Results in Journal Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati: 69
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Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 2, pp 7-12; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.2.1.7-12
Agricultural land expansion necessity for food security in Indonesia has been faced by the fact in utilizing marginal land such as shallow peat soil in Central Kalimantan. Among problems encountered in such marginal land are pests and diseases incidence. Farmers practice in dealing with those problems is the chemical pesticides application. Unintended chemical pesticides that fall on/into the soil might have an adverse effect to soil microbes activity. This research aimed to assess the effect of pesticides on functional soil microbes population in peat soil. The research used completely randomized factorial design with two factors. First factor was 7 combinations of types (paraquat and buthylphenylmethyl carbamat (BPMC)) and dosages (50, 100, and 200% of recommended dosage) of pesticides. Second factor was 4 incubation times (1, 7, 14, and 28 days). Following the each of incubation times, the soil samples treated and analyzed for population of phosphate solubilizing microbes, cellulolytic microbes, and N2 fixing bacteria. The results show that phosphate solubilizing fungi population decrease by pesticides treatment. In contrast, pesticides significantly increased the Azospirillum population. Adverse effect to microbes population was found on the first day of incubation, however it recovered at 7 days and longer incubation times. In general, functional microbes population with paraquat application lower than BPMC application.
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 1, pp 26-33; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.1.1.26-33
The development of industrial fermentation food could not separate with the availability of culture starter that suffice to support its production. Dried starter can be an option to use in fermentation industry because it can be stored for longer time without rejuvenation. However, in the process of production of dried starter needs the matrix to maintain cell viability, economically and availability of raw material. This research was conducted to use selected dried starter of indigenous lactic acid bacteria by using sour cassava starch matrix. Eleven local isolates lactic acid bacteria isolates from spontaneous fermentation of carbohydrates commodity were selected based on their acid production capabilities and antibiotics susceptibilities. Isolate of E 1222 showed the best result and was identified as Pediococcus pentosaceus. The isolate was encapsulated with sour cassava starch matrix for making dried starter by using freeze dryer and spray dryer. Freeze dried starter culture could maintained the cell viability higher than spray dried starter culture i.e 10.34 log CFU/g and 8.91 log CFU/g, respectively. Finally, freeze dried starter culture could maintain the percentage of cell viability until 89.38% during four-weeks storage at 4 oC.
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 1, pp 54-59; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.1.2.54-59
The use of traps for insect surveilance on nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt) plantation is one of the earliest steps in this study since the information of nutmeg pest is barely available. In this study, four traps were used, namely Brown-Black Sticky Trap (BBST), Yellow Sticky Trap (YST), Glass Ambrosia Beetle Trap (GABT), and Plastic Pannel Trap (PPT) placed at 1,5 m high on nutmeg plants around Paya Teuk village (South Aceh). Those traps were accompanied by 35%-ethanol, nutmeg oil, and 35%-ethanol mixed with nutmeg oil as attractans. The observation with 4 types of trap with 3 different attractans and water as control have captured 10 orders, 51 families, 124 morphospecies, and 1027 individuals. Five families with the most numerous individuals were Nitidulidae, Tephritidae, Cicadellidae, Formicidae and Scolitidae. Individuals from Scolitidae and Nitidulidae family were mostly captured by BBST with 35% ethanol, and significantly different with the other traps (two way annova, P<0,05). The number of individuals from Tephritidae were mostly caught by YST using nutmeg oil as an attractan (two way Annova, P<0,05). Each type of trap with a spesific attractan effectively catch a different kind of insect family.
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 6, pp 8-12; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.6.1.8-12
Madura island is known as a mixed deciduous forest area with dry seasons and limestone soil. The island has unique plant species compared to the mainland Java. However, most of the mangrove forest areas have been converted into ponds and housing. One of the remaining mangrove swamps is located at Telang Asri village, Kamal Subdistrict, Bangkalan Regency. Several species of mangroves have been reported here, along with other groups of plants from the Phyllanthaceae family, found numerously at the time of observation. In 1963, CA Backer and RC Bakhuizen van den Brink Jr. have already listed 16 species of Phyllanthaceae from Madura Island. Since then, the updated information on the Phyllanthaceae of Madura has not been available. Therefore, this study aimed to collect the members of Phyllanthaceae family in the mangrove swamp areas of Telang Asri village. The field study was carried out using the exploratory method, while specimen preparation was conducted in Herbarium Bandungense (FIPIA). In this study, seven species were collected from Telang Asri, namely Glochidion littorale Blume, G. zeylanicum (Gaertn.) A. Juss., Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. and Thonn., P. debilis Klein ex Willd., P. reticulatus Poir., P. urinaria L., and P. virgatus G. Forst.
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 4, pp 48-56; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.4.2.48-56
DNA technology for profiling purposes has been used in many basic and applied science. One of the emerged applied science in genetics is it’s uses in solving crime cases. Homicide became one of highest crime cases in Indonesia. Solving its cases through DNA profiling technology using items of evidence as tool is needed. Here, we report the profiling of human DNA from several items of evidence available in the crime scene and the suspect. We used items of evidence from study cases no. 18098 and 18101, based on the legal permission of Indonesia’s National Police. We used 21 international standards of human STR markers, one sex-determining marker, one Y STR marker, and one independent Y marker to developed human alleles from tissue and blood stains left and/or shred on the victims, soap bottles, knifes, victim’s clothes and ropes as well as the buccal swab of the crime suspect. Our alleles identification matched between the victim and the crime suspect in both cases with the accuracy of DNA profiles compatibility at 99.99%. Detection of DNA profiling is depending on the evidence and time of storage which are influence by environment that can lead to the process of decayed and/or contaminated.
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 4, pp 63-70; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.4.2.63-70
Greenhouse is widely applied to provide protection against pest and harsh environment condition and most farmers usually planted mixed crops inside. However, this system creates an isolation to pollination which responsible for fruit production. In this study, local domesticated stingless bees, Trigona (Tetragonula) laeviceps, was applied as pollinator for two crops, beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) planted as mixed crops inside greenhouse. The benefit of the bees was measured as pollination success and quality of the crops produced (size and weight). Tomato flowers received no visit from both wild pollinators (all was Apis cerana) and stingless bees while in bean flowers, A. cerana exhibited more and longer visits to flower than T. laeviceps albeit lower number of flowers visited. The pollination efficiency between wild pollinator and T. laeviceps for beans (both at 41%) while self pollination produced better pollination efficiency for tomatoes planted at open field (84% compared to 71%). Beans planted at open field produced better products (bigger size and heavier) while tomatoes produced lesser quality although the differences were not significant. Based on this study, T. laeviceps may applied as pollinator agent in greenhouse and for mixed crops of beans and tomatoes.
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 4, pp 28-41; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.4.2.28-41
Javan slow loris (Nycticebus javanicus) is a slow moving nocturnal prosimian primate. Javan slow lorises are considered critically endangered by International Union for the Conservation of Nature. To date, there is limited source information available regarding wild loris ecology and behavior. In this study, home range areas and use space of wild Javan slow loris was carried out in Mount Halimun-Salak National Park. This study aims to measure home range size and to analyze activity budgets in natural forest conditions. Kernel Home Range methods were used to analyze home range areas, while Point Centered Quarter methods were used to collect habitat data, and five minute Instantaneous-Focal Animal Sampling was used to observe and record behavioral data. Two adult female lorises were observed. Analysis showed contiguous home range sizes of 5.43 and 5.58 hectares for Individuals I and II, respectively. These home ranges were larger than that reported in Malaysian Nycticebus coucang. Behavioral analysis showed that daily activities were dominated by travel, feeding, active, and foraging, which took place primarily in the lower canopy stratum, whereas sleeping typically occurred in the medium canopy stratum. The use of space of Javan slow loris correlated with height, substrat, contact, and size of branch.
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 4, pp 57-62; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.4.2.57-62
The rubber seeds are insufficient for producing rootstocks to rubber grafting. It can be overcome by an in vitro micro-cutting culture technique developed in the Indonesian Research Institute for Biotechnology and Bioindustry (IRIBB). However, the origin clone of 57 rubber genotypes used as an explant source in vitro micro-cutting culture is not recognized. The study was to investigate the 57 genotypes that came from mixed GT 1, PB 260, and RRIM 600 as parent clones. We investigated using seven primers of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD), i.e., OPA 02, OPA 07, OPA 15, OPB 04, OPC 05, OPC 11, and OPC 20. The qualitative analyzed by electrophoresis 1% gel agarose. A total of 47 DNA fragments produced with an average of 7 fragments per primer. OPA 02 generated of 13 fragments, whereas OPB 04 only one fragment. The DNA fragment pattern shows the presence of polymorphism. The genetic similarity coefficients obtained in the range of 62-96%. The highest genetic similarity (96%) is genotype 70 and 78. It recognized that 42 genotypes from 57 rubber genotypes had the closest relationship with PB 260 clones. Furthermore, six genotypes had a significant growth response as an explant in vitro micro-cutting culture.
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 6, pp 13-19; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.6.1.13-19
This research aimed to confirm the predator avoidance behavior of mice from snake droppings as a stimulant. Snake droppings are obtained from snakes fed with mice that come from the same strain as the mice being tested for response. Snake droppings were diluted into three different concentrations (25%, 50%, and 75%). The results showed that male individuals tend to avoid the odor stimuli than the female, it’s shown by the higher avoidance duration in males than the females. The results also indicate that innate behavior takes role in the avoidance response since the mice have never been exposed to any presence of predator.
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 4, pp 42-47; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.4.2.42-47
Stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) are widely distributed in tropics and subtropics areas. Now these bees are farmed by the human because they produce honey and propolis. Natural enemies can disturb the colony that affects to nest structure and productivity of these bees. This study aimed to study the common nest structure and additional nest structure of stingless bees which caused by natural enemies. This research was conducted from August to November 2015. Samples were taken from three locations, i.e, Pasuruan (East Java), Tasikmalaya (West Java), and Rangkasbitung (Banten). Descriptive analysis was used to compare the structure and composition of the nest in bamboo and additional nest structures in relation with natural enemies. Generally, the structure and composition of the nest of stingless bees in bamboo consist of nest entrance, storage pots (honey and pollen), and brood cells. We didn’t found natural enemies of stingless bees in Pasuruan and Tasikmalaya and these colonies did not create additional nest structures. In contrast, the colonies in Rangkasbitung created additional nest structures i.e. the inner entrance covered by batumen and cerumen and also build a root-like structure. Natural enemies found in the colony at Rangkasbitung were cockroaches (Blattodea: Blattidae), histerid beetles, Platysoma leconti (Coleoptera: Histeridae), nitidulid beetles, Carphophilus sp. (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), and ants, Pheidole sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 6, pp 26-32; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.6.1.26-32
Endophytic fungi isolated from red ginger (Zingiber officinale) can inhibit growth of Fusarium oxysporum, but the ability of the fungi to control Candida albicans as human pathogen has not been reported. The aims of this research were to study the mechanism of ten endophytic fungi isolates derived from red ginger to control C. albicans in vitro using dual culture methode and fungal extract, and to determine fungal bioactive chemical groups produced by the fungi. Three out of ten isolates tested, Talaromyces assiutensis JMa 7, T. assiutensis JMbt 3, and Curvularia affinis JMbt 9 inhibited growth of C. albicans with inhibition zones were 4.0 mm, 4.9 mm, and 11.3 mm, respectively. The cultures of the three potential endophytic fungi were extracted by maceration method using 3 solvents i.e ethyl acetate, n-hexane and ethanol. The three isolates were grown in PDB separately for 21 days incubation. At harvest, the culture filtrate was extracted by ethyl acetate and n-hexane, while fungal mycelia were extracted by all the three solvents. Ethyl acetate extracts obtained from culture filtrate of all the three fungal isolates consistently inhibited C. albicans with inhibition zones were 2.0-3.8 mm. For n-hexane extract, however, only Talaromyces assiutensis JMbt 3 that had positive effect with inhibition zone was 2.0 mm. All extracts from mycelia did not have any effects on C. albicans. The ethyl acetate extract of T. assiutensis JMbt 3 was analysed to determine its chemical groups using visible color on thin layer chromatography (TLC). The results showed that the bioactive compounds was terpenoids, and antioxidant.
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 6, pp 47-55; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.6.2.47-55
Parasitic plants are a group of plants that live and have a broad ecological distribution which in general attack trees, shrubs or herbs to be used as a host. Some parasitic plants attacked some plants in Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB) Ganesha Campus, Bandung. Exploration and collection of these parasitic plants in this area are conducted. Three parasitic plants species, such as Cuscuta australis, Scurrula parasitica, and Dendrophthoe pentandra are recorded and they attack 7 other plants species in ITB Ganesha. S. parasitica is reported as the highest population species to parasiting 5 plants species, while C. australis only parasiting 3 plants species and D. pendantra is parasiting 4 plants.
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 6, pp 33-39; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.6.2.33-39
The research about types of natural enemies of stinless bees Lepidotrigona terminata had been conducted in West Java. All natural enemis were identified morphologically and their habitat. There were 687 individuals of 14 species of natural enemies obtained in this research, i.e., Pseudeuophrys sp., Heliophanus sp., Argiope versicolor, Plexippus paykuli, Marpissa sp., Parasteatoda tepidariorum, Tegenaria sp., Nasutitermes javanicus, Paratrechina sp., Polyrhachis sp., Paratrechina longicornis, Rhynchium haemorrhoidale, Hemidactylus frenatus and Hemidactylus garnotii. Based on observation, spider, ants, and lizard were the predators of stingless bee. The results are expected as data and knowledge in the conservation and cultivation of stingless bees.
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 6, pp 40-46; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.6.2.40-46
Dietary diversity refers to an increase in the variety of foods across and within food groups capable of ensuring adequate intake to promote a good nutritional status. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of food diversity with the nutritional status of children under five in Kelurahan Pasirkaliki Kota Cimahi. A cross-sectional study with a simple random sampling method was conducted among 79 households having under five age children. Individual food diversity was measured using a dietary diversity score through questionnaire from FANTA Dietary Diversity Score Indicator Guide. Nutritional status of children under five measured by anthropometric measurement with indicator z-score of WHZ, WAZ, and HAZ. The analysis was carried out by Chi square test and fisher's exact. The average age of children under five is 31 months consisting of 43 boys (54.4%) and 36 (45.6%) girls. The prevalence of wasting children was 3.8%, stunting 21.5%, and underweight 10.1%. As many as 56 (70.9%) children consume diverse foods. There is no relationship between food diversity with nutritional status (p>0.05). Consumption of diverse food with appropriate amount of food portions are recommended for children under five years to get optimal nutritional status.
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 6, pp 56-66; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.6.2.56-66
Marore Island (Province of North Sulawesi) is one of the outermost island in Indonesia. The island is located at the borderline within the Philippines. Till date, there is no publication about islands macrofungi diversity from this island. In fact, the diversity of macrofungi has the potency to support the development of global bioeconomic in Indonesia. The purpose of this study is to make an inventory list of macrofungi on Marore Island in order to enhance the potential in the future. A total was of 22 mushrooms from 13 genera were obtained from this study which were divided into two phylums, namely Basidiomycota and Ascomycota. The identification results confirmed the species obtained: Ganoderma sp.1, Ganoderma sp.2, Ganoderma sp.3, Ganoderma sp.4, Ganoderma sp.5, Ganoderma sp.6, Trametes sp.1, Trametes sp.2, Trametes sp.3, Pycnoporus sp.1, Pycnoporus sp.2, Polyporus sp., Daedalea sp., Lentinus sp., Marasmius sp.1, Marasmius sp.2, Schizophyllum sp., Panellus sp., Tricholoma sp., Phallus sp., Dacryopinax spathularia, and Daldinia sp.
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 6, pp 20-25; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.6.1.20-25
Indonesia is a biodiversity country and has much of samples of bioacoustics but there are no bioacoustics data collected and saved to be referred. Bioacoustics is a study of frequency range, sound amplitudo intensity, sound fluctuation, and sound patterns. It is very useful to study more about population presumption and species determination. This insect bioacoustics research is done at Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park and aims to analyse variety of sound frequency of cicada and cricket. Methods which are used are recording the sounds, editing and analyzing the record result with Praat and Raven Lite 2.0 softwares, and analysing the environment. Analysing the sounds which is done is to find miximum frequency, minimum frequency, and average frequency. The result of the sounds analysis is compared to database in Singing Insect of North America (SINA). Environmental analysing includes temperature, air humidity, and light intensity. There are nine cicada sound recording files and twenty four cricket sound recording files. Cicada has high sound characteristic (9,168.2 Hz) and cricket has low sound characteristic (3,311.80 Hz). Comparation to Singing Insect of North America (SINA) database shows that the cicada’s sound is resemble to Tibicen marginalis and the cricket’s sound is resemble to Grylodes sigillatus.
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 6, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.6.1.1-7
Forest parks can take a role in mitigating negative impact of Urban Heat Island. Therefore, this study was conducted to clarify ecological function of three forest parks i.e Ganesha, Maluku, and Tegalega forest park in mitigating Urban Heat Island. Land classification and surface temperature were determined by analyzing Landsat 8 image with QGIS. Air temperature was measured by mobile station through north-south and east-west of Bandung City area. There are four types of land classification in Bandung as follows: settlements, water body, bare soil, and vegetation. In Bandung City, vegetation cover is around 20.72%; surface temperatures in the afternoon varies from 23 to 39.6°C, while during the night air temperatures varies from 20.5 to 24.9°C. Northern part of Bandung tends to have cooler air temperature due to high coverage of vegetation. Tegalega forest park can reduce temperature up to 2.6°C, while in Maluku forest park is 1.98°C and Ganesha forest park is 0.75°C. Therefore, the existence of forest parks is important in urban area because they can take a part to reduce negative impact of Urban Heat Island.
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 6, pp 67-74; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.6.2.67-74
Stingless bees have been considered as the excellent option in the apiary sector as they produce valuable products such as honey, bee pollen and wax. Apiary business with stingless bee at its core has shown progressive increment especially in West Sumatra. Therefore, to maximize the production of the stingless bee apiary, knowing detrimental predator or pest organisms as well as the way of managing them are essential. This article described potential predators and pests of stingless bee identified through rapid observation conducted on 14 April 2019 at a community apiary in Padang Pariaman Regency, West Sumatra. There were 17 predators and pests identified, consist of six bird species, five odonate species and six ant species. The predation, competition and disadvantage possibly emerge from the existence of these organisms around stingless bee apiary are discussed, along with the feasible mitigation effort.
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 1, pp 34-40; https://doi.org/10.29244/JSDA.1.2.34-40