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Siti Khodijah
Journal of Language Intelligence and Culture, Volume 1, pp 264-282; doi:10.35719/jlic.v1i03.39

Abstract:
This study analyzes illocutionary act in political debate that was conducted by general election commision on March, 30 2019. This debate was about ideology, government, security and defense, and international relationship. In this research, Searle’s theory was used who classified five types of illocutionary act; representative, directive, commisive, expressive, and declarative. This research used descriptive qualitative. The main focus of this study is to get deep understanding and interpretation how the politicians argue each other using illocutionary act. The results of this study suggested that both of the candidates of president did not use all of the illocutionary act types proposed by Searle. The three illocutionary acts used by both of the candidates are, representative, directive, commissive. Meanwhile, another type of illocutionary acts used by one of the candidates is declarative, while another one used expressive.
Anni Nurul Hidayati
Journal of Language Intelligence and Culture, Volume 1, pp 238-248; doi:10.35719/jlic.v1i03.27

Abstract:
The aim of this research is: (1) to know the implementation of the technique of making an English news video to improve students’ Speaking skill, (2) to know the ability of the students non English in improving speaking skill. The research was conducted at students majoring Islamic Communications and Broadcasting of IAIN Surakarta. The researcher used qualitative research method to find out the improvement of the students’ speaking skill. The researcher collected the data through observation, interview, and documentation. The researcher obtained the data during teaching and learning processes. Based on the research that has been done, it can be concluded that: (1) the implementation of making an English News Video gives advantages for students’ in improving speaking skill, especially on communications and broadcasting field; (2) the non-English students got a lot of communications and broadcasting vocabulary, become more active and fearless in making mistake when showing their ideas after doing this research.
Ninuk Indrayani
Journal of Language Intelligence and Culture, Volume 1, pp 249-263; doi:10.35719/jlic.v1i03.31

Abstract:
This study aimed at developing an appropriate electronic learning media named E-Writing to improve students’ writing skill of English Education Department. This media will be the solution of students’ difficulties in writing activities especially as a guidence for writing task and activities. That is why this research is going to develop a media which based on the needs of analysis to make the learning process of writing skill become effective. This research is developed based on the Design and Development (D&D) model. The data obtained from the experts’ evaluation result. All data are both analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively using mean score and alpha Cronbach formula. The result of this study suggested that E-Writing can be such a beneficial media for students’ writing development.
Isra Hayati Darman, Rani Ismil Hakim
Journal of Language Intelligence and Culture, Volume 1, pp 318-338; doi:10.35719/jlic.v1i03.40

Abstract:
تدريس مهارة الكلام يحتاج إلى الممارسة والمثال الصحيح من المعلم، حتى إختار المعهد العالي الإسلامي دار القرآن بياكمبوه الناطق الأصلي بالعربية ليعلم مهارة الكلام في تلك الجامعة. يهدف هذا البحث لمعرفة تنفيذ عملية تدريس مهارة الكلام مع الناطق الأصلي، ومزاياه ونقائصه. أما منهج البحث المستخدم في هذا البحث هو المنهج الوصفي التحليلي بالمدخل الكيفي. وأما النتائج من هذا البحث هي: الأول: أن تنفيد عملية تعليم وتعلم مهارة الكلام مع الناطق الأصلي في المعهد العالي الإسلامي دار القرآن بياكمبوه هو تدريس مهارة الكلام للمستوى المبتدئ. والثاني: من المزايا الكثيرة من تعلم مهارة الكلام مع الناطق الأصلي منها: وجد الطلاب المثال للنطق الصحيح من المفردات والكلام بالنبر والتنغيم الصحيح، ومفردات وعبارات وأساليب اللغة العربية المشهورة والمستخدمة لدي العرب. ومن خلال تدريس مهارة الكلام مع الناطق الأصلي وجد الطلاب المثير والحماسة والتشجيع لترقية قدرتهم في مهارة الكلام. والثالث: من نقائص تدريس مهارة الكلام مع الناطق الأصلي وخاصة للمبتدئين في اللغة العربية، هي أن لهم صعوبة في فهم الشرح من المعلم لسرعته في التكلم ولقلة...
Dwi Khoirotun Nisa'
Journal of Language Intelligence and Culture, Volume 1, pp 283-317; doi:10.35719/jlic.v1i03.37

Abstract:
الأهداف من هذا البحث هي: (1) معرفة عملية تطوير المواد التعليمية الموضوعية باللغة العربية لطلاب قسم تعليم مدرسي المدرسة الإبتدائية بجامعة التنوير الإسلامية بوجونغورو، و (2) معرفة استحقاق و فعالية استخدام المواد التعليمية الموضوعية باللغة العربية لطلاب قسم تعليم مدرسي المدرسة الإبتدائية بالمعهد التنوير العالي الإسلامي بوجونغورو. تستخدم الباحثة هذا البحث طريقة البحث و التطوير مع طريقة تصميم التعليم لـ - ADDIE (التحليل، التصميم، التطوير، التطبيق، والتقويم). طريقة جمع البيانات لهذا البحث هي: الملاحظة، والمقابلة، والإستبانة، والاختبار، والوثائقية. أما طريقة تحليل البيانات هي التحليل الوصفي الكيفي وبرمز الدرجة المعدلة.من نتائج البحث هي (1) يستخدم عملية تطوير المواد التعليمية الموضوعية باللغة العربية بطريقة “ADDIE” يعني: التحليل، والتصميم، والتطوير، والتطبيق، والتقويم. نتيجته هي المواد التعليمية الموضوعية باللغة العربية التي تكتب على ورقة ب- 5 وتتركب من 185 صفحة التي تنقسم إلى ثلاثة فصول، وهي: 1) اللغة العربية في المدرسة الإبتدائية، 2) اللغة العربية في الجامعة، و 3) النصوص عن التربية، والإسلام، واللغة العربية....
Mokhammad Miftakhul Huda, Maskud, Anggiya Rachma
Journal of Language Intelligence and Culture, Volume 1, pp 339-356; doi:10.35719/jlic.v1i03.30

Abstract:
اللغة هي دور مهم فى حياة الإنسان. لأن اللغة هي الوسيلة للإتصال فى حياة المجتمع. إكتساب اللغة ينقسم على قسمان: اللغة الأولى واللغة الثانية. اكتساب اللغة الثانية تشير إلى أي لغة يتعلمها الفرد بعد لغة الأم. اللغة العربية هي يتم دراستها فى المدارس والمعاهد والجامعات. ونوع البحث فى هذا البحث هو المنهج الكيفى ويستخدم الباحثون فى هذه الرسالة منهج الدراسة المكتبية ( Library Research ) الذي ينتفع الكتب فى المكتبة، مع المجلات العلمية والمقالات، والكتب الأخر الذي يبحث عن اكتساب اللغة العربية. نتائج البحث هي اللغة العربية كاللغة الثانية وهي الدوافع في تعليم اللغة العربية كاللغة الثانية في المدرسة الثانوية المتفوقة دار العلوم هي الدعم من زعماء المدرسة والمدرسين بتكوين لجنة تنشيط اللغة العربية، وإجراء البرامج اللغوية من لجنة تنشيط اللغة العربية، وتنوع الأساليب في تدريس اللغة العربية، وعقد الاحتفالات والبرامج والمعاملة في الإدارة باللغة العربية.
Paga Tri Barata
Journal of Language Intelligence and Culture, Volume 1, pp 224-237; doi:10.35719/jlic.v1i03.26

Abstract:
American English and British English are the famous English varieties in the world, although there are lots of varieties in English, but AmE and BrE are the most famous, they have lots of differences each other and sometimes those differences make the new learner confused. This research examines about Grammar and Vocabulary differences between American and British English. The researcher uses Qualitative Approach in this research because the researcher explains the results of research in words form, while Library Research is type of research that researcher used, because the sources of this research are several books, articles and others. The findings of this research indicated that are many differences between American English and British English including in the aspects and grammar and vocabulary. The differences are not a big deal for native speakers, but they may confuse non-native speakers of English.
Husnul Hotimah
Journal of Language Intelligence and Culture, Volume 1, pp 210-223; doi:10.35719/jlic.v1i02.19

Abstract:
English Foreign Language (EFL) students, most of the time, face difficulties in learning English, especially in mastering speaking skills. One of the most common problems faced in the teaching and learning process for speaking skills is the lack of motivation and students tend to use their first language. As the development of technology, the teacher is required to involve digital teaching, especially related to the use of computers. Employing computer or Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) in the teaching and learning process is highly recommended for a fun and exciting learning. In this particular case, englishch-hilfen.de serves as an answer for those seeking such a learning process. A qualitative study was involved to identify how the use of englishch-hilfen.de can improve and give a significant effect on students’ English performance, especially for speaking and vocabulary aspects. The result of this study suggested that the content within englishch-hilfen.de is very beneficial for it provides such meaningful and stimulating activities for English language students.
A. Samsul Ma'arif
Journal of Language Intelligence and Culture, Volume 1, pp 150-167; doi:10.35719/jlic.v1i02.23

Abstract:
ملخص البحث إن تعليم اللغة العربية بإندونيسيا مازال بعيد عن النتائج المرجوة. لذلك اجتهد علماء اللغة العربية فيها بأن يُـجيدوا ويـبتكروا في الوسائل التعليمية المناسبة والجذابة. ومن تلك الوسائل هي برمجية "عَـرَبُـنَا" في تعليم قواعد اللغة العربية. حاول الباحث أن يكتشف فعالية استخدام هذا القرص الإرتجالي في تعليم قواعد اللغة العربية على طلبة البرنامج المكثف في لتعليم اللغة العربية بجامعة مولانا مالك إبراهيم الإسلامية الحكومية مالانج. يهدف هذا البحث إلى (1) وصف مزايا و العيوب من برمجية "عربنا" و (2) معرفة إجراء تعليم قواعد اللغة العربية بـبرمجية "عربنا" ، و (3) معرفة الأحوال المتغيرة بعد استخدام برمجية "عربنا". يكون هذا البحث بحثا وصفيا. أما مصادر البيانات التي استخدم الباحث فهو (1) الملاحظة، و(2) الاختبار. وحلّـل الباحث البيانات المذكورة كما استخدمه Lexy Meleong. ونتائج هذا البحث هي (1) إن تعليم قواعد اللغة العربية باستخدام برمجية "عَـرَبُـنَا" بكلية الشريعة بجامعة مولانا مالك إبراهيم الإسلامية الحكومية مالانج له مزايا من جهة نتيجة الطلبة المحصولة، رغم أن هناك الشروط اللازمة في استخدام البرمجية وهذه هي من العيوب، و (2) تتكون...
Jumriyah Jumriyah
Journal of Language Intelligence and Culture, Volume 1, pp 179-195; doi:10.35719/jlic.v1i02.24

Abstract:
ملخص البحث تتكون هذه الطريقة الإيحائية من مجموعة من التوصيات التعليمية المشتقة من علم الإيحاء الذي وصفه لوزانوف بأن "علم يهتم بالدراسة المنظمة للتأثيرات اللاعقلانية واللاشعورية أو كليهما" التي يستجيب لها البشر بشكل مستمر. بالنظر على تلك الحجة، فمشكلات البحث في هذا البحث: ما مدى فعالية استخدام الطريقة الإيحائية لتنمية مهارة الكلام؟ (أ) في النطق، (ب) المفردات، (ج) التراكيب، و(د) الطلاقة. ومنهج البحث المستخدم في هذا البحث هو البحث التجريبي بالتحليل الكمي والكيفي. ثم حددت الباحثة مجموعة التجربة والضابطة هي الفصل E-6 في البرنامج المكثف لتعليم اللغة العربية بجامعة مولانا مالك ابراهيم الإسلامية الحكومية مالانج للسنة الدراسية 2013-2014م وعددهم الكلي 36 طالبا. استخدمت الباحثة تحليل ت على اعتبار التحصيل القبلي والبعدي. ومن أهم النتائج التي حصل عليها البحث كما يلي: (1) النتيجة t0 من النطق في المجموعة التجريبية هي 51،63 وهذه النتيجة أكبر من المجموعة الضابطة هي 0،129 (2) النتيجة t0 من المفردات في المجموعة التجريبية هي 24،713 وهذه النتيجة أكبر من المجموعة الضابطة هي 1،193. (3) النتيجة t0 من التراكيب في المجموعة التجريبية هي 8،36 وهذه النتيجة أكبر من...
Rochyani Lestiyanawati, Luluk Alawiyah
Journal of Language Intelligence and Culture, Volume 1, pp 168-178; doi:10.35719/jlic.v1i02.22

Abstract:
Problems for learners of English as Foreign Language may appear due to the lack of English mastery of the teachers. Since teachers are regarded as input for language learning, it impacts the students’ achievement. Pronunciation is one of the problems faced by both Indonesian teachers and students. When the teachers give the correct pronunciation, it results in the correct pronunciation of the students. On the other hand, the wrong pronunciation of the teachers will impact the students’ incorrect pronunciation. This study is aimed to reveal the early childhood teachers’ ability in pronouncing English vocabulary. The findings of the study are to determine the appropriate treatment which might be needed to overcome the problems. The subject of the study were 40 randomly selected early childhood teachers. The data were collected by testing their vocabulary mastery and pronunciation ability. The result of the study showed that the English mastery of early childhood teachers was needed to be developed for less ability in pronouncing the vocabulary correctly. The questionnaires also implied that the teachers need improvement in dealing with English.
Saptiwi Rohayati
Journal of Language Intelligence and Culture, Volume 1, pp 123-137; doi:10.35719/jlic.v1i02.15

Abstract:
Engaging and motivating students are two of the critical factors in a successful learning process. Therefore, teachers are required to seek suitable strategies for achieving learning outcomes. The development of technology in this digital era brings new opportunities for teachers and learners. Technology can be used to support the teaching learning process, particularly for engaging the students in the learning phases. This classroom action research is conducted to find out whether the Digital Storytelling Project helps students to be engaged in the learning process. The participants of the research were tenth-grade senior high school students. The data were collected by using observation, interview, document analysis, peer discussion, and questionnaire. The qualitative content analysis was used for evaluating the obtained data. The finding showed that the students were actively engaged when a digital storytelling project was implemented, especially in selecting digital images and jointly generating ideas of the story. The findings from the classroom observation and interviews also exemplifies the potential use of digital storytelling in helping the students develop ideas and enhance their content knowledge and literacy. Hence, the finding of this research above can be a foundation to claim that the implementation of a digital storytelling project is useful to engage the students in the learning process.
Istiqamah Ardila
Journal of Language Intelligence and Culture, Volume 1, pp 138-149; doi:10.35719/jlic.v1i02.20

Abstract:
Proficient writers in L2 setting used many kinds of strategies to face their difficulties in English writing. This study investigates the writing strategies used by Indonesian EFL undergraduate students and examines if there is any differences between proficient and less proficient students across their gender in choosing strategies in writing. The subject of the study consisted of 100 (one hundred) undergraduate students of English Department in Islamic State University of Antasari, Banjarmasin. A questionnaire was adopted from Peñuelas (2012) to gather data about student writing strategies. The categorization of proficient and less proficient of the students was based on the result of writing test. The results indicated that Indonesian EFL undergraduate students used six categories of writing strategies and compensation strategies was the most frequently used followed by affective strategies as the least frequently used. Proficient and less proficient students employed compensation strategies as the dominant strategies both male and female students. The differences of strategies used based on students gender did not occur in proficient students. However, the differences was significant of less proficient male and female students only in affective strategies while the rest was not significant. Furthermore, proficient female students used more strategies than male in term of categories while less proficient male used more strategies in memory and compensation strategies than female.
Mega Fariziah Nur Humairoh, Febrina Rizky Agustina
Journal of Language Intelligence and Culture, Volume 1, pp 196-209; doi:10.35719/jlic.v1i02.21

Abstract:
This current study focuses its investigation on the correlation between students’ beliefs about the use of translation as an English learning strategy and the strategic use of translation in learning English by EFL students in Indonesia. This current study is aimed 1) to investigate the correlation between students’ beliefs and the use of translation as a learning strategy 2) to examine the developmental of the use of translation as a learning strategy across different year of study. One hundred seventeen undergraduate students, consisting 67 freshmen and 50 sophomores participated in this correlational study. The data were collected by frequency of an Indonesian Version of the Inventory for Beliefs about Translation for beliefs measurement and the Inventory for Translation as a Learning Strategy. Correlation and t-test were employed in the study. Correlation analysis reveals that a strong positive correlation between students’ beliefs about translation and their use of translation as learning strategy. T-test finds the significant difference in the use of translation as learning strategy between freshman and sophomore learner.
Faris Maturedi, Nino Indrianto
Journal of Language Intelligence and Culture, Volume 1, pp 52-69; doi:10.35719/jlic.v1i01.13

Abstract:
يدور النقاش في هذه المقالة حول تحليل الأخطاء النحوية بخصوص استعمال "أما" وجوابها في البحوث العلمية للطلبة في شعبة تعليم اللغة العربية بالجامعة الإسلامية الحكومية بجمبر. وتهدف كتابة هذه المقالة إلى معرفة شروط استعمال "أما" بالإضافة إلى وصف أخطاء الطلبة في استعماله. ونهج الباحث في هذه المقالة منهج البحث الكيفي الوصفي بالإضافة إلى تحليل الأخطاء لكوردر. ومن أهم نتائج هذه المقالة: أولا، تأتي "أما" حرف شرط وإخبار، ولذلك احتاج الجواب إلى الفاء كما في الشرط، فقد نابت "أما" مكان أداة الشرط (مهما) وفعل الشرط المجزوم (يكن) ولذلك ظهر جواب الشرط دون أن يظهر الشرط، نحو: (أما خالد فمسافر) أي: مهما يكن من شيء فخالد مسافر. ويجب اقتران جواب "أما" بالفاء الزائدة الرابطة إلا إذا دخلت على فعل قول محذوف مقترن بها. ثانيا، أخطاء الطلبة في استعمال "أما" وجوابها فتتمثل في عدم ذكرهم الفاء الرابطة الزائدة لجوابها واستعمال بعضهم همزة وصل بدل همزة قطع. أخطأت الطالبة الطالبة الأولى في 16 موضعا والطالب الثاني في 15 موضعا والطالب الثالث في 12 موضعا والطالبة الرابعة في 6 مواضع والطالبة الخامسة في 15 موضعا والطالبة السادسة في 25 موضعا والطالبة السابعة في 11 موضعا.
Muhammad Junaidi, Asmi Faiqatul Himmah
Journal of Language Intelligence and Culture, Volume 1, pp 97-110; doi:10.35719/jlic.v1i01.11

Abstract:
Leadership has significant and strategic role for enhancing the quality of higher education institution. In implementing transformational leadership based on spiritual empowerment, the leadership should have mastered these four components: a) charisma, b) inspirational motivation, c) intellectual stimulation, d) individualized consideration. This article uses descriptive qualitative approach and gets some discoveries as follows; first, IAIN actualyzes the concept of “Islam Nusantara” in constructing academic atmosphere. Second, IAIN actualyzes KH. Shiddiq’s four pillars of spiritual empowerment. Research result showed that the implementation of transformational leadership style has been implemented as follows: First, to fulfill and explore charismatic leadership in IAIN, the principal implemented some steps as follows: First, illustrating vision and mission formulation clearly. Second, foster pride in the institution. Third, respected and appreciated by followers. Forth, needs to gain the support and trust from followers. Second, to express his inspirational motivation to his followers, the principal implemented his ability in communicating high expectation and exploring the symbols/jargon/motto of institution for focusing on the effort to explore them simply. Third, the way principal stimulates his followers intellectual through these following things: 1) promoting intellectual behavior. 2) conducting learning organization. 3) Intellectual sensitivity. Fourth, able to provide appropriate solutions. 4)Individualized Consideration.
Abdul Basid, Anilla Febriaty Hermanda
Journal of Language Intelligence and Culture, Volume 1, pp 39-51; doi:10.35719/jlic.v1i01.10

Abstract:
Rajah’ is one of the ancestor’s legacy which use by Madura’s people, expecially who in Islamic boarding school of holy book until nowdays. ‘Rajah’ is still believed as one of amulet to keep a traditional holy book’s from termite, one species of the insect. This study wants to know and to investigate the opinion of Madura’s people about ‘rajah’ to their credibility to keep the traditional holy book’s based on genetic structuralism’s perspective. The results of this study are: a) the facts of humanity expresses when people put rajah in their holy books, their holy books will not be eaten by termite; b) collective subject represents teacher’s order to write rajah; c) worldview elaborates the function of rajah will work if the user believe in it; d) the structure of literary reflects one’s believe in the truth happening after they use rajah; and e) the dialectical method of understanding explanations refers to all available concepts. Thus, we can understand from facts of humanity, worldview, and structure of literary.
Siti Khodijah
Journal of Language Intelligence and Culture, Volume 1, pp 82-96; doi:10.35719/jlic.v1i01.5

Abstract:
This paper discussed conversational Maxims in Constituional Court that related to the general election 2019 in Indonesia. However, this reseach focused on the flouted maxims that is used by the witness in constitutional court in answering the judge’s questions. In this paper, the writer choose the utterances that is produced by the witness in constitutional court, since there are many maxims that are flouted by the witness in giving his answer. In analyzing this conversation, the writer used Grice’s theory which established four maxims, they are maxims of quantity, maxims of quality, maxims of relevance, and amxims of manner. In addition, this research used descriptive qualitative approach. Since, the data are in the form of sentences. The analysis revelas some findings. It’s found that mostly the witness flouted the maxims of relevance.
Intan Armala, Endang Fauzia, Abdul Asib
Journal of Language Intelligence and Culture, Volume 1, pp 111-122; doi:10.35719/jlic.v1i01.16

Abstract:
Higher order thinking skill is one of the important components for an individual to be able to solve new problems in the 21th century. In the revised Bloom’s taxonomy, HOTS is defined as an incision among the three top levels of ability in the cognitive dimension (analyzing, evaluating, creating), and 3 levels of knowledge dimension (conceptual, procedural, metacognitive). The aim of the present case study was to investigate pre-service English teachers’ perception on Higher Order Thinking Skills in English language teaching. A total of 15 pre-service English teachers in a university in Indonesia participated in this study. The research used questionnaire to collect the data. Data were analyzed using interpretative approach. The result showed that the pre-service English teachers have their perspective about higher order thinking skills by themselves. They are aware towards Higher Order Thinking Skills in English language teaching. They are involving some activities to encourage students in thinking skill. They believed that every student is capable to think critically.
Moh. Rofid Fikroni
Journal of Language Intelligence and Culture, Volume 1, pp 70-81; doi:10.35719/jlic.v1i01.4

Abstract:
The learning process of language teaching seems to be very demanding and complicated, especially for speaking skill. Speaking, alongside with writing, is considered to be productive skill in which it requires students to produce the language in spoken form. The students need to be able to speak the language by considering some aspects of speaking such as fluency and accuracy. In other words, not only the student has to speak correctly, but also it has to be as smooth as possible. Such particular case becomes one of the reasons why it is difficult to master the skill itself. in another case, it has become much more difficult for the students to grasp the speaking material. Moreover, designing a speaking environment for language teaching in classroom context is no difference. Due to the fact that the scope of speaking skill is complex, the students are reluctant to say something or use the language. That is why the English teacher needs to come up with specific plans to teach English as second or foreign language. One of ways to overcome the problem is by implementing game. The nature of game will help the English teacher to develop such amusing and enjoyable atmosphere in the teaching and learning process.
Ade Ruswatie, Anastya Nida Alhana
Journal of Language Intelligence and Culture, Volume 1, pp 1-38; doi:10.35719/jlic.v1i01.9

Abstract:
التجريد الصرف أحد من عناصر اللغة العربية في عنصر التراكيب. والصرف قاعدة من قواعد اللغة العربية تهدف لمساعدة الطلاب في اختيار الكلمة المطابقة عند ترتيب الجمل العربية ولتنمية المفردات العربية وكذلك لحفظ الكلام والنطق والكتابة.ومن أهداف هذا البحث لوصف المشكلات المواجهة في تعليم الصرف في الفصل الأول للبنات "ب" معهد الهداية المتوسط الإسلامي بمعهد الهداية الإسلامي كارانج سوجي بورووكرتو الشمالية بانيوماس ولوصف المحاولات لحل المشكلات المواجهة في الفصل الأول للبنات "ب" معهد الهداية المتوسط الإسلامي بمعهد الهداية الإسلامي كارانج سوجي بورووكرتو الشمالية بانيوماس. ومنهج هذا البحث هو البحث الكيفي. والطريقة المستخدمة لجمع البيانات في هذا البحث هي المقابلة والملاحظة والوثيقة. أما نتائج هذا البحث فتمكن أن تتخلص كما يلي: أن المشكلات المواجهة التي تجد الباحثتان هناك هي خلفية تربية الطلاب والرغبة والدوافع وكثرة الوزن الفعل وموزونه وكثرة الأبنياء وتطبيق الكلمة غير المكتوبة في كتاب الأمثلة التصريفية إلى الباب المطابق بعد تغييرها. وتقسّم الباحثتان في المشكلات السابقة مشكلتين وهما من المشكلة اللغوية...
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