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Results in Journal Journal of Learning Theory and Methodology: 36

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Mykhailo Kharkovshchenko
Published: 28 February 2022
Journal of Learning Theory and Methodology, Volume 3, pp 5-10; https://doi.org/10.17309/jltm.2022.1.01

Abstract:
The purpose of the study was to determine the peculiarities of programmed teaching of the cartwheel to girls aged 14. Material and methods. The study participants were 20 girls aged 14. The children and their parents were fully informed about all the features of the study and gave their consent to participate in the experiment. To solve the tasks set, the following research methods were used: study and analysis of scientific and methodological literature; pedagogical observation, timing of training tasks; pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics, factor analysis, nearest neighbor analysis. Results. The analysis of the effectiveness of the program of teaching girls aged 14 the cartwheel, using different repetition modes (1 – mode of 6 sets 1 time each with a rest interval of 60 s; 2 – mode of 6 sets 2 times each with a rest interval of 60 s) showed that the girls of the first group need fewer repetitions to master the cartwheel than the girls of the second group (p < 0.05). Thus, repetition modes have statistically significantly different effects on the cartwheel motor skill development in girls aged 14. The analysis of similarities revealed that the program components are interrelated. Conclusions. Factor analysis showed that teaching programs organized by the method of algorithmic instructions are combined in nature. The analysis of similarities revealed that the program components are interrelated. Series of training tasks 2, 3, and 5 are most correlated with one another and provide conditions for teaching girls aged 14 the cartwheel. Optimization of the number of repetitions of the exercise depends on the speed of mastering the exercises of the third and fourth series of training tasks.
Published: 28 February 2022
Journal of Learning Theory and Methodology, Volume 3, pp 41-45; https://doi.org/10.17309/jltm.2022.1.06

Abstract:
The purpose of the study was to determine the age-related peculiarities of the functional state of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems of 1st-5th year female students of a higher education institution. Materials and methods. The study participants were 200 female students: 1st year (n = 44); 2nd year (n = 38); 3rd year (n = 42); 4th year (n = 44); 5th year (n = 32). To solve the tasks set, the following research methods were used: analysis of scientific-methodological and medical literature, pedagogical observation, index method, medical and biological methods, ascertaining experiment, and methods of mathematical statistics. Results. The study found that at the age of 19 there is a significant deterioration in the results of breathhold in the Stange test (49 s) and the Genchi test (38 s) (P < 0.05). At the age of 21, there is a decrease in the Ruffier index (12.4 – “satisfactory”) and the average heart rate after exercise (f1 = 34.7), while there is a decrease in heart rate (f2 = 25.8) after a standard recovery pause (P < 0.05). This indicates that during this period, there occur the most successful compensatory processes of cardiovascular activity. At 21-22 (4th-5th years of study), there is an increase in heart rate before exercise (f0), and the Stange test result improves. Conclusions. The results of comparative analysis show that with age the number of female students with a “satisfactory” result of the Ruffier index increases (59.4%), and a “good” heart result decreases (15.6%). At the age of 21, women have better heart rate, and at 22, they have better results in breath-holding under hypoxia.
Published: 28 February 2022
Journal of Learning Theory and Methodology, Volume 3, pp 25-33; https://doi.org/10.17309/jltm.2022.1.04

Abstract:
Online learning is a substitute for learning in the classroom during a global pandemic. The problem that arises is that academic dishonesty behavior increases when online learning takes place. We assess how academic dishonesty occurs during online learning. Purpose. We examine how academic dishonesty occurs during online learning. We review unethical behavior based on growth mindset and Grit as mediator variables. Materials and methods. The questionnaire was filled out by 266 students (196 female; 70 male) from universities in Indonesia. Data collection uses three scales, namely the academic dishonesty scale (α = 0.862), the growth mindset scale (α = 0.826), and the grit scale (α = 0.760). The path analysis using the multiple linear regression techniques was utilized to analyze the data in this study. Results. This study demonstrates a negative correlation between growth mindset and academic dishonesty, indicating that the more growth mindset, the less academic dishonesty. Additionally, there is a considerable negative correlation between Grit and academic dishonesty, such that the greater a person’s Grit, the less academic dishonesty there is. Additionally, a positive correlation exists between the growth mindset and Grit. The greater one’s growth attitude, the greater one’s Grit. The primary finding is that Grit mediates the growth mindset’s attitude toward academic dishonesty, implying that the growth mindset affects academic dishonesty by Grit. Conclusions. The conclusion is that the growth mindset acts as a buffer against academic dishonesty. However, Grit’s position is ideal for mediating the association between growth mindset and academic dishonesty. Thus, a growth mindset can boost students’ Grit, which can help prevent academic dishonesty. We reviewed recommendations for decreasing unethical behavior in online education and its consequences for higher education.
Published: 28 February 2022
Journal of Learning Theory and Methodology, Volume 3, pp 11-17; https://doi.org/10.17309/jltm.2022.1.02

Abstract:
Purpose. To determine the impact of exercise modes on the effectiveness of teaching boys aged 14 the press headstand and handstand. Materials and methods. The study participants were 20 boys aged 14. The children and their parents were fully informed about all the features of the study and gave their consent to participate in the experiment. To solve the tasks set, the following research methods were used: study and analysis of scientific and methodological literature; pedagogical observation, timing of training tasks; pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics, discriminant analysis. Results. The assumption was made about a significant influence of the modes of alternating exercise repetitions and the rest interval on the effectiveness of teaching boys aged 14 the press headstand and handstand. The study found that the mode of 6 sets 1 time each with a rest interval of 60 s is more effective than the mode of 6 sets 2 times each with a rest interval of 60 s when teaching series of training tasks 2, 4, 5, and 6. Conclusions. The analysis of standardized, structure coefficients, and group centroids revealed that exercise modes significantly influence the process of teaching boys aged 14 the press headstand and handstand during physical education classes. The results of classification of the groups show that 100 % of the original grouped cases were classified correctly
Eduard Doroshenko, Oleksandr Solovei, Mykhaylo Melnyk
Published: 28 February 2022
Journal of Learning Theory and Methodology, Volume 3, pp 34-40; https://doi.org/10.17309/jltm.2022.1.05

Abstract:
Purpose. To scientifically substantiate the method of teaching game techniques at the stage of initial training to increase the level of technical fitness of young volleyball players. Materials and methods. The experimental research involved 36 young volleyball players born in 2011 – 18 athletes from the CI “Zaporizhzhia Regional Children and Youth Sports School” of the Zaporizhzhia Regional Council (main group) and 18 athletes from the CI “Vilniansk City Children and Youth Sports School ‘Kolos’” (comparison group) during the 2020-2021 academic year. Results. In the course of experimental research, the indicators of physical fitness of young volleyball players of the main group significantly increased in 80% of tests. The analysis of technical fitness indicators of young volleyball players of the main group shows that the introduction of the author’s method affects their positive dynamics in the tests: consecutive wall passes from a 3 m distance in 30 s; consecutive overhead passes in 30 s; consecutive forearm passes in 30 s; tennis ball toss over the net to the front line; tennis ball toss over the net to the back line (statistically significant differences, if p < 0.05). Conclusions. The author’s method of teaching game techniques in volleyball is effective and contains the algorithm of teaching, the levels of mastering game techniques, the stages of teaching game techniques, the sequence of teaching game techniques, the classification, occurrence and prevention of young volleyball players’ errors in the process of teaching game techniques, differentiation of exercises.
Published: 28 February 2022
Journal of Learning Theory and Methodology, Volume 3, pp 18-24; https://doi.org/10.17309/jltm.2022.1.03

Abstract:
Purpose. To determine the impact of exercise modes on the effectiveness of teaching boys aged 15 the press headstand and handstand. Materials and methods. The study participants were 20 boys aged 15. The children and their parents were fully informed about all the features of the study and gave their consent to participate in the experiment. To solve the tasks set, the following research methods were used: study and analysis of scientific and methodological literature; pedagogical observation, timing of training tasks; pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics, discriminant analysis. Results. The assumption was made about a significant influence of the modes of alternating exercise repetitions and the rest interval on the effectiveness of teaching boys aged 15 the press headstand and handstand. The study found that statistically significant differences in the number of repetitions are observed in performing all training tasks. The boys aged 15 who use the second mode (6 sets 2 times each with a rest interval of 60 s) need fewer repetitions to master series of motor tasks 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6. The boys aged 15 who use the first mode (6 sets 1 time each with a rest interval of 60 s) need fewer repetitions to master the second series of training tasks (exercises to master starting and ending positions). Conclusions. The analysis of standardized, structure coefficients, and group centroids revealed that exercise modes significantly influence the process of teaching boys aged 15 the press headstand and handstand during physical education classes. The results of classification of the groups show that 100 % of the original grouped cases were classified correctly. The study found that the mode of 6 sets 2 times each with a rest interval of 60 s is more effective than the mode of 6 sets 1time with a rest interval of 60 s when teaching series of motor tasks 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6.
Владислав Дрюков, Svitlana Marchenko
Journal of Learning Theory and Methodology, Volume 2, pp 119-127; https://doi.org/10.17309/jltm.2021.3.03

Abstract:
The purpose of the study was to determine the factor model of morphofunctional and motor fitness of 9-year-old girls at the stage of initial selection for the Kyokushin Karate sports section. Materials and methods. The study involved 34 girls 9 years old. The children and their parents were informed about all the features of the study and agreed to participate in the experiment. To solve the tasks were used research methods: theoretical analysis and generalization of scientific and methodological literature; pedagogical testing; methods of mathematical and statistical data processing. Results. The most informative for a comprehensive assessment of the prospects of children during the selection for training in the sports section of karate are the results of tests: from a sitting position (0,848). Tests that characterize anthropometric indicators were quite informative: “Chest circumference” (0.746), “Body weight” (0.807), “Body length” (0.739) and morphofunctional indicators “Vital capacity of the lungs” (0.747), “Dynamometry of the right hand” (0,804), “Dynamometry of the left hand” (0,754). Conclusions. Factor analysis made it possible to identify the factors with the highest contribution to the total variance of indicators. Based on the results of factor analysis, the optimal selection program is constructed, the priority place in which is occupied by anthropometric, morphofunctional indicators and processes of development of motor abilities.
Journal of Learning Theory and Methodology, Volume 2, pp 128-133; https://doi.org/10.17309/jltm.2021.3.04

Abstract:
The purpose of the study was to determine the peculiarities of programmed teaching of a cartwheel to boys aged 14. Material and methods. The study participants were 20 boys aged 14. The children and their parents were fully informed about all the features of the study and gave their consent to participate in the experiment. To solve the tasks set, the following research methods were used: study and analysis of scientific and methodological literature; pedagogical observation, timing of training tasks; pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics, factor analysis. Results. The analysis of similarities revealed that the program components are interrelated. Series of training tasks I, II and IV are combined into one group and provide conditions for teaching boys aged 14 a cartwheel. Conclusions. As a result of factor analysis, the study obtained a two-factor model of the teaching program where training tasks are closely connected with one another, which indicates their effective selection. Factor models of the teaching program explain 69.371% and 75.394% of the variation of results. The study found that the effectiveness of the program depends on the modes of exercise repetition. The use of the mode of exercise repetition of 6 sets 2 times each with a rest interval of 60 s increases the effectiveness of the proposed program (p <0.05).
Inna Kalistratova,
Journal of Learning Theory and Methodology, Volume 2, pp 140-145; https://doi.org/10.17309/jltm.2021.3.06

Abstract:
Purpose. To determine the impact of exercise modes on the effectiveness of teaching girls aged 14 the cartwheel. Materials and methods. The study participants were 20 girls aged 14. The children and their parents were fully informed about all the features of the study and gave their consent to participate in the experiment. To solve the tasks set, the following research methods were used: study and analysis of scientific and methodological literature; pedagogical observation, timing of training tasks; pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics, discriminant analysis. Results. The study found that statistically significant differences in the number of repetitions were observed in performing all series of training tasks, except the third one (p < 0.05). The girls aged 14 who used the first mode (6 sets 1 time each with a rest interval of 60 s) needed fewer repetitions to master the movements of the first, second, fourth, fifth, and sixth series of tasks (p < 0.05). The girls aged 14 who used the second mode (6 sets 2 times each with a rest interval of 60 s) needed fewer repetitions to master the movements of the third series of tasks (p < 0.05). Conclusions. Discriminant analysis made it possible to determine the impact of the number of repetitions on the effectiveness of developing the cartwheel skill in girls aged 14. Based on the analysis of group centroids, it was found that exercise modes significantly influence the cartwheel skill development in girls aged 14 during physical education classes. The results of classification of the groups show that 100.0 % of the original grouped cases were classified correctly.
Journal of Learning Theory and Methodology, Volume 2, pp 134-139; https://doi.org/10.17309/jltm.2021.3.05

Abstract:
The purpose of the study was to determine the impact of exercise modes on the effectiveness of teaching girls aged 15 a cartwheel. Materials and methods. The study participants were 20 girls aged 15. The children and their parents were fully informed about all the features of the study and gave their consent to participate in the experiment. To solve the tasks set, the following research methods were used: study and analysis of scientific and methodological literature; pedagogical observation, timing of training tasks; pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics, discriminant analysis. Results. The analysis of averages shows that statistically significant differences in the number of repetitions are observed in performing series of training tasks 1, 2, and 4 (p < 0.05). The girls aged 15 who use the first mode (6 sets 1 time each with a rest interval of 60 s) need fewer repetitions to master the movements of the first (exercises to develop motor abilities) and the second (exercises to master starting and ending positions) series of tasks. The girls who use the second mode (6 sets 2 times each with a rest interval of 60 s) need fewer repetitions to master the movements of the fourth series of tasks (ability to assess movements in space, by time and muscular effort) (p < 0.05). Conclusions. Discriminant analysis made it possible to determine the impact of the number of repetitions on the effectiveness of developing the cartwheel skill in girls aged 15. During motor skills development, both the first and the second variants of exercise modes and rest intervals can be used. For series of tasks 1 and 2, it is advisable to use 6 sets 1 time each with a rest interval of 60 s; for series of tasks 3, 5, and 6 – 6 sets 1 time each with a rest interval of 60 s or 6 sets 2 times each with a rest interval of 60 s; for series 4 – 6 sets 2 times each with a rest interval of 60 s.
Journal of Learning Theory and Methodology, Volume 2, pp 105-110; https://doi.org/10.17309/jltm.2021.3.01

Abstract:
The purpose of the study was to determine the impact of the number of repetitions on the effectiveness of teaching boys aged 15 a cartwheel. Materials and methods. The study participants were 20 boys aged 15. The children and their parents were fully informed about all the features of the study and gave their consent to participate in the experiment. To solve the tasks set, the following research methods were used: study and analysis of scientific and methodological literature; pedagogical observation, timing of trainingtasks; pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics, discriminant analysis. Results. The assumption was made about a significant influence of the modes of alternating exercise repetitions and the rest interval on the effectiveness of motor skills development in boys aged 15. The study found that 6 sets 1 time each with a rest interval of 60 s are more effective than 6 sets 2 times each with a rest interval of 60 s when teaching the ability to assess movement performance by time (p < 0.001). And with the first exercise mode, fewer repetitions are needed to master the entire cartwheel. This is due to the fact that differentiation of time characteristics requires immediate information about the movement performance after each repetition. Conclusions. Based on the analysis of group centroids, it was found that 6 repetitions of the exercise (6 sets 1 time each with a rest interval of 60 s) significantly influence the cartwheel skill development in boys aged 15 during physical education classes. The results of group classification show that 95.0% of the original grouped observations were classified correctly.
, Svitlana Marchenko
Journal of Learning Theory and Methodology, Volume 2, pp 111-118; https://doi.org/10.17309/jltm.2021.3.02

Abstract:
Мета дослідження – експериментально встановити оптимальні умови навантаження для побудови серії навчальних завдань спрямованих на засвоєння вправи «Удар ногою в сторону «йоко гері кекомі» на середньому рівні «чудан». Матеріали і методи. У дослідженні взяли участь 32 хлопці 10 років. Діти та їхні батьки були інформовані про всі особливості дослідження і дали згоду на участь в експерименті. Для вирішення поставлених завдань були використані методи дослідження: вивчення та аналіз науково-методичної літератури, педагогічне спостереження, хронометраж навчальних завдань, педагогічний експеримент, методи математичної статистики, методи математичного планування експерименту. У процесі навчання використовувався метод алгоритмічних розпоряджень. Результати. Перевірка однорідності дисперсій за допомогою критерію Кохрена показала, що у всіх чотирьох вибірках розбіжність між дисперсіями вважається випадковою для обраного рівня значимості 0,05. В усіх серіях виконується умова Gр
Published: 28 February 2021
Journal of Learning Theory and Methodology, Volume 2, pp 41-46; https://doi.org/10.17309/jltm.2021.1.06

Abstract:
The purpose of the study was to determine the impact of exercise modes on the effectiveness of teaching boys aged 14 a cartwheel. Materials and methods. The study participants were 20 boys aged 14. The children and their parents were fully informed about all the features of the study and gave their consent to participate in the experiment. To solve the tasks set, the following research methods were used: study and analysis of scientific and methodological literature; pedagogical observation, timing of training tasks; pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics, discriminant analysis. Results. The assumption was made about a significant influence of the modes of alternating exercise repetitions and the rest interval on the effectiveness of motor skills development in boys aged 14. The study found that the mode of 6 sets 2 times each with a rest interval of 60 s is more effective than the mode of 6 sets 1 time each with a rest interval of 60 s when teaching the first, second, and fourth series of tasks (p < 0.05). The mode of 6 sets 1 time each with a rest interval of 60 s is more effective when teaching the fifth and sixth series of tasks (p < 0.05). Conclusions. Discriminant analysis made it possible to determine the impact of the number of repetitions on the effectiveness of developing the cartwheel skill in boys aged 14. Based on the analysis of group centroids, it was found that exercise modes significantly influence the cartwheel skill development in boys aged 14 during physical education classes. The results of group classification show that 100 % of the original grouped observations were classified correctly.
Софія Мухіна, Svitlana Marchenko
Published: 28 February 2021
Journal of Learning Theory and Methodology, Volume 2, pp 33-40; https://doi.org/10.17309/jltm.2021.1.05

Abstract:
Мета дослідження – визначити факторну модель морфофункціональної та рухової підготовленості хлопців 8 років на етапі початкового відбору до спортивної секції кіокушинкай карате. Матеріали і методи. У дослідженні взяли участь 32 хлопці 8 років. Діти та їхні батьки були інформовані про всі особливості дослідження і дали згоду на участь в експерименті. Для вирішення поставлених завдань були використані методи дослідження: теоретичного аналізу і узагальнення даних науково-методичної літератури; педагогічного спостереження; хронометражу навчальних завдань; педагогічного тестування; методи математико-статистичної обробки даних. Результати. Отримана факторна модель комплексної оцінки перспективності хлопців 8 років у процесі відбору на початковому етапі спортивної підготовки. У результаті аналізу кореляційної залежності між тестовими завданнями встановлено їх високу інформативність. Пріоритетне місце у факторній структурі займають антропометричні показники та процеси розвитку швидкісних, швидкісно-силових та координаційних здібностей. Висновки. Найбільшу інформативність для комплексної оцінки перспективності дітей під час відбору для занять у спортивній секції карате мають результати тестів: «Біг 30 метрів з високого старту» (,889), «Стрибок у довжину з місця» (,748), «Окружність грудей» (,839), «Маса тіла» (,801), «Стійка на одній нозі з закритими очима» (,834), «Ходьба по прямій лінії після 5 обертів» (,855).
, Svitlana Marchenko
Journal of Learning Theory and Methodology, Volume 2, pp 91-97; https://doi.org/10.17309/jltm.2021.2.06

Abstract:
Мета дослідження – обґрунтувати вплив різних варіантів виконання вправ, а саме: кількості підходів (Х1) та інтервалів відпочинку (Х2) на засвоєння техніки виконання удару ногою назад з розворотом «уширо гері» хлопців 10 років. Матеріали і методи. У дослідженні взяли участь 32 хлопці 10 років. Діти та їхні батьки були інформовані про всі особливості дослідження і дали згоду на участь в експерименті. Для вирішення поставлених завдань були використані методи дослідження: вивчення та аналіз науково-методичної літератури, педагогічне спостереження, хронометраж навчальних завдань, педагогічний експеримент, методи математичної статистики, методи математичного планування експерименту. У процесі навчання використовувався метод алгоритмічних розпоряджень. Результати. Пояснюючі змінні (Х1, Х2) відіграють свою певну роль у зміні показника навченості вправі «Удар ногою назад з розворотом «уширо гері» (Y) протягом усього експерименту. Перевірка на адекватність за критерієм Фішера показала що розраховані коефіцієнти регресії статистично значимі (Fр
Микола Зимогляд, Svitlana Marchenko
Journal of Learning Theory and Methodology, Volume 2, pp 82-90; https://doi.org/10.17309/jltm.2021.2.05

Abstract:
Мета дослідження – визначити особливості прояву гендерних відмінностей у швидкісній підготовленості школярів молодших класів, які займаються в секції карате на спортивно-оздоровчому етапі. Матеріали і методи. У дослідженні прийняли участь дівчатка 7 років (n=10), 8 років (n=10), 9 років (n=15), 10 років (n=15); хлопчики 7 років (n=10), 8 років (n=10), 9 років (n=15), 10 років (n=15). Діти та їхні батьки були інформовані про всі особливості дослідження і дали згоду на участь в експерименті. Для вирішення поставлених завдань були використані методи дослідження: аналіз науково-методичної літератури, педагогічне тестування та методи математичної статистики обробки результатів дослідження. Результати. За результатами тестування спостерігаються статистично достовірні гендерні розбіжності за показниками тестів: біг 30м з високого старту – 9 (p=0,001), 10 (p=0,013) років; стрибок у довжину з місця – 7 (p=0,005), 8 (p=0,004), 9 (p=0,001), 10 (p=0,015) років; човниковий біг 4х9 – 8 (p=0,009), 9 (p=0,006), 10 (p=0,011) років; стрибки зі скакалкою – 10 (p=0,049) років; індексу швидкості – 9 (p=0,001) років; індекс швидкісної сили – 7 (p=0,001), 9 (p=0,0001), 10 (p=0,03) років. Висновки. Встановлено, що відмінності існують, але в кожній віковій групі вони різні. В 7 років діти мало відрізняються за гендерними ознаками, але з віком збільшується кількість структурних елементів швидкісної підготовленості за якими показники дівчат і хлопців статистично різні.
Svitlana Marchenko, Ярослав Вердиш
Published: 28 February 2021
Journal of Learning Theory and Methodology, Volume 2, pp 21-28; https://doi.org/10.17309/jltm.2021.1.03

Abstract:
Мета дослідження – розробка програми тестування координаційної підготовленості школярів на початковому етапі тренування з використанням інформативних тестів, які доступні для застосування в умовах загальноосвітньої школи. Матеріали і методи. У дослідженні взяли участь 20 хлопців 8 років. Діти та їхні батьки були інформовані про всі особливості дослідження і дали згоду на участь в експерименті. Для вирішення поставлених завдань були застосовані такі методи дослідження: аналіз науково-методичної літератури, педагогічне тестування та методи математичної статистики обробки результатів дослідження. Результати. Запропонована батарея тестів усебічно характеризує розвиток координації хлопчиків 8 років. У результаті аналізу кореляційної залежності між тестовими завданнями встановлено їх високу валідність (rxy = 0,575-0,931 при p < 0,01). Обрані нами тести мають добру та відмінну ретестову надійність (rtt = 0,92-0,989). Комбінований тест, який включає в себе як загальні рухові дії, так і елементи карате, має високий ступінь достовірності вимірювання та може замінювати цілу батарею тестів (rtt = 0,979). Висновки. Отримані дані дають підставу стверджувати, що обране комплексне тестування рівня розвитку проявів координаційних здібностей хлопчиків 8 років під час занять карате є доступним, інформативним та надійним, що дає можливість їх рекомендувати для подальшого дослідження в процесі вдосконалення рухової координації.
Journal of Learning Theory and Methodology, Volume 2, pp 60-67; https://doi.org/10.17309/jltm.2021.2.02

Abstract:
Since the implementation of online learning in various countries in the world, all educational institutions have made new learning adjustments. Universities are educational institutions that have also changed the online learning system. but online learning has an impact on academic ethical behavior. Purpose. the aims of this study is to determine the behavior of academic dishonesty when online learning is applied, besides that it also examines the strategies of nursing students majoring in academic dishonesty. Materials and methods. 150 college students participated in filling out an online academic dishonesty questionnaire and we randomly selected 5 nursing students to participate in a focus group discussion to discuss their dishonest behavior during online learning. Results. Our research shows that academic dishonesty behavior in the form of collaboration is common in online learning. In the process, student learning has strategies for committing academic fraud in various ways, including by downloading a friend’s answer file in the online system by logging in using a standard username and password that is not changed by students. In addition, the student chose to behave dishonestly by imitating his friend’s work by simply changing the name rather than trying to answer the question. and take advantage of the whatsapp group application to collaborate in cheating. Conclusions. Collaboration in academic dishonesty predominates: one way is by collaborating in online groups to cooperate with each other illegally. We describe several other forms in detail and discuss them.
Svitlana Marchenko,
Journal of Learning Theory and Methodology, Volume 2, pp 68-74; https://doi.org/10.17309/jltm.2021.2.03

Abstract:
The objective of the study was to examine the level of strength fitness indicators of 10-year-old girls and experimentally test the effectiveness of the impact of play techniques with elements of martial arts on the dynamics of strength development. Materials and methods. The study participants were 20 10-year-old girls who do Kyokushin Karate. The children and their parents were informed about all the features of the study and gave their consent to participate in the experiment. The following research methods were used to achieve the objective set: analysis of scientific and methodological literature, pedagogical testing, and methods of mathematical statistics for processing research results. Results. There were the biggest changes in the results of the tests “Lying pull-ups” by 51.1% (p < 0.05), “Push-ups” by 34.1% (p <0.05), and “Bent arm hang” by 26.5% (p < 0.05). Somewhat smaller changes were observed in the tests “Right hand grip test” by 10.8% (p < 0.05), “Left hand grip test” by 10.5% (p <0.05), and “Sit-ups in 1 min” by 13.3% (p < 0.05). The lowest increase in the results was observed in the test “Triple jump on the right and left leg” by 6.6% (p < 0.05). Conclusions. The level of the girls’ strength fitness at the initial stage of the pedagogical experiment conforms to age norms. Most of them are at the average – 40% and above average – 23.6% levels. The remainder of indicators was distributed between the high – 13.6%, below average – 14.3%, and low – 8.6% levels. A comprehensive control of the 10-year-old girls’ strength fitness after the formative experiment showed statistically significant changes in almost all indicators in the experimental group, which used play techniques with elements of martial arts in the following load mode: 5 games, 2 repetitions with rest intervals of 40 s (p < 0.001).
, , Denys Chupikhin
Journal of Learning Theory and Methodology, Volume 2, pp 75-81; https://doi.org/10.17309/jltm.2021.2.04

Abstract:
The aim of the study was to determine the impact of the number of repetitions on the effectiveness of teaching boys aged 7 throwing a small ball. Materials and methods. The study participants were 27 boys aged 7, who were randomly divided into three groups of 9 people each. The children and their parents were informed about all the features of the study and gave their consent to participate in the experiment. The study examined the impact of the number of repetitions on the effectiveness of teaching boys aged 7 throwing a small ball at a target. A pedagogical experiment studied the impact of 6, 12, and 18 repetitions with a 60-second rest interval on the increase in the level of proficiency in exercises of boys aged 7. In the first group, the boys repeated the task 6 times with a rest interval of 60 s, in the second group – 12 times with a rest interval of 60 s, in the third group 18 times with a rest interval of 60 s. When teaching throwing exercises during the class, the study assessed the level of proficiency by the alternative method (“performed”, “failed”) and calculated the probability of exercise performance (p = n/m, where n is the number of successful attempts, m is the total number of attempts). In teaching boys aged 7, the method of algorithmic instructions was used. The next exercise started after three successful attempts. Throwing a ball at a vertical target was taught. The study materials were processed by the IBM SPSS 20 statistical analysis software. During discriminant analysis, a prognostic model for group membership was created. Results. Discriminant analysis made it possible to determine the impact of the number of repetitions on the effectiveness of developing the skills of throwing a small ball at a target; to answer the question as to how significantly the modes of repetition differ by the effectiveness of motor skills development, to which class the object belongs based on the values of discriminant variables. Conclusions. Based on the analysis of group centroids, it was found that 12 repetitions of the exercise (6 sets 2 time each with a rest interval of 60 s) significantly influence the increase in the level of proficiency in physical education classes. The results of group classification show that 94.4% of the original grouped observations were classified correctly.
Journal of Learning Theory and Methodology, Volume 2, pp 53-59; https://doi.org/10.17309/jltm.2021.2.01

Abstract:
Purpose: identification of the effectiveness of physical education by means of remote technologies for the development of students’ value attitude to their own health in the conditions of quarantine restrictions. Materials and methods. The study involved 3,726 first-year students of the Lviv Polytechnic National University of all educational-and-scientific institutes. Research methods at theoretical and empirical levels were used to solve the tasks. At the theoretical level, general scientific methods were used (analysis, systematization, generalization). At the empirical level of the study, a questionnaire was used. Results. According to a one-year ascertaining experiment, 30% of students consider improving and strengthening of their health as a medical problem that is limited to treatment only. Nevertheless, 70% of respondents believe that it is possible to positively affect their health in the following ways: prevention of diseases by means of physical education (21%), promoting a healthy lifestyle (21%), setting up for “healthy” behavior by means of physical education (24%). When asked whether distanced physical education classes contribute to the development of value attitudes towards their health, the vast majority of students (81% of respondents) claimed that in this way they received new information that they consider useful for maintaining and improving their health. Conclusions. According to the results of the study, it was established that physical education by means of distance technologies contributes to the development of students’ understanding of the need for physical culture, especially in the context of the introduction of quarantine restrictions in higher education institutions. According to the results obtained, the vast majority of students believe that physical education, by means of distance technologies is effective in developing a valued attitude to their own health.
Published: 28 February 2021
Journal of Learning Theory and Methodology, Volume 2, pp 29-32; https://doi.org/10.17309/jltm.2021.1.04

Abstract:
Мета дослідження – визначити вплив амплітуди руху на результати жиму лежачи у спортсменів, які займаються пауерліфтингом. Матеріали і методи. У дослідженні брали участь дві групи по 10 спортсменів, які займаються пауерліфтингом – юнаки віком 19-20 років. У роботі використано такі методи: спостереження, методи теоретичного аналізу та узагальнення, педагогічний експеримент, педагогічне тестування, методи математичної статистики. Дослідження тривали упродовж п’яти місяців (з 02.11.2019 по 28.03.2020) у ДЮСШ ХТЗ. Комплекси вправ були впровадженні в тренувальний процес спортсменів експериментальної групи. Результати. Результати свідчать про статистично достовірні зміни тренувальних ефектів комплексів вправ на гнучкість хребта у спортсменів експериментальної групи (р < 0,001). Спортсмени даної групи в середньому зменшили амплітуду руху штанги на 4,1 см, що дало їм змогу збільшити силові показники жиму лежачи. Висновки. Після виконання комплексів вправ на гнучкість амплітуда руху штанги у спортсменів експериментальної групи статистично достовірно зменшилася, що позитивно вплинуло на показники жиму лежачи.
, Андрій Демічковський
Published: 28 February 2021
Journal of Learning Theory and Methodology, Volume 2, pp 12-20; https://doi.org/10.17309/jltm.2021.1.02

Abstract:
Мета дослідження – встановити особливості техніко-тактичної підготовки кваліфікованих стрільців з пневматичної гвинтівки на етапі спеціалізованої базової підготовки. Матеріали та методи. Для вирішення поставлених завдань було використано наступні методи дослідження: аналіз та узагальнення науково-методичної літератури, педагогічні спостереження. Аналіз науково-методичної літератури дав змогу встановити, що кількість індивідуальних програм з підготовки стрільців з пневматичної гвинтівки не задовольняє сучасні потреби стрілецького спорту. Педагогічні спостереження використано для вивчення особливостей техніко-тактичного виконання змагальних вправ кваліфікованих спортсменів, а також їх рухових здібностей. Результати. Аналіз змагальної діяльності дозволив визначити, що фази виконання пострілу «прицілювання», «виконання пострілу – активний постріл», «налаштування на постріл» є інформативними показниками техніко-тактичних дій кваліфікованих спортсменів у стрільбі з пневматичної гвинтівки. Було проаналізовано ряд навчально-методичних документів: навчальна програма з підготовки стрільців з кульової стрільби для дитячо-юнацьких спортивних шкіл, спеціалізованих дитячо-юнацьких шкіл олімпійського резерву, шкіл вищої спортивної майстерності та навчальних закладів спортивного профілю; спеціалізована література з підготовки стрільців. У процесі аналізу визначено, що співвідношення наведених сторін підготовки не дає можливості проведення ефективного процесу підготовки спортсменів для досягнення високих спортивних результатів в межах діючих правил змагальної діяльності. Висновки. Детальний аналіз спеціалізованої навчально-методичної літератури для стрільців з пневматичної гвинтівки дозволив встановити, що в групах спеціалізованої базової підготовки спортсменів усі види підготовки виглядають наступним чином: теоретична підготовка зменшується з 3,44 % до 2,6 %, загальна фізична зменшується з 15,0 % до 13,2 %, спеціальна фізична підготовка зменшується з 17,21 % до 15 %, технічна підготовка зростає з 53,5 % до 54,7 %, участь у змаганнях збільшується з 9,05 % до11,7 %, інструкторська та суддівська практика зростає з 1,8 % до 2,8 %.
Journal of Learning Theory and Methodology, Volume 2, pp 5-11; https://doi.org/10.17309/jltm.2021.1.01

Abstract:
Purpose. To identify the state of teaching “Physical Education” by means of distance technologies at the university. Materials and methods. The study involved 3,726 first-year students of the Lviv Polytechnic National University of all educational-and-scientific institutes. The organization of the study was aimed at studying the opinion of students on various issues regarding the quality of distance education in physical education. At the empirical level of the study, a questionnaire was used. Results. The study analyzed the state of physical education at the university by means of distance learning. According to the results of the survey, it was found that the vast majority of surveyed students (81.3%) believe that physical education classes by means of distance learning are necessary in the conditions of introduction of quarantine safety measures. 51.6% of students noted that methodical skills gained during the classes significantly helped them in organizing independent physical training sessions during the suspension of educational activities in auditoriums. 71% support the possibility of physical education classes by means of distance technologies in order to counteract the forced restriction of motor activity. Conclusions. Ensuring the effectiveness of physical education of students in the position of quarantine measures requires new approaches and methods of interaction with students, adequate choice of goals and objectives, organizational forms, methods and means of physical education maintain the proper level of their motor activity and prevent social maladaptation. From the study, we can conclude that physical education by means of distance technologies is in a state of development, but not at such a rapid pace. Instead, on the basis of the study summarizes that the use of distance learning means in physical education of students ensures the formation of values of a healthy lifestyle and maintaining their health at the appropriate level.
Svitlana Marchenko,
Journal of Learning Theory and Methodology, Volume 1, pp 82-88; https://doi.org/10.17309/jltm.2020.2.06

Abstract:
The purpose of the study was to provide a qualitative assessment of coordination abilities development in 7-year-old boys based on the results of comprehensive control. Materials and methods. The study involved 30 7-year-old boys. The children and their parents were informed about all the features of the study and gave their consent to participate in the experiment. The following research methods were used to solve the tasks set: analysis of scientific and methodological literature, pedagogical testing, and methods of mathematical statistics for research results processing. Results. To assess the closeness of interrelation between the parameters, the Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated. The Spearman – Brown formula was used to determine the overall reliability (homogeneity) of the test. The study tried out tests that take into account the specific qualities necessary for karate. Their informativity and reliability were revealed. They can be recommended for control of various relatively independent types of coordination abilities of 7-year-old boys who do karate. Nine-point scales for assessing test results were developed. Conclusions. The tests we have tried out, which take into account the specific qualities necessary for karate, are logically and empirically informative and reliable. They can be included in the “Kyokushin Karate” programs for 7-year-old boys at the initial training stage.
Journal of Learning Theory and Methodology, Volume 1, pp 64-69; https://doi.org/10.17309/jltm.2020.2.03

Abstract:
The purpose of the study was to determine the priority of motor skills in the motor fitness structure of 8-year-old girls. Materials and methods. The study participants were 40 8-year-old girls. The children and their parents were informed about all the features of the study and gave their consent to participate in the experiment. The study used the following research methods: analysis of scientific and methodological literature, pedagogical observations, testing of motor fitness, probabilistic approach to assessing the learning process, methods of mathematical statistics. In the experiment, the study controlled the level of proficiency in the following exercises: “Shoulder stand”, “Bridge from supine position”, “One leg swing upward circle”. Results. The level of fitness of the 8-year-old girls is homogeneous by the development of “agility”, “movement coordination”, “speed strength”, and “endurance”; inhomogeneous – by the development of flexibility, arm strength, vestibular stability, and the level of proficiency. The most informative indicators that determine the level of the 8-year-old girls’ motor fitness are: No. 14 “One leg swing upward circle, level of proficiency” (r = 0.890); No. 7 “Mixed hang rope pull-ups, times” (r = 0.889); No. 13 “Bridge from supine position, level of proficiency” (r = 0.842). Conclusions. Based on factor analysis, it was found that the level of proficiency in exercises influences the variation of testing results, and the development of motor skills is a priority in the educational process at primary school. The level of proficiency in the exercises “Shoulder stand” and “One leg swing upward circle” shows that the exercises are difficult for 8-year-old girls to perform. Based on the data analysis, it can be argued that the comprehensive development of motor abilities ensures the formation of motor skills, and the improvement of the level of development of 8-year-old girls’ arm flexors and vestibular stability will positively influence the educational process effectiveness.
Oksana Tsukanova
Journal of Learning Theory and Methodology, Volume 1, pp 70-74; https://doi.org/10.17309/jltm.2020.2.04

Abstract:
Study purpose. To determine the dynamics of 6th-grade schoolchildren’s motor fitness under quarantine conditions. Materials and methods. The study participants were 6th graders of the Pisochyn Lyceum, Pisochyn village, of a specialized class with in-depth study of mathematics, boys aged 11–12 (n = 13). The children and their parents were informed about all the features of the study and gave their consent to participate in the experiment. To analyse the schoolchildren’s physical fitness under quarantine conditions, the study used methods of theoretical analysis, systematization, comparison, pedagogical observations, and generalization of data of scientific and methodological literature. To organize the process of physical training of 6th-grade schoolchildren under quarantine conditions, the study used the Google Classroom educational platform with a notebook of physical self-education, posting of theoretical program material and monitoring of the pupils’ learning achievements through ZOOM conferences and test tasks. Results. According to a set of tests, there are statistically significant changes in testing results of the 6th-grade boys. Thus, in test No. 1 “Pull-ups”, the results deteriorated by 11.7% (p = 0.027), in test No. 3 “Sit-ups in 1 min” – by 3.7% (p = 0.046), in test No. 4 “Standing long jump” – by 1.5% (p = 0.001), in test No. 5 “30 m running” – by 5.5% (p = 0.001), in test No. 6 “1,000 m running” – by 7.6% (p = 0.001), in test No. 7 “Seated forward bend” – by 13.8% (p = 0.02). In test No. 2 “Push-ups”, the results deteriorated by 7.1%, the differences between mean values are statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). Conclusions. The analysis of testing results revealed a negative influence of self-isolation on the dynamics of motor fitness of the 6th-grade boys. Distance physical education is not effective, it can only be used as one of the methods of the educational process.
, , Oleksandr Khomiakov
Journal of Learning Theory and Methodology, Volume 1, pp 75-81; https://doi.org/10.17309/jltm.2020.2.05

Abstract:
The purpose of the study was to identify gender-related peculiarities of motor fitness of 8-year-old schoolchildren. Materials and methods. The study participants were 82 8-year-old schoolchildren (girls – 40, boys – 42). The children and their parents were informed about all the features of the study and gave their consent to participate in the experiment. The study used the following research methods: analysis of scientific and methodological literature, pedagogical observations, testing of motor fitness, probabilistic approach to assessing the learning process, methods of mathematical statistics. In the experiment, the study controlled the level of proficiency in the following exercises: shoulderstand, bridge from supine position, one leg swing upward circle. Results. In the girls and boys, the differences in the development level of movement coordination of individual parts of the body and vestibular stability are not statistically significant. The 8-year-old boys have a statistically significantly higher level of development of strength, speed strength, speed, endurance and a higher level of proficiency in acrobatic and gymnastic exercises than girls. Conclusions. A canonical discriminant function can be used to classify the gender-related peculiarities of motor fitness of 8-year-old schoolchildren. A discriminant analysis revealed the indicators that have the greatest weight in assessing the gender-related peculiarities of motor fitness of 8-year-old schoolchildren. They include the level of relative strength of shoulder flexors, speed strength, endurance, and the level of proficiency in shoulderstand.
Journal of Learning Theory and Methodology, Volume 1, pp 58-63; https://doi.org/10.17309/jltm.2020.2.02

Abstract:
The purpose of the study was to determine the place of motor skills in the motor fitness structure of 9-year-old boys. Materials and methods. The study participants were 48 9-year-old boys. The children and their parents were informed about all the features of the study and gave their consent to participate in the experiment. The study used the following research methods: analysis of scientific and methodological literature, pedagogical observations, testing of motor fitness, probabilistic approach to assessing the learning process, methods of mathematical statistics. In the experiment, the study controlled the level of proficiency in the following exercises: “Rope climbing in two steps”, “Rope climbing in three steps”, “One leg swing upward circle”. Results. The level of fitness of the 9-year-old boys is homogeneous by the development of “agility”, “movement coordination”, “speed strength”, and “endurance”; inhomogeneous – by the development of flexibility, arm strength, vestibular stability, and the level of proficiency in rope climbing. The most informative indicators that determine the level of 9-year-old boys’ motor fitness are: No. 12 “Rope climbing in two steps, level of proficiency” (r = 0.960); No. 13 “Rope climbing in three steps, level of proficiency” (r = 0.960); No. 14 “One leg swing upward circle, level of proficiency” (r = 0.875); No. 10 “Maintenance of stable posture – standing on one leg with closed eyes, s” (r = 0.683). Conclusions. Based on factor analysis, it was found that the level of proficiency in the exercises determines the variation of testing results by 24.287%, and the development of motor skills is a priority in the educational process at primary school. The level of proficiency in rope climbing shows that the exercises are difficult for 9-year-old boys to perform. Based on the data analysis, it can be argued that the comprehensive development of motor abilities ensures the formation of motor skills, and the improvement of the level of development of 9-year-old boys’ arm flexors will positively influence the educational process effectiveness.
, Vladyslav Golovnin,
Journal of Learning Theory and Methodology, Volume 1, pp 53-57; https://doi.org/10.17309/jltm.2020.2.01

Abstract:
Purpose. To determine the peculiarities of 9-year-old girls’ motor fitness structure. Materials and methods. The study involved 35 9-year-old girls. The children and their parents were informed about all the features of the study and gave their consent to participate in the experiment. The study used the following research methods: analysis of scientific and methodological literature, pedagogical observations, testing of motor fitness, probabilistic approach to assessing the learning process, methods of mathematical statistics. Results. The level of fitness of the 9-year-old girls is homogeneous by the development of “agility” and “movement coordination”, inhomogeneous – by the development of flexibility, arm strength, vestibular stability, and the level of proficiency in gymnastic exercises. A graphic representation of a two-factor model of testing results shows that the analysis identifies two sets of data with high correlation coefficients. The first set includes tests No. 12, 13, 14, and 7, which characterize the level of proficiency in gymnastic exercises and relative arm strength; the second – tests No. 1, 10, and 5, which characterize the level of movement coordination development. Conclusions. Based on factor analysis, it was found that the level of proficiency in exercises determines the variation of testing results by 28.394%, and the development of motor skills is a priority in the educational process at primary school. The level of proficiency in gymnastic exercises shows that the exercises “Rope climbing in two steps”, “Rope climbing in three steps”, “One leg swing upward circle” are difficult for 9-year-old girls to perform. Based on the data analysis, it can be argued that the development of “arm strength” and “vestibular stability” ensures the formation of motor skills, and the improvement of their development level is the reserve in training girls aged 9 which will positively influence the formation of motor skills.
, Daria Sirichenko
Journal of Learning Theory and Methodology, Volume 1, pp 20-25; https://doi.org/10.17309/jltm.2020.1.03

Abstract:
The purpose of the study was to determine the structure of motor fitness of 7-year-old girls. Materials and methods. The study participants were 27 7-year-old girls. The children and their parents were informed about all the features of the study and gave their consent to participate in the experiment. The research methods used in the study include analysis of scientific and methodological literature, pedagogical observations, testing of motor fitness, probabilistic approach to assessing the learning process, methods of mathematical statistics. The study recorded the primary schoolchildren’s level of proficiency in gymnastic exercises. The coefficient was determined by the formula: p = (m/n)×100, where p is the level of proficiency, m is the number of successfully performed exercises, n is the total number of attempts to perform the exercise. In the experiment, the study controlled the level of proficiency in the following exercises: forward roll; backward roll; shoulderstand with bent legs. Results. The level of fitness of the 7-year-old girls is homogeneous by the development of “agility” and “movement coordination”, inhomogeneous – by the development of flexibility, arm strength, and vestibular stability, level of proficiency in gymnastic exercises. The analysis of the coefficients of variation points to heterochrony in the development of the 7-year-old girls’ motor abilities. Based on the data analysis, it can be argued that the development of vestibular stability ensures the formation of motor skills in girls. Based on factor analysis, it was found that the most informative indicators of motor fitness of the 7-year-old girls are the level of proficiency in acrobatic exercises, the results of test No. 7 “Mixed hang rope pull-ups, times” (r = 0.872) and test No. 10 “Maintenance of stable posture – standing on one leg with closed eyes, s” (r = 0.870). Conclusions. Based on factor analysis, it was found that the level of proficiency in exercises determines the variation of testing results by 29.772%, and the development of motor skills is a priority in the educational process at primary school. The development of vestibular stability ensures the formation of motor skills, and the level of general physical fitness is the reserve in training girls aged 7, which will make it possible to increase the effectiveness of the educational process.
Journal of Learning Theory and Methodology, Volume 1, pp 40-47; https://doi.org/10.17309/jltm.2020.1.06

Abstract:
The objective of the study was to develop methodological approaches to determining the content of physical education teacher training. Materials and methods. The study involved 62 students of the School of Physical Education, who studied according to the 2001-2005 curriculum. To solve the tasks set, the study used both philosophical and general scientific research methods, including: dialectical method (principle of historicism, principle of systematicity, principle of dialectical contradiction, principle of unity of quality and quantity, principle of dialectical negation, principle of development, principle of causality); systems approach; factor and discriminant analysis. Results. The results of performance analysis show an average level of proficiency in learning material. By the coefficient of variation, the grades in History of Modern World, Culturology, Gymnastics, TMPE, 3rd year vary considerably (>33%). The students’ performance in Therapeutic Physical Training, Fundamentals of Ecology, Thesis has an average level of variability. By most indicators, the students are assessed as a homogeneous group. The analysis of similarities (h2) showed that the most informative indicators of the quality of students’ training are the grades in the following subjects: Teaching Practice (middle school) (0.817); Biomechanics (0.772); Qualification Examination (0.764); Teaching Practice (senior school) (0.763). Conclusions. Factor and discriminant analysis provided objective information on the quality of physical education teacher training. The results of factor analysis do not confirm the objectivity of empirical identification of four groups of academic subjects of the curriculum. The factor structure of the curriculum indicates the need to change the content of education, aimed at improving the training of highly qualified teachers. The training of a physical education teacher should include the following blocks of subjects: professional theoretical and practical training, natural sciences, theory and methods of physical education of schoolchildren, special training in the chosen sport. The results of discriminant analysis show that physical education teacher training is aimed at developing knowledge, abilities and skills in the sections: 1) Means and Methods of Physical Education; 2) Theory and Methods of Motor Abilities Development; 3) Theory and Methods of Teaching Motor Actions.
Journal of Learning Theory and Methodology, Volume 1, pp 14-19; https://doi.org/10.17309/jltm.2020.1.02

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to determine the weight of motor skills in the structure of motor fitness of 7-year-old boys. Materials and methods. The study participants were 38 7-year-old boys. The children and their parents were informed about all the features of the study and gave their consent to participate in the experiment. The research methods used in the study include analysis of scientific and methodological literature, pedagogical observations, testing of motor fitness, probabilistic approach to assessing the learning process, methods of mathematical statistics. Results. The level of fitness of the 7-year-old boys is homogeneous by the development of “agility” and “movement coordination”, inhomogeneous – by the development of arm strength and vestibular stability. The 7-year-old boys’ motor fitness is determined by their physical development, the level of general physical fitness and the level of motor skills development. A graphic representation of a two-factor model of testing results shows that analysis identifies two sets of data with high correlation coefficients. The first set includes tests No. 2, 1, 4, and 5, which characterize physical development, agility and endurance; the second – the level of proficiency in exercises No. 14, 13, 12, and the result of test No. 7 “Mixed hang rope pull-ups”. Conclusions. Based on factor analysis, the study found that the level of proficiency in exercises determines the variation of testing results by 28.437%, and the development of motor skills is a priority in the educational process at primary school. The development of “agility” and “movement coordination” ensures the formation of motor skills, and the development of arm strength and vestibular stability is the reserve in training boys aged 7 which will make it possible to increase the effectiveness of the educational process.
Svitlana Marchenko,
Journal of Learning Theory and Methodology, Volume 1, pp 33-39; https://doi.org/10.17309/jltm.2020.1.05

Abstract:
The objective of the study was to substantiate the influence of selected factors on the effectiveness of teaching a series of tasks aimed at motor skills development in boys aged 10. Materials and methods. The study involved 32 boys aged 10. The children and their parents were informed about all the features of the study and gave their consent to participate in the experiment. To achieve the objective set, the following research methods were used: study and analysis of scientific and methodological literature; pedagogical observation, timing of learning tasks; pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics, methods of mathematical experiment planning. During training, a method of algorithmic instructions was used. Results. Regression dependence is observed throughout the entire period of performing the series of learning tasks. The constructed mathematical models adequately describe the obtained data. The calculated regression coefficients are statistically significant (Fр < Fkр). Throughout the experiment, the factor X1 “number of sets” had a constant positive effect on the target feature (Y). The percentage contribution in the first series of learning tasks was 87.8%, in the second – 32.3%, in the third – 55.1%, in the fourth – 77.2%, in the fifth – 68.9%, in the sixth – 54.03%. The factor X2 “rest interval” had a negative effect starting from the second series – 67.3%, the third – 40.4%, the fourth – 19.3%, the fifth – 30.6%, the sixth – 45.05%. The effect of first-order interaction (X1X2) was not observed during all the series of learning tasks. Conclusions. The optimal modes of performing the series of tasks for teaching boys aged 10 the Mae-geri (front kick) in Kyokushin karate are the following: series 1 – 3 sets, rest interval 60-120 s; series 2 – 1-3 sets, rest interval 60 s; series 3 – 3 sets, rest interval 60 s; series 4 – 3 sets, rest interval 60–120 s; series 5 – 3 sets, rest interval 60 s; series 6 – 3 sets, rest interval 60 s.
Viktoriia Hladka
Journal of Learning Theory and Methodology, Volume 1, pp 26-32; https://doi.org/10.17309/jltm.2020.1.04

Abstract:
The purpose of the study was to determine the dynamics of motor and functional fitness of 6th grade boys of an underfilled school during the school year under quarantine conditions. Materials and methods. The study involved 6th grade boys (n = 6), who were 11 years old at the beginning of the experiment. The study used methods of mathematical statistics for processing research results, analysis of scientific and methodological literature, testing to assess schoolchildren’s motor and functional fitness. Study results. The indices of the 6th grade students’ motor fitness deteriorated significantly after quarantine. A comparative analysis of the arithmetic mean of the indices showed that in shuttle run 4x9 m (agility) the results deteriorated by 3%, push-ups (strength) by 24.1%, pull-ups (strength) by 41.6%, bent arm hang (strength) by 18.8%, standing long jump (speed and strength qualities) by 1.29%, trunk bend in lying support (flexibility) by 41.5%. As of September 2020, the indices of functional fitness of the 6th grade students also decreased. A comparative analysis of the arithmetic mean of the indices showed that in Shtange test the results deteriorated by 12.6%, and in Genchi test by 14.3%. The introduced quarantine measures and distance learning have negatively affected the schoolchildren’s motor and functional fitness. Conclusions. During the school year, the boys show a positive dynamics of results, and after quarantine measures there is negative dynamics, due to the lack of physical education classes. The testing results indicate the possibility of improving physical education classes, increasing motor activity, enhancing the level of motor fitness, based on the sensitive period of children’s development and individual approach to each school student.
Journal of Learning Theory and Methodology, Volume 1, pp 5-13; https://doi.org/10.17309/jltm.2020.1.01

Abstract:
The purpose of the study was to determine the impact of knowledge considered as a methodological basis of motor learning on the effectiveness of motor skills development in children and adolescents. Materials and methods. Young gymnasts aged 7-13 participated in the experiment. At the first stage – young gymnasts aged 8 (16 groups of 6 people each). At the second stage – young gymnasts aged 8 (3 groups of 6 people each), young gymnasts aged 13 (2 groups of 6 people each). Both philosophical and general scientific research methods were used to solve the tasks set, among which were: dialectical method, systems approach, modeling, pedagogical experiment organized according to the scheme of a 2k factorial experiment. Results. A positive effect of learning depends on the consistent solution of learning tasks and rational application of methods. This is indicated by the following: firstly, the total impact of factors reduces the number of repetitions when teaching young gymnasts a side handspring (by 23 repetitions), secondly, the total interaction increases the duration of training by 9 repetitions. Obviously, studying the decomposition of learning tasks can improve the effectiveness of learning in general. Conclusions. The learning process structure is most influenced by the conclusions of the theory of functional systems (43%, p < 0.001), the theory of movement construction (41%, p < 0.001), and the theory of management of knowledge acquisition, formation of actions and concepts (2.6%, p < 0.05). A positive effect of learning depends on the consistent solution of learning tasks and rational application of methods.
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