres can be used as effective packing material in a biomass filter for the treatment of paint industry effluent before releasing into the environment based on WHO limits.
, Victor Chijioke Ndibe, Chidera Catherine Anyanwu
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/8285

Abstract:
Economic diversification has been the glamour of successive administrations in Nigeria, especially amidst the dwindling oil-revenue in recent years, which has resulted from the fluctuations in world crude oil prices. This study aims at investigating the impact of diversifying the economy on the economic growth in Nigeria. Secondary data on GDP growth rate as a proxy for economic growth, non-oil GDP as a proxy for GDP diversification, non-oil export as a proxy for export diversification, investment and exchange rate, between 1981 and 2016, were adopted in the study. An econometric approach of Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) was adopted to empirically analyze the collected data and the result revealed that non-oil gross domestic product impacted positively and significantly on economic growth while exchange rate had an inverse but significant nexus on economic growth in Nigeria, within the period covered in the study. However, non-oil export and investment impacted positively but insignificantly on economic growth in Nigeria. The study recommends the encouragement of increased productivity in the real sector as well as the adoption of stable and favourable exchange rate policies by the government in order to accelerate economic growth in Nigeria.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/8246

Abstract:
This study examined the impact of the dynamical nature of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflow and Official Development Assistance (ODA) inflow on growth and trade indicators in Ghana and Nigeria. Secondary data sourced from World Development Indicators for the period covering 1970-2017 were utilized. The Nonlinear ARDL Bound F-test showed a long-run relationship between global capital inflows and growth and trade. Specifically, (i) positive (rise) FDI inflow generate a positive impact on RGDP in Ghana and negative impact on RGDP in Nigeria; negative (fall) FDI inflow leads to a positive impact on RGDP in Ghana and negative impact on RGDP in Nigeria (ii) positive ODA inflow causes a positive impact on RGDP in Ghana and Nigeria; negative ODA inflow has a negative impact on RGDP in Ghana and Nigeria (iii) positive and negative FDI (ODA) inflow has a negative impact on trade (% of GDP) in Ghana and Nigeria (iv) positive and negative FDI inflow leads to a negative impact on multilateral trade in Ghana; and positive and negative FDI inflow leads to a positive impact on multilateral trade in Nigeria; (v) positive and negative ODA inflow leads to a negative impact on multilateral trade in Ghana and Nigeria (vi) positive and negative FDI inflow leads to a negative impact on trade openness in Ghana and positive impact in Nigeria, (vii) positive and negative ODA inflow has negative and positive impact on trade openness in Ghana and negative impacts in Nigeria.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/8245

Abstract:
In the current scenario when depleting crude oil sources pose a challenge against energy security the advanced biofuels seems as suitable alternate for transport sector. Because of lignocellulosic biomass based production advanced biofuels are considered as environment friendly and they have positive income and employment impacts on the socioeconomic conditions. The study has objectives to test the aforementioned claims on the basis of a review of available literature. It is found that the GHG emission from conventional biofuels is not as much lower as claimed. But the advanced biofuels found to be more environment friendly than their counterparts. The data on socioeconomic impacts of advanced biofuel is scarce and only available for the USA which is reported in this study. It is found that the agriculture sector is significantly benefited sector by the industrial scale production of the advanced biofuels. For the assessment of large scale impacts it is assumed that the dynamics of spreading of socioeconomic impacts of advanced biofuels industry is same as the conventional biofuel industry. On the basis of aforementioned observations, this study also supports the notion of positive environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the advanced biofuels but on the conditions of sustainable and decarbonized supply chain.
, Ryo Nishikawa
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/8209

Abstract:
Ulva sp. (green seaweed) often proliferates explosively and piles up in shallows. This phenomenon is called “green tide,” caused by increased nutrient flow into an enclosed sea area. Although green tide is one of the environmental problems in coastal areas, Ulva sp. can be regarded as carbon-neutral and therefore can serve as an abundant feedstock for renewable energy. Methane fermentation is one of the suitable techniques for converting such seaweed into energy. Digestate from methane fermentation is normally used as fertilizer; however, it is ends up being treated as wastewater due to limited spaces in urban areas. This paper proposes that the digestate from methane fermentation using mixed biomass (Ulva sp. and food waste) can be applied to the cultivation of Pyropia yezoensis (edible laver seaweed, nori in Japanese), which has recently suffered from decolored phenomena because of decreasing nutrients. The absorption of nutrients and the color recovery of nori were investigated in laboratory-scale experiments based on comparison with artificial seawater. The results highlight that the significant absorption of nutrients and color recovery occurred because of digestate utilization, indicating its positive effects on decolored nori. In addition, the experiments found that not only NH4-N, but also other substances such as trace metal related to Ulva sp. can influence such effects. The findings clearly indicate that digestate can be used in the sea and that the suggested multiple uses of digestate would increase the value of digestate.
, Mahnoor Javed, Zaib Hussain, Rida Khalid, Saba Ameen
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/7900

Abstract:
In this study, the slow pyrolysis has been performed in a fixed bed reactor using Saccharum munja (munj) as raw biomass material and bio-genically synthesized nickel ferrite nanoparticles (NF-NPs) as a catalyst at an optimum temperature of 450 oC. In the absence of any catalyst, the obtained yield of bio-oil was 43.3 %. The maximum yield of bio-oil (72 %) was obtained with 0.4 g of NF-NPs. With 0.2g of ZSM-5, the obtained bio-oil yield was 44.5 %. The characterization of NF-NPs was studied by using UV-VIS analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The characterization of Bio-char was done by using FT-IR spectroscopy.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/7901

Abstract:
The psychology of sustainability and sustainable development is a new research area which involves optimizing and regenerating personal resources in order to establish meaningful lives and work experiences (Di Fabio, 2017). The concept of psychological capital (PsyCap) has been linked to the psychology of sustainability due to its potential role in promoting well-being in organizations and improving people’s health and performance. However, this area of sustainability science is currently absent from the translation studies literature despite its relevance for professional translators’ work in today’s challenging and competitive environment. In line with the argument that sustainability principles apply to a variety of disciplines, the purpose of this article is to introduce the value of the psychology of sustainability for organizational and individual well-being via key concepts of relevance to the translation profession. Within this trans-disciplinary reflection space (Di Fabio and Rosen, 2018), I will also consider the research evidence for adopting a primary prevention perspective for the benefit of professional translators. Examining translator behaviour through the lens of the psychology of sustainability is a new and exciting venture that has the potential to reframe professional perspectives and translators’ career paths.
Okechuku Onuchuku,
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/7899

Abstract:
This paper aims to provide a healthy review of literature on the global imperativeness of the term global finance and competitiveness to achieve Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We employed a content analysis method to significantly explore the impact of global finance on financing for sustainable development (FSD) through competitiveness. What are the lessons for ELDCs? From the reviewed literature, we observe that global financing causes a dual impact on competitiveness through the Real Effective Exchange Rate (REER) effects. The study found that global FSD on the informal sector, social and environmental factors, as well as human development, is unarguably silent. Also, there is the multiplicity of function in the global financing mix. From the literature reviewed, we observed a positive link between SDGs, global finance, and competitiveness. SDGs differ across countries because the financing approach on competitiveness differs across countries. Thus, to achieve SDGs in ELDCs, global responses should be developed around improving internal and external competitiveness. These two types of competitiveness would be encompassing. Global financing should be directed to exploring economic, social, and environmental quality in internal and external competitiveness in ELDCs. This classification would deepen the World Economic Forum (WEF) GCI 4.0 based on innovative, efficiency and factors element. Thus inclusive growth and sustainable development could be strengthened through the application of internal and external competitiveness policies that would holistically upgrade the industrial and manufacturing competitiveness frontiers and gains from the global market share frontiers to accelerate SDGs in ELDCs.
, Sagar Maji
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/7864

Abstract:
The biofuel performance certification’s scope is reviewed. An operational definition of biofuel performance certification has been developed. The certification of biofuel performance has been recognized as an effective assessment methodology and tool to manage biofuel consumption and improve biofuel performance systematically. It is found that a biofuel performance certification method is required in biofuel industry and biofuel research to authenticate the biodiesel and its blends for use in diesel engine.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/7843

Abstract:
Ecosystems are complex compendia of biotic and abiotic components and characterized by exchanges of energy and mass. Via the actions and functions of the resident components which assemble into communities, ecosystems provide both direct/indirect tangible and intangible services to human society as well as the natural world. This holds true for ecosystems which cut across various scales and niches. Various frameworks have been devised to categorize and evaluate the services provided by ecosystems and/or their components. In this study, the services elicited by three specific communities occupying different ecosystem niches and having distinct scalar resolution are assessed. Firstly, the microbial communities which reside in the mammalian gut ecosystem, the microbial communities in the soil and the indigenous/local communities who inhabit the ecosystems comprising their traditional landscapes. Further, the roles and functions of these diverse communities, separated by scale and mostly and largely contributing to the homeostasis and functionality of their corresponding ecosystems, are evaluated. The services rendered by these communities are then mapped to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Finally, the importance of these communities in maximizing social, economic and ecological capital is pointed out.
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