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Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, pp 15-22; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v27i1.1407

Abstract:
The transfer of animal genetic improvement strategies in the environments of resource-poor smallholder producers in developing countries has not been successful. Therefore, the access by farmers to sources of animals with high genetic potential is difficult or just not possible. As producers improve or intensify their systems to capture market opportunities, this access need is accentuated. This paper reviews identified constraints to the transfer of breeding plans, the need for a new approach, and the lessons learned in applying a better-targeted approach. The issues and thoughts were derived from the experience of a working group involving the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas; Austrian University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences; Argentinean National Institute of Agriculture Technology; Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa Goats and Sheep); and National Research Institute for Forestry, Agriculture and Animal Production-Mexico. The transfer of breeding strategies in smallholder systems is not a straightforward task. Contrasting a successful application in commercial livestock production environments, the achievement of the primary objectives in smallholder systems requires a holistic approach beyond pure technical matters. Of all identified aspects with direct incidence in the implementation of breeding plans, the lack of specific national policies coupled with long-term funding to support the improvement of smallholder production systems, and the lack of involvement and participation of the communities emerge as issues that gravitate more to achieve sustainability and meet the objectives of a given breeding plan.
Arie Febretrisiana, Fitra Aji Pamungkas
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, pp 35-44; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v27i1.1412

Abstract:
Gestation is the main goal for in vitro fertilization. The embryo that has been developed outside the body will be transferred directly into uterus leading to the process of hatching, implantation, and pregnancy. However, approximately 85% of embryos that have been transferred were failed to implant and it might be caused by hatching failure. Hatching is the process of releasing embryo from zona pellucida. If this process does not occur, it will cause pregnancy failure. Assisted hatching is a mechanism that dealing with thinning, slicing or artificially making holes in the zona pellucida to improve hatching. The process can be applied both in fresh or frozen embryos. This review describes various methods in assisted hatching such as enzymatic, chemical, mechanical, and laser beam as well as their advantages and disadvantages. Generally, some researches show that the technology of assisted hatching can improve the percentage of hatching and implantation of the embryo. However, in spite of the benefits, there are such weaknesses find in the zona pellucida of the embryo that has been manipulated such as toxic hazard medium, the risk of damage to the blastomeres or monozygotic twinning. Therefore, it is advisable to perform assisted hatching in certain cases that tends to face obstacles during the process of hatching such factors as age, embryo quality, the thickness of the zona pellucida and the number of failures in the in vitro fertilization program.
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v27i1.1368

Abstract:
Special efforts (UPSUS) to make cows pregnant (SIWAB) is a program to accelerate cattle population to meet the demand of animal origin food through artificial insemination or intensification of natural mating. Experience shows that a similar program that has been conducted previously was less successful. This paper aims to give some information on science, technology, and management of cattle reproduction that require attention to achieve SIWAB program successfully. Several things should be concerned for this program are: (1) Selection of fertile females and bulls; (2) Natural mating or artificial insemination (availability of semen, liquid nitrogen, supporting equipment, and inseminator); (3) Early detection of pregnancy; (4) Feed and feeding management; (5) Control of reproduction disease and other diseases; and (6) The supervision and handling of pregnant cows during and after birth. Another important thing that should be taken into account is the preparation of mating calendar so that the birth will occur during the period of abundant feed resources, and management of optimal forage and supplements to ensure good body condition of cows at the time of calving. With an understanding of science, technology, and applying reproductive management, it is expected that the targeted pregnancy cows by UPSUS program can be obtained.
Tjeppy D Soedjana,
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v27i1.1411

Abstract:
ASEAN is one of the fastest growing regional economic communities and its combined human population of around 600 million people. Heterogeneity of ASEAN member countries includes population size, cultural background, structure and development of the economy, and level of income. Agriculture is well known as one of the key engine of economic growth of the ASEAN member countries, seen from the fact that most of the countries in this region are strongly depend on this sector including animal production. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the competitiveness of Indonesian production costs of selected livestock products compared to other ASEAN member countries. The following member countries are at their first rank or competitiveness status for the livestock and poultry commodities, namely Cambodia for beef cattle, Malaysia for pigs, the Philippines for sheep and goats, and Thailand for broiler chickens. Indonesia with the highest poultry population in the region, compared to Thailand, Malaysia, and the Philippines has not yet performed as that good in terms of production costs. The position of Indonesia based on production cost was at the fourth rank for beef, third for sheep and goat, and fourth for broiler compared to other ASEAN member countries. Therefore, Indonesia should improve the efficiency production of livestock and poultry to achieve better competition status.
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, pp 45-52; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v27i1.1303

Abstract:
KUB chicken is a new breed of local chickens as the result of selection by the Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production, Ciawi-Bogor. KUB chicken has been developed in South Kalimantan since early December 2013 at farmers assisted by livestock services in South Kalimantan and animal house belongs to the Assesment Institute of Agricultural Technology (AIAT) South Kalimantan. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the potency, production performance, and development opportunities of KUB chicken in South Kalimantan. KUB chickens have several advantages i.e. high egg production (160-180 eggs/hen/year), low brooding (±10%), faster growth, more savory meat taste, and adaptable to environment. Problems encountered in the development of KUB chicken in South Kalimantan are low hatchbility, expensive feed prices, and susceptible to diseases such as Newcastle Disease (ND) and Avian Influenza. Performance of KUB chicken at small farmers in South Kalimantan include egg production 65-67%, egg weight of 36.12-38.12 g/egg, feed consumption 85-105 g/head, feed conversion ratio 3.8-3.9, eggs fertility ranged between 90.21-92.61%, hatchability of eggs is 79.67-81.80% and DOC weight ranged from 34.50-36.86 g/head. Efforts to prevent diseases are the use of herb medicine, ND vaccination, and biosecurity. Appropriate feed technology, disease prevention and strengthen the marketing network are strategies that should be applied to develop KUB chicken in South Kalimantan. This will lead new job and increase farmers’ income.
Chalid Talib
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, pp 163-172; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v26i4.1400

Abstract:
The cacao farmers generally experienced problems on low cacao productivity and hence farmer’s income. The aim of this paper is to describe concept on the development of feed and organic fertilizer bioindustry based on cacao-goat integration to enhance productivity and farmer’s income. The potential cacao-goat integration covers 1.4 million hectares of cacao plantation and 7.8 million head of goats in nine provinces. Implementation of cacao-goat integration allows to use cacao biomass as feed for goats, and goat’s manure can be applied as fertilizer for cacao plantation. Bioindustry of feed is developed from 3.3 million tons biomass of cacao that consisted of 1.9 million tons of cacao pods and 1.4 million tons of cacao leaves. Bioindustry productions of solid and liquid organic fertilizer are 0.6 million tons and 344 million liters, respectively. The development of feed and organic fertilizer bioindustry is appropriate to improve cacao and goat productivities lead to increase farmer’s income.
Eko Saputro
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, pp 183-190; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v26i4.1399

Abstract:
Efforts to control meat spoilage, safety and palatability in the production of meat products become essential for humans. These control efforts should keep good quality of meat products at ambient temperature. Curing using NaNO2 is one of meat preservation techniques. However, the Indonesian Agency for National Standardization prohibits the use of sodium nitrite (NaNO2) in the organic food production process due to its negative effect on health and food safety. Therefore, substitutes of NaNO2 as natural curing agent and supported technologies have to be found. This article discusses the curing process using curing agents in the form of nitrate from natural resources and a starter culture for reducing nitrate to nitrite. The addition of accelerators in the form of reductant and acidulant from natural or organic resources is also required to enhance curing process. Natural curing processes of beef products have been proven to produce similar meat quality of sensory, physico-chemical, and microbiological characteristics with curing process using NaNO2.
, Eny Martindah
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v26i4.1402

Abstract:
Zoonotic Arbovirus diseases which are caused by the genus of Flavivirus, Alphavirus, and Bunyavirus, are transmitted through potential vectors. These diseases are commonly occurred, especially in tropical countries, including Indonesia. They can affect the economic development because of the high morbidity and mortality. This paper describes the incidence of zoonotic Arbovirus in Indonesia and the strategy to control its vector. Factors that support the occurrence of zoonotic Arbovirus diseases are environmental, demographic and behavioral changes, as well as advanced technology, transportation and global trade. These diseases would not occur without the role of vectors. Vector control can be carried out effectively through longitudinal surveillance to identify types of potential vectors in the area. Therefore to prevent the increased incidence of the diseases, controlling the vector is necessary.
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, pp 173-182; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v26i4.1401

Abstract:
Dairy goat farming in Indonesia is growing because goat milk is attractive as nutrient supplement and alternative medicine for human health. Selling fresh goat's milk often becomes a constraint because not all consumers can drink it due to unpleasant smell. Effort on diversification of fresh goat's milk into processed milk products is considered a good option, but only few farmers have done it. Milk processing is useful to eliminate the smell of fresh goat's milk and to increase value-added. Goat population is around 19.01 million head, while dairy goat population has not been known yet. The paper describes the benefit of processing fresh goat milk to increase goat farming profit through the improvement of feed management, and selling the processed milk. Better management increase lactation period from 170 to 250 days, milk production from <1 to 2 liter/head/day, and higher price of processed milk. Investment on 59 does and 7 bucks for five years through the goat milk diversification has increased profit by 33.53%. Diversification of processing goat milk product is necessary to increase productivity and value added of fresh milk.
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, pp 191-202; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v26i4.1398

Abstract:
Native chicken can be found in almost every region of Indonesia. There are three systems of raising native chicken, i.e. extensive, semi-intensive and intensive. Raising native chicken under intensive system could enhance productivity and revenue. The prospect of raising native chicken has a potential market with a nieche segmented consumer. Native chicken business for meat and egg production is feasible to provide economic benefit for stakeholders, such as farmers, traders, wholesaler and retailers. Institutional empowerment towards cooperative with simultaneous upstream through downstream agribusinesses could increase farmers’ income. This could be applied by individual business or cooperative to attain higher efficiency of production system. Government support as farmers’ motivator and supervision is needed to achieve the success of native chicken business that improves farmers’ welfare.
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, pp 057-068; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v26i2.1326

Abstract:
Phytic acid has been considered as an antinutrient in broiler diet due to its strong chelator of divalent minerals. Phytic acid has ability for binding positively charged proteins, amino acids, and/or multivalent cations or minerals. The resulting complexes are insoluble, difficult to be hydrolyzed during digestion in poultry, and thus, nutritionally less available for absorption. The reduction of phytate activity can be carried out by phytase supplementation. The application of phytase with respect to animal feed supplement is reviewed in this paper. Application of phytase in broiler diet may liberate cations and other nutrients bound by phytate-P complexes resulting in improved production parameters in broilers. This is because phytase supplement increased nutrient (protein, minerals, amino acid, energy, and carbohydrate) digestibilities and availabilities. Overall, phytase could increase nutrient utilization in broiler, hence, increase the economic efficiency of broiler production and reduce the phosphor pollution to the environment.
Nurhayati D. Purwantari
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, pp 051-056; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v26i2.1325

Abstract:
Forage crops are planted mostly in marginal land or integrated with other crops. Estate crops land is one of the alternative areas for forage crops plantation. Shortage of forage crops development under crop plantation is caused by limited light intensity, due to crop shading. Selecting forage crops adapted to estate crops plantation is crusial to achieve its high production and quality. Several grasses and legumes have been identified as forage crops that tolerant to shading of less than 40%, 40-60% and more than 60% light intensity. Some of them have been applied in the area of oil palm plantation to support the acceleration of livestock population.
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, pp 133-142; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v26i3.1395

Abstract:
Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 5 of 1994 on Ratification of the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity and Regulation of the Minister of Agriculture of the Republic of Indonesia Number: 117/Permentan/SR.120/10/2014 regarding the concession and release of animal breed or strain in Indonesia should be followed up. This paper aims to improve the understanding of concession and release of animal breed or strain. Requirements of breed or strain concession has to declare (a) Its origin; (b) Original geographic distribution where the breed or strain formed; (c) Characteristics; (d) Genetic information; (e) The animal number and structure of their population; and (f) Animal picture. Requirements for the release of breed or strain should have (1) The method to obtain animal breed or strain; (2) Characteristics; (3) Genetic information; (4) New invention, unique, uniform and stable (NUUS); (5) The current number of animal; (6) Animal picture; (7) A guarantee certificate of quality standard; and (8) At the time of receipt of the request release, breed or strain has never been traded/distributed in Indonesia or already traded less than five years. Therefore, the government operational policy is necessary to regulate the preservation and improvement of animal genetic resources either breed or strain beneficial for future generations.
, S Sopiyana
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v26i3.1394

Abstract:
One of the ex situ conservation techniques for poultry that recently developed was to collect primordial germ cell (PGC) or gonadal primordial germ cell (gPGC) that isolated from embryo development. Primordial germ cells (PGC) are embryonic cells that migrate to the gonads and form the precursors of gametes. The unique nature and accessibility of PGC during the early development provides an opportunity to manipulate the poultry germplasm, for example by forming germline chimeras. There are some stages that must be done through isolation and collection of PGC from its resources i.e. blastoderm, embryonic circulation blood and gonad. PGC collection originating from the gonads is one of existing PGC resources and technologies. gonadal PGC have advantages compared with other sources, namely (1) A large number of gonadal PGC can be taken from an embryo; and (2) A collection of gonadal PGC can be used in developing management systems of local avian germplasm conservation. This review is intended to describe the usefulness of isolation and collection technology of gonadal PGC as the local poultry germplasm conservation in Indonesia.
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v26i2.1327

Abstract:
Increasing demand of protein source for animal feed, particularly fish meal and soybean meal has led to a problem in the future. It is a need to look for an alternative protein source, in order to meet amino acid requirements maintaining livestock production level. Insects possesing high quality, efficient dan rich protein content at all life stages such as Black Soldier Fly (BSF, Hermetia illucens) could be used as one of the alternatives. The flies grow and reproduce easily, have high feed efficiency and can be reared on bio-waste streams. These are neither pests nor vectors of diseases. Insect meal generally possesses levels of chemical contaminants which are below recommended maximum concentrations. The larvae have antibacterial (Escherichia coli O15:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis) and antiviral (enterovirus and adenovirus ) properties. Larvae of BSF could be scaled up easily and possess 40-50% protein content, including some essential amino acids that can be used to replace both fish meal and soybean meal in feed.
Prima Mei Widiyanti, Romsyah Maryam
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, pp 091-101; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v26i2.1329

Abstract:
The climate in Indonesia as a tropical country is very condusive for the growth of mycotoxins producing fungi. Mycotoxins have properties as carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, estrogenic, neurotoxic, and immunotoxic. Mycotoxins reduce performance, appetite, weight, and immunity. They also cause reproductive disorders and generate the residues in animal products that affect human health. These can be prevented by controlling mycotoxins contamination in agricultural products that used for feed ingredients through good management practices (during planting, harvesting, and storage). Mycotoxins contamination can also be minimized by physical, chemical and biological treatments as well as the application of mycotoxin binders. This review describes the use of mycotoxin binders in animal feed. They are used as feed additives, may be derived from organic, inorganic materials or their combination. Combination of organic and inorganic substances proven to be more effective and efficient in controlling mycotoxin contamination. Therefore, it is recommended to use mycotoxin binders to prevent animal health disorder and to decrease mycotoxin residues in animal products.
Broto Wibowo
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, pp 079-090; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v26i2.1328

Abstract:
The development of duck farming in Indonesia significantly increases because of the higher demand of duck products. Duck farming has been developed throughout Indonesia, however it has not been evenly distributed because most of duck population are located in Java, which reaches 20,657,778 birds or 47.1% of the national duck population. Several business opportunities based on duck farming are: (1) Duck farming to produce consumption and hatching eggs; (2) Egg hatching to produce day old duck, either male or female duck; (3) Raising duck to produce pullet duck; (4) Fattening to produce male duck (three months old); (5) Production of salted egg; and (6) Egg distribution. These businesses are economically feasible.
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v26i3.1396

Abstract:
The utilization of marginal land, especially the acid soil, for cultivation of forages is promising. Forage as a source of feed for ruminants, can also be used to improve soil fertility. Brachiaria sp is found widely grow in marginal areas, especially on acid soil showing its high adaptability. The diverse of genotypes have become interesting because the mechanism of its adaption can be studied by observing the physiological response of Brachiaria on acid soil. Brachiaria decumbens has high tolerant, while Brachiaria ruziziensis is sensitive to acid soil. Variance of physiological and morphological responses to acid soil are the foundation for determining the traits of selection in breeding activities of Brachiaria sp. This paper aims to provide the knowledge of physiological response of Brachiaria sp and this information is useful for selection of Brachiaria sp tolerant on acid soil.
, Sjamsul Bahri
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, pp 115-124; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v26i3.1393

Abstract:
Mycotoxins contamination in animal feed is harmful to livestock and leads to residues, such as aflatoxin and its metabolites (aflatoxin M1, aflatoxicol, aflatoxin Q1 and aflatoxin P1) which are deposited in meat, milk, and eggs. The existence of mycotoxins has been widespread; and mycotoxin is the most important contaminant in the food chain because it has implications for human health. Mold growth and mycotoxin production mainly depend on the weather, such as warm temperatures (28-31°C) and high humidity (60-90%). Some types of mold can produce more than one type of mycotoxin and some mycotoxins can be produced by more than one species of fungi. Mycotoxins, especially aflatoxin, fumonisin, zearalenone, ochratoxin, deoxynivalenol, and T2 toxin present in feed and feedstuffs that have to be controlled. Mycotoxins are not only harmful to the health of consumers, but will also reduce the quality of the product that is contaminated, and cause economic losses. The risk of mycotoxin contamination in animal feed could be reduced by inhibiting the mould growth and toxin production, through crop rotation, using proper fungicides, and applying regulation of mycotoxins maximum limit in feed and food in order to prevent any danger to public health.
Rini Damayanti
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, pp 103-114; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v26i3.1391

Abstract:
Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is an immunoproliferative and lethal disease of many species of the order Artiodactyla (such as families Bovidae, Cervidae and Suidae) caused by a member of the MCF virus (MCFV) group belongs to the genus Macavirus in the subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae. There are two types of MCF i.e. Wildebeest-Associated MCF (WA-MCF) which is caused by Alcelaphine Herpesvirus-1 (AlHV-1) with wildebeest as reservoir animal; and Sheep-Associated MCF (SA-MCF) which is caused by Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) with sheep and goats as reservoir animals. AlHV-1 virus has already been isolated whereas OvHV-2 has not been isolated so that vaccines are not yet available. Both types cannot be differentiated by clinical and pathological findings. This disease was previously diagnosed based on the epidemiological information and clinicopathological findings, but now it can be diagnosed by using molecular biological tests. This paper describes the epidemiology of MCF virus, MCF cases in Indonesia and efforts to control this disease. In Indonesia, SA-MCF cases have been reported almost in all provinces as endemic as well as epidemic nature. Separation of reservoir animal with susceptible species, "producing" a SA-MCF virus free sheep and attempt to develop a recombinant vaccine against SA-MCF is the main control strategy that can be suggested.
Yenny Nur Anggraeny, H Soetanto
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, pp 107-116; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v25i3.1155

Abstract:
Agricultural by-products which can be used as source of roughage, have some limitations as they contain low crude protein and low dissolved organic material and high crude fiber. Synchronization of nutrients through supplementation can provide a positive effect on microbial protein synthesis, especially on ruminants fed low quality forage. Contribution of protein from rumen microbes is essential for feed management based on agricultural by product. Microbial protein can supply 70-100% of the total protein available for ruminants fed low quality feed. Microbial protein has amino acid profile which is ideal to meet ruminant’s requirement. This paper describes synchronization of protein and energy supply in the rument that has been applied by several countries. Application of this synchronization in Indonesia is still limited on: (1) Arranging the use of feedstuffs through the ratio of forage and concentrate; (2) Supplementation of protein and energy sources; and 3) Feeding frequency regulation. The application of synchronization through the use of feed ingredients based on degradation level and its index value is still limited due to lack of data on protein and energy degradation of feed ingredients used in Indonesia. Therefore, the information on the degradation value of protein and energy of feed ingredients in Indonesia is necessary in order to optimize the use of low quality feed ingredients.
P R Matitaputty
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, pp 189-196; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v25i4.1229

Abstract:
Agricultural byproduct is biomass that potential to partly subtitute the conventional feed. However, there are some constraints such as high fiber, low protein and carotene contents. One of the efforts to improve the nutritive value of agricultural byproduct is fermentation using carotenogenic Neurospora. This fungi easily and readily grows on substrate fermented in aerobic condition. Neurospora fermentation is able to reduce crude fiber, to increase crude protein and carotene content of substrate. Utilization of Neurospora fermented product as poultry feed ingredients increased productivity and product quality more efficiently.
Atien Priyanti, Tjeppy D Soedjana
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v25i4.1226

Abstract:
Many of Indonesian main manufacturing industries based on agriculture should be more responsive to the challenging domestic and global strategic environment, including the newly emerging ASEAN economic community (AEC) which will be effectively implemented by the end of 2015. Dairy industry in Indonesia is a very potential business to play significant role in the ASEAN market based on the existing dairy population, feed resources and the number of dairy farmers. Recently, small and medium enterprise (SME) model in Java has been developed for processing milk. They provide higher farm gate prices under partnership agreement which created a good benchmark and business model for the future dairy industry to adopt. This new attractive business environment gives higher return to the farmers as opposed to the tradition of paying low farm gate milk prices. As feed represents 80% of the total production cost, special attention must be given to land availability to increase feed supply in terms of quality and quantity. Consequently, sustainable support from both central and local government is very critical to keep the partnership model between farmers and the SME milk processing. It also opens new opportunity to increase the linkage more closely between producers and milk processing plants. Key words: SME dairy industry, Indonesia, ASEAN economic community
Fitra Aji Pamungkas, Elizabeth Wina
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v25i4.1227

Abstract:
The research on hormone packaged in very small size particles began to develop in recent years. Nanoparticles are defined as particulate dispersions or solid particles with a polymer used as a component of potential hormone carrier as effective drug because of their ability to circulate and to release in a controlled period in the body. This review describes a variety of methods, characteristics and applications of nanoparticles hormones usages for animals. In general, several studies indicated that the formation of the hormone nanoparticles using polymer accompanied by distributing a good and stable of molecular mass, can be used as a carrier component of hormones as well as considering the negative effect.
Cecep Hidayat
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v25i3.1157

Abstract:
Abdominal fat in broiler carcass is considered as a waste and its existence reduces the carcass quality. Abdominal fat deposition is affected by several factors such as genetic, nutrition, feed, sex, age and environment. Reducing abdominal fat deposition can be carried out by regulating the nutrient intake to ensure that no excessive nutrient was consumed. Nutrition effects to reduce abdominal fat deposition are associated with nutrient concentration of ration and quantity of daily feed intake. Daily nutrient intake can be limited, especially through restricted feeding. It is concluded that an appropriate feeding management can reduce abdominal fat deposition in broiler. Key words: Broiler, abdominal fat, feed
Nurhayati Dias Purwantari, B Tiesnamurti, Y Adinata
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v25i1.1128

Abstract:
Increasing oil palm plantation in Indonesia since 2008-2011 in a range of 6,92%, that was 7.363.703 to 7.873.384 ha. Vegetation grown in an area of oil palm plantation is weed for its main crop. There is potential source of oil palm plantation area for livestock industry. Oil palm-cattle integration system is well known and it has been applied in many oil palm plantations, by the use of waste from oil palm plantation, oil palm by-product, the fronds for feed and feces from cattle as organic fertilizer for the plant. Management of oil palm plantation is costly, including for plant maintainance, weeding, providing organic and chemical fertilizer. Grazing system under oil palm would minimize cost problem and oil palm production input can be reduced. Oil palm-cattle integration by grazing that prospective system to be developed is rotation system. Types of plants under oil palm plantation consist of grasses, legumes, other narrow and broad leaves, some are palatable and some are unpalatable or toxic for cattle. Species of vegetation under oil palm vary among the plantation depending on the age of oil palm plant. Introduction of superior forage into oil palm plantation is promising effort to increase the production and quality of feed. Carrying capacity for cattle varies among the oil palm plantation and it depends on vegetation under oil palm plantation and age of oil palm. Studies showed that integration oil palm-livestock by grazing system has been proven economically feasible. Key words: Plantation, oil palm, forage, cattle, grazing
Niken Ulupi, C Sumantri
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v25i1.1124

Abstract:
Broiler chicken has high fat content, especially abdominal and subcutan fat which reduced carcass quality and efficiency of feed energy. Genetic approach could be potentially applied to reduce high abdominal and intramuscular fat in broiler chicken through the selection program at gene level related to fat metabolism. This paper describes the metabolism and biosynthesis of body fat and the role of its controlled genes. Fat synthesis is controlled by feed quality and metabolism and biosynthesis process occurred in liver. These processes are controlled by many family genes, but certain genes have dominant role in the process; those are triglyceride lipase genes, fatty acid synthase genes and fatty acid binding protein genes. Expression of fatty acid synthase genes has positive correlation with fat content in liver and intramuscular.Expression of fatty acid binding protein geneswas related to the increased abdominal fat deposit. These genes are polymorphic, so that they can be used as a genetic marker in selection to optimize feed efficiency, to minimize abdominal fat and to increase economic value of broiler chicken. Key words: Fat,triglyceride lipase genes, fatty acid synthase genes, fatty acid binding protein genes
Rini Widiati
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v24i4.1090

Abstract:
More than 90% of local beef supply derived from smallholder farmers with a relatively slow in growth that could not meet national demand. Price of imported beef was lower than that of the local beef, thus price adjustment in farmers level was not profitable. The purpose of this study is to recommend alternative strategies to develop beef cattle industry under smallholders’ farmers condition. Strategies to develop the beef cattle industry are (1) To provide agricultural markets in order to facilitate farmer’s access easily to get some production inputs; (2) To facilitate technology that can be applied by farmers to increase cattle productions, hence improving farmers’ welfare; (3) To create a profitable market for animal produced by farmers; and (4) To establish subsystem of financing institutions at the village level to finance farmer’s cattle business. The inter-relationship among those strategies is needed to harmonize the implementation, supported by operational government policy. Key words: Industry, beef cattle, beef self-sufficiency
Raphaella Widiastuti
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v24i4.1089

Abstract:
Aflatoxins especially aflatoxin B1 is mycotoxins that must be concerned. When consumed by livestock, it becomes aflatoxin M1 and other metabolites in animal products that harmful for public health. This paper provides information of aflatoxins residues and their metabolites in a variety of animal origin food (milk, meat and eggs) and the prevention of their occurrence. Aflatoxin residues were found in a variety of livestock and dairy products in various countries including Indonesia. Due to its stability in any processing or storage methods, preventing aflatoxins enter the food chain is essential. Implementing the regulatory limits for aflatoxins in feed and food should be made to avoid further effect on human health. Information and extensive monitoring of aflatoxins should be carried out not only in milk but also in many different types of animal products (buffalo, quail, sheep and goat), as the data in Indonesia is not yet available. Key words: Residue, aflatoxins, animal products, prevention
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24, pp 171-178; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v24i4.1088

Abstract:
Cihateup duck is one of the local Indonesian poultry genetic resources originated from West Java. These ducks are raised in Tasikmalaya and its surrounding area. Cihateup duck raised as layer or meat type duck is potential to provide business opportunities for people in West Java. For future development of Cihateup duck, some important potential characteristics of Cihateup ducks are required. This paper describes the phenotype performance, rearing management of Cihateup ducks and its genetic relationship with other ducks. Cihateup ducks have longer neck, wing, femur and tibia compared with other Indonesian ducks. Egg production (200 egg/head/year) is lower than Alabio and Mojosari ducks. The quality of meat (taste and flavour) is less preferred by consumers because of its odor. Genetic relationship between Cihateup duck with local ducks in Java is closer than Alabio ducks from South Kalimantan. Key words: Cihateup duck, performance, genetic resource
Tatan Kostaman
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v24i4.1087

Abstract:
Primordial germ cells (PGCs) can be used for producing transgenic chickens and preserving genetic material of avian species. Primordial germ cells are precursor of germline cells that could be made proliferation and differentiation to become spermatogonia in testes or oogonia in ovary. Primordial germ cells has a unique migration path, so that the PGCs can be isolated and collected from embryos and propagated and developed through the culture. This paper describes the isolation, collection, purification, storage and transfer of PGCs-circulation of local chickens in Indonesia. Some amount of PGCs-circulation were collected from Gaok chicken at stage 15 as the safe level using cryoprotectant DMSO and some chicks hatched after transfering the PGCs-circulation to recipient embryo. Thus, this technology would be useful for preservation of Indonesian local chicken. Key words: Local chicken, primordial germ cells, cryopreservation
Wisri Puastuti, Iwr Susana
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v24i3.1072

Abstract:
Cocoa pod husk (CPH) is potential as an alternative source of feed for ruminants due to its quantity and quality. The availability of CPH in Indonesia during the harvest season is abundant and able to feed around 635,305 animal unit (AU) per year. Cocoa pod husk as a feedstuff which contains crude protein between 6.80-13.78%; NDF 55.30-73.90% and ADF 38.31-58.98% is a source of fiber and can replace grass. However, CPH also contains antinutritional compounds such as lignin, tannin and theobromine. In order to optimize the use of CPH as feed, treatments are needed to improve the nutritive value and digestibility, to reduce negative effects and to extend shelf life. Processing methods can be conducted physically, chemically and microbiologically. Processing can improve the nutritional value of CPH especially the protein content. Feeding livestock using processed CPH showed better weight gain than that of unprocessed CPH. Besides, the attempt to utilize CPH as feed can overcome the shortage of forage, especially during dry season and increase ruminant productivity around the area of cocoa plantations. Key words:Cocoa pod husk, alternative feed, processing, ruminant
Suprijati
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v24i3.1071

Abstract:
Milk replacer is a mixture of variousfeed ingredients and feed additives. This paper reviews the formulation of milk replacer, its chemicalcomposition and nutrient requirement, methods of giving milk replacer and effect of milk replacer on the preweaning growth of small ruminant. In the formulation, the available local feed ingredients should be used with consideration of its nutrient composition. Milk replacers could be formulated from skim milk 50-64%, vegetable oil 16-17% or animal fat 20-28%, soy protein 50-57%, whey 35%, cereal or its byproduct 10% and 1-2% vitamin and mineral mix. The recommendation of protein and fat contents were 18-22% and 10-20% for kids, 20-24% and 20-30% for lambs, respectively. Raising the lambs and kids includes feeding colostrum at birth until 3-4 days of life, followed by feeding milk replacer until weaning. At three weeks of life, kids were introduced solid feed, as concentrates or forages. Early weaning could be carried out when the kids reached 9-10 kg of live weight and consumed 120 g/d of solid feed or at the age of 6-8 weeks. Milk replacer formulated according to the recommendation of nutrient requirement gave good performance. Key words: Nutrient composition, performance, milk replacer, feeding method, lamb, kid
Dyah Ayu Hewajuli, Nlp I Dharmayanti
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v24i3.1069

Abstract:
Ecology is a science studying the correlation among organisms and some environmental factors. Ecological factors play an important role to transmit Avian Influenza (AI) virus and influence its stability in the environment. Avian Influenza virus is classified as type A virus and belong to Orthomyxoviridae family. The virus can infect various vertebrates, mainly birds and mammals, including human. Avian Influenza virus transmission can occur through bird migration. The bird migration patterns usually occur in the large continent covers a long distance area within a certain periode hence transmit the virus from infected birds to other birds and spread to the environment. The biotic (normal flora microbes) and abiotic (physical and chemical) factors play important role in transmitting the virus to susceptible avian species and influence its stability in the environment. Disinfectant can inactivate the AI virus in the environment but its effectivity is influenced by the concentration, contact time, pH, temperature and organic matter. Key words: Avian Influenza, stability, transmission, ecological factors
Maijon Purba
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v24i3.1068

Abstract:
Flavor is an important factor in the acceptance of food. Flavor of poultry meat is naturally formed through a specific process of heating, where various chemical reactions complex occurred among nonvolatile precursors in fatty tissue or in lean tissue. The main flavor in the form of volatile and nonvolatile components play a major influence on the acceptance of various processed meat, especially the taste. Removal of sulfur components decreases meat flavor (meaty), while removal of carbonyl compounds decrease the specific flavor and increases common flavor of the meat. Poultry meat has a fairly high fat content that easily generates lipid oxidation. Lipid oxidation in poultry meat is a sign that the meat was damaged and caused off odor. Addition of antioxidants in the diet can inhibit lipid oxidation in the meat. Lipids interaction with proteins and carbohydrates is unavoidable during the thermal processing of food, causing the appearance of volatile components. The main reaction in meat flavor formation mechanism is Maillard reaction followed by Stecker reaction and degradation of lipids and thiamine. They involve in the reaction between carbonyl and amine components to form flavor compounds, which enhance the flavor of poultry meat. Key words: Flavor, off flavor, poultry meat, lipid oxidation, antioxidant
Ari Abdul Rouf, Arief Daryanto, Anna Fariyanti
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v24i2.1053

Abstract:
Beef demand in Indonesian people is supplied from the domestic and import production, including Australia and New Zealand. Domestic Resources Cost (DRC) is one of the indicators in free trade that is defined as one of the competitiveness criteria. The competitiveness is determined by several factors, including resource, labor, technology and market demand. Based on the previous research results, it was obtained that: (1) The availability of abundant feed through the grazing system and crops livestock system can provide comparative advantage (DRC = 0.08-0.54); (2) The type of beef cattle kept had a good competitiveness (DRC = 0.08-0.94); (3) The labor’s wage can simultaneously create competitiveness (DRC<1); (4) The technological factor on farm level showed that the higher Average Daily Gain (ADG) will make the competitiveness increased; and (5) The number of cattle had a positive causality on the competitiveness with a coefficient of 0.510. The smallholder farmer with the average farming scale of three heads per farmer had a lower competitiveness (DRC = 0.08) compared to the cattle fattening company (DRC = 0.01-0.02). The existing research showed that the beef cattle farming in several places in Indonesia had good competitiveness (DRC<1), but in some areas, its value was close to one (less competitive). Therefore, in order to improve the competitiveness, the formulation and implementation of the farm subsector policy should be regarded as a system including upstream to downstream subsystems so it is expected that the coordination and synergy policy among stakeholder and economic actor will be better. Key words: Beef cattle, competitiveness, domestic resources cost
Chalid Talib, Tati Herawati
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v24i2.1052

Abstract:
Buffalo is indigenous livestock of Asia, classified as beef buffaloes that evolve in Southeast Asia and China and dairy buffaloes exist in Indo-Pakistan and Mediteranian. In Indonesia, beef buffaloes are known as swamp buffalo and there are seven new buffalo breeds namely Pampangan, Sumbawa, Moa, Toraya, Simelue, East Kalimantan and South Kalimantan. Buffaloes are reared in extensive traditional system characterized by low growth rate and reproduction ability due to feed shortage and high inbreeding rate. Feed improvements in female is required to get dry matter intake 2.5-2.7% of body weight (BW) that consist of 70% roughage and 30% concentrates, will show a clear sign of estrus. In the male when feed consumption is 2.7-3.5% of BW; it will perform growth rate of 0.6 kg/head/day. Genetic improvement is conducted through selection based on BW in certain ages, reproduction ability and parents without recessive alleles. Distribution of proven bulls and their sperm in outbreeding system would improve the production and reproduction performance, reduce inbreeding level and increase breeding farmer’s income. It is expected that in the long term, the population of buffaloes in Indonesia will increase. Key words: Buffalo, strategies, feed, genetic
Chalid Talib
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 24; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v24i2.1050

Abstract:
An integrated system between cattle and oil palm plantation has a great potency for development of bioindustry, either in the form of animal feed or organic fertilizer bioindustry. Bioindustry of cattle feed is developed from biomass of plantations, such as stem and leaves of palm, palm kernel and solid. Bioindustry of organic fertilizer is developed from cattle manure. The targets of development of bioindustry are palm plantations in Sumatera and Kalimantan regions, covering 9.25 million hectares. It is estimated to be able to produce biomass quantity as much as 54.60 million tons per year which can be used as fodder for 12.13 million animal unit (AU) of beef cattle, whereas currently there are only 3.06 million AU cattle in Sumatera and Kalimantan, so the opportunities for the addition of cattle in both islands are 9.07 million AU. The existing beef cattle population of 3.06 million AU has the potency to produce 6.1 million tons of organic fertilizer can be used to fertilize 3.0 million hectares, therefore the rest of 6.25 million hectares remain unfertilised. The prospect of bioindustries on integration system of cattle with oil palm plantations in Sumatera and Kalimantan is very potential to meet the needs of organic fertilizer for plants and to utilize oil palm biomass for cattle feed. Key words: Bioindustry, biomass of oil palm plantation, cattle manure
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