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Results in Journal Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies: 105

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Rk Gupta, Rahul Kumar, Taranjeet Kaur
Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, Volume 8, pp 1351-1355; doi:10.22271/j.ento.2020.v8.i5s.7691

Abstract:
The present study was carried out to determine the toxic effects of lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni) on the survivability, reproduction and growth of earthworm, Eudrilius eugeniae. Adult E. eugeniae were exposed to the varying concentrations of Pb and Ni. Mortality, growth and cocoon production were measured at every 30 days interval for 90 days. The results suggest clear dose-dependent negative effects of Pb and Ni on survivability, reproduction and growth of earthworms. A maximum reduction (43.35%) in survivability was observed in the case of Pb (0.06 ppm) followed by Ni+Pb (0.03+0.03 ppm) in which there is 31.65% decrement in survivability was observed. A similar trend was observed in growth and reproduction studies. It was concluded that the heavy metal Pb was more noxious to E. eugeniae as compared to Ni alone as well as in combinations. These results can be used for environmental monitoring and estimation of heavy metals contamination in soil.
Abdul Ahad
Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, Volume 5, pp 1212-1220; doi:10.22271/j.ento.2020.v8.i5q.7677

Abstract:
The objective of this article is to prove that “Seven non-Darwinian theories opposite to evolution”. However, the genetic drift represents the punctuated equilibrium, the shifting balance theory, the allopatric speciation theory and the species selection theory for the macroevolution. The genetic drift rapidly works in a small and isolated population and not works in a large population. Hence, genetic drift means small and isolated population and vice-versa. But the genetic drift creates zero variation. But there is no variation (raw materials of any kind of evolution); there is no evolution. Hence, evolutionary biologists rejected genetic drift for any kind of evolution. Again, genetic drift means small and isolated but those populations have to mate with their close relative and produced homozygous organisms. Homozygous organisms have low fecundity, suffer from various diseases, least fitted to survive and may extinct suddenly, e.g. American Heath hen. Thus, small populations and isolated populations (i.e. genetic drift) are opposite to any kind of evolution, even risk for extinction. However, genetic drift is also the key force of Neutral theory, which works in smalls and isolated populations. Consequently, Neutral theory is opposite to any kind of evolution. So, many evolutionary biologists rejected Neutral theory. Once more, evolutionary biologists rejected the shifting balance theory, the punctuated equilibrium theory and of Goldschmidt’s theory. Gould and Wright advocated chromosomal speciation (chromosome rearrangements) theory for macroevolution but which are not valid. Moreover, extinction is the main process of the macroevolution, which is quite absurd. The fossil is the excellent and only evidence of those theories of macroevolution. But fossil completely opposes macroevolution. So, those seven non-Darwinian theories are opposite to any kind of evolution. Consequently, the Darwinists, the neo-Darwinists and the Sociobiology’s oppose those non-Darwinian. Subsequently, plants and animals including human are not evolved via those theories.
Neha Shukla, Amita Dubey, Yamini Verma, Ankur Khare, Madhu Swamy
Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, Volume 8, pp 216-219; doi:10.22271/j.ento.2020.v8.i5c.7508

Abstract:
In this study, the levels of nickel were determined in blood and tissues of goats reared in industrial, urban and rural areas of Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India. Total 67 blood, 57 liver and kidney, 16 lung and 26 muscle samples were subjected for acid digestion in microwave digester. The nickel concentration was analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Mean blood nickel level was recorded as 0.560±0.135 ppm which was higher than acceptable limit. Results reported that 8% of goats had high blood nickel level (02 to 07 ppm). Mean nickel concentration in liver, kidney, lung and muscle were 0.350±0.050, 0.494±0.053, 0.791±0.115 and 0.552±0.073 ppm, respectively. In this study, 02 liver, 02 kidney, 04 lung and 02 muscles had high nickel concentration of >1 ppm. It was concluded that there was appreciable concentrations of nickel were found in blood and tissues of goats especially from industrial areas.
Shanmugam Ps, Ayyadurai P, Sangeetha M, Balamurali R
Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, Volume 8, pp 32-35; doi:10.22271/j.ento.2020.v8.i5a.7505

Abstract:
The occurrence of flower chafer beetle Oxycetonia versicolor Fabricius in brinjal has been studied in Dharmapuri district during 2018 - 19 and 2019 - 20. The survey was under taken in the major brinjal growing regions of Dharmapuri district during 2018-19 and 2019-20. In Dharmapuri district brinjal has been cultivated in precision farming and conventional method. The flower chafer beetle incidence was noticed in all the surveyed fields and the incidence was more during 45 days after transplanting and decreased after 75 days after planting. The number of beetles per ten plants was ranged between 0.3 – 1.3, 1.5 – 4.6, 2.1 – 5.1, 0.8 – 2.4 and 0.4 – 1.3 during 2018-19, 0.6 – 1.6, 1.4 – 5.5, 1.8 – 6.6, 0.6 – 2.3, 0.5 – 1.3 during 2019 – 20 at 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 days after planting respectively. The study on the incidence flower chafer beetle in the treated and untreated fields conducted at Krishi Vigyan Kendra farm revealed that lower incidence in the treated fields. The number of chafer beetles per ten plants in the treated fields were 4.0, 3.4, 2.8, 2.0 and 2.0 at 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 days after transplanting. The beetles initiate their feeding on holes made by the brinjal shoot and fruit borer. They also found feeding on the tender shoots, buds and flowers of the brinjal plants. In some plant’s congregation of 4-6 adults and frothy secretion were noticed. The periodical application of insecticides for the management of shoot and fruit borer L. orbonalis keeps the beetle population under check. The beetle population was more during August to October months and thereafter the population declines. The occurrence of flower chafer beetle during the reproductive stage of the brinjal will lead to huge economic loss to the farmers and increase the cost towards plant protection. The damage level, direct and indirect yield loss, association with shoot and fruit borer L. orbonalis and management strategies should be studied in detail before this pest attains major pest status in brinjal.
Mc Lallianchhunga, M Ayub Ali, K Lalrintluanga, Lallawmzuali Ralte, H Lalrinkima
Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, Volume 8, pp 01-03; doi:10.22271/j.ento.2020.v8.i5a.7499

Abstract:
Sixty (60) samples of goat milk from udder halves were analysed. The samples were grouped into Normal, Subclinical 1+, Subclinical 2+, Subclinical 3+ and Clinical, based on the score of California Mastitis Test (CMT). The average Somatic Cell Count (SCC) of milk was lowest (7.17 ± 0.11 x 105 cells/ml) in normal group and highest (48.62 ± 1.00 x 105 cells/ml) in Clinical group. The average SCC of milk for Subclinical 1+, Subclinical 2+ and Subclinical 3+ were 13.29 ± 0.56 x 105 cells/ml, 28.58 ± 0.66 x 105 cells/ml and 41.08 ± 0.50 x 105 cells/ml, respectively. These results indicated increase in SCC of milk with increase in the severity of the mastitis. As such, if the threshold level is established, the SCC of milk can be used as a diagnostic value for clinical and subclinical conditions of udder infections in does.
V Agrawal, Ak Jayraw, M Shakya, Gp Jatav, N Jamra, N Singh, R Jain
Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, Volume 8, pp 04-06; doi:10.22271/j.ento.2020.v8.i5a.7500

Abstract:
Bovine babesiosis caused by different species of intraerythrocytic Babesia mainly Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis. Babesiosis is mainly transmitted by ticks, however, transuterine/ transplacental transmission can not be ignored. In the present study both mother and its 42-day- old calf were infected with babesiosis. Since simultaneous infection of babesiosis in mother and its young calf has not been reported so far, hence it is placed on the record. Due to good body condition score and young age of the calf, after the treatment, very next day coffee colored urine became clear which is indicating, timely treatment of babesiosis in young calves is highly effective.
Narasimhamurthy Hb, Ravindra H, Mukesh Sehgal, Suresha D Ekabote
Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, Volume 8, pp 187-191; doi:10.22271/j.ento.2020.v8.i5c.7496

Abstract:
Studies were conducted on host range studies and galling pattern of M. graminicola seven different galling patterns with divergence from the typical hook like galls were observed that are clue for the existence of new species/races. In order to identify that host range studies were conducted it includes two trails tested under glasshouses condition. The test hosts involved ten varieties of rice viz., Biliya, Jyothi×Kesari, Akkalu, Jyothi, MO4, Tunga, KHP-2, JGL-1778, Kesari and Jyothi×Biliya and standard North Carolina test cultivars ie., tobacco cv. NC 95, cotton cv. Deltapine 16, peanut cv. Florunner, tomato cv. Rutgers and bhendi cv. Arka Anamika. All the tested cultivars used in the study were infected by M. graminicola, except cotton and bhendi no galls are observed on these cultivars. While, tomato (5.33), tobacco (12.40) and peanut (8.00) showed least galls on root system and least Rf value (0.035), (0.061) and (0.21) respectively. However, no galls were observed on cotton and bhendi and Rf value was nil. However, the North Carolina tomato cv. Rutgers showed galls on root system it is clearly showed that the North Carolina tomato cv. Rutgers is an experimental host for most of root- knot nematode, but not for the species that infect cereals, like. M. graminicola and M. graminis. Hence, it is an indication that existance of new species/races in this location that needs further confirmation.
Jb Rajesh, H Lalliankimi, L Hmar, Ns Singh, Elizabeth L
Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, Volume 8, pp 336-338; doi:10.22271/j.ento.2020.v8.i5e.7528

Harshit Kumar, Manjit Panigrahi, Kaiho Kaisa, Divya Rajawat, Ka Saravanan, Triveni Dutt, Bharat Bhushan
Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, Volume 8, pp 2244-2250; doi:10.22271/j.ento.2020.v8.i4ai.7453

Abstract:
With the advent of sequencing technologies, now we have observed rapid advancements in biological research. Avenue of big data science steered the development of many new areas of interests with life science researchers. Approaches using big data mining and machine learning (ML) along with other well-established methods of genomics, molecular biology and biotechnology may be implemented with researches in chronobiology. Methodologies demonstrating usage of these techniques with “omics” studies have shown a noteworthy impact on the results of the same. On the other hand, data science unaided will not reject the need for a considerate understanding of the field of research, nor can such approaches substitute the need for researchers and analysts. Hence, so far understanding with this region of investigation is significantly important. It is obvious that the familiarity which has been generated via chronobiology and the applications of various tools resulting from big data science has backed up the acknowledgement of the various patterns and immense biological rhythms reported in organisms. The present text goals to create novel and vital applications in the coming future through chronobiology research orchestrating with big data science.
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