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Results in Journal Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering: 287

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N. N. Balan, V. V. Ivanov, A. V. Kuzovkov, E. V. Sokolova, E. S. Shamin
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 22; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2019-4-279-289

Abstract:
The article gives an overview of the main currently used models for the formation of photoresist masks and the problems in which they are applied. The main stages of «full physical» modeling of mask formation are briefly considered in the case of both traditional DNQ photoresists and CA photoresists. The concept of compact models (VT5 and CM1), which predict the contour of the resist mask for a full-sized device topology is considered. Examples of some calculations using both full physical modeling and compact models are given. Using a full physical modeling of the resist mask formation the lithographic stack was optimized for a promising technological process. The optimum thickness ratios for the binary BARC used in the water immersion lithographic process are found. The problem of determining the optimal number of calibration structures that maximally cover the space of aerial image parameters was solved. To solve this problem, cluster analysis was used. Clustering was carried out using the k-means method. The optimal sample size was from 300 to 350 structures, the mean square error in this case is 1.4 nm, which slightly exceeds the noise of the process for 100 nm structures. Using SEM images for calibrating the VT5 model allows reducing the standard error of 40 structures to 1.18 nm.
K. I. Volovich, S. A. Denisov
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 22; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2019-4-262-267

Abstract:
The article discusses the use of hybrid HPC clusters for the execution of software designed to calculate the electronic structure and atomic scale materials modeling. Modern software systems, which are designed to solve the problems of materials science, use the capabilities of various hardware computing accelerators to increase productivity. The use of such computing technologies requires the adaptation of application program code to hybrid computing architectures, which include classic central processing units (CPUs) and specialized graphics accelerators (GPUs).The use of large computing hybrid systems requires the development of methods for ensuring the workloading of such computing systems that will allow efficient use of computing resources and avoid equipment downtime.First of all, these methods should allow parallel execution of user applications using computational accelerators. However, in practice, software environments designed to solve application problems cannot be deployed in the same computing environment due to software incompatibility. In order to overcome this limitation and ensure the parallel execution of diverse types of materials science tasks, the creation of individual task execution environments based on virtualization technologies and cloud technologies.The continuation of virtualization technologies and the provision of cloud services is the construction of digital platforms. The article proposes the use of a digital platform for hosting scientific materials science services that provide calculations using various application software systems. Digital platforms make it possible to provide a unified user interface to scientific materials science services. The platform provides opportunities for finding the necessary scientific services, transferring source data and results between users, the platform and hybrid high-performance clusters.
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 22; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2019-4-272-278

Abstract:
The property of natural parallelization of matrix-vector operations inherent in memristor crossbars creates opportunities for their effective use in neural network computing. Analog calculations are orders of magnitude faster in comparison to calculations on the central processor and on graphics accelerators. Besides, mathematical operations energy costs are significantly lower. The essential feature of analog computing is its low accuracy. In this regard, studying the dependence of neural network quality on the accuracy of setting its weights is relevant. The paper considers two convolutional neural networks trained on the MNIST (handwritten digits) and CIFAR_10 (airplanes, boats, cars, etc.) data sets. The first convolutional neural network consists of two convolutional layers, one subsample layer and two fully connected layers. The second one consists of four convolutional layers, two subsample layers and two fully connected layers. Calculations in convolutional and fully connected layers are performed through matrix-vector operations that are implemented on memristor crossbars. Sub-sampling layers imply the operation of finding the maximum value from several values. This operation can be implemented at the analog level. The process of training a neural network runs separately from data analysis. As a rule, gradient optimization methods are used at the training stage. It is advisable to perform calculations using these methods on CPU. When setting the weights, 3—4 precision bits are required to obtain an acceptable recognition quality in the case the network is trained on MNIST. 6-10 precision bits are required if the network is trained on CIFAR_10.
E. N. Muratova, , K. V. Chernyakova,
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 22; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2019-4-241-245

Abstract:
In this work, we studied the thermal characteristics of flat heaters made of aluminum with a strip heating element in the form of carbon fiber. In order to provide the necessary insulation of the heating element from the metal base, a layer of porous anodic aluminum oxide with a thickness of 20 μm was formed on the aluminum surface. The ends of the carbon fiber filament were metallized with a layer of copper for subsequent soldering during the assembly of the electric heater. The carbon fiber filament of electric heater had an electrical resistance of 60 Ohms. Studies of the propagation of heat fluxes in the volume of a board made of aluminum with nanoporous aluminum oxide were carried out using thermal imaging measurements. The paper presents the dependence of temperature changes on the surface of the lid of a heating element made of aluminum and on the opposite side — heat transfer side with heating time. The results showed that the heat generated by a linear heating element of carbon fiber, quickly distributed throughout the entire volume of the aluminum plate of the heating element. This indicates a high thermal conductivity of the aluminum base of the heater, the parameters of which allow to achieve the required thermal characteristics of the heater.
O. A. Tkachenko, D. G. Baksheev
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 22; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2019-4-290-297

Abstract:
Magnetotransport in submicron devices formed on the basis of GaAs/AlGaAs structures is simulated by the method of nonequilibrium Green functions. In the one-particle approximation, the influence of a perpendicular magnetic field on electron transmission through a quasi-one-dimensional quantum dot and the Aharonov—Bohm interferometer is considered. Two-terminal conductance and magnetic moment of the devices are calculated. Two-dimensional patterns of equilibrium (persistent) currents are obtained. The correlations between energy dependences of magnetic moment and conductance are considered. For the quasi-one-dimensional quantum dot, regular conductance oscillations similar to the ABOs were found at low magnetic fields (0.05—0.4 T). In the case of a ring interferometer, the contribution to the total equilibrium current and magnetic moment at a given energy can change sharply both in magnitude and in sign when the magnetic field changes within the same Aharonov—Bohm oscillation. The conductance through the interferometer is determined not by the number of propagating modes, but rather by the influence of triangular quantum dots at the entrances to the ring, causing back scattering. Period of calculated ABOs corresponds to that measured for these devices.
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 22; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2019-4-298-301

Abstract:
In the modern world, knowledge and high technologies determine the effectiveness of the economy, can radically improve the quality of life of people, modernize infrastructure and public administration, and ensure law and order and security. The creation of a research infrastructure based on a high-performance hybrid cluster enabled detailed calculations of complex phenomena and processes without full-scale experiments. It has become possible to most efficiently apply modern methods of multiscale computer modeling when developing prototypes of new materials with desired properties for their further synthesis. Such approaches can significantly reduce the cost and speed up the development of modern technologies for producing new semiconductor materials for nanoelectronics, composite materials for the aerospace industry and others. Thus, the use of multiscale modeling methods in combination with the use of high-performance software tools made it possible to create a computer model of a nanoscale heterostructure, develop tools for predictive computer modeling of the physical structure of nanoelectronic devices, the neuromorphic architecture of multilevel memory devices, defect formation in composite materials, and others.
I. V. Matyushkin
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 22; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2019-4-253-261

Abstract:
A general set of ideas related to the memristors modeling is presented. The memristor is considered to be a partially ordered physical and chemical system that is within the “edge of chaos“ from the point of view of nonlinear dynamics. The logical and historical relationship of memristor physics, nonlinear dynamics, and neuromorphic systems is illustrated in the form of a scheme. We distinguish the nonlinearity into external ones, when we describe the behavior of an electrical circuit containing a memristor, and internal ones, which are caused by processes in filament region. As a simulation model, the attention is drawn to the connectionist approach, known in the theory of neural networks, but applicable to describe the evolution of the filament as the dynamics of a network of traps connected electrically and quantum-mechanically. The state of each trap is discrete, and it is called an “oscillator“. The applied meaning of the theory of coupled maps lattice is indicated. The high-density current through the filament can lead to the need to take into account both discrete processes (generation of traps) and continuous processes (inclusion of some constructions of solid body theory into the model).However, a compact model is further developed in which the state of such a network is aggregated to three phase variables: the length of the filament, its total charge, and the local temperature. Despite the apparent physical meaning, all variables have a formal character, which is usually inherent in the parameters of compact models. The model consists of one algebraic equation, two differential equations, and one integral connection equation, and is derived from the simplest Strukov’s model. Therefore, it uses the “window function” approach. It is indicated that, according to the Poincare—Bendixon theorem, this is sufficient to explain the instability of four key parameters (switching voltages and resistances ON/OFF) at a cycling of memristor. The Fourier spectra of the time series of these parameters are analyzed on a low sample of experimental data. The data are associated with the TiN/HfOx/Pt structure (0 < x < 2). A preliminary conclusion that requires further verification is the predominance of low frequencies and the stochasticity of occurrence ones.
P. A. Sechenykh
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 22; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2019-4-268-271

Abstract:
Information about the structure and properties of materials is especially important when working with micro-and nanoscale objects due to the high complexity of their obtaining. This makes it relevant to use computer modeling to predict the required characteristics of materials. Electronic, magnetic, mechanical, and other properties of crystalline substances are determined by their structure-the periodicity of the lattice and the symmetry of the unit cell. This article discusses metal oxides with the general chemical formulas MeO (metals: Ca, Cd, Mg), MeO2 (metals: Hf, Ce, Zr), Me2O3 (metals: Er, Nd, Sc, Mn, Tl) and Me3O4 (using Fe as an example) and a cubic symmetry type crystal lattice — structural types NaCl (rock salt), Fluorite, Bixbyite, Spinel accordingly. The paper describes the model of ion-atomic radii, which is widely used in the modeling of crystalline metal oxides. The application of the annealing simulation algorithm for calculating the metric parameters of the compounds under consideration is shown. The software implementation of the algorithm presented in this paper allows us to determine the coordinates of the atoms that are included in the elementary cell of the crystal lattice, calculate the lattice constant and the density of the packing of atoms in the crystal cell using the specified chemical formula and the space group symmetry. These structural characteristics can be used as input parameters for determining electronic, magnetic, and other properties. The article compares the values of lattice constants obtained as a result of modeling with experimental data.
, , A. A. Sorokin, S. A. Denisov
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 22; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2019-4-302-307

Abstract:
The article discusses methods of consolidating scientific services of a digital platform for integrating a set of scientific services for various fields of science for conducting interdisciplinary research. Solutions for creating consolidated services can be widely used for multilevel, multiscale modeling in the field of materials science, which provides complex modeling at several levels of the hierarchy. Currently, this problem is being solved by creating multicomponent hierarchical software systems on corporate computing systems. With the advent of high-performance cloud computing platforms, it will be possible to order services for solving particular modeling problems as a scientific service. In this case, the tasks of complex hierarchical modeling will be solved by a consolidated service - a service providing sequential-parallel execution of complex modeling components in the form of specialized scientific services. The description of the processes for the provision of scientific services is based on the research methodology and is a research plan (the work process mapping), which describes a set of operations related to time and includes a list of necessary resources for their implementation. In modern conditions of the development of a microservice approach to the creation of computing systems and the evolution of the Service Oriented Architecture and of the Enterprise Service Bus integration, special attention is paid to the problems of efficient integration of platform services. The paper proposes to supplement the existing description of a scientific service with the possibility of ordering a third-party service based on agile integration. This approach will allow at the present stage of development of service architectures to overcome the shortcomings of centralized systems such as Enterprise Service Bus and take advantage of the elasticity of cloud computing and a microservice approach to creating information and computing systems.
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 22; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2019-4-246-252

Abstract:
Models that describe bipolar resistive switching in planar microstructures based on oxide compounds (Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x, Nd2-xCexCuO4-y) and bismuth selenide are considered. Metal-isolator-metal planar-type meristor heterostructures were investigated, in which the micro-size is formed by an electrode whose diameter is much smaller than the total size of the structure (it can be both Chervinsky-type microjunctions and film electric electrodes). Another important feature of these heterostructures is the presence of a surface layer several tens of nanometers thick with specific conductivity significantly reduced relative to volume. The change in the resistive properties of such heterostructures is caused by the formation or destruction of the conductive channel through the above-mentioned layer. Numerical simulation has shown that the bipolar resistive switching is significantly influenced by the electrical field distribution topology. A “critical field” model is proposed to describe experimentally observed memristor effects in investigated heterostructures. In this model it is assumed that the change in specific conductivity occurs in those parts of the surface layer where the electric field strength exceeds some critical value. The model of the “critical field” is based on the numerical calculation of the distribution of electrical potential on the distribution of specific conductivity in the structure. In addition, the model allowing to analyze the influence of electrodiffusion of oxygen ions on resistive switching in heterostructures based on Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x is considered. At numerical realization of the models a combination of the integro-differential approximation of the differential equations, the multi-grid approach for localization of heterogeneities of physical characteristics, the iterative decomposition method and composite adaptive meshes was used. It allowed tracking the processes under investigation with necessary accuracy. The comparison of simulation results with experimental data is presented.
A. I. Prostomolotov, N. A. Verezub
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 22; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2019-3-179-189

Abstract:
An original modification of the directed crystallization method is considered as a multi-cassette process, which has comparative simplicity and high productivity. The basis of this research was domestic patents and technological research carried out at the National University of Science and Technology MISIS. As a result, mathematical models of the multi-cassette method were developed that allow both a three-dimensional radiative — conductive analysis of thermal processes in the entire volume of the hot zone and a two-dimensional analysis of convective — conductive heat transfer in a separate cassette. The parametric calculations carried out on their basis were aimed to the identifying an influence of locations and sizes of the hot zone components to a thermal field in the cassette unit; the establishing an influence of vertical heat supply equability to the cassette unit and an influence of heating power decrease during the plate crystallization, as well as to the determining an influence of small cassette design distortions and violation of cooling uniformity in its bottom part on the occurrence of convection and asymmetrical thermal field. By means of the conductive-radiative heat transfer model for the entire hot zone there were carried out parametric calculations and it was analyzed an influence of hot zone components (their locations and temperatures) on the heat exchange conditions at the cassette unit boundaries. By means of the conductive-convective model for a cassette it was determined that the boundary thermal conditions asymmetry, as well as an unstable vertical temperature gradient, result in the convective vortices and a significant deviation of the crystallization front from a flat shape. The calculations with using the convective mass transfer model showed that an increase of the crystallization rate by an order significantly increases a tellurium flux into the crystal, thereby substantially changing a melt composition near crystallization front and, thus, being a potential cause of dendritic growth. The reliability of the calculation results was checked on a number of tests, in which the influence of heat and mass transfer on the crystallization front shape was analyzed at cassette cooling rates corresponding to the growth processes of bismuth telluride polycrystals.
T. V. Kritskaya, V. N. Zhuravlev, V. S. Berdnikov
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 22; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2019-3-158-167

Abstract:
The process of growing silicon single crystals by the Czochralski method has been improved, which involves the use of two argon streams. 1st, the main flow, 15—20 nl/min, is directed from top to bottom along the growing single crystal. It captures the reaction products of the melt with a quartz crucible (mainly SiO), removes them from the chamber through a nozzle in the lower part of the chamber and provide dislocation-free single crystals from large loads. Similar processes are known and widely used in world practice since the 1970s. 2nd, additional flow, 1.5—2 nl/min, is directed at an angle of 45° to the surface of the melt in the form of jets from nozzles arranged in a ring. This flow initiates the formation of a region of turbulent melt flow, which isolates the crystallization front from convective flows enriched with oxygen, and also enhances the evaporation of carbon from the melt. It is confirmed that the oxygen evaporated from the melt (in the form of SiO) is a «transport» for non-volatile carbon. Carrying out industrial processes showed that the carbon content in the grown single crystals can be significantly reduced, up to values smaller than in the feedstock. In single crystals grown using two argon streams, an increased macro- and micro-uniformity of the oxygen distribution, a significantly larger crystal length with a given, constant oxygen concentration, were also recorded. Achieving a carbon concentration of 5 to 10 times less than in the feedstock is possible with small amounts of argon for melting (15—20 nl/min compared to 50—80 nl/min used in conventional processes. The use of an additional argon flow, which has an outflow intensity 10 times lower than that of the main flow, does not distort the nature of the flow around the single crystal surface (“axial”), does not disrupt the growth of a dislocation-free single crystal, does not increase the density of microdefects, which indicates the absence of changes in temperature gradients and thermal shock leading to thermal stresses in a single crystal.
, I. S. Kolbin
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 22; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2019-3-190-196

Abstract:
In this work, we calculate the effective thermal conductivity coefficient for a binary semiconductor heterostructure using the GaAs/AlAs superlattice as an example. Different periods of layers and different ambient temperatures are considered. At the scale under consideration, the use of models based on the Fourier law is very limited, since they do not take into account the quantum-mechanical properties of materials, which gives a strong discrepancy with experimental data. On the other hand, the use of molecular dynamics methods allows us to obtain accurate solutions, but they are significantly more demanding on computing resources and also require solving a non-trivial problem of potential selection. When considering nanostructures, good results were shown by methods based on the solution of the Boltzmann transport equation for phonons; they allow one to obtain a fairly accurate solution, while having less computational complexity than molecular dynamics methods. To calculate the thermal conductivity coefficient, a modal suppression model is used that approximates the solution of the Boltzmann transport equation for phonons. The dispersion parameters and phonon scattering parameters are obtained from first-principle calculations. The work takes into account 2-phonon (associated with isotopic disorder and barriers) and 3-phonon scattering processes. To increase the accuracy of calculations, the non-digital profile of the distribution of materials among the layers of the superlattice is taken into account. The obtained results are compared with experimental data showing good agreement.
, , Z. A. Goreeva, V. M. Kasimova
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 22; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2019-3-168-178

Abstract:
Рассмотрены особенности разработки и применения методик выполнения измерений коэффициентов преломления, основанных на многоугловых спектрофотометрических методах отражения. Описано влияние формы, размеров и обработки поверхности образцов на их спектральные зависимости отражения. Показана возможность определения коэффициентов преломления двумя спектрофотометрическими методами: по спектру отражения от одной грани при малом угле падения света, близком к нормальному, и методом отражения при падении света при угле Брюстера. Метод отражения при угле падения, близком к нормальному, может применяться в случае непоглощающего образца, который характеризуется коэффициентом экстинкции не превышающем (10-6—10-4). Этот метод является «экспресс-методом», поскольку позволяет сразу получать дисперсионную зависимость коэффициента преломления. Метод позволяет измерять дисперсионные зависимости коэффициентов преломления для образцов, форма которых исключает многократные отражения: пластин с одной шлифованной стороной; пластин большой толщины, полированных с двух сторон; призм или пластин с неплоскопараллельными гранями. При измерении по методу Брюстера не предъявляются требования к значению коэффициента экстинкции образца (поглощению), можно использовать образцы любой формы, в том числе, полированные с двух сторон пластины малой толщины. Однако получаемые значения коэффициентов преломления дискретны, требуется накопление большого массива результатов измерений. Определена точность измерений обоих методов, которая составляет Δ = ±0,001 при доверительной вероятности P = 0,95. Применимость спектрофотометрических методик измерения показана для образцов гадолиний-алюминий-галлиевого граната, относящегося к кристаллам кубической сингонии и характеризующегося наличием одного коэффициента преломления. Показано, что значения коэффициентов преломления, полученные данными методами, хорошо соотносятся в пределах точности измерений.
, , M. V. Yarmolich, , , , A. V. Petrov, , A. L. Zhaludkevich, S. E. Demyanov
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 22; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2019-3-149-157

Abstract:
Исследована последовательность фазовых превращений в процессе кристаллизации Sr2CrMoO6-δ из стехиометрической смеси простых оксидов SrCO3 + 0,5Cr2O3 + MoO. Установлено, что фазообразование хромомолибдата стронция протекает через ряд последовательно-параллельных стадий. Согласно данным дифференциально-термического и термогравиметрического анализов, обнаружено, что в температурном диапазоне 300—1300 К наблюдается пять ярко выраженных эндотермических эффектов. При изучении последовательности фазовых превращений в процессе синтеза двойного перовскита обнаружено, что основными сопутствующими соединениями являются SrCrO3, SrMoO4 и Sr2CrO4. При этом замечено, что с ростом температуры отжига от 300 до 1270 К в исходной смеси первоначально и практически одновременно появляются сложные соединения SrCrO4, SrCrO3 (350—550 К), а затем и SrMoO4, Sr2CrO4 (600—750 К). Показано, что с последующим увеличением температуры в интервале температур 940—1100 К концентрация фаз SrMoO4, Sr2CrO4 и SrCrO3 резко падает с появлением и ростом двойного перовскита Sr2CrMoO6-δ. При этом в интервале температур до 1120—1190 К основные рентгеновские рефлексы фазы Sr2CrO4 уменьшаются незначительно, тогда как интенсивность рентгеновских рефлексов фаз SrCrO3 и SrMoO4 снижается существенно больше и их содержание в образце при температуре 1170 К составляет не более 7,9 %. Анализ амплитудных значений производной степени превращения фаз SrCrO3, SrMoO4 и Sr2CrO4, при которых скорости их кристаллизации максимальны, показал, что для Sr2CrO4 величина |(dα/dt)|mах соответствует наибольшей температуре T = 1045 К. Это указывает на наличие кинетических трудностей при образовании фазы Sr2CrO4, которая в дальнейшем не исчезает, а при ее появлении наблюдается замедление роста двойного перовскита. На основании результатов, полученных при изучении динамики фазовых превращений для формирования однофазного Sr2CrMoO6-δ со сверхструктурным упорядочением Cr/Mo и улучшенными магнитными характеристиками, были применены прекурсоры SrCrO3 и SrMoO4 с использованием комбинированных режимов нагрева.
K. I. Volovich, S. A. Denisov,
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 22; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2019-3-197-201

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the problem of solving scientific problems in the field of high-performance computing systems. An approach to solving a certain kind of problems in materials science is the use of mathematical modeling technologies implemented by specialized modeling systems. The greatest efficiency of the modeling system is shown when deployed in hybrid high-performance computing systems (HHPC), which have high performance and allow solving problems in an acceptable time with sufficient accuracy. However, there are a number of limitations that affect the work of the research team with modeling systems in the HHPC computing environment: the need to access graphics accelerators at the stage of development and debugging of algorithms in the modeling system, the need to use several modeling systems in order to obtain the most optimal solution, the need to dynamically change settings modeling systems for solving problems. The solution to the problem of the above limitations is assigned to an individual modeling environment functioning in the HHPC computing environment. The optimal solution for creating an individual modeling environment is the technology of virtual containerization. An algorithm for the formation of an individual modeling environment in a hybrid high-performance computing complex based on the «docker» virtual containerization system is proposed. An individual modeling environment is created by installing the necessary software in the base container, setting environment variables, installing custom software and licenses. A feature of the algorithm is the ability to form a library image from a base container with a customized individual modeling environment. In conclusion, the direction for further research work is indicated. The algorithm presented in the article is independent of the implementation of the job management system and can be used for any high-performance computing system.
K. L. Enisherlova, E. M. Temper, Yu. V. Kolkovsky, B. K. Medvedev, S. A. Kapilin
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 22; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2019-3-202-211

Abstract:
В полевых транзисторах на основе широкозонных нитридных гетероструктур широко используются диэлектрические слои в качестве как одного из основных элементов в активных областях приборов, так и пассивирующих слоев. К диэлектрикам предъявляются жесткие требования по высокой диэлектрической проницаемости, большой ширине запрещенной зоны, сплошности покрытия. Кроме того, пленки должны выдерживать высокие электрические поля и иметь низкую плотность поверхностных состояний на границе диэлектрик/полупроводник. Для этих целей в качестве эффективных покрытий обычно используются низкотемпературные пленки, выращенные с помощью плазмохимического осаждения из газовой фазы, атомно-слоевого осаждения (ALD) и плазменно-стимулированного осаждения. Для гетероструктур AlGaN/GaN наиболее перспективными и чаще всего используемые являются пленки ALD Al2О3, SiNх (Si3N4), SiON, ALD AlN.Исследовано влияние пассивирующих покрытий ALD Al2O3, SiNx и SiON разной толщины на изменение заряда и плотности состояний гетероструктур AlGaN/GaN. Электрофизические параметры структур оценивались с помощью C—V-характеристик, измеренных на разных частотах, и I—V-характеристик. На основании рассмотренных зонных диаграмм структур при разном управляющем напряжении и оценки элементного состава пленок методом Оже-спектроскопии показано, что причиной образования большого положительного заряда при нанесении пленок ALD Al2O3 и SiNx является возникновение дополнительного пьезоэлектрического заряда в буферном слое AlGaN. Показано, что использование пленок SiON с концентрацией кислорода в них более 3 % не приводит к формированию дополнительного положительного заряда, но может вызывать флуктуации тока при измерении I—V-характеристик. Рассмотрен возможный механизм транспорта носителей в области пространственного заряда, приводящий к таким флуктуациям.
V. V. Siksin
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 22; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2019-3-228-236

Abstract:
The use of “warm liquid” tetramethylsilane (TMS) in ionization chambers for measuring dose profiles in water phantoms to prepare the accelerator for a proton therapy session is relevant. One of the promising areas of radiation therapy is proton therapy. To increase the conformality of proton therapy, it is important to know exactly the dose distributions from the energy release of the proton beam in the water phantom before conducting a proton therapy session. A television-type detector (TTD), which measures the profiles of the Bragg peak by the depth of the beam in the water phantom, helps to increase the accuracy of the dose distribution knowledge. To accurately determine the profile of the Bragg peak by the beam width in the water phantom, an additional method is proposed that will allow TTD to quickly determine the profile by the width of the Bragg peak in on-line mode. This prefix to the TTD will improve the quality of summing up the therapeutic beam-thanks to accurate knowledge of the profile by width, and therefore the formed high-dose distribution field will correspond to the irradiated volume in the patient and will increase the conformality of irradiation. The additional prefix to the TTD is designed on an organosilicon “warm liquid” and represents a high-precision ionization chamber with coordinate sensitivity along the width of the water phantom. The fully developed technology for obtaining “warm liquid” TMS allows creating both microdosimeters for proton therapy and detectors for measuring “dose profiles” in water phantoms during accelerator calibration. The considered prefix to the TTD detector - the calibrator meter of the dose field (KIDP) - can also be used independently of the TTD and with great accuracy measure the dose profiles of the Bragg peak in the water phantom, both in depth and width. KIDP can also be used to measure the outputs of secondary “instantaneous” neutrons and gamma quanta emitted from the water phantom orthogonally to the direction of the proton beam.
V. V. Sleptsov, , , D. Yu. Kukushkin, A. A. Nagaev
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 22; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2019-3-212-218

Abstract:
In this paper, promising nanocomposite materials based on carbon and titanium are considered. It is shown that the use of a highly porous matrix is of particular interest. Materials based on such matrices have minimal weight and high strength characteristics. The paper also describes composites based on porous carbon fibers with metal oxides. The directions for producing composites can be divided into three types: matrix method, coating of finished nanoparticles with an inert shell, and the formation of nanoparticles and matrices in one process. The coating of nanoparticles with an inert shell prevents their oxidation and preserves the necessary magnetic properties. When using methods such as IR pyrolysis, arc evaporation forms third-party metal-carbon phases that pollute the resulting material. To avoid this, reducing agents are used, for example, hydrogen when coking nanoparticles in a methane plasma current restores metal particles from its Sol-gel and prevents them from reacting with carbon. But with this method, it is difficult to control the particle size. Using a ready-made matrix allows you to control the size of nanoparticles. However, this method uses high temperatures, and sometimes hydrogen, which complicates the production process. The main problem in the field of nanocomposites is the search for more technological, simple, cheap and environmentally friendly methods for obtaining nanocomposites with high performance characteristics. The developed technology for forming the pore space of the initial carbon matrix does not have the above disadvantages. This technology has a simple, cheap, environmentally friendly design. high temperatures are not used in the process of producing nanocomposites and third-party metal-carbon phases are not formed. The resulting nanocomposite materials were used as electrodes for ultra-high-volume capacitor structures. When studying the capacitance and electrical characteristics of samples, it was found that the formation of metal on a porous carbon matrix can significantly reduce the internal resistance of the cell and increase the specific energy consumption.
I. N. Ganiev, F. A. Aliev, H. O. Odinazoda, A. M. Safarov, J. H. Jayloev
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 22; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2019-3-219-227

Abstract:
Aluminum — a metal whose scope of application is constantly expanding. At present, aluminum and its alloys in a number of areas successfully displace traditionally used metals and alloys. The widespread use of aluminum and its alloys is due to its properties, among which, first of all, low density, satisfactory corrosion resistance and electrical conductivity, ability to apply protective and decorative coatings should be mentioned. All this, combined with the large reserves of aluminum in the earth’s crust, makes the production and consumption of aluminum very promising. One of the promising areas for the use of aluminum is the electrical industry. Conductive aluminum alloys type E-AlMgSi (Aldrey) are representatives of this group of alloys.One of the promising areas for the use of aluminum is the electrical industry. Conducting aluminum alloys of the E-AlMgSi type (Aldrey) are representatives of this group of alloys. The paper presents the results of a study of the temperature dependence of heat capacity, heat transfer coefficient, and thermodynamic functions of an aluminum alloy E-AlMgSi (Aldrey) with gallium. Research conducted in the “cooling” mode. It is shown that the temperature capacity and thermodynamic functions of the E-AlMgSi alloy (Aldrey) with gallium increase, while the Gibbs energy decreases. Gallium additives up to 1 wt.% Reduce the heat capacity, enthalpy, and entropy of the initial alloy and increase the Gibbs energy.
V. V. Siksin
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 22; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2019-2-118-127

Abstract:
Применение «теплой жидкости» тетраметилсилана (TMС) является актуальным в больших массивных калориметрах (с объемом несколько сот литров) для поиска процессов с очень малыми энерговыделениями. Это направление называется «неускорительные» эксперименты с низкофоновыми детекторами. С помощью этих экспериментов можно проверить стандартную модель электрослабых взаимодействий. Поэтому полностью отработанная технология получения в больших количествах «теплой жидкости» ТМС, позволяет провести такие эксперименты.Совместно с ГНИИХТЭОС разработана пилотная установка для очистки ТМС до степени 24 ррв , при которой возможно наполнение калориметров и микродозиметров ТМС. Очистка состоит их четырех этапов — начиная с первого этапа, где концентрат ТМС так называемый «легкий погон» получают с завода.Рассматривается создание на большом количестве высокоочищенной «теплой жидкости» ТМС — нового класса детекторов с рекордной чувствительностью к редким и слабоионизирующим...
, А. П. Абдулаков, J. H. Jayloev, ,
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 22; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2019-2-128-134

Abstract:
The economic feasibility of using aluminum as a conductive material is explained by the favorable ratio of its cost to the cost of copper. In addition, one should take into account the factor that the cost of aluminum remains practically unchanged for many years. When using conductive aluminum alloys for the manufacture of thin wire, winding wire, etc. Certain difficulties may arise in connection with their insufficient strength and a small number of kinks before fracture. In recent years, aluminum alloys have been developed, which even in a soft state have strength characteristics that allow them to be used as a conductive material. One of the promising areas for the use of aluminum is the electrical industry. Conductive aluminum alloys type E-AlMgSi (aldrey) are representatives of this group of alloys and treats heat-strengthened alloys. They are distinguished by high strength and good ductility. These alloys with appropriate heat treatment acquires high electrical conductivity. The wires made from it are used almost exclusively for overhead power lines.In the work presents the results of the study of the anodic behavior of aluminum alloy E-AlMgSi (aldrey) with tin, in a medium electrolyte 0.03; 0.3 и 3.0% NaCl. A corrosion-electrochemical study of alloys was carried out using the potentiostatic method on a PI-50-1.1 potentiostat at a potential sweep rate of 2 mV/s. It is shown that alloying E-AlMgSi (aldrey) c with tin increases its corrosion resistance by 20%. The main electrochemical potentials of the alloys when doping with tin are shifted to the positive range of values, and from the concentration of sodium chloride in the negative direction of the ordinate axis.
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 22; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2019-2-92-103

Abstract:
The NiCo/C metal-carbon nanocomposites based on the NiCl2/CoCl2/Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) precursors were synthesized using IR heating. The results of studies of NiCo/C nanocomposites by X-ray phase analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and vibration magnetometry showed the dependence of the structure and properties of NiCo/C nanocomposites on the synthesis temperature, concentration, and metal ratio in the precursor. According to the results of the X-ray phase analysis, it was found that during the IR pyrolysis of the precursor, NiCo metal nanoparticles are stabilized in the carbon matrix, an increase in the synthesis temperature from 350 to 800 °C leads to an increase in the average size of nio nanoparticles from 10 to 80 nm, it is established that the formation of the alloy occurs due to the gradual dissolution of cobalt in nickel with the simultaneous transition of cobalt from the hcp modification to FCC. The structure of nanocomposites was shown by transmission electron microscopy of samples synthesized at 600 °C. It was found that with an increase in the metal concentration in the precursor from 10 to 40 wt.%, the average size of NiCo nanoparticles increases and the concentration of nanoparticles in the carbon matrix increases. The study of the magnetic properties of nanocomposites showed that with an increase in the content of metals in the precursor from 10 to 40 wt.%, an almost linear increase in the saturation magnetization from 5.94 to 25.7 A · m2/kg is observed. A change in the ratio of metals from Ni : Co = 4 : 1 to Ni : Co = 1 : 4 causes an increase in magnetization from 11.46 to 23.3 A · m2/kg.
, , V. E. Gumiennik, , A. O. Konakov, , , A. A. Kharchenko
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 22; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2019-2-73-83

Abstract:
Использование графена в электронике требует как экспериментального исследования процесса формирования высококачественных низкоомных контактов, так и углубления понимания механизмов электронного переноса в окрестности контакта металл/графен. В работе исследован транспорт носителей заряда в твистированном CVD графене, который декорирован электрохимически осажденными частицами Co, образующими омический контакт с графеновым слоем. Сопоставляются температурные и магнетополевые зависимости слоевого сопротивления R(T,B) исходного и декорированного твистированного графена на подложке из оксида кремния. Показано сосуществование отрицательного (при индукции магнитного поля ниже 1 Тл) и положительного (индукция выше 1 Тл) вкладов в магниторезистивный эффект в обоих типах образцов. Зависимости R(T,B) анализируются на основе теории двумерных интерференционных квантовых поправок к проводимости Друде с учетом конкуренции вклада от прыжкового механизма проводимости. Показано, что в изученной области температур (2–300 К) и магнитных полей (до 8 Тл) при описании транспорта носителей заряда в исследованном графене необходимо учитывать не менее трех интерференционных вкладов в проводимость: от слабой локализации, междолинного рассеяния и нарушения хиральности псевдоспина, а также короблением графена вследствие тепловых флуктуаций.
Yu. O. Kulanchikov, ,
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 22; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2019-2-112-117

Abstract:
The effect of electron irradiation with energy of 2.5 keV on the MOS structure Al/SiO2/Si capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics have been studied. At chosen beam energy the electron penetration depth is lower than the dielectric thickness that allows to reveal the contribution of excess carrier transport to the trap formation on the SiO2/Si interface. It was established that the electron beam irradiation leads to a significant change in the C-V characteristics slope, i.e. to to the trap formation at the interface. A study of effect of bias applied to the investigated structure before and during the electron beam irradiation was carried out. It was established that while the bias applied before irradiation practically did not affect the C-V characteristics of the investigated MOS structure, the positive voltage applied to metallization during irradiation produced a pronounced effect on the C-V curve changes. At the same time the C-V characteristics after irradiation with zero and negative voltage were very similar. The investigation of stability of changes produced by the electron beam irradiation showed that the C-V curves are slowly restored even at room temperature. An applied negative bias was found to slow down the charge relaxation process.
, , M. R. Predtechenskiy, А. Е. Безродный, V. V. Kirienko, A. V. Dvurechenskii
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 22; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2019-2-104-111

Abstract:
Бумага (buckypaper) из одностенных углеродных нанотрубок (ОУНТ) является перспективным материалом для большого числа вариантов применения, в которых требуется высокая удельная электро- и теплопроводность, а также высокая удельная прочность. Изотропные образцы buckypaper (BP) из ОУНТ сформированы фильтрацией дисперсии из ОУНТ для удаления растворителя. Для увеличения проводимости ВР производилась ориентация ОУНТ вдоль выделенного направления, а также дополнительное легирование ОУНТ в парах йода. Ориентация ОУНТ осуществлялась с помощью экструзии через щель раствора из ОУНТ. Проведено сравнение температурных зависимостей электропроводности изотропных, ориентированных и легированных образцов ВР для выявления механизма проводимости и роли ориентации ОУНТ. Показано, что ориентирование пучков ОУНТ вдоль выделенного направления позволяет увеличить проводимость ВР с 103 См/cм до ~ 104 См/cм, а легирование ориентированных образцов в парах йода увеличивает электропроводность еще на порядок. Механизм...
E. Artsiukh,
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 22; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2019-2-135-142

Abstract:
Ферромолибдат стронция (Sr2FeMoO6-d, SFMO), обладающий структурой двойного перовскита, является многообещающим кандидатом для использования в качестве основного материала в спинтронике. Однако на данный момент SFMO не нашел широкого применения из-за низкой воспроизводимости его магнитных свойств, вызванной, в том числе, их сильной зависимостью от степени упорядочения катионов Fe и Mo в подрешетках B´ и B² двойного перовскита A2B´B²O6. Рассмотрен экспресс-метод определения степени разупорядочения ферромолибдата стронция. Степень заселения подрешеток катионами Fe и Mo определена как для стехиометрического, так и для нестехиометрического Sr2FeMoO6-δ с 5%-ным избытком Fe и Mo соответственно. Рассчитано соотношение интенсивности пикa сверхструктурного упорядочения (101) к наиболее интенсивному пику (112 + 200). Проведена подгонка расчетных кривых под известное для аналогичных случаев аналитическое выражение. Результаты расчетов предложенным авторами методом совпадают с результатами обработки экспериментальных данных методом Ритвельда в пределах ±25 %, что позволяет использовать этот метод в качестве альтернативы методу Ритвельда в том случае, когда время выдержки для рентгеноструктурного анализа установлено недостаточно большим. Обсуждено влияние таких факторов, как приборное уширение дифракционных пиков, уширение пиков вследствие уменьшения размера кристаллитов, изменение параметров решетки тонких пленок за счет их несоответствия с подложкой и изменение параметров решетки за счет появления кислородных вакансий на соотношение интенсивности пиков I(101)/I(112 + 200). Актуальность метода состоит в том, что он позволяет оценить степень сверхструктурного упорядочения Sr2FeMoO6-d не требуя больших затрат времени съемки и обработки данных дифрактограмм методом Ритвельда, что может быть полезно в случае, когда предстоит обработать большое количество результатов измерений.
, V. M. Samsonov
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 22; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2019-2-84-91

Abstract:
Phase-change memory is based on a change in the optical, electrical, or other properties of a substance during a phase transition, for example, transition from the amorphous to the crystalline state. Already realized and potential applications of such memory are associated with the use for this purpose of multicomponent alloys based on metals, semiconductors. However, single-component nanoparticles, including Si ones, are also of interest in view of the prospects for their use as nanoscale memory units. In particular, possibility of creating such memory units is confirmed by the fact that the bulk phase of the amorphous silicon has an optical absorption coefficient which is by an order of magnitude greater than that of the crystalline, although, it is difficult to release this effect for an individual nanoparticle whose size does not exceed the wavelength of light. In this work, using molecular dynamics (MD) and the Stillinger-Weber potential, we studied the laws of melting and conditions of crystallization for silicon nanoparticles containing up to 100,000 atoms. It has been shown that upon cooling a silicon nanodroplet at a rate of 0.2 TK/s and higher rates, its transition into the amorphous state takes place, whereas single-component metal nanodroplets crystallize even at cooling rates of 1 TK/s. Upon subsequent heating of amorphous silicon nanoparticles containing more than 50,000 atoms, they crystallize in the definite temperature range 1300—1400 K. It is concluded that it is principally possible to create memory units based on the above phase transitions. The transition of a nanoparticle to the amorphous state is achieved by its melting and subsequent cooling to the room temperature at a rate of 0.2 TK/s, and switching to the crystalline state is achieved by heating it to 1300—1400 K at a rate of 0.2 TK/s and subsequent cooling. On the basis of results of MD experiments, a conclusion is made that there exist a minimal size of silicon nanoparticles, for which producing memory units based on the change of the phase state, is not possible. It was found that for the temperature change rate of 0.2 TK/s, the minimal size in question 12.4 nm that corresponds to 50,000 atoms.
V. M. Kasimova, , O. A. Buzanov, ,
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 22; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2019-1-27-34

Abstract:
Scintillation materials that can convert absorbed high-energy particles into photons of visible radiation find many applications, in particular in modern methods of medical imaging. Gd3Al2Ga3O12 : Ce is promising single crystal for use as a detecting crystal element of the positron emission tomographs due to its unique properties: high density, high light output, radiation hardness, etc. However, its scintillation kinetics currently limit the use of this crystal. Changing of these kinetics by codoping becomes a priority task, which is considered in many papers. The literature data analysis showed that the optical characteristics of such codoped crystals were not well enough studied or were not investigated at all. In this regard, the spectral dependences of transmission, absorption and reflection are measured using optical spectroscopy for Gd3Al2Ga3O12:Ce, Gd3Al2Ga3O12 : Ce,Ca and Gd3Al2Ga3O12 : Ce,Zr. Dispersion dependences of refractive in dices are obtained by approximating the refractive indices measured using the Brewster method. The approximation was carried out using the Cauchy equation. The material constants of this equation are estimated.
V. V. Siksin
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 22; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2019-1-45-52

Abstract:
The features of the development of the electronic path of the TV channel of the television type detector (TTD) are considered. It is noted that the mode of binning (addition of pixels) is the most difficult in technical implementation. Calculations are made to improve the mathematical model for the computer detector television type. The parameters of the analytical formula valid for proton energies from 30 to 250 MeV, based on the combination of functions of the parabolic cylinder, consistent with numerical methods and new experimental data, are determined. A list of theoretical papers describing the modified Bragg curve is given.Offers the possibility of a new approach to the description of dose field Bragg peak consisting in the application of the so-called «full experience» when the experimentally measured characteristics of the dose distribution of a system of equations in which the measured values are presented as a function of the so-called «amplitude dose field». The «amplitude dose field» are determined from the solution of this system of equations. The «amplitude dose field» depend on the z coordinates in the water phantom where, the z-axis of the beam direction and after determining the amplitudes from the system of equations described-certain amplitudes are used to quickly predict the measured characteristics of the dose distribution. The combination of the adaptive electronic pathway working independently without the participation of the operator during the experiment on the calibration of the accelerator and in determining the experimentally measured characteristics of the dose distribution, allows on-line to prepare the therapeutic accelerator «Prometheus» for a session with the patient.
A. M. Kislyuk, Т. С. Ильина, , D. A. Kiselev, A. A. Temirov, A. A. Turutin, M. D. Malinkovich, A. A. Polisan, Yu. N. Parkhomenko
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 22; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2019-1-5-17

Abstract:
Сегнетоэлектрические кристаллы ниобата лития (LiNbO3) c искусственно сформированной доменной структурой находят широкое применение в оптических системах генерации кратных гармоник лазерного излучения, акустооптике, прецизионных актюаторах, датчиках вибрации и магнитного поля, в том числе предназначенных для применения при повышенных температурах, в перспективе — в запоминающих устройствах ЭВМ. Исследовано влияние заряженной междоменной границы на формирование индуцированных доменных структур в конгруэнтных кристаллах ниобата лития (LiNbO3) неполярного x-среза. Методами диффузионного отжига на воздухе вблизи температуры Кюри и инфракрасного отжига в бескислородной среде в образцах были сформированы би- и полидоменные сегнетоэлектрические структуры, содержащие заряженные доменные границы типа «голова-к-голове» и «хвост-к-хвосту». В режиме Кельвин-моды атомно-силового микроскопа (АСМ) исследован поверхностный потенциал в окрестности заряженной междоменной границы....
Yu. S. Haiduk, , M. A. Mokhovikov,
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 22; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2019-1-53-66

Abstract:
Nanocrystalline tungsten oxide (WO3), indium oxide (In2O3), cobalt oxide (Co3O4) and mixed composites with different WO3—In2O3 and WO3—Co3O4 ratios were obtained by the sol-gel method after calcination of xerogels at 400—600 °C. The morphology, phase composition, and structural features of the materials obtained were studied by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The increase in the gas sensitivity of the joint composition compared to the initial oxides can be explained by a decrease in the crystallite size and an increase in the specific surface, as well as by the dependence of the surface state of the grains on the composition. The highest sensory response to nitrogen dioxide in both compositions lies in the range of 130—150 °C, and to carbon monoxide, above 230 °C. Low-power planar nitrogen dioxide sensors with a sensitivity of << 1 ppm and power consumption ≤ 85 mW were produced.
V. M. Timokhin, V. M. Garmash, V. A. Tedzhetov
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 22; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2019-1-35-44

Abstract:
In practical application of crystals in optoelectronics and laser technology it is necessary to know the direction of optical axes and types of oscillatory centers, which is a relevant and necessary condition. In this paper, the infrared spectra of transmission and absorption of hexagonal crystals of lithium iodate α-LiIO3, grown by open evaporation in H2O and D2O solutions, as well as natural lamellar crystals of phlogopite and muscovite monoclinic crystal are investigated. The band gap width of the investigated crystals is determined by transmission spectra. In the absorption spectra there were determined activation energy and wavelength of the oscillatory centers that are associated with the vibrations of protons, hydronium ions Н3О+, protium H+, OH groups and molecules HDO. The good correlation of the parameters of infrared spectra with the spectra of thermally stimulated depolarization currents and NMR spectra has shown. The possibility of diagnostics of types of oscillatory centers by means of infrared spectra is considered, which also allows to find out the direction of optical axes. The obtained results allow to use IR spectra to determine not only the types of vibrational centers, but also the presence of anisotropy of the crystal lattice of the studied crystals.
V. E. Asadchikov, I. G. Dyachkova, D. A. Zolotov, Yu. S. Krivonosov, V. T. Bublik, A. I. Shikhov
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 22; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2019-1-18-26

Abstract:
The method of two-crystal X-ray diffractometry is used to control the quality and perfection of monocrystalline silicon obtained by implantation of hydrogen ions and subsequent thermal annealing, which is used in a number of semiconductor technologies. The principal feature of this approach is the ability to quickly obtain reliable experimental results, which was confirmed in this paper by the use of X-ray topography. The presented data provide information on the state of the disturbed layer of silicon crystals of n-type conductivity (ρ = 100 Om ⋅ cm) by orientation (111), 2 mm thick, implanted by protons with energy E = 200, 300, 100 + 200 + 300 keV, dose D = 2 ⋅ 1016cm-2 and subjected to subsequent thermal treatment in the temperature range T from 100 to 900 °С. We have established a non-monotonic dependence of the integral characteristics of the disturbed layer, namely the average effective thickness Leff and the average relative deformation ∆а/а, on annealing temperature, with the maximum level of distortion in the field of temperature ∼300 °С, using the method of integral characteristics. Obtained data allowed to assess the general condition of disturbed layer during thermal treatment.
N. S. Kozlova, E. V. Zabelina, M. B. Bykova, A. P. Kozlova
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 21; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2018-3-146-155

Abstract:
Аннотация. Исследован процесс протекания токов короткого замыкания в кристаллах с низкотемпературными фазовыми переходами: сегнетовой соли NaKC4H4O6 • 4H2O и триглицинсульфата (CH2 • NH2 • COOH)3 • H2SO4. Испытания проведены на образцах полярных срезов без предварительной поляризации с симметричными индиевыми токопроводящими покрытиями. На всех образцах при комнатной температуре выявлено наличие токов короткого замыкания, которые сохраняются достаточно долго, и явление спадания тока со временем. Получены температурные зависимости токов короткого замыкания в диапазоне температур 16—45 °С для сегнетовой соли и 16—110 °С для триглицинсульфата. Токи короткого замыкания наблюдаются в исследованных кристаллах как в сегнетофазе, так и в парафазе. Показано, что при нагреве в сегнетофазе суммарный ток короткого замыкания определяется конкурирующими процессами: пиротоками и токами электрохимического разложения. В парафазе токи короткого замыкания являются токами электрохимического саморазложения. Показано, что протекание токов короткого замыкания через образцы полярных срезов кристаллов сегнетовой соли и триглицинсульфата обусловлено наличием собственной ЭДС, возникшей в результате электрохимического саморазложения противоположных поверхностей полярных срезов образцов при контакте с токопроводящими покрытиями вследствие анизотропии этих сторон. Предложена модель электрохимического саморазложения в таких кристаллах.
E. A. Agarkova, M. A. Borik, , T. V. Volkova, , I. E. Kuritsyna, N. A. Larina, , F. O. Milovich, , et al.
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 21; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2018-3-156-165

Abstract:
The results of investigation of crystal structure, ion conductivity and local structure of solid solutions (ZrO2)1−x(Gd2O3)x and (ZrO2)1−x(Y2O3)x (x = 0.04, 0.08, 0.10, 0.12, 0.14). The crystals were grown by directional crystallization of the melt in a cold container. The phase composition of the crystals was studied by X−ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy. Transport characteristics were studied by impedance spectroscopy in the temperature range 400—900 °C. The local crystal structure was studied by optical spectroscopy. Eu3+ ions were used as a spectroscopic probe. The results of the study of the local structure of solid solutions of ZrO2—Y2O3 and ZrO2—Gd2O3 systems revealed the peculiarities of the formation of optical centers, which reflect the nature of the localization of oxygen vacancies in the crystal lattice depending on the stabilizing oxide concentration. It is established that the local crystal environment of Eu3+ Ions in solid solutions (ZrO2)1−x(Y2O3)x and (ZrO2)1−x(Gd2O3)x is determined by the stabilizing oxide concentration and practically does not depend on the type of stabilizing oxide (Y2O3 or Gd2O3). The maximum conductivity at 900 °C was observed in crystals containing 10 mol.% Gd2O3 and 8 mol.% Y2O3. These compositions correspond to the t′′−phase and are close to the boundary between the regions of the cubic and tetragonal phases. It was found that in the system ZrO2—Y2O3 stabilization of the highly symmetric phase occurs at a lower stabilizing oxide concentration than in the system ZrO2—Gd2O3. Analysis of the data obtained allows us to conclude that in this range of compositions the main influence on the concentration dependence of the ion conductivity has a phase composition, rather than the nature of the localization of oxygen vacancies in the crystal lattice.
K. K. Abgarian,
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 21; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2018-3-175-181

Abstract:
The article discusses the calculation of the temperature regime in nanoscale AlAs/GaAs binary heterostructures. When modeling heat transfer in nanocomposites, it is important to take into account that heat dissipation in multilayer structures with layer sizes of the order of the mean free path of energy carriers (phonons and electrons) occurs not at the lattice, but at the layer boundaries (interfaces). In this regard, the use of classical numerical models based on the Fourier law is limited, because it gives significant errors. To obtain more accurate results, we used a model in which the heat distribution was assumed to be constant inside the layer, while the temperature was stepwise changed at the interfaces of the layers. A hybrid approach was used for the calculation: a finite−difference method with an implicit scheme for time approximation and a mesh−free model based on a set of radial basis functions for spatial approximation. The calculation of the parameters of the bases was carried out through the solution of the systems of linear algebraic equations. In this case, only weights of neuroelements were selected, and the centers and «widths» were fixed. As an approximator, a set of frequently used basic functions was considered. To increase the speed of calculations, the algorithm was parallelized. Calculation times were measured to estimate the performance gains using the parallel implementation of the method.
, B. K. Medvedev, E. M. Temper, V. I. Korneev
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 21; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2018-3-182-193

Abstract:
In this paper are considers the effect of the microrelief, dislocation structure and other defects of the epitaxial layers of the source and drain regions of the nitride HEMT transistors on the parameters of the formed ohmic contacts. The studies were carried out directly on high−power microwave transistors made of GaN/AlGaN/GaN/SiC heterostructures. Ohmic burning contacts were formed using the compositions Ti—Al—Mo—Au and Ti—Al—Ni—Au. To estimation the structural features of the contact areas, the surface microrelief at the interface of the burned contact/AlGaN and the defects formed on its surface was studied. It is shown that the resistance of the source and drain regions is largely determined by the surface microstructure at the boundary. Experimentally shown is the formation of a conducting layer in AlGaN under the ohmic contacts. The possibility of the formation of a new type of structural defects with a high aspect ratio in the contact and active areas of the devices during the formation of ohmic burned contacts is demonstrated. It is shown that the appearance of high densities of such defects leads to an increase of the device leakage currents.
A. V. Pashkevich, A. K. Fedotov, Yu. V. Kasyuk, L. A. Bliznyuk, J. A. Fedotova, N. A. Basov, A. S. Fedotov, I. A. Svito, E. N. Poddenezhny
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 21; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2018-3-133-145

Abstract:
The structure and electrical properties of (FexOy)10 (ZnO)90 ceramics (0 ≤ x ≤ 3; 1 ≤ y ≤ 4) synthesized in air by one− and two−stage method were studied. To dope ZnO, powders of FeO, α−Fe2O3, and Fe3O4 or a mixture (α−Fe2O3 + FeO) were used. On the basis of X−ray diffraction analysis, gamma−resonance spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, it was established that at fixed average iron concentrations of 1—3 at.% in ceramic samples, at least three phases are formed: solid solution Zn1−δFeδO with wurtzite structure and residual iron oxides FexOy, used as doping agents. Scanning electron microscopy and energy−dispersive X−ray analysis have shown that, in the studied ceramics, the grain sizes of the wurtzite phase decreased from several tens of micrometers using one−step synthesis to the submicron level for the case of two−step synthesis. It was found that the incorporation of iron into ZnO leads to a contraction of the crystal lattice in the wurtzite phase and the stronger, the higher the proportion of oxygen in the doping iron oxides FexOy. The study of the temperature dependences of the electrical resistivity have shown that deep donor centers with an activation energy of about 0.35 eV are formed in the wurtzite phase Zn1−δFeδO. The temperature dependences of the electrical resistivity in the undoped ZnO in the temperature range of 6—300 K and in the doped ceramics (FexOy)10(ZnO)90, obtained by the one−step synthesis method, at temperatures below 50 K, are characterized by a variable activation energy, which indicates a strong disordering of their structure.
S. V. Shcherbakov, A. G. Nalogin, V. G. Kostishin, A. A. Alekseev, Е. А. Белоконь, I. M. Isaev
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 21; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2018-3-166-174

Abstract:
In this paper, the effect of Al3+ ions substitutions on the value of the effective magnetic anisotropy field НАeff and the degree of magnetic texture f of the anisotropic polycrystalline hexagonal barium and strontium ferrites were studied. The samples were obtained by the ceramic technology method and the texture was formed by pressing in a magnetic field. The sample preparation technology presented in detail. The batches of barium hexaferrites were synthesized with the concentration of Al3+ ions: 0.9; 1.4; 2.5 and 2.6 formula units while strontium hexaferrites had Al3+ concentration of 0.1 formula units. It has been shown that by this technology barium and strontium hexaferrites with high value of (in range of 19—35 kOe) and with f = 80—83% could be obtained. The achieved values of НАeff and f could be sufficient for the production of substrates for microstrip microwave devices in millimeter−wave region.For the first time a raise in the degree of magnetic texture of polycrystalline barium hexaferrites with an increase of concentration of Al3+ ions were detected; a slight (5.5—5.8%) magnetic texture of isotropic strontium hexaferrites was also detected. The achieved results discussed in detail. For studied hexaferrites the mechanism of magnetic texture formation during the process of synthesis is proposed.
A. B. Shvartsburg, M. D. Malinkovich, A. M. Kislyuk
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 21; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2018-1-54-62

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V. V. Paramonov, O. V. Novikova, V. G. Kosushkin
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 21; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2018-1-43-47

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N. A. Kalanda
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 21; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2018-1-48-53

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N. S. Kozlova, O. A. Buzanov, V. M. Kasimova, A. P. Kozlova, E. V. Zabelina
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 21; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2018-1-18-25

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V. A. Kharchenko
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 21; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2018-1-5-17

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N. A. Verezub, V. L. Manomenova, A. I. Prostomolotov
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 21; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2018-1-26-34

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I. N. Ganiev, S. E. Otajonov, N. F. Ibrohimov, M. Mahmudov
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 21; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2018-1-35-42

Abstract:
In the heat «cooling» investigated the temperature dependence of the specific heat capacity and thermodynamic functions doped strontium alloy AK1М2 in the range 298,15—900 K. Mathematical models are obtained that describe the change in these properties of alloys in the temperature range 298.15—900 K, as well as on the concentration of the doping component. It was found that with increasing temperature, specific heat capacity, enthalpy and entropy alloys increase, and the concentration up to 0.5 wt.% of the alloying element decreases. Gibbs energy values have an inverse relationship, i.e., temperature — decreases the content of alloying component — is up to 0.5 wt.% growing.
V. V. Starkov, E. A. Gosteva, D. V. Irzhak, D. V. Roshchupkin
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 20; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2017-2-142-147

Abstract:
The effect of photon annealing on the occurrence of deformations in the crystal structure of boron−doped silicon wafers produced by the Czochralski (Cz−Si) was studied by the method of triple−X−ray diffraction. It was found that the traditional annealing of silicon wafers with polished surfaces on both sides by halogen lamps in Photonic Annealing (PA) and rapid thermal annealing modes (RTA) leads to compression deformation. The same process with the use of original photo− mask, which allows local processing produces multiple, spatially separated regions of the plate produced by Lосаl Photonic Annealing (LPA) at relatively low temperatures (less than 55 °C), gives rise to a tensile strain. This established effect is not observed if on the back side of the plates there is mechanical gettering layer. The mechanism explaining the experimental results can be used in the formation of the charge pump in the structure of the photo electric converters (PEC).
S. I. Supelnyak, V. G. Kosushkin
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering, Volume 20; doi:10.17073/1609-3577-2017-2-115-121

Abstract:
Solid−state lighting technology based on LEDs offers ample opportunities in plant lighting. This article presents a prototype of a solid−state lamp based on InGaN LEDs with radiation peaks of 440, 460, 530 and AlInGaP with radiation peaks at 590, 630 and 660 nm, equipped with a source of stabilized current and an optimized radiator. The emission spectrum of the LED illuminator is the result of numerical simulation using an experimentally obtained absorption spectrum of a leaf of a plant. The effect of using LEDs was compared to the effect of a sodium tubular lamp. Evaluation of the results of biometric measurements that were made throughout the experiment showed the possibility of the effect of the spectrum of the proposed LED illuminator on plant growth.
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