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Bridget Chipanje, Dong Ying, Lv Haiping
Published: 9 September 2021
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 23, pp 591-625; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v23i1.4456

Abstract:
Nigeria which is considered as the ‘giant’ of Africa and is currently the largest economy in West Africa is also fast becoming the largest economy in the entire Africa. The country is in the process of developing a broader base for her economy which for many years has been reliant on oil and gas and non-renewable fossil fuels which are already saturated. However, the country has many other natural resources, and one of the major companies in the “non-oil” economy is the Innoson Vehicles and Motors (IVM) in Nigeria. In recent decades, many West African companies, including IVM, have begun to accept the need for innovation if they are to sell their products to a wider market and to increase exports. Noteworthy to companies in West Africa are Reverse Innovation and Frugal Innovation. This research observes the interaction these two forms of innovation adopts, innovation, and the ways in which they have been accepted by the IVM and their supply chain. There are three stages of management considered in this research (Macro; Directors and Educational Advisors Managers, members of this level precipitate policies that advance the economy and business inside the company. Meso; Senior Management at the production unit in the IVM, and Micro; The Organizational Supervisors of manufacturing and distribution). To achieve the purpose of this research, several personnel’s at the three different levels of management were interviewed about their understanding of the terms and the application of Reverse and Frugal innovations in their experience. A total of 20 interviews (each lasting 15-20 minutes) were carried out, 8 at the Macro level, 5 Meso level and 7 at the Micro level. This led to a discovery that West African businesses found Reverse Innovation and Frugal very satisfactory, and inherent, should it be that the economic proliferation designed is continued. The study, by analyzing their opinions concerning the drivers and limitations of Reverse Innovation and Frugal Innovation, has successfully generated a framework for R&F innovations which establishments in other developing economies seeking to proliferate their exports back to the developed countries might find beneficial. Finally, sustainability is also seen as an underlying influencing factor throughout the research.
Han Nwe Swe
Published: 9 September 2021
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 23, pp 725-731; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v23i1.4406

Abstract:
Honorific titles, as an essential part of speech communication, occur in all languages. But due to the cultural diversity, there are many different laws and regularities in the choice of them. This paper is the comparative study of the characteristics of Chinese and Myanmar honorific titles and their pragmatic rules to reduce the barriers in language communication.
Mohammad Kazem Khanjani, Atoosa Bahadori
Published: 9 September 2021
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 23, pp 370-379; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v23i1.4137

Abstract:
In the field of innocent defendants and convicts' damage compensation who have endured further losses due to issue criminal supply contracts or orders execution, their innocence has been cleared by issuing acquittance sentences. It counted as one of the most challenging issues in private and criminal law. In these recent years, based on positive changes in the rules of Iran, a lot of works done for innocent defendants and convicts' damage compensation have endured different and unfair punishments. But no integration or constructive work has been done for guiltless convicts' damage compensation who have endured some parts or all their punishments, and their innocence has been proved but not predicted. The reverse of this matter is true in the Canadian law system. Only a guilty convict who has tolerated some or all parts of unfair punishment deserves to receive damage compensation. This study attempted to research the subject's international binding rules, and many practical strategies for guiltless convicts' damage compensation will be considered in both systems by a comparative study.
Heru Kristanto
Published: 9 September 2021
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 23, pp 626-635; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v23i1.4619

Abstract:
Bank behavior, financial literacy, financial inclusion, debt behavior, and investment affect the economic growth of an industry. The purpose of this research is to examine the effect of bank behavior, financial literacy, financial inclusion, debt behavior on investment decisions of working capital and investment debtors in the Regional Development Bank of Yogyakarta. Indonesia. Examine the mediating role of financial inclusion, debt behavior on investment decisions. The research sample are 280 debtors. The analysis model used mediation regression with the PLS program. The results showed that: Bank behavior has an effect on financial inclusion. Bank behavior has an effect on debt behavior. Financial literacy has an effect on financial inclusion. Financial literacy has an effect on debt behavior. Financial inclusion mediates the effect of bank behavior on investment decisions. Debt behavior mediates the effect of financial literacy on investment decisions. The managerial implication of this research is: the flexibility of providing credit to customers, must be followed by control of the use of funds. Financial literacy, financial inclusion and higher debtor debt behavior will increase the movement of the industry. The right investment will improve entrepreneurial and banking performance.
Qin Wei
Published: 9 September 2021
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 23, pp 684-688; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v23i1.4454

Abstract:
Social advocacy is a core component and routine activity of social work. This paper focuses on several important elements in social advocacy. It discusses the necessity of political engagement in social advocacy, explores the application of advocacy skills with a case analysis of Wet’suwet’en solidarity advocacy of Indigenous Peoples, and examines the use of creative advocacy strategies in social work practice. It argues that a good social advocate should positively engage politics, effectively apply diverse and appropriate skills, and actively demonstrate creativity for achieving the advocacy aim and adjusting to the social change.
Salah Al-Ali
Published: 9 September 2021
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 23, pp 54-66; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v23i1.4602

Abstract:
Technical and vocational education would significantly serve the need of developing countries in terms of lower the rate of poverty, reducing the number of people/youth unemployment, ensuring a stable economy, reducing rate of crimes, higher earning, and increasing self-development. It is also essential for the gulf states such as: Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, where the lack of skilled and semi-skilled indigenous manpower is notable in essential sectors of their economy (e.g., electricity and water, health care, oil sector, infrastructure). Technical and vocational education is a dual type of educational system that would facilitate the transmission of students into work place. It is considered as a ‘golden” opportunity particularly for youth to be easily employed by industries and business. The success of technical and vocational education would depend, to great extent, on the efficiency of apprenticeship where students spend certain time at industrial premises to gain the required skills. It allows students to experience the real work environment and to interact with machine, devices, and tools applied in industrial production site. This paper examines how successful is the field training program offered by the selected colleges and institutions at the Public Authority for Applied Education and Training, PAAE&T, in providing local industries with indigenous skilled and semi-skilled qualified manpower. The research is based on extensive field work that encompasses a review of the related literature, interviews with sample of heads of supervisors/heads of departments at the Ministry of Health, Ministry of Communications, Ministry of Electricity and Water, and the oil sector in order to assess the quality of field training program. Finally, the research will argue that unless the management of technical and vocational colleges and institutions recognize and appreciate the value of enhancing the quality of field training program with local industries, its contribution in tackling the shortage of skilled and semi-skilled indigenous in essential sectors on the economy will be below the government expectations, thus continuing relaying on expatriates for years ahead.
Driola Susuri, Kadri Kryeziu
Published: 9 September 2021
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 23, pp 354-364; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v23i1.4348

Abstract:
The Constitution of the Republic of Kosovo in its basic provisions has constituted the principle of separation and control of the balance between state powers as a fundamental principle of democracy, by designating representative bodies belonging to state powers such as Parliament, Government, and Judiciary. In addition, the Constitution sanctions other state bodies that have a constitutional character and together create the form of governance in the Republic of Kosovo. Among them also the President functions as a constitutional body exercising the executive duty and having ceremonial competencies. The President in Kosovo is a neutral authority because he/she is a representative of the people’s unity. The authorities in Kosovo create a "check and balance" among themselves for the normal functioning of the state. Kosovo is considered a parliamentary Republic, not sanctioned by the constitution but implied based on the decision of the Parliament of the Republic of Kosovo.In addition to electing the Government, the Parliament also elects the President of the Republic, so in this study, we will address the function of the President, the exercise of his duties, his competencies, and his relationship with other state bodies. We will also analyze the system of governance and the principle of separation and balance of powers, with special emphasis on the constitutional position of the President in the Republic of Kosovo. Among other things, we will address in particular the complexity of the procedures for the election of the President of the Republic of Kosovo. Considering the ongoing problems that have accompanied the presidential elections in the Republic of Kosovo and that continue to be so, it is necessary to clarify whether “the constitutional reform initiative for the President of the Republic of Kosovo to be voted by the people is considered the most current and best way of overcoming the present parliamentary stalemate in the election of the candidate for the President of the Republic, as well as whether the implementation of this reform is conditioned by the will of the political parties and the people”. In general, from the stated scientific elaboration of the topic, we can conclude that the intention of this paper consists in determining the constitutional regulation of the institution of the President of the Republic of Kosovo applied in the parliamentary system, empirical elaboration of problems that accompanied the election of presidents in the Republic of Kosovo as well as the immediate need to change the manner of electing the President of the Republic of Kosovo.
Carrasco Moreno Angel Saturnino
Published: 9 September 2021
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 23, pp 126-133; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v23i1.4369

Abstract:
Education worldwide is a process in which man prepares himself for life in society, that is to say, it is a process of socialization, which requires a very diverse learning, since it is not only knowledge, but also techniques, guidelines and aptitudes, which recognize a person as part of society. The high number of students in Latin America who drop out of school without completing the educational stage is very significant, which originates onerous expenses in society. The strategies that have been used to prevent dropout are ineffective and weak, and instead of decreasing it has been progressively increasing, since these strategies have not been focused on the various causes that lead to dropout. It is perceived that dropout is a social manifestation caused by internal and external cases within the same community environment. Likewise, it is pointed out that school evasion is considered a social phenomenon in which people leave school temporarily or permanently to a teaching stage, which participates in formal learning (De Aguinaga &Barragán,2007, p. 2).
F. Yudhi Priyo Amboro
Published: 9 September 2021
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 23, pp 385-400; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v23i1.4396

Abstract:
The COVID-19 pandemic has an impact to all countries, including Indonesia. This raises the problem of debt default. Rather than bankruptcy and suspension of payment (PKPU), it is better to look an alternative that become a savior for the company. This research explores the concept of Deeds of Arrangement and Administration Order according to United Kingdom law, and looking at the prospects for the concept of Deeds of Arrangement and Administration Order for Indonesia. It is a normative juridical research, and it was processed with a qualitative approach supported by a comparative legal analysis. The conclusions of this research show that the concepts of the Deeds of Arrangement and Administration Order are similar to the bankruptcy and PKPU schemes also have differences. The differences on the Deeds of Arrangement are how to register, the agreement is passed on a non-litigation basis and determined by the court, and no publication is required. The differences on the Administration Order is the mandatory debtor's company management taking-over, the applicants, the administrators which can be appointed outside the court without court approval, and the administrator will make a corporate rescue proposal. The concept of the Deeds of Arrangement which is a contractual non-litigation and the Administration Order which provides a better corporate management role, is the right solution during the COVID-19 pandemic rather than bankruptcy and PKPU, as well as other litigation. The temporary character of the COVID-19 pandemic condition is the basis of this thought, so a solution concept that leads to maximization of the corporate rescue rather than liquidation, is needed.
Zahraa Berro
Published: 9 September 2021
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 23, pp 420-426; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v23i1.4344

Abstract:
In light of the acceleration towards adopting the principles of sustainability as a result of climate change and the importance of preserving the environment, a group of companies emerged that tried to exploit these conditions in a bad way, which prompted them to colorize their business under the pretext of showing themselves as a sustainable company. For this reason, this study sought to evaluate one of the most prominent companies in Lebanon called “BIOMASS” which is concerned with organic products, using the typology of Dyllick & Muff that categorized the business into three levels of sustainability. The study adopted the qualitative approach in order to frame the extraction of information from the company, in addition to some desk research. In the conclusion of the research, it was found that the company bears the characteristics of sustainability in a right and striking manner.
Salah Al-Ali
Published: 9 September 2021
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 23, pp 78-102; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v23i1.4532

Abstract:
Nowadays, no one can deny the role played by technical and vocational education in reducing the rate of youth unemployment, low rate of poverty, high wages, and livelihood for workers, particularly younger workers. Technical and vocational education is a dual type of educational system that permit students to acquire the necessary knowledge, skills, and attitudes mostly needed by industries and business. The quality of technical and vocational educations would facilitate the transformation of students from classrooms, workshops, and laboratories into real work environment. The success of technical and vocational education in achieving the its objectives would depend on the quality of management in forging a strong linkage with industries and business. The concept of working in a “black box” would not apply in technical and vocational education since industries and business are the main contributors in shaping students’ knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Kuwait, as one of the gulf states, the shortage of indigenous skilled and semi-skilled manpower in noted in essential sectors of the economy (e.g., electricity and water and the oil sector). Key figures have appreciated the significant role of technical and vocational institutions in providing essential sectors of the economy with the skilled and semi-skilled national manpower in order to reduce, to great extent, the dependence on expatriates. The Sabah Al-Salem Industrial Institute, SSII, and Shuwaikh Industrial Institute, SII, was forged between 1992-1993, by the Kuwaiti Government with the aim to equipped local manpower with the know-how and know-why that are applied in local industries and business. The research is focus on measuring the perception of a sample of heads of supervisors at the Ministry of Electricity and Water and at the oil sector towards the quality of the graduates from the Sabah Al-Salem Industrial Institute, SSII, and Shuwaikh Industrial Institute, SII. The research is based on extensive field work that encompasses a review of the related literature, interviews with a sample of heads of supervisors at the Ministry of Electricity and Water and at the oil sector to assess the quality of SSII & SII, graduates. Finally, the research will argue that unless the Sabah Al-Salem Industrial Institute, SSII, and the Shuwaikh Industrial Institute, SII, recognize and appreciate the value of building a strong linkage with local industries, its contribution in tackling the shortage of skilled and semi-skilled indigenous in essential sectors on the economy will be below the government expectations, thus continuing relaying on expatriates for years ahead.
Doyeon Won, Yoonha Chun, Minsuh Savina Kim, Ian Song Kim, Amber Hyunjin Cheun, Alice Hyoeun Lee, Sean Youngjae Choi
Published: 9 September 2021
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 23, pp 710-724; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v23i1.4362

Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to provide a viable alternative for volunteer services which became inactive due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Accordingly, cases of contactless volunteer work involving children using the M Social Welfare Center located in the city of Paju in Gyeonggi-do Province were studied using reputational case selection. The aforementioned children are children whose parents have hearing disabilities (CODAs: child of deaf adults). In all of the examined cases, six sessions of online volunteer work have been carried out with these children. In-depth interviews were conducted with four participants, two non-participants, two of the twelve youth volunteers, and one social worker. The results of the study were as follows: firstly, there are several advantages to online volunteer work such as providing an alternative to the conventional volunteering method during the COVID-19 pandemic, no restrictions of location or place, recipients having their own private space, and the volunteers and recipients being able to open up to each other and being able to grow together through this process. Secondly, issues to be noted during the process are the characteristics of the recipients, the role of social workers, the education of volunteers and the attitude of the volunteers. Finally, aspects that need to be improved are the recognition of online volunteer hours and paralleling online volunteer work with other volunteer methods when the COVID-19 situation improves in the future. Through these findings, this study suggested practical and policy implications.
Ariyono Setiawan, Munoto Munoto, Luthfiyah Nurlaela, Ekohariadi Ekohariadi
Published: 9 September 2021
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 23, pp 134-149; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v23i1.4500

Abstract:
Entrepreneurship is a phenomenon that has an important influence on the progress and welfare of the world, so that entrepreneurship is used as the base of economic development. Psychologically, entrepreneurs are people who have a strong internal drive as an effort to achieve certain goals so that they have a tendency to experiment in showing a character that is free from the control of others. Entrepreneurship can be seen from various points of view. The angle and context in question are views from several fields, namely according to economists, management, business people, psychologists and investors. The main requirement that an entrepreneur must have is entrepreneurial knowledge. entrepreneurial readiness is determined by the knowledge possessed and experience in conducting a business (Kurniawati, 2019). In the midst of the rapid development of artificial intelligence (AI) technology today. Not many people know that artificial intelligence consists of several branches, one of which is machine learning. This machine learning (ML) technology is one of the branches of AI that is very interesting. The sample population in this study was obtained from the air transportation school consisting of 7 populations. Data analysis is done by using . The research location is an air transportation school with Machine Learning Random Forest Classification with a population of cadets, lecturers and the general public
Irene Chaidi, Athanasios Drigas, Charalampos Karagiannidis
Published: 9 September 2021
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 23, pp 187-198; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v23i1.4277

Abstract:
In recent years, worldwide and in our country, the view has been established that all students, regardless of any element of differentiation, special need or characteristic related to national, cultural or social identity, should have equal learning opportunities in one school for all. The use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) contributes significantly to the learning process. Especially for students with special educational needs, ICT provides rich educational experiences. The following work refers to ICT in the field of application of Special Education, in assistive technology, educational sortware, which provides opportunities to approach knowledge, socialization of individuals and removal of physical barriers to access to knowledge of students with special educational needs .
Anasufi Banawi, Sulaeman Sulaeman, Wahyu Sopandi, Asep Kadarohman, Muhammad Solehuddin, M. Ridwan
Published: 9 September 2021
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 23, pp 226-241; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v23i1.4518

Abstract:
This research aims at determining the differences in the increase of conceptual mastery of the matter and its changes between students who study with the Predict-Observe-Explain Strategy assisted by Conceptual Change Text (POE-ACCT) and students who study with the Expository Strategy. This study involved 63 students who were divided into 2 groups, a control group (33 students) and an experiment (30 students). The research instrument is in the form of a five-tier diagnostic test. The instrument has gone through an expert and empirical validation process. The data obtained were analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics. The results showed a significant increase in the conceptual mastery of the experimental group (N-gain = 0.26) and in the control group (N-gain = 0.06), which were significant (p < .05). The POE-ACCT strategy was found more beneficial compared to the Expository Strategy in increasing the conceptual mastery of the prospective elementary school teachers. Although the POE-ACCT strategy provided an increase in the conceptual mastery, an increase of 0.26 was categorized in a low category and this indicated the need for improvement of the strategy.
Edy Saptono, Ribka Keiza, Joni Wijayanto
Published: 9 September 2021
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 23, pp 508-518; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v23i1.4371

Abstract:
Boundary is an important part of the state's sovereignty and becomes a fortress of all kinds of threats. The threat about security of natural resources is one of non-military threat which affects Indonesia’s security. Betung Kerihun National Park adjoins to Malaysia in northern of Indonesia, so it can be vulnerable to threats. The purposes of this research are to analyze the threat of security toward management of Betung Kerihun National Park (TNBK), the efforts made to overcome the security threat, and the management of TNBK on the border of Indonesia and Malaysia. The research uses qualitative method using in-depth interviews and later analyzing the primary and secondary data. The results show that the security threats of TNBK are agarwood stealing, gold mining, illegal logging, wildlife distribution, lack of security staff, no security forces (Satgas Pamtas) on the northern boundary of TNBK, and border patrol inspection line construction. The efforts to overcome security threats are preventive, pre-emptive, and repressive. The management of TNBK on the border of Indonesia and Malaysia in order to protect border security are including management functions of planning, organizing, leading (directing), and evaluating. The recommendations to overcome the security threat of national parks on the border between Indonesia and Malaysia are the active role of security forces and the establishment of buffer zone management.
Hui Zhang
Published: 9 September 2021
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 23, pp 103-113; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v23i1.3500

Abstract:
Learner’s autonomy has changed many aspects of society. At the same time Learner’s autonomy has become one of the most popular issues in education, especially in language learning. A large number of countries come to realize the importance of the learner’s autonomy in colleges and the significance of mastering the knowledge and basic skills of it in education. China is no exception. Since China has a considerable amount of English learners, more and more teachers, experts and organizations begin to pay attention to learner’s autonomy in the language teaching and learning process, which has been regarded as some kind of improvement and reform in the field of education. Therefore, research on learner’s autonomy towards learning English as a foreign language among college students in China is very important. This paper is divided into seven parts: the first part is the background of College English learner’s autonomy in China; the second part explains the main factors influencing the learner’s autonomy; the third part describes the different approaches to increase learner’s autonomy; the fourth part focuses on the current problems in learner’s autonomy; the fifth part is about solutions to solve the problems; the next part states the application of learner’s autonomy; the last part is the conclusion. All in all, this paper attempts to contribute to the growing understanding of learner’s autonomy, especially towards English teaching and learning among college students in China, which will be extremely beneficial for the improvement of quality of English education, and hopefully offer some references for the future researches in this area.
Rahmania Santoso, Bambang Dwi Prasetyo, Desi Dwi Prianti
Published: 9 September 2021
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 23, pp 348-353; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v23i1.4606

Abstract:
Islamic Branding is an approach to branding with Sharia Principles. Over time, Islamic Branding has become one of the strategies used in product marketing. The aims of this research to analyze the related topic towards audience reception and identifying the position of meaning for the Islamic Branding Strategy in Advertising Sahaja Products. This research used a qualitative research approach with the reception analysis method. The method highlights Stuart Hall's two concepts of encoding and decoding. The subjects of this research were seven members of the Islamic organization Nasyiatul 'Aisyiyah. The data were analyzed using two orders of signification by Roland Barthes (encoding) and in-depth interviews (decoding). The results of this research indicated the reception caused by the audiences, in understanding the meaning of the message can vary depending on the intensity of product use. The experience that has been felt and knowledge possessed. Thus, not all audiences can receive the message in full.
Mariana Floricica Calin, Mihaela Luminita Sandu, Verginia Roxana Neagu
Published: 9 September 2021
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 23, pp 467-489; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v23i1.4596

Abstract:
Breastfeeding is known to have positive effects on the health and nutrition of infants and has been associated with increased subsequent cognitive ability and educational achievement. It is also believed to encourage the development of a "bond" between mother and child in early childhood. The benefits of breastfeeding on mothers and children are well known, with growing evidence that prolonged breastfeeding brings health and financial benefits. Despite the evidence that there are considerable benefits of breastfeeding, there are still gaps in understanding why many women have difficulty initiating and maintaining breastfeeding. Unfortunately, our country is at the end of the European ranking. Practically, in the vast majority of maternity hospitals, women do not receive the necessary help to start breastfeeding and are even discouraged by the medical staff, who in most cases are guided by outdated and erroneous information. Moreover, mothers need encouragement and emotional support from the medical staff and the family, being in a sensitive period, with major physical and mental changes. Thus, the present study was designed to explore the potential relationships between breastfeeding and the development of the mother-child emotional dyad. In the first chapter we presented the importance of breastfeeding, the risks of not breastfeeding and the development of emotions in the first year of life. I also went through the stages of developing the mother-child relationship and described the child's temperament. In the second chapter we gave the definition of the term attachment and we identified the main types of attachment after J.Bowlby. Next we defined the parental styles and we identified their main types. We also defined emotional stability and postpartum depression. In chapter 3 we presented the research objectives and the 5 formulated hypotheses. Later I described the 4 chosen working tools, among which my own tool. At the end of this chapter I described the group of participants. In the fourth chapter we introduced the statistical processing of data and their interpretation. The last chapter contains the conclusions of the study.
Salah Al-Ali
Published: 9 September 2021
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 23, pp 28-53; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v23i1.4492

Abstract:
The need for skilled and semi-skilled indigenous manpower in the gulf states (e.g., Kuwait. Qatar, United Arab Emirates) is highly noted in the related literature. Technical and vocational education is considered as a dual type of education system that allow students to transfer what they have learned in classrooms, workshops, and laboratories into real work environment. It is the ultimate solution, particularly for the gulf states, to overcome and/or reduce the rate of dependance on expatriates especially in essential sectors in their economy (e.g., oil, electricity and water, health sector). The governments of the gulf states have realized the urgent need to forge technical and vocational colleges and institutions hoping to close the gap with industries and business. Technical and vocational education is completely different from formal education and thus requires a careful design, planning, and monitoring to ensure meeting industrial and business current and future requirements. However, the success of technical and vocational education would depend, to great extent, on the type of management since it requires a specific knowledge, skills, and attitudes that are distinguished technical and vocational education from any other types of education. The Higher Institute of Communications and Navigation, HIC&N, was forged by the Kuwaiti Government with the aim to equipped local manpower with the know-how and know-why that are mostly needed by local industries. The research is focus on measuring the perception of a sample of heads of departments at the Ministry of Communications towards the quality of HIC&N graduates. The research is based on extensive field work that encompasses a review of the related literature, interviews with a sample of heads of departments at the Ministry Communications to assess the quality of field training program and the standard of the HIC&N graduates. Finally, the research will argue that unless the HIC&N recognize and appreciate the value of building a strong linkage with local industries, its contribution in tackling the shortage of skilled and semi-skilled indigenous in essential sectors on the economy will be below the government expectations, thus continuing relaying on expatriates for years ahead.
Ali Hashemi
Published: 9 September 2021
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 23, pp 177-186; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v23i1.4583

Abstract:
Unexpected Covid-19 global outbreak in the world, has had a broad effect on people’s life and their daily activities. Globally, education at all levels as an important part of people’s lives has been influenced due to the pandemic of Covid-19. Teachers and students, as the key role players of education, have felt the impacts of online education both negatively and positively. Hence, this article aimed to collect and analyze perception of EFL and ESL learners and teachers toward online education during Covid-19 pandemic and put effort into finding some solutions for the negative effects of online learning. The selected previous studies about this topic were chosen from different published articles in multiple countries in EFL and ESL context. As a result, the article found that online education had a negative impact on the majority of the learners and teachers, although there were some positive impacts too.
I Dewa Ketut Kerta Widana -, Adi Subiyanto, Emanuel Ario Bimo
Published: 9 September 2021
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 23, pp 578-590; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v23i1.4324

Abstract:
Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic is an actual threat currently experienced throughout the world, including Indonesia. COVID-19 pandemic response must be seriously carried out due to its threats against the national defense system. At the forefront of COVID-19 pandemic response is human resources that play important role as national defense system components which capability need to be managed and developed in a continuous manner. Against the background, this research aims to analyze defense sector human resource capacity management and development in COVID-19 pandemic response in Indonesia. This research employed descriptive qualitative method using primary and secondary data. The results showed that the capability-based approach emphasizes "what we need to do" in dealing with the increasingly complex threats, and defense sector human resources capacity development and management are carried out through selection and knowledge development processes to influence attitudes and encourage behavior changes. The results further showed that as a defense sector component, The Indonesian Armed Forces (TNI) personnel possesses the required readiness and capabilities to carry out their tasks with 3,426 medical and non-medical qualification personnel who have been directly involved at the forefront role of COVID-19 pandemic response.
Mariana Floricica Calin, Mihaela Luminita Sandu, Anca Sabina Miu
Published: 9 September 2021
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 23, pp 436-455; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v23i1.4599

Abstract:
The need to see ourselves as good or adequate represents our need to experience increased self-esteem. As we develop as children, we become more and more aware of the power of our choices, but also of the responsibility generated by the choices we make. On our education, it is also one of the sources of self-esteem creation through the experience of being treated with respect by parents and other family members. As far as our own actions are concerned, one of the origins of creating personal self-esteem is the s28atisfaction we feel with our own choices considered moral, which are a particular aspect of satisfaction with our mental processes. The second pillar, the conception of oneself, is based on the opinion we have of ourselves, representing an assessment of our qualities and defects, founded or not. And the conception of oneself, as well as self-love, is formed in our family environment, the conception of oneself being mainly due to the projects that parents make for us.To be aware of the reasons for attraction to a person of the opposite sex can lead to the permanence of the valuing attitudes invested in the person of the opposite sex, which fuels new needs for knowledge and communication, or to the reduction of emotional tension by decreasing the need for the other. When physical and mental attraction increases with the knowledge of the other, with the proximity and physical and mental intimacy, this leads to the stabilization of the relationship and the desire to resume and intensify it. Mutual satisfaction becomes a condition for both maintenance and improvement of the attraction between the two partners, which is created by symmetry and reciprocity
Patrick Agyare
Published: 9 September 2021
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 23, pp 665-674; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v23i1.4521

Abstract:
This article explores the ethical and social challenges in research with children exposed to forced labour, exploitation, and trafficking. It examines whether the participation of children in evidence generation has the potential to affect them and how the researcher avoids potential discomfort. This requires investigating the multiple issues and contexts that affect the children. Essentially, conducting a child-centred evidence generation is ethically reasonable based on how such investigation is carried out and on how a child is affected by the research activities. The process of recruiting participants, avoiding potential harm, ensuring privacy, anonymity and confidentiality corresponds to the best possible regulation, in full respect of the interests of children. What is pursued is a child-centred evidence generation, capable of responding in an acceptable way, from an ethical point of view to the question about the methodology of the research itself. In addition, child-centred research enhances the sharing of perspectives and insights, which break down the barriers of exclusion. Against this background, this article contributes to the identification, interpretation, and clarification of ethical and social questions that arise in relation to child-centred evidence generation. Similarly, it furthers awareness on the significance of ethical reflection and in making informed decisions and choices to mitigate against potential harm to participants during and after the research.
Li Hao
Published: 9 September 2021
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 23, pp 675-683; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v23i1.4388

Abstract:
China’s journalism education has been changing all the time to meet new demands brought by the political and economic reforms over the last two decades in the 21st century. However, the covert wars between ideology and practice, between classrooms and newsrooms have caused the “split personality” and general confusion among China’s journalism educators and students. Several educational and practical problems thus arise as a result of the tug-of-war between economic and ideological demands. The problems of China’s journalism education are not only from its complex social and economic environments, but also from its weight of history and culture. Although both journalism educators and some media organizations in China are making great effort to heighten awareness of problems and actively attempting to take remedial measures, the transition from the classroom to the newsroom is made more difficult by the complicatedness of the business operation of schools and media organizations, and the systematicity of journalism education remains problematic.
Ibrahim Ali Al-Bahar, Rawan Fayyad Flouh, Rawan Al-Sulaihat
Published: 9 September 2021
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 23, pp 242-255; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v23i1.4357

Abstract:
The current study aimed to identify the impact of online learning on the academic achievement among students of private Jordanian universities in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. The study sample, which was a stratified random sample, consisted of (378) faculty members. Descriptive survey method was used in the current study. In order to achieve the objectives of the study, a questionnaire was developed, and its validity and reliability were verified. The results showed that the effect of online learning on the academic achievement among students of private Jordanian universities in light of the COVID-19 pandemic was average; results of the study also showed statistically significant differences at the significance level (a less or equal 0.05) according to the gender variable in favor of females, and no statistically significant differences according to either the type of college variable, or years of experience’ variables. In light of these results, the study recommended that private Jordanian universities pay great attention to online education, providing it with the appropriate infrastructure, because this may contribute to enriching the cognitive skills received, upgrading students' behavioral level, and actively contributing to improving students’ academic achievement.
Salah Al-Ali
Published: 9 September 2021
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 23, pp 256-284; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v23i1.4575

Abstract:
There is a common perception that technical and vocational education is the ultimate solution for providing industries and business with skilled and semi-skilled manpower. It is considered as a dual type of education system that would allow students to transfer what they have learned in their schools and colleges into real work environment. It is a combination of education that encompasses theory and practice where students spend a certain time in industrial and business premises to acquire the needed knowledge, skills and attitudes. Due to the shortage of skilled and semi-skilled indigenous manpower, the gulf states (e.g., Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates) have forged technical and vocational education colleges and institutions with the aim to supply essential sectors of their economy (e.g., oil, electricity and water, health sector, infrastructure), with qualified national manpower able to manage, maintain, and adapt the imported technology to suite local environments. However, the success of technical and vocational institution in achieving an acceptable outcome would, to great extent, depend on the quality of the management of technical and vocational institutions. The fact is managing technical and vocational education is completely different from managing a formal education (e.g., formal colleges and universities). This research paper examines how successful is the management of technical and vocational colleges and institutions in providing local industries with indigenous skilled and semi-skilled qualified manpower. The research is based on extensive field work that encompasses a review of the related literature, interviews with sample of heads of supervisors/heads of departments at the Ministry of Health, Ministry of Communications, Ministry of Electricity and Water, and the oil sector in order to assess the quality of graduates from technical and vocational colleges and institutions. Finally, the research will argue that unless the management of technical and vocational colleges and institutions recognize and appreciate the value of building a strong linkage with local industries, its contribution in tackling the shortage of skilled and semi-skilled indigenous in essential sectors on the economy will be below the government expectations, thus continuing relaying on expatriates for years ahead.
Ebru Çetin, , Nergis Cantürk, Rukiye Dağalp
Published: 9 September 2021
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 23, pp 456-466; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v23i1.4325

Abstract:
The present study aims to determine the relevant variables for the scores obtained from alcohol addiction, internet addiction, e-bullying, and e-victimization scales of smoking-addictive university students and to investigate the possible correlations between the scales. The study group consists of 300 students who declared that they smoked at least one cigarette every day for the last 6 months. The data were collected with a face-to-face interview method. The form used in the study consisted of items belonging to alcohol addiction, Internet addiction, e-bully, and e-victimization scales. According to the Alcohol Scale, 61.3% of the participants were in the non-addictive group, and 63.3% were in the risk group according to the Internet addiction scale. 2.7% of the participants were e-bullies and 2.3% were e-victims. There was no correlation between the Alcohol Addiction and the Internet Addiction scores of the participants (p>0.05), while a weak positive correlation was detected between the e-bullying and e-victimization scores (for each; p <0.05). A positively weak correlation was found between the Internet Addiction score and e-bullying and e-victimization scores (p <0.05 for each). Our results suggested that students with any type of addiction have a higher risk for other types of addictions (substance-behavioral) as well.
Venus A. Vitales, Karen Jann M. Aquino, Emily F. De Leon, Paz P. Lacap, Shiela S. Maranan, Jamaica J. Duldulao
Published: 9 September 2021
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 23, pp 199-211; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v23i1.4283

Abstract:
The Covid-19 pandemic greatly affected the education sector in the Philippines. From the traditional face to face classroom teaching-learning, schools shifted to flexible learning and virtual classrooms; where learners and educators need to hurdle numerous difficulties such as resources, curriculum revisions and problems in internet connectivity. This is a major concern because the Philippines ranked 77 among the countries with the slowest and least stable Internet connection in the world. This collaborative research among different colleges and universities in the Philippines explored the prevailing concerns of virtual classroom learning to come up with a program that benefits learners and educators in the country. Utilizing descriptive-correlational design, an online survey using Google Form was conducted in the respondent schools after the implementation of virtual learning. A total of 2,444 students from different levels, private and government schools with varying age and sex participated through snowballing data gathering technique. Results revealed that the respondents’ considered themselves physically prepared; but they are not psychological-emotionally and financially prepared in their virtual classroom learning. The students experienced challenges in terms of teacher, curriculum and resources factors. The students perceived that most teachers are unaware that learners differ in terms of capabilities in online learning; thus, they prefer a student-friendly curriculum; and they suggested that the capability of students to have appropriate gadgets and internet connectivity should be looked into by the educators. Significant differences were established between the profile characteristics and preparedness and challenges experienced by the students in their virtual classroom learning. Furthermore, the preparedness and challenges experienced in virtual learning of the respondents are significantly correlated. A proposed program that benefits the students and educators was designed as an output of this research which is recommended for implementation in government and private schools in the Philippines.
Aggeliki Zavitsanou, Athanasios Drigas
Published: 9 September 2021
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 23, pp 67-77; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v23i1.4126

Abstract:
Eating habits are crucial for human health. People around the world have health problems due to their diet. Malnutrition combined with a lack of essential nutrients and obesity with overconsumption of sugar is significant problems. For the most part, the human daily diet should include foods rich in vitamins, fatty acids, minerals, and trace elements. On the other hand, the consumption of substances such as sugar and trans fats causes negative effects on the human body. Fish, vegetables, and nuts are some of the food that contributes to good health. Also, specific foods help the hormones of happiness to increase in our body. This has the effect of reducing stress and increasing happiness. New technologies are a tool that can help individuals to maintain proper nutrition and good health. For example, through the iCTs applications, everyone can individually control his weight, physical exercise, and find the right combinations to have a better and more quality life without diseases.
Nurul Rosana, Nuddin Harahab, Gatot Ciptadi, Andi Kurniawan
Published: 9 September 2021
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 23, pp 763-767; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v23i1.4535

Abstract:
Diffusion of innovation is a process which needed in an effort to adapt to an idea or technology so that a person or group of people can adopt a new subject through the stages set. The purpose of this research is to hope that the process of accepting the attractor based on the "Piknet" sound wave as an innovation can be studied based on the diffusion theory of innovation from Rogers. The method used in this research is a literature review which was carried out for 2 (two) months, in June and July 2021. The object of the writing is to deepen Rogers' theory of the diffusion of innovations that can be used as a basis for determining the stages of the wave-based attractor diffusion process. the sound of "Piknet" to groups of fishing fishermen in Bulak District, Surabaya. Rogers' innovation diffusion theory can be used as the basis for the diffusion process of "Piknet" sound wave-based attractor innovation in Bulak District, Surabaya, using elements and stages of the decision process that are adapted to the conditions of the local community.
I Ketut Astawa, I Ketut Budarma, Cokorda Istri Sri Widhari, Anak Agung Putri Suardani
Published: 9 September 2021
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 23, pp 528-539; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v23i1.4522

Abstract:
This study investigates the effect of hotel employees' green awareness, knowledge, and skill on their intention to implement green practices in a 5-star hotel in Bali. The study is guided by the hotels' green ability model with data collected through a survey from 82 hotel operational staff, supervisors, middle and top managers of 5-star hotels in Bali. Furthermore, the research hypothesis of the data obtained was analyzed using SEM-PLS 3.3.3. The result showed that employees’ environmental knowledge and awareness contribute significantly to their intention to implement green practices, while their green skill is weakly influenced. Additionally, employees' intention to implement green practices positively affects green hotel image. Therefore, this research also discussed the theoretical and practical implications.
Msawenkosi Sandile Mbokazi, Rachel Gugu Mkhasibe, Chinaza Uleanya
Published: 9 September 2021
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 23, pp 164-176; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v23i1.2838

Abstract:
Environmental education has been contemplated as the field of study enabling people to live a sustainable livelihood. In recent years, the South African government took an initiative to integrate Environmental Education into all learning areas or subjects. Despite such inclusion, a gap still exists between what is learned in class and what learners are actually doing in their daily activities. Alexander and Poyyamoli, (2014: 1) suggest that Environmental Education is an essential advancement to encourage learners to save, protect and improve the local environment. As a result, the present paper seeks to examine the effectiveness of environmental education programmes in enforcing sustainability behaviours in school children and how it fosters the acquisition of knowledge and understanding, skills, attitude and behaviors compatible to sustainability. The paper employed sustainable indicators as an instrument to evaluation the effectiveness of environmental education programmes in promoting sustainable livelihood. Questionnaires were distributed to teachers, principals and learners from twenty schools in the district. Participants were subjected to pre-test, innovative sustainable living programmes, and post-test assessment. The results of the pre-test portrayed a gap of learners' knowledge, skills and attitude towards their environment, whereas the post-test results confirmed that EE promotes sustainable living when forged with EE programmes.
Salah Al-Ali
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 22, pp 123-142; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v22i1.4060

Abstract:
Technical and vocational education is a dual system that is important for life-long learning and training and play a vital role in providing students with an opportunity for the world of work. It is completely different from formal learning and allow students to transfer what they have learned in class room into real work practice. However, technical and vocational education is experiencing a great challenge to cope with the rapid change in science and technology in industries and business. This was worsening by the social images that technical and vocational education is design for those students who come from the back gate of a university. It is highly significant to promote the role of technical and vocational education in increasing economic competitiveness and social and education inclusion. In developing countries (e.g., Kuwait, United Arab Emirates), governments have exerted efforts to enhance indigenous capabilities by forging technical and vocational education institutions. The aim is to enhance local capabilities in vital sectors (e.g., oil, electricity and water, health care), and reduce dependence on expatriates. The research paper focuses on identifying and examining the perception of students at the College of Nursing, CN, towards the quality of teaching and learning. In addition to, examining the perception of the CN graduate’s heads of nurses at the health sector towards the standard of the field training program, and the quality CN graduates. The research is based on extensive field work that encompasses a review of the related literature, questionnaires, and interviews with a sample of heads of departments at the CN. Interviews were also conducted with the heads of nurses in four major hospitals in four districts at the health sector. Finally, the research will argue that unless the CN recognize and appreciate the value of building a strong linkage with the health sector, its contribution in tackling the shortage of skilled and semi-skilled indigenous health care specialist will be below the government expectations, thus continuing relaying on expatriates for years ahead.
Muhammad Maggalatung, M. Ridwan, Syarifudin Syarifudin, Darma Darma, Sulaeman Sulaeman
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 22, pp 778-789; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v22i1.4056

Abstract:
Threat language can be found in various local languages in Indonesia, including the Sepa language of the Indigenous peoples of Amahai, Moluccas, where the nationalization of Indonesian is a threat to its extinction. This paper aims to look at the extinction of regional languages from the framework of modernization and contestation of regional languages with national languages. This study is conducted qualitatively, data collection based on interviews, literature study, and observation obtained from Raja Sepa, community leaders, customary stakeholders. Research shows that the language in Maluku is almost extinct in line with the narrowing of regional language spaces; the language has been abandoned by its speakers because of the process of modernization and migration. This study shows the need for revitalization of the Sepa language through facilitating the mapping of the Sepa language comprehensively, making the Sepa language dictionary, and integrating the Sepa language into the local curriculum.
Valentino Tangkau, Wilson Bogar, Sisca Beatrix Kairupan
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 22, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v22i1.4024

Abstract:
Research is carried out to know the influence of the culture of work and motivation to excel in partial and simultaneously to the creativity of employees Unima. The research uses a quantitative approach. The population is all Unima employees totaling 369 employees consisting of 88 structural officers and 281 implementers, spread on 14 units. Mechanical sampling was carried out in two stages. Namely, stage first performed with technique purposive sampling, i.e., selected or assigned only employee executive or employee who does not occupy the structural post. Employees structurally no longer included in determining the size of the sample stage of the second. The second stage is carried out by proportional random sampling, where the work unit sees the proportion at Unima. The size of the sample is calculated by the rules of Jalaluddin and obtained 75 employees. The data collection technique is a questionnaire that had been tested the validity and reliability. Analysis of the data is the analysis of regression doubled with the help of SPSS. Results of the study revealed that (1) the culture of work affects positively and significantly the creativity of employees Unima, (2) motivation to excel influences positively and significantly to the creativity of employees Unima, (3) the culture of work and motivation to work in the simultaneous influence positively and significantly to the creativity of employees Unima. Suggested for strengthening the culture of work, so should the value and norms that have been agreed together that have set attitudes and behaviors in work and interact in the work environment carried out consistently and sustainably. To increase the motivation of achievement, it should award and systems career to the promotion positions implemented in a transparent and consideration of performance.
Fatin Rohmah Nur Wahidah, Herdian Herdian
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 22, pp 385-396; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v22i1.4014

Abstract:
Grit becomes an aspect that is no less important for students. In Indonesia, the study of grit began to be widely conducted in the field of education. Studies on grit still need to be developed to enrich the literature and discussion, especially the great benefits for students. This research aims to describe about grit students in Indonesia and to enrich the findings and literature about it. This research used quantitative approach. Participants in this study were Indonesian students, aged 16-23 years (418 high school students and 408 college students). The instrument used the Grit Scale for Children and Adult (GSCA) from Sturman and Zappala-Piemme (2017) consisting of 12 items (a = 0.744). Data analysis uses SPSS 26 to help to perform a descriptive analysis of demographics and t-tests. The results of this study showed the level of a grit of students in Indonesia is in the moderate category. This study also showed no significant grit differences neither based on gender nor by grade level of students.
Beril Er, Necmiye Karataş
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 22, pp 99-112; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v22i1.4233

Abstract:
Remote teaching has become more popular than before in Turkey as in most parts of the world because of Covid-19 pandemic. Most of the teachers and students have had some difficulties in adapting to distance education. It has been observed that the motivation of both parties might be affected by this sudden shift to online education. Although many reasons affecting teacher motivation have been identified so far, it is believed that every single study will contribute to the purpose of bettering the present EFL teaching. The current study aims to investigate the role of experience on the intrinsic motivation of EFL teachers involved in online teaching andto find out whether years of experience have an effect on teachers' intrinsic motivation. In this study, the data was compiled from 46 EFL teachers working at Istanbul Aydin University English Preparatory School. An adapted Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (AMTB) questionnaire was used to gather the data. The obtained descriptive data were analyzed by using SPSS. The results of this study proved that experience does not have a significant impact on EFL teachers’ motivation teaching online.
Maya Geil Theresia Berlian Ticoalu, Sisca Beatrix Kairupan, Marthinus Mandagi
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 22, pp 24-34; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v22i1.4297

Abstract:
The COVID-19 outbreak at the beginning of 2020 shocked the world had a significant impact on the world community. The deadly virus, first discovered in Wuhan, China, killed thousands of people in various countries. Regulations or policies that the government has set are very influential in every sector and aspect of human life. Disputes or cases are possible in every human relationship. They were even considering that legal subjects have long known legal entities, the more parties involved in them. With the increasingly complex pattern of people’s lives, the scope of the incident or dispute event covers a broader scope, which often gets the spotlight on industrial relations disputes. The purpose of this article is industrial solution disputes, especially disputes through mediation dismissed in the middle of a pandemic covid 19 North Sulawesi as mandated by Article 8 of law No. 2 of 2004. The research was conducted using a qualitative approach. Researchers will use the data collection techniques to study the literature, field studies, observations, interviews, and documentation. The results of the study concluded; 1. The implementation of Law Number 2 the Year 2004 has been very effective in resolving disputes through the mediation process carried out by the Manpower and Transmigration Office of North Sulawesi Province. 2. There are still obstacles in the dispute resolution process through mediation conducted by the Manpower and Transmigration Office Transmigration of North Sulawesi Province, based on Law Number 1 of 2004. 3. There are several inhibiting factors in optimizing the settlement of industrial relations disputes in North Sulawesi. Such as companies that do not want to pay compensation on time, disputes after layoffs occur in the process of mediation. Dispute resolution time is more than the time limit by Law no. 2 of 2004. The implementation of dispute resolution is not by the procedure because the disputing parties are not
Nadia Qurrantain, Bambang Dwi Prasetyo, Desi Dwi Prianti
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 22, pp 305-320; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v22i1.4203

Abstract:
The choice of a person's adopted lifestyle can define his social identity through the consumption structure. This research aims to describe how consumption structure in food lifestyle plays a role in identity construction of Muslimah by referring to Pierre Bourdieu's theory. This study discusses the construction of identity as Muslimah carried out by the Hijabersmom Community as one of the biggest Islamic-based communities in Indonesia. This study used a transformative paradigm by online questionnaires and interviews for data collection. The results show their identity as a Muslimah is represented through the consumption of halal-labeled food, paying attention to the composition of foods other than those containing pork and those forbidden by Islam, choosing places to eat that are comfortable for discussing and good for taking pictures, wearing fashionable outfits by using dress codes. The construction of Muslimah identity through this consumption structure is formed due to several factors such as habitus, ideology/religious structure, and this community doctrine. For further research, the researcher suggests conducting research related to the construction of identity as indicated by the expansion of the object of research which is not limited to a religious perspective.
Joseph Maderick, Steven Grubaugh, Gregg Levitt, Allen Deever
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 22, pp 409-444; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v22i1.4249

Abstract:
"The fundamental cause of the trouble is that in the modern world the stupid are cocksure while the intelligent are full of doubt" (Russell, 1933, p. 28). One seldom hears doubt in the espousing of socio-civic, cultural, or political pronouncements. While the voices seem to always be “cocksure;” we first ask at what level is their objective knowledge and how well do they self-assess that knowledge? We explore how ideological positioning is related to self-assessment and objective knowledge. We conducted a non-comparative (absolute) quantitative study through an email survey of 330 residents of the U.S. over the age of 18 that examined objective socio-civic knowledge and self-assessed ideology and wokeness. The experimental results confirmed misestimations consistent with Dunning-Kruger Effects.
Moh. Syamsul Falah, Mujamil Qomar, Munardji Munardji
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 22, pp 209-226; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v22i1.4127

Abstract:
Transformational leadership is part of a very interesting and unique leadership model. This transformational leadership has implemented on four dimensions by Bass and Riggio: ideal influence of transformational leadership, inspirational motivation of transformational leadership, intellectual stimulation of transformational leadership, individual consideration of transformational leadership. This leader is as an agent of change who strengthen his knowledge, experience and ability. Especially if it is associated with the development of prophetic culture. At present, the study of prophetic culture can be categorized as a new trend. Although the nature of this prophetic culture has existed since the Prophets, it highlights more aspects of prophetic values. These prophetic cultural values carry Kuntowijoyo theory which is based on three pillars namely transcendence, humanization, and liberation. The research questions presenter on this dissertation are as follows: How is transformational leadership to build prophetic culture in SDI Makarimul Akhlaq Jombang and SDI Roushon Fikr Jombang? While purpose of the research is to explain the quistions that have been asked. This research is a qualitative research with a naturalistic phenomenological approach with multisite design. Techniques used for collecting the data are observation, interview, and documentation. Data analysis includes single site analysis and cross-site analysis. The techniques for analyzing the data are data reduction, data display and verification and conclusion. The results of this study are made of conclusion the dimension of transformational leadership in building by Bass and Riggio’s theory need to be added, namely partner stimulation because this partner stimulation can produce total leadership in building a professional culture. Likewise in Kuntowijoyo's prophetic culture about theocentric-humanization that the concept of humanism-theocentric that Kuntowijoyo built from the findings of the study also provided additional as an existing development, namely theocentric-humanism-liberation because of the findings of researchers who showed infaq practices not only humanizing humans with based on faith alone, but indeed included in it is to free or free someone from distress.
Mukhtadi Mukhtadi, Arief Prayitno, Putra Sang Fajar El Harryy
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 22, pp 455-462; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v22i1.4176

Abstract:
This study is to find out how the Indonesian government's strategy in dealing with the Covid 19 pandemic over time since the discovery of covid 19. This research is qualitative, describes various related sources, and presents it about the management of pandemic covid 19 strategies. Since the covid 19 outbreak in Indonesia, various strategies have been carried out by the Indonesian government to protect its citizens from the pandemic covid 19 outbreak. Victims of covid 19, in Indonesia, have exceeded the threshold set by who (World Health Organisation) (Raoult 2021) is a common concern, the government is carrying out various strategies in addressing the pandemic covid 19. The purpose of this research is to let the public know the steps taken by the government and jointly responsible for overcoming the pandemic covid 19, because only with good cooperation can the Ovid 19 pandemic be overcome.
Zahraa Berro
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 22, pp 619-629; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v22i1.4229

Abstract:
Governments nowadays are being more attentive to the importance of gaining citizens' satisfaction and trust, knowing that their trust would maintain political stability, allowing them to have more control and function easily and more effectively. One of the influencers of citizens' satisfaction is the public sector services and the performance of the employees in this sector. This research studies the micro performance theory by studying the relation between the performance of the ministry of education and higher education in Lebanon and citizen satisfaction. To study this relation a survey was conducted to study the level of citizen satisfaction toward the ministry's performance. The survey also assessed the performance of the Ministry of Education and Higher Education employees from the citizens' perspective. Our research also compared the public and private university graduates' satisfaction towards the ministry's performance since the survey was distributed online to graduated students among the Lebanese public university and graduates from different Lebanese private universities. The result of the survey along with existing data was analyzed to study the impact of the ministry's performance towards citizen satisfaction leading to a conclusion regarding the effect on the level of citizen's trust towards government institutes.
Anggraini Putri, Chairul Murimann, Ezra Aminanto
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 22, pp 725-740; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v22i1.4112

Abstract:
Indonesia is one of the Police Contributing Countries (PCC) in the United Nations Peacekeeping Operations. Since 1989, Indonesia has deployed their police officers into various peacekeeping missions, either individually or in the units called Formed Police Units (FPU). In deploying the FPU, Indonesia as the PCC is not only responsible for preparing the personnel, but also equipping the FPU in logistics and infrastructure, which includes appropriate camps in the mission area. These camps have an important role as the operational and administrative base of the FPU, personnels accommodation, assets storage facility, and notably as the symbol of Indonesia’s commitment to its contribution to world peace. Garuda Camp Indonesian FPU in MINUSCA, Central African Republic, was built in 2018 by the International Relations Division of The National Police with total assets more than 500 billion rupiahs. During the 2 years of placing the Indonesian FPU in MINUSCA, several security threats have occurred in this camp, such as theft and burglary. In this case, the camp security is an important element to ensure the Unit's success in performing its mission mandate. Therefore, the author sees the need for an evaluation using the perception of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) to increase the level of security at Garuda Camp. This is based on CPTED which has a basic idea that proper and effective design in the use of the built environment can lead to a reduction in crime and fear of crime, as well as an improvement in the quality of life in an environment. The author explores threats and use qualitative methods to identify the compliance of physical security requirements in the camp. The result of the study shows that Garuda Camp is included in the medium level threat category. Thus, a threat prevention strategy is needed.
Skender Gojani
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 22, pp 327-333; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v22i1.4214

Abstract:
Mortgage is a real means of securing the contract, the contracting parties, in many cases agree to finalize their agreement on a certain item by concluding a written contact, but in some cases the contracting parties can also be ensured in various ways to adhere to the rights and obligations arising from their contract. The creditor on the one hand as the pledgee and the debtor on the other hand as the pledgor are those who enter into a contract by which they create their rights and obligations arising from the contract which must be drafted in support of the provisions of the Law on Obligational Relationships. At the time of entering into the contract they can also enter into a mortgage contract as a real means of securing the contract, where the creditor is assured that if the debtor does not meet the main contractual requirement, then by mortgage as a real means of securing the contract he will realize the main requirement of the contract, i.e. through the mortgage as a real means of securing the contract the pledgee creditor manages to fulfill the main requirement of the contract which the debtor has not been able to meet by the pledgor.
Hemaidia Mohamed, Abdelhadi Amina
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 22, pp 790-803; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v22i1.4282

Abstract:
This study aims to investigate consonant and vowel changes in the Brummie accent as compared with the ones in the standard variety of English through a comparative descriptive study. The investigation is based on an audio recording conversation and an extract of a TV show film; in addition to a questionnaire administered to 40 second year students of Master degree of linguistics from the English section of Ibn Khaldoun University, after they have been exposed to both the audio recording and the film extract. This is to gather information about their attitudes towards the aforementioned changes’ effects. Thefindings of the current study reveal the existence of great alterations in the articulation of vowel and consonant sounds in Brummie accent, which may differ from the norms that govern the standard variety of English. The outcomes of the audio recording and video extract as well as the gathered data from students’ questionnaire point out negative effects on learners’ clear perception of Brummie accent, which will undoubtedly lead to their fear of confronting serious communication problems when talking with UK citizens.
Rodica Enache, Mihaela Luminița Sandu, Constаntinа Alinа Miloș (Ilie), Maria Știrbețiu (Stancu)
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 22, pp 376-384; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v22i1.4256

Abstract:
In this research we describe the quality of life in Romania during the Covid-19 pandemic, factors that impact the Romanian employees’ quality of life. The objective of this paper was to conduct a study on the quality of life of employees in public and private organizations in Romania and how it influenced their motivation and self-esteem during the Covid Pandemic 19.
Rodica Enache, Mihaela Luminița Sandu, Constаntinа Alinа Miloș (Ilie), Maria Știrbețiu (Stancu)
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 22, pp 397-408; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v22i1.4258

Abstract:
The paper entitled The self-esteem and work motivation of romanian employees in the Covid-19 pandemic started from the interest in the field of work psychology and human resources management, seeking to find out the correlational aspects between work motivation and self-esteem amongst public and private employees in Romania. The purpose of the paper was to establish a diagnosis and suggest strategies to improve the existing situation by implementing programs dedicated to motivational stimulation and assessing their impact in other addressed fields
Jenyliza T. Ucang, Auxencia A. Limjap
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 22, pp 269-281; https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v22i1.4040

Abstract:
Numerous quantitative research studies from abroad and in the Philippines had been investigating the attributes of the mathematics teachers in the 21st - Century. A study using grounded theory was designed to find out the attributes of 21st -century mathematics teachers in Bukidnon. Thirteen participants were interviewed over a period of four months. Interviews were analyzed using Pandit’s grounded theory methodology and the constant comparison method. Three main categories and thirty-nine subcategories have been identified and explained that encompasses an emerging substantive theory of “Understanding the Emergent Attributes of 21st -Century Mathematics Teachers in Bukidnon” which are as follows: 1) Knowledge (community, curriculum, educational foundation and policies, environmental awareness, global awareness, pedagogy, students, subject content, self); 2) Skills (administrative and management skills, communication skills, facilitative skills, pedagogical skills, people management skills, reflective skills and thinking disposition, social and emotional intelligence and technological skills; and 3) Values (accurate, adaptive and resilient, aim for high standards, belief that all children can learn, collaborative learning and practice, commitment to nurturing the potential in each child, creative, empathy, enquiring nature, ethical, objective, passion, prayerful, perseverance, productive, professionalism, resourceful, social responsibility and engagement, stewardship, strive to improve, value parental involvement and valuing diversity). Further, the study revealed that the value of a person influences the teacher on what he will teach and directs the teacher on how he will teach the subject content.
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