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Oral S. Saulters, Brijesh Krishnan, Mary Beth Harris, Hani Bashour, Laura Bellows, Evan J. Ringquist, Diane Henshel
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 08, pp 1219-1242; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2017.810076

Abstract:
This study investigates the sustainability-related impacts of the Framing Hope program, an innovative private and nonprofit sector partnership between the nonprofit Good360 and The Home Depot. Specifically, this paper estimates the energy savings, landfill space not filled, and the energy- and landfill-related cost savings associated with the Good360 product philanthropy program with The Home Depot, illustrating that benefits accrue to both company and communities by linkages between environmental, socioeconomic, and energy dimensions. Findings suggest that by redirecting products from the waste stream into usable community resources, considerable landfill space, costs, and energy savings were realized. Product donations can serve as an important platform for sustainable community development and capacity building. This research adds to the growing body of knowledge on environmental performance, corporate giving, and cross-sector partnerships in sustainable and social entrepreneurship.
Alice Elizabeth González, Nicolás Rezzano Tizze, Pablo Gianoli Kovar, Martín Paz Urban,
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 08, pp 1178-1193; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2017.810074

Abstract:
The fast growing development of wind power in Uruguay has encouraged research on many issues regarding environmental acoustics, especially those related to wind turbines operation. As every new power generation device of 10 MW or larger has to have an environmental license approval before building it, a methodology for Acoustic Impact Studies (AIS) was needed. This paper presents a methodology proposal to carry out AIS, taking into account the peculiarities of the Uruguayan status. Determining the area where the studies should be done, demands for the base line of sound pressure levels, predicting sound pressure levels during the operation of future wind farm and main lines for the environmental management plan are included in this proposal. Uruguayan current national guidelines to noise pollution levels are also presented.
Rosa M. Cerón, Julia G. Cerón, Manuel Muriel, Marcela Rangel, Reyna Del C. Lara, Beatriz Tejero, Martha P. Uc, Abril Rodríguez
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 08, pp 1158-1177; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2017.810073

Abstract:
The main objective of this research work was to diagnose the vulnerability of terrestrial ecosystems to S deposition in Atasta region in Campeche State, Mexico, comprising two simultaneous sampling programs in both, soil and atmospheric deposition on an annual basis during three climatic periods: dry, rainy and cold fronts seasons. From the estimation of soil properties estimation (pH, texture, mineralogy, cationic exchange capacity, and basis saturation %), critical loads and sensitivity classes were assigned to sampled soils based according to the empirical methodology proposed by UNECE. During the dry season, 10 sites fell into sensitivity class 2 (moderately sensitive) and 3 (sensitive). On the other hand, during the rainy season, 8 sites showed a sensitivity class 1 (highly sensitive) and 2 sites presented a sensitivity class 2 (moderately sensitive); whereas along cold fronts season, 12 sites fell into sensitivity class 1 that corresponds to highly sensitive. Sensitivity classes showed a seasonal trend, with a higher sensitivity during rainy and cold fronts seasons; this agrees with the kind of sources influencing on the study area as a result of the prevailing meteorology during these climatic periods. Likewise, S concentration in atmospheric deposition was determined by turbidimetric method, and S deposition fluxes were estimated from surface area of the funnel opening of the sampling device and the sampling period. S deposition fluxes ranged from 0.29 and 14.06 kg S ha-1·yr-1; with a mean value of 8.57 kg S ha-1·yr-1. From the comparison between the current deposition rates and proposed critical loads, exceedances percentages were obtained (from 1.65% to 62.8%) and mapped to identify critical zones of S deposition in the studied area. It was established the important role which mangrove vegetation plays in the attenuation of the potential ecological effects on terrestrial ecosystems of the study area associated to atmospheric deposition.
, Mike Kobernus, Hong Liu
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 08, pp 1194-1218; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2017.810075

Abstract:
In 2013, a survey on air quality (AQ) was conducted in Wuhan, China. The aim was to investigate public awareness of air pollution, and its epidemiological effect. This survey targeted both suburban and central city regions of Wuhan city, between August and December of 2013, where it engaged 1225 participants. Approximately 65% perceived AQ in Wuhan to be “bad”. Over 95% recognized a causal association between air pollution and human health. About 65% were unaware of any action taken by the government to mitigate the air pollution situation. 84% indicated that the government should shut down highly polluting enterprises, while 95% expressed willingness to reduce private use of vehicles if required. The results demonstrate that the citizens of Wuhan are concerned about air pollution issues, and agree that improving AQ is the obligation of all citizens. Further, they called for concrete actions to improve AQ. The survey emphasized the need for better education and more activities to raise environmental awareness. The innovative aspects of this survey were the exploration of participants’ perceptions of AQ issues and the survey results may influence local government to impose stricter regulations, and to develop more effective programs involving citizens.
Joseph Ssekandi, John Mburu, Oliver Wasonga, Laban Macopiyo, Francis Charles
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 08, pp 1144-1157; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2017.810072

Abstract:
Evaluation of the changes in land use and land cover change (LULCC) in respect to oil exploration across the Albertine region in Uganda has been focused around the exploration areas and protected areas, with no attention to the potential impacts of evictees’ activities on resettled areas. This study used LANDSAT images to analyze the land use and land cover changes (LULCC) among the period before eviction (2002 and 2005) at the climax of eviction and resettlements (2005-2011), and during the post-resettlement period (2011-2015) to quantify the impacts of resettlements on the environment. LANDSAT images were processed using ERDAS IMAGINE software and analyzed using ArcGIS 10.1 to determine LULCC in relation to post-eviction resettlement in the study area. Results from the study indicate. The results of the study indicate that vegetation reduced by 33.08 percent, woodland were converted into settlements by 48 percent while farmlands increased by 18.3 percent. Non vegetated areas increased during resettlements however they reduced five years after eviction which indicated the ability of the ecosystem to stabilize. The study proved that post eviction induced resettlements can yield potential environmental effects to resettled areas. It is important therefore to plan and implement other means of additional source of income and construction materials for evictees to abate vegetation clearance and hence rescue the woodland. The study also recommends maintenance of an optimum population and well-planned pre eviction resettlement schemes.
Timmy Francis, Shyam Sundar Kundu, Ramabadran Rengarajan, Arup Borgohain
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 08, pp 1119-1143; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2017.810071

Abstract:
Systematic monitoring of the fluctuations in atmospheric SO2 oxidation efficiency—measured as a molar ratio of SO42- to total SOx (SOx=SO2+SO42-), referred as S-ratio—have been performed during a major long range plume transport to northeast India (Shillong: 25.67°N, 91.91°E, 1064 m ASL) in March 2009. Anomalously low S-ratios (median, 0.03) were observed during the episode—associated with a cyclonic circulation—and the SO42- and SO2 exhibited unusual features in the ‘relative phase’ of their peaks. During initial days, when SO2 levels were dictated by the long range influx, the SO42- and SO2 variabilities were in anti-phase—for the differing mobility/loss mechanisms. When SO2 levels were governed by the boundary layer diurnality in the latter days, the anti-phase is explained by a ‘depleted OH level’—major portion being consumed in the initial period by the elevated SO2 and other pollutants. Simulations with a global 3D chemical transport model, GEOS-Chem (v8-03-01), also indicated ‘suppressed oxidation conditions’—with characteristic low S-ratios and poor phase agreements. The modelled OH decreased steadily from the initial days, and OH normalized to SO2—referred as OHspecific—was consistently low during the ‘suppressed S-ratio period’. Further, the geographical distribution of modelled OH showed a pronounced minimum over the region surrounding (20°N, 95°E) spanning parts of northeast India and the adjacent regions to the southeast of it—prevalent throughout the year, though the magnitude and the area of influence have a seasonality to it—with significant implications for reducing the oxidizing power of the regional atmosphere. A second set of measurements during January 2010—when prominent long range transports were absent—exhibited no anomalies, and the S-ratios were well within the acceptable limits (median, 0.32). This work highlights the GEOS-Chem model skill in simulating/detecting the ‘transient fluctuations’ in the oxidation efficiency, down to a regional scale.
E Bankole Oladumiye, B. A. Ogunlade, F. Kayode Omole
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 08, pp 1100-1118; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2017.810070

Abstract:
More than ever before, environmental preservation has been a critical issue for the survival of the world’s habitat. An attempt to explore global trends in environmental monitoring using numerous ways based on different techniques is an exercise in the right direction. This is expedient, given the recent overwhelming growing rate of environmental pollution of advertisement graphical bills worldwide. Posting of advertisement graphical bills constitutes one of the biggest threats to man and his environment as it now appears and as we live in an age of growing sensitivity to environmental cleanliness. Pollution of the Nigerian cities through advertisement bills assumes the general term of outdoor advertising ranging from hand-printed signs, posters, painted bulletins and spectaculars. However this paper discusses the trends of posting graphic advertisement bills in Nigerian cities. Its impact on aesthetics, as well as the pollution problems associated with the urban development. The study areas are Abuja, Akure, Ibadan and Lagos. In order to ensure that each unit of the population is represented, random sampling technique was used to get the necessary information from the samples. The findings emphasize the importance of strict control and market regulations in posting of advertisement bill in built environment and eradication of pollution of the environment.
Lelia Croitoru, Maria Sarraf
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 08, pp 1087-1099; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2017.810069

Abstract:
Globally, ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is the fifth leading cause of death. Household air pollution from use of solid fuels is the tenth ranked cause of death. Together, ambient and household air pollution caused 6.4 million deaths worldwide. In the Middle East and North Africa region, an estimated 125,000 lives are lost annually to diseases associated with ambient and household air pollution. This paper estimates the economic cost of air pollution in Morocco, a country marked by rapid economic development and urbanization. Using the most updated causal relationships between long-term exposure to PM2.5 and premature mortality, the paper estimates that air pollution costs society about US$1.14 billion annually, or 1.05 percent of the country’s GDP in 2014. Ambient air pollution is responsible for nearly three quarters of this cost, as a result of large exposure to high PM2.5 levels in cities like Casablanca, Tangier, and Marrakesh. Household air pollution is a problem particularly for rural households using solid fuels for cooking and heating. Based on these results, the paper identifies the most affected areas and the most vulnerable groups in the country.
Rong-Hwa Huang, Shun-Chi Yu, Po-Han Chen
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 08, pp 1037-1056; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2017.810066

Abstract:
Many researches discussing reduced energy consumption for environmental protection focus on machine efficiency or process redesign. To optimize the machine operation time can also save the energy, and these researches have received great interests in recent years. This study considers three different states of machines, among processing there are two different speeds, to solve the problem of minimizing energy costs under time-of-use tariff with no tardy jobs in flexible flow shop. This problem is basically NP-hard, we proposed a hybrid genetic algorithm (GA) to solve problems in reasonable timeliness. The result shows that to optimize different states of machines under time-of use tariff can reduce energy costs significantly in on-time delivery.
Linda Jones
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 08, pp 1075-1086; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2017.810068

Abstract:
The study investigated residual effects of high levels of occupational mercury exposure, 30 years after a cohort of women worked in public service dentistry. They had all used copper amalgam in a pellet form that required heating and handling, and silver amalgam before the encapsulated form was available. Mercury handling practices changed in the mid-1970 when the workforce was urine tested and mercury poisoning became apparent. The aim was to compare control group and exposed group scores on tasks from a neurobehavioural test battery; plus survey results from a composite health, work history and environmental influences survey. The findings showed that the exposed and control groups were equivalent not only on those variables that one would want to be matched (age, alcohol consumption), but also on many of the cognitive and psychomotor test scores. The present paper focuses on psychomotor skill and tremor patterns. Tremor patterns were seen as generating new evidence of long term effects of the historic mercury insult. Data also suggest that there may be a distinctive mercury “fingerprint”, in samples of sinusoidal waveforms that may have potential as a non-invasive sub-clinical biomarker for adverse effects of mercury exposure, in screening or workplace monitoring.
Larry E. Erickson, , Ronaldo G. Maghirang, Brian P. Urbaszewski
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 08, pp 1057-1074; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2017.810067

Abstract:
Air quality is impacting health in many cities in most countries because of particulate pollution, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone. Very small particulates from engine emissions and coal fired electric power plants enter the lungs and pollute the blood of urban residents leading to a burden of disease with more than 3 million premature deaths per year attributed to outdoor air pollution. Welfare losses including premature deaths associated with air pollution were about $5 trillion in 2013. A global transition to electric vehicles, and the generation of electricity without combustion emissions would improve air quality significantly and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This transition is in progress in many parts of the world with more than 2 million electric vehicles in service in 2017. Electric bus and electric taxi sales are increasing, and many large cities have multiple programs to improve air quality. When health costs are considered, it is very appropriate for communities to take action to improve air quality and health. This work reviews and reports many positive actions that are in progress in larger cities.
Sheri L. Herron, Andrew N. Sharpley, Kristofor R. Brye, David M. Miller
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 08, pp 1026-1036; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2017.89065

Abstract:
Freshwater impairment by eutrophication, as a result of excessive phosphorus (P) inputs from runoff in particular, remains a ubiquitous environmental concern. A common issue with systems designed to remove P and nitrogen (N) from runoff is their reduced effectiveness under high-flow conditions. To over-come this, P removal from broiler-house fan dust would be more effective if removal occurred at the nutrient source, where the water volume is limited to direct rainfall. The P removal efficiencies of different thicknesses of locally sourced, iron-rich red mud (RM) generated during the manufacture of steel belts for tires and alum-based drinking water treatment residual (WT) byproducts were investigated. Byproduct thicknesses of 4, 8, and 12 cm were tested using 57-L leaching columns. The columns were filled with the specified byproduct thickness and a 3-mm thickness of poultry house dust was surface applied prior to receiving six, 30-min simulated rainfalls (at 7 cm·hr-1) at 1-day intervals. The 8-cm thickness of both RM and WT outperformed the other thicknesses in terms of sorbing P released from the added broiler house dust, removing 99 and 96% of the added P, respectively, over the six simulated rainfall events. The 12-cm thickness of both RM and WT showed no additional benefit for P removal over the 8-cm thickness. As the 4-cm-thick WT treatment was less effective (89% of added P removed), the 8-cm thickness was the optimal thickness for field testing. Locally sourced materials with large P-sorbing capacities can offer a convenient, relatively inexpensive alternative for P removal from areas around poultry houses impacted by P-containing, exhausted broiler house dust.
Sura Al-Harahsheh, Omar Al-Ayed, M. Amer, M. Moutq
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 08, pp 1018-1025; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2017.89064

Abstract:
Oil shale samples from Sultani oil shale mine, south of Jordan, were pyrolyzed by a partial combustion to generate shale oil. The produced water was sent for analysis. The different samples were analyzed for carbon content, and results showed that the TOC was 2010 mg per liter of retorted water. Phenol and arsenic contents were measured and found to be 64 mg and 0.18 mg per liter respectively. Phosphate and sulfate were also determined and found to be 35.7 and 5022 mg per liter. On the other hand, ammonium was also found to be 2831 mg per liter. Several elements were traced and reported in the present work, in which arsenic, chrome and nickel are the most important, and the retorted water was found to contain 0.18, 0.7 and 0.5 mg per liter.
Scott A. Grieco, Danielle C. Singer, Gary R. Bement
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 08, pp 990-1001; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2017.89062

Abstract:
Increasingly, as regulatory limits become more stringent, selenium has become a parameter of concern. Selenium is a naturally occurring element that is largely mobilized by anthropogenic activity such as mining for fuel and subsequent combustion, metal ore refining and processing, and agricultural irrigation. Of concern is removing selenium liquid matrices and immobilizing it from leachable solid matrices. Chemical reduction and stabilization using zero valent iron (ZVI) is applicable to both concerns. The solid matrix case study is applicable to ash ponds solids or industrial bag house dust solids. This paper presents data for treatment and stabilization of selenium within a solid matrix using ZVI. The methodology uses an aqueous mediate reaction to promote a stable solid matrix of non-leachable selenium. The paper describes matrix challenges and key variables that effected successful treatment. Testing with simulated and real bag house dust solids were used to establish data to support the permeance of the reaction. The data show that ZVI converts ionic selenium to a zero valent state in the solid matrix. It was also recognized that a fraction of ionic selenium may fail to react with the ZVI, but the results show that despite the presence of the unreacted ionic selenium, the toxicity characteristic leachate procedure (TCLP) results following treatment do not exceed the 1 mg/L hazardous waste criteria.
Fadi A. Al-Jallad, Clarence C. Rodrigues, Hamda A. Al-Thani
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 08, pp 1002-1017; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2017.89063

Abstract:
The Arabian Peninsula experiences elevated levels of airborne particulate originated from both natural and anthropogenic sources. This study is mainly aimed to determine the ambient levels of TSP, PM10 and PM2.5) at one of the monitoring locations “Al Samha” that is located in the northeast quadrant of UAE. Mass concentrations, particle count, as well as meteorological parameters were simultaneously measured using a spectrometer, PM10 beta attenuation monitor and weather sensors for the period from April 10 to December 31, 2011. The hourly mean concentrations of TSP, PM10, PM2.5-10 and PM2.5 were 245, 110, 64 and 46 μg/m3, respectively. About 34%, 15% and 56% of the monitored days had daily concentrations above the allowable limits for TSP, PM10 and PM2.5, respectively. Diurnal peak occurred at 14:00 for TSP, at 10:00 for PM10, and at 04:00 for PM2.5 reaching values of up to 410, 122, and 54 μg/m3, respectively. The highest concentrations were observed on Saturdays for TSP and PM10, but on Sundays for PM2.5. July had the greatest monthly level of PM compared to other months of this study. The average ratios of PM10/TSP, PM2.5/TSP and PM2.5/PM10 were 0.61, 0.31 and 0.47, respectively. Weak relationships were found between the particle number and mass concentrations, while very strong to moderate correlations were observed among all PM size fractions as well as between TSP and wind speed. The measurement results of the light scattering spectrometer were strongly correlated with the beta attenuation monitor, but the mean value of the spectrometer was higher by 18%.
Mohammad Saifur Rahman, Bijoy Sonker Barua, Rezaul Karim, Masud Kamal
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 08, pp 974-989; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2017.89061

Abstract:
The waste products, such as induction furnace slag, ladle furnace slag, air pollution control dust, and ramming mass collected from major iron processing industries in Chittagong, Bangladesh were analyzed for heavy metals and naturally radioactive elements. The concentrations of heavy metals Fe, Cr, Mn, Co, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cu and Zn were obtained from atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) analysis with flame atomizer and the radioactivities due to 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were determined using high purity germanium (HPGe) detector of well shielded gamma-ray counting system. From the mean specific activities of the above three natural radionuclides in the investigated samples, the radium equivalent activity (Raeq) and the external hazard index (Hex) were calculated. The study showed the prospect of contamination of environmental materials (viz., soil, water, air, plant) due to many of these investigated elements by using the collected waste products in landfill. The chemical process of ion exchange indicates that the elevated heavy metals in soil can play a role to increase the natural radioactivity of the soil. The obtained Raeq as well as Hex indicated the insignificant radiation hazard due to the activities of primordial radionuclides found in the investigated samples.
Kristofor R. Brye, Alden D. Smartt, Richard J. Norman
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 08, pp 957-973; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2017.89060

Abstract:
Methane (CH4) emissions are known to differ between rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars, where CH4 emissions from pure-line cultivars are often greater than from hybrids. Numerous field studies have shown that CH4 emissions follow a diurnal pattern, typically reaching their maximum during afternoon hours. However, it is unknown whether cultivar affects CH4 fluxes/emissions at various measurement times of day or how those cultivar effects may differ spatially across soil textures and temporally throughout the rice growing season. The objective of this field study was to evaluate the effects of time of day (300, 800, 1200, 1800, and 2300 hours) and cultivar (one hybrid and one pure-line) on CH4 fluxes before and after heading from a silt-loam and clay soil in a direct-seeded, delayed-flood rice production system. Enclosed headspace chambers, 30 cm in diameter, were used for CH4 gas sampling on 22 July and 19 August at a silt-loam site and on 29 July and 26 August, 2014 at a clay-soil site in the Lower Mississippi River delta region of eastern Arkansas. Methane fluxes measured pre- and post-heading ranged from 0.7 to 2.2 mg CH4-C m-2· hr-1 from the clay soil and from 2 to 7 mg CH4-C m-2·hr-1 from the silt-loam soil. Hourly CH4 fluxes and estimated daily emissions differed among measurement times of day (P < 0.05) for a given cultivar or averaged across cultivars and differed between cultivars (P < 0.05) from the silt-loam soil, but not the clay soil. Results suggested that the optimum measurement time of day to capture either minimum, maximum, or average hourly CH4 flux or daily emissions for a given day differs by soil texture and rice growth stage, but conducting CH4 flux measurements around late morning to mid-day appear to be optimum to best capture the mean CH4 emissions for the day.
Marcio L. Oliveira, John C. Brown, Marcelo P. Moreira
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 08, pp 923-939; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2017.88058

Abstract:
Scientists regularly lament that development and habitat destruction in once isolated and distant areas are promoting species extinction before species can even be known by science. In the Brazilian Amazon, the government’s Plan for Growth Acceleration in part involves major improvements and expansion of highways. Such infrastructure has long been linked to the main causes of deforestation in this region. It is essential for scientists to assess where to target bio-diversity collections in relation to the location of road development and existing protected areas. The objective of this study was to amass all of the records of occurrence of orchid bees in digital form, in order to obtain a spatial picture of our knowledge thus far and to make recommendations about priority areas for future collections and the role of protected areas in species conservation. The collection data used for this study come from various collection efforts, and were also gathered from the literature. The collection data were then imported into a Geographic Information System, making it possible to integrate other spatial data layers such as highways, conservation units, indigenous lands and forest cover. Results show a major need for collections along the BR 163 and BR 230 highways, heavily deforested areas with few conservation units. We suggest the creation of conservation units and recommend that abandoned areas be allowed to remain fallow as a way to help save additional biodiversity in the area of influence of these two main highways.
Michael E. Schlesinger, Douglas A. Becker
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 08, pp 898-913; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2017.88056

Abstract:
With the election of Donald Trump as President of the United States of America, it appears likely that the initiation of mitigation of human-caused Global-Warming/Climate-Change will be delayed many years. Accordingly, here we calculate the Emission Phaseout Duration, D = YE - YS, where YS and YE are the Start and End Years of the emissions reduction, for YS = 2020, 2025 and 2030, and maximum Global Warming targets, ΔTmax = 2.0°C, 1.9°C, 1.8°C, 1.7°C, 1.6°C and 1.5°C. The 2.0°C and 1.5°C maxima are the “Hard” and “Aspirational” targets of the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement. We find that D decreases with increasing YS from 2020, and with decreasing ΔTmax. In particular, D decreases from: 1) 76 years for YS = 2020 to 53 years for YS = 2030 for ΔTmax = 2.0°C, and 2) 34 years for YS = 2020 to 7 years for YS = 2030 for ΔTmax = 1.5°C. Thus, delaying the initiation of the phaseout of greenhouse-gas emissions from 2020 to 2030 makes it more difficult to achieve ΔTmax = 2.0°C and impossible to achieve ΔTmax = 1.5°C.
Nwabueze I. Igu, Chukwudi Nzoiwu, Evaristus U. Anyaeze
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 08, pp 914-922; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2017.88057

Abstract:
Forest reserves are expected to host a wide array of biodiversity and provide refuge for rare species that may be threatened in nearby forest landscapes. While this is the guiding protocol for most reserves across the tropics, such as Nigeria, the extent to which they host biodiversity and act as potential stores for carbon are quite uncertain. This study used a four hectare randomly selected forest plots to verify the biodiversity of the reserve, its stand structure and potentials for carbon storage. Species importance value was used to summarize the composition of the landscape. Both the diversity (mean diversity = 0.85) and species richness (eleven species) were low. Biodiversity in the area was quite poor and was mostly composed of Elaeis guineensis and Gmelina arborea, which had relative densities of 74.6% and 11.96%, respectively. Over exploitation and preference for fast-growing exotic species explained the poor stand structure and composition of the landscape, respectively. Very few tree stands were found in the mature structural class, and its capacity to facilitate regeneration and resilience seemed low. Its ability to store carbon in its biomass is equally low; since the forest landscape was much degraded. Maximizing the vast land of the reserve for targeted carbon storage (through mass tree planting) is a potential step that could forestall carbon sequestration across the region, especially because, such vast and available (forest) land cannot be guaranteed in most other forest landscapes.
Yue-Xin Li, Ling Zhang, Si-Wei Zhou
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 03, pp 782-785; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2012.38093

Abstract:
With the development of science and technology, more and more cities are confronted with the water pollution of various degrees. The article is devoted to the introduction of a secondary sewage monitoring and management system which can automatically check the content of different components in the sewage discharged by enterprises and supply data reports with the help of probes, SBCs, PCs, etc. The article includes five parts. The first part introduces the research background, main research work and innovations of this system. The second part introduces the system architecture and system process. The third presents the fundamental working principles of SBCs and the relevant algorithms of PCs. The fourth expounds the problems and deficiencies which may exist in the algorithms. And the last part consists of summary and prospect, providing the possible solution to the deficiencies and looking forward to the future direction of research.
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 03, pp 773-781; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2012.38092

Abstract:
Various effects of the dry deposition of soot on maize were investigated in Keszthely (Hungary) in two consecutive years. In order to be able to study a wider range of weather conditions, some of the plants were placed in a Thornthwaite-Matter type evapotranspirometer and given ad libitum water supplies. Pollution with airborne black carbon was simulated throughout the season by distributing rates of 3 g?m–2 a week using a motorised dust sprayer. Among the plant growth parameters, the leaf area index was increased by 3% - 14%, depending on the year, suggesting that the plants were able to absorb the carbon settling on the leaves. The black carbon reduced the albedo of the canopy by 17.5% - 21.8%, depending on the year, forcing the polluted maize to absorb more energy. Part of this surplus energy was utilised for increased evapotranspiration (3.9% and 11% in the two years) and to raise the surface temperature of the canopy by 1℃ - 2℃ during the mid-day hours. The effect of the contamination on maize was more intense in the hot, dry year. The unfavourable effect of soot on maize fertilisation could be observed as a significant increase in the number of deformed ears, leading to a reduction in grain dry matter. The reduction in dry matter yield for polluted maize grown with irrigation in the evapotranspirometer was far less severe than that on non-irrigated plots, suggesting that irrigation was the most obvious solution for mitigating the negative effects of contamination with airborne soot.
, Nazira K. Khidirova, Nuridin I. Mukarramov, Mashrab M. Khakimov, Barot A. Urakov, Khusnutdin M. Shakhidoyatov
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 03, pp 767-772; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2012.38091

Abstract:
Steviaside containing plant extracts have been used for degradation of persistent chloroorganic pesticides. Reactions between DDT and Steviaside or sum of extractive substances isolated from ground up part of plant Stevia were studied to give of less toxic DDE. Herein researches on studying interaction sum of polysaccharides of Stevia with DDT in various ratios resulted also. The GC-MS and GLC methods were used for analyzing degradation degree of pesticides and to determine obtained compounds. Treat HCCH by water extract of Stevia basically formed tetrachlorocyclo-hexadiene (HCH) with 86.9% yield and in particularly formed of tri-, tetrachlorobenzenes. The HCH formed in 79.7% on treat pesticide by 80% Steviaside. Degradation of HCCH and DDT by water extract of Stevia in a presence of Ana-basine in a ratio of 2:1:1 occur to degrade of HCCH up to 70-80%, and DDT on 25% - 30%.
Ahmad Qasaimeh
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 03, pp 760-766; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2012.38090

Abstract:
Root Analogous Municipal Solid Waste System “RA-MSW” is a novel management system that manages waste, biogas, and leachate in bioreactor landfill. Different than conventional disposal at landfills, waste is penetrated by synthetic roots that serve dual mission for biogas collection and leachate recirculation. RA-MSW roots are permeable hydropho- bic polymer material that are formed on-place or prefabricated at factory from recyclable material available on the dumping area. Since the material is hydrophobic, it does not contain water in the voids providing more space for gas transport and collection. The roots are also interchangeably used for leachate recirculation where the parameters of wa- ter content, nutrients, pH, and temperature are optimized to enhance biogas production simultaneously with leachate treatment. RA-MSW provides new approach of waste management and control; it has new virtues of landfill operation; new material medium for biogas collection; new biocell design configuration; new manipulation for leachate and biogas. The approach adds new merits for solid waste management, bio-energy utilization, and the concept of 5 R’s cycle for MSW management.
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 03, pp 748-759; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2012.38089

Abstract:
The objective of this study was designed to evaluate the effects of biostimulation and bioaugmentation amendment agents (NPK fertilizer, Tween 80 and mixed culture) on the bioremediation of tropical soil samples artificially contaminated with Weathered Bonny Light Crude Oil (WBLCO). Response Surface Methodology (RSM) with Box Behnken Design (BBD) was used with three levels and three factors of NPK fertilizer (2 - 6 g), Tween 80 (5 - 15 mg/l) and mixed culture (0.5 - 1.5 g/l) as independent variables and WBLCO removal as dependent variable (response) in a six weeks remediation period. The results showed that the rate of WBLCO removal generally increased with increase in the amount of NPK fertilizer, Tween 80 and mixed culture (biomass), respectively. A statistically significant (P < 0.0001) second-order quadratic regression model for WBLCO removal (using design-expert statistical program (v. 6.0.8)) with a coefficient of determination, R (=0.9996) was obtained. Numerical optimization technique based on desirability function was carried out to optimize the bioremediation process. The optimum values for biostimulation and bioaugmentation amendment agents to achieve a predicted maximum WBLCO removal of 84.88 percent were found to be: NPK fertilizer, 4.25 g; Tween 80, 10.22 mg/l and mixed culture, 0.46 g/l. At this optimum point, the observed WBLCO removal was found to be 83.79 percent. The statistical analyses and the closeness of the experimental results and model predictions show the reliability of the regression model and thus, biostimulation and bioaugmentation of indigenous microbial density and activity can reduce remediation period of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated environment and subsequently the cost of remediation.
, Maria Isabel Martín, Irene García-Díaz, Olga Rodríguez, Francisco Jose Alguacil, Maximina Romero
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 03, pp 740-747; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2012.38088

Abstract:
This work presents the feasibility of reusing a glass fiber resulting from the thermolysis and gasification of waste composites to obtain glass-ceramic tiles. Polyester fiberglass (PFG) waste was treated at 550˚C for 3 h in a 9.6 dm3 thermolytic reactor. This process yielded an oil (≈24 wt%), a gas (≈8 wt%) and a solid residue (≈68 wt%). After the polymer has been removed, the solid residue is heated in air to oxidize residual char and remove surface contamination. The cleaning fibers were converted into glass-ceramic tile. A mixture consisting of 95 wt% of this solid residue and 5% Na2O was melted at 1450˚C to obtain a glass frit. Powder glass samples (<63 μm) was then sintered and crystallized at 1013˚C, leading to the formation of wollastonite-plagioclase glass-ceramic materials for architectural applications. Thermal stability and crystallization mechanism have been studied by differential thermal analysis. Mineralogy analyses of the glass-ceramic materials were carried out using X-ray Diffraction.
Ana Maria A. Velho, , , Sérgio M. Corrêa, Mário L.G. Soares, Israel Felzenszwalb
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 03, pp 731-739; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2012.38087

Abstract:
Mangroves perform essential functions in biological cycles and are protected by law in Brazil. However, they are being degraded above their support limit, leading to a reduction in the areas around the world. The area investigated in the present study is a potentially unpolluted mangrove ecosystem in the south of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. The aim of this work was to investigate the presence of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mangrove sediment and to correlate them with mutagenic and genotoxic activity. Four seasonal samplings undertaken between 2009 and 2010 at five sites were analyzed. Dichloromethane extracts were obtained under sonication and subjected to mutagenicity assays using Salmonella microsuspension. Metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb) contents were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry, while the quantification of PAHs was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Goniopsis cruentata hemocytes were used to assess potential genotoxic damage (Micronucleus assay). The absence of mutagenicity was observed for all samples using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102, in the absence and presence of an exogenous mammalian metabolizing system. Among the metals, Cd and Cu were detected in autumn at values exceeding the threshold effect level and below the probable effect level. Benzo[a] pyrene was detected at levels above the threshold at one site, where small effects could be observed in the biota. Significant differences in the micronucleated cells observed suggest DNA damage had been induced by the PAHs identified.
, Charne Thomas, Chardai GrayS, Jessica Small, Tajeve Young
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 03, pp 722-730; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2012.38086

Abstract:
There is a growing global concern for the environmental and health hazards posed by heavy metal contaminants, especially lead in the soil and ground water. The potential for plant and animal uptake, metabolism, and propagation into food-chain poses great health risks. World communities face a common need to a cheap, efficient, and effective technology to mitigate the growing problem of heavy metal contaminations. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the potential of using aqueous extracts of edible vegetables and fruits for the in-situ remediation of lead contaminated water (1300 PPM). The plants used in this study include Mustard Green (Brassica juncea), Spinach (Spinacea oleracea), Collard Green (Brassica Oleracea), Bitter leaf (Vernonia Amygdalina), Carrot (Daucus Carota Sativus), Red, Green, and Yellow Bell Pepper (Capsicum Annuum ), tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum), red and white grape (Vitis vinifera), and lime (Citrus aurantifolia). After shaking triplicate reaction mixtures lead contaminated water with each substrate for 22 hours at room temperature, lead removal by the substrates were analyzed by EPA Method 6010, using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). Results suggest that the order of lead removal is Collard Green (99.8%) >, Spinach (98.7%) > Mustard Green (98.2%) > Green Bell Pepper (97.8%) > Yellow Bell Pepper (97.75%) > White Grape (96.7%)> Carrot (95.5%) > Red Bell Pepper (94.28%) > Red Grape > 93.5% > Tomatoes (84%) > Bitter Leaf (61%). The study concludes that liquid substrates such as the supernatants from pureed edible tuberous, leafy, and fruity vegetables can effectively remove lead from contaminated water.
Boqi Weng, Junli Zhou, Siping Zheng, Xiuxia Chen, Weiguang Zhang, Qin Huang
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 03, pp 715-721; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2012.38085

Abstract:
This research demonstrated the feasibility of converting source-separated human urine into a solid fertilizer by means of continuous absorption and solar thermal evaporation using dried water hyacinth as adsorbent. In a preliminary experiment, the dried petioles of water hyacinth (DWH) absorbed urine in a mean rate of 18.78 ml·g-1 within 7 d, retrieving about 3.46% urine dissolved solids (UDS). In an advanced experiment, the DWH’s capacity of urine absorption declined from an initial 2.73 L·kg-1·d-1 to 0.68 L·kg-1·d-1, with a requirement of material change in about 25 effective days and an average ratio of 25 (L) to 1 (kg). Phosphorus (P2O5) concentration in the adsorbent increased from 0.46% (material baseline) to 3.14% (end product), suggesting a satisfactory recovery of the element. In field application, the urine was discharged, not in wet weather, onto the DWH via a tube connected to a waterless urinal. There are several ways to use the UDS-DWH as P(K)-rich fertilizer, e.g., making soluble fertilizer for foliage spraying to encourage prolific flowering and fruiting. Apparently, utilization of water hyacinth waste to recover dissolved plant nutrient elements from source-separated urine will benefit the environment in a wide range of perspectives. The herein innovative use of water hyacinth is also expected to be useful in the recycling of certain dissolved hazardous materials.
Osama Eljamal, Junya Okawauchi, Kazuaki Hiramatsu
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 03, pp 709-714; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2012.38084

Abstract:
The removal of phosphorus from water using marble dust as sorbent material was studied by conducting batch tests, kinetic sorption model and isotherm model. The kinetic sorption model based on a pseudo equation was applied to predict the rate constant of sorption. Thorough investigations to understand the mechanism of phosphorus sorption onto the marble dust using kinetic sorption models, pseudo first order and pseudo second order kinetic sorption models showed that the kinetic sorption is consistent with the second order model, from which it can be inferred that the mechanism of sorption is chemisorption. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms. The results of isotherm models showed that the Langmuir isotherm agrees very well with the experimental data compare with Freundlich isotherm. Batch tests and kinetic sorption models results showed that using the marble dust as sorbent material could be remove more than 94.3% of phosphorus from water.
, Mohammad Mamunor Rashid, Muhammad Sadikur Rahman, Mohammad Molla
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 03, pp 700-708; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2012.38083

Abstract:
Plastics wastes from a municipal solid waste (MSW) plant have a high-energy content and are suitable for fuel generation. Thermal cracking is one of the possible ways to obtain petrochemical feedstock from polymer wastes. Municipal waste plastic of LDPE conversion to kerosene grade fuel experiments were carried out under atmospheric conditions at temperatures between 150℃ and 420℃. Low density polyethylene (LDPE) plastic waste (Code #2) was thermally depolymerized in batch process into stainless steel reactor without adding catalyst. The maximum kerosene grade fuel yield is 30%, other grade fuel 60%, light gas 6% and left over residue 4%. The composition, sulphur and Btu value of liquid products were determined by ASTM method. Produced fuel was analyzed by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometer and FT-IR. Very high conversions from LDPE waste plastic to kerosene grade fuel (up to 35%) were obtained while using this technique. Detailed product analyses and characterization lead to a reasonable explanation of reaction pathways and mechanisms.
Razvan Ştefan Popescu,
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 08, pp 884-897; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2017.88055

Abstract:
This study aims to measure traffic-related air pollution of vehicles with internal combustion, the main source of emissions of BTEX, organic compounds and NOx, NO2, NO, O3, CO, SO2, PM10 and PM2.5, inorganic compounds, in three sites of the University campus, surrounded by residential areas. According to the University data, around 8000 students are being exposed daily to the measured level of pollution, in all 3 studied places of campus. A mobile laboratory was used, which continuously measures above mentioned pollutants and mete-orological parameters. The diurnal variation of BTEX, in a sunny and rainy day showed two peaks of BTEX concentration in the morning and evening. In the rainy days, the non-polar (hydrophobic) compounds as BTEX are mechanically trained by rain into the ground, where either they enter into the groundwater, or volatilized and re-enter in the air. Particulate matter such as PM10 and PM2.5 is, in a large part, carried by the rain into the soil. The polar compounds (hydrophilic, NOx, SO2) dissolves in the rainwater and are absorbed in the soil (increasing soil acidity) and evaporated towards the clouds (leading to acid rain). In our study, BTEX compounds removed by the rain varied between 62% - 75%, NOx and SO2, 80% and 77% respectively. Particulate matters were washed out up to 68% for PM10, and 42% for PM2.5. In the sunny days the air pollution with measured concentrations of O3 (121.66 ± 7.02, 123.56 ± 4.89 μg/m3) remained for 7 hours close to the limit value (120 μg/m3). The maximum of solar radiation, with corresponding low concentrations in NOx and xylene, corresponds to photochemical reactions in the atmosphere, generating photochemical smog. In a sunny day and high traffic, we found the maximum value 5.4 μg/m3 for benzene, for 30 min., a known human carcinogen, exceeding the annual limit value de 5 μg/m3. The average background, from benzene, in three University campuses daily visited by around 8000 students was 0.97 μg/m3, exposed to 1.46 μg/m3 and the cancer risk is 1/100,000.
Ketil Haarstad, John Bavor
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 08, pp 831-843; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2017.88052

Abstract:
The plant phosphorus (P) uptake by Italian ryegrass using organic wastes such as sewage sludge, biochar, composted sewage sludge and spent wetland filters as fertilizer was investigated in pot experiments after manipulating the wastes pH by mixing with other wastes giving acidification by acetic acid and compost leachate, and liming by concrete waste and lime. Pots with no fertilizer and with mineral fertilizer served as control. Available P was measured both with passive diffuse gradient thin film (DGT) samplers and by P uptake in the grass. The pH in the treated waste was about 4 in the acid treatment, and more than 11 in the high pH treatment. The pH in the pot during the grass production was adjusted to normal levels. The P uptake increased up to 56% after pH treatment of the waste. The P uptake responded both to the high and low pH treatments, probably due to the prevalence of different P species. The more extreme pH treatments gave the highest uptake. The DGT uptake gave the same broad picture in the pots fertilized with biochar but not in pots with sludge, and, also, without the separation between high and low treatments. The passive samplers correlated relatively well with the measured grass uptake. A principal component (PCA) analysis showed that the P uptake as measured by the DGT correlated with P, potassium (K) and silicon (Si) concentrations, at to a lower degrade with iron (Fe) and lead (Pb), and was uncorrelated with nickel (Ni) and cupper (Cu). In summary we can say that the pH treatment of the different organic wastes increased the plant P availability. The smallest increase was in the wetland filter that also had the lowest P total uptake. Also the lupin treatment increased the plant P uptake.
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 08, pp 844-866; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2017.88053

Abstract:
Especially high health risks associated with impacts of metallic nanoparticles (Me-NPs) and their presence in the workplace and ambient air of not only the nano-industry but also of some long-existing traditional technologies make it necessary, along with keeping respective dangerous exposures as low as possible, to look for ways of increasing the organism’s resistance to them. Based on theoretical premises of such beneficial interference with toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of Me-NPs developed by our research team and on understanding general and specific key mechanisms of different Me-NPs’ toxic action, we proposed several bioprotective complexes (BPCs) comprising mainly pectin, some vitamins, glutamate, glycine, N-acetylcysteine, omega-3 PUFA, and different essential trace elements. Results of our animal experiments with different Me-NPs showed that, against the background of such BPCs’ oral administration, the integral and specific toxicity of Me-NPs and even their genotoxicity can be markedly attenuated. Therefore we would recommend to further develop this vector of nano-toxicological research.
Ahmed Hussen, Negussie Megersa,
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 08, pp 867-883; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2017.88054

Abstract:
In this study, extractability of 13 organochlorine pesticides aged in six different soil types, was investigated. Acceptable recoveries were achieved for most of the analytes spiked into five of the soil types. No apparent correlation was perceptible between the soil characteristics and extractability of the aged analytes, signifying exhaustiveness of the extraction. However, recovery was considerably minimized (<75%) in the clay ensuring the hypothesis of study stating “extraction efficiency might be matrix dependent”. Therefore, the study demonstrates importance of optimizing extraction conditions even for those believed to be less prone to matrix effect, due to distinct properties of analyte-matrix interactions.
Theodore Okonkwo, Uzuazo Etemire
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 08, pp 42-60; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2017.81005

Abstract:
The injustice and chaos in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria resulting from the manner in which the oil industry is being run and regulated have since captured the attention of the world. Importantly, the 2011 UNEP Report on the Environmental Assessment of Ogoniland (a Niger Delta community) which revealed shocking levels of ecological degradation has helped to keep the issue on the front burners of international discussion. In this light, this article explores the nature of injustice in the oil producing areas of Nigeria; it assesses the regulatory mechanisms that have been set up to prevent and reverse the injustice in the region; and based on the inadequacies of the present system, it makes recommendations as to how the mechanisms might be better strengthened, and governance executed, all in a manner that is more responsive to the plight of the affected people.
H. Sarvamangala, Vinay B. Raghavendra, S. T. Girisha
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 08, pp 194-205; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2017.82015

Abstract:
Biobeneficiation processes involving the separation of valuable minerals from ores and materials using conventional flotation and flocculation methods have been shown to be promising in recent years. There is an enormous potential to utilize microorganisms as flocculating agents, flotation collectors and/or depressants. The study involves Biobeneficiation of oxide minerals using Bacillus subtilis. Characterization of minerals (hematite, corundum, calcite and quartz) was carried out through XRD, EDAX and FTIR techniques. FTIR of minerals before and after interaction with cells, cell free extract and extracellular proteins was carried out and it has been found that there is a shift or change in the peaks of functional groups. In presence of protein adsorption, amide peaks were found and in case of polysaccharide adsorption, carboxyl peaks were found which justify the flotation and flocculation results. MALDI-TOF was carried out to confirm the molecular weights of the extracted proteins and it was found that molecular weight of proteins on interaction with minerals was higher than that of uninteracted minerals.
Ousmane Touré Boukari, Daouda Mama, Youssouf Abou, Moctar Limam Bawa
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 07, pp 2067-2080; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2016.713161

Abstract:
This work presents recent data on the physico-chemical properties and the trophic status of Kpassa reservoir at eighteen locations from August 2014 to February 2015. Seventeen physico-chemical parameters were measured and data obtained were statistically analyzed. The descriptive statistics showed their variations (minima-maxima) as follows: pH (4.65 - 7.30), temperature (25.1°C - 29.9°C), dissolved oxygen (1 - 5.79 mg/L), oxydability (0.32 - 10.88 mg O2/L), electrical conductivity (55 - 77 μS/cm𕒵), TDS (76 - 94 mg/L), turbidity (15.70 - 274.40 NTU), transparency (0.24 - 1.55 m), suspended matter (3 - 92 mg/L), total phosphorus (0.25 - 1.90 mg/L), orthophosphate (0.08 - 0.61 mg/L), nitrate (undetected 5.50 mg/L), nitrite (undetected 0.79 mg/L), ammonia (undetected 0.36 mg/L), chlorophyll a (7.20 - 2334.6 μg/L), silica (4.34 - 15.67 mg/L) and N/P ratio (0.08 - 42.62). These parameters were mainly influenced by agricultural activities and climatic conditions. The restriction or the removal of the use of chemical fertilizers in agricultural activities in Kpassa reservoir basin was recommended. The highest values of Pearson and Spearman correlations were observed across TDS and conductivity (0.967; 0.951), turbidity and oxydability (0.924; 0.665), turbidity and chlorophyll a (0.884; 0.663), turbidity and suspended matter (0.982; 0.793), suspended matter and transparency (𕒴.781; 𕒴.819), suspended matter and nitrate (𕒴.813; 𕒴.839), suspended matter and oxydability (0.919; 0.602) and suspended matter and chlorophyll a (0.879; 0.656). Carlson’s trophic state index (TSI) values varied between 36 and 66 showing that Kpassa reservoir was eutrophic in August and mesotrophic to oligotrophic during the other months of the sampling period. ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis test indicated that there were no significant differences between sampling stations.
E. Koji, O. V. Noah Ewoti, F. M. Onana, S. Tchakonté, C. Lontsi Djimeli, A. Tamsa Arfao, G. Bricheux, T. Sime-Ngando, M. Nola
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 08, pp 810-829; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2017.87051

Abstract:
The abundance dynamic of some freshwater invertebrates in relation with the abiotic factors of the medium was studied from March 2013 to March 2014 on the main streams of the Wouri and Sanaga basins. Individuals of Copepoda, Atyidae, Chironomidae and Physidae were collected, identified and counted. Samplings were carried out monthly; meanwhile measurements of the environmental variables were taken. Results of the physico-chemical analyses revealed that water of the Sanaga basin is globally well oxygenated (77% - 92%) and faintly mineralized (14 - 107 μS/cm), excepted in the stations receiving house-hold pollutants. Inversely, in the Wouri basin, waters are hypoxic with high content of organic matters (27.79 ± 9.43 mg/L). During rainy season (June-September), there is a dilution-dispersion of the organic matter due to stormwaters. Concerning biological analyses, the families of Physidae and Chironomidae were more abundant in urban stations than in stations situated in suburban area, especially during low water level period, showing that they are well adapted to anthropogenic and organic pollutions. The hypoxic conditions of urban waterways do not favor the proliferation of sensitive taxa such as Atyidae and Copepoda. These taxa preferred well oxygenated waters with rapid flow, and are more abundant during rainy season in stations located in suburban area or which are less subjected to anthropogenic disturbances.
Salifou Issa, Daouda Mama, Adamou Zanguina, Ibrahim Natatou, Mousa Boukari, Dominique Sohounhloué
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 08, pp 787-798; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2017.87049

Abstract:
This work deals with the microbiological study along the water chain in Belbedji, a local government in the northwest of the Zinder region in the Republic of Niger. For this study, two (2) standpipes, thirty (30) families and ninety (90) samples were selected in order to follow the variation of water microbiological quality. For that the parameters studied are the total coliforms, the fecal coliforms and the E. coli. From these parameters we calculated the indication or the index of the microbiological quality (MQI) by the method of Bovesse and Depelchin, 1980. The variations of the fecal contamination at the level of the families in the different phases are represented on maps. At the water marker, 100% of families have good microbiological quality. After the transport of water, on 3.33% of the families the quality of the water deteriorated. After water storage, 16.66% of families had deteriorated water quality, with the passage of fecal contamination from zero to low on 13.33% of families, and fecal contamination from zero to moderate 3.33% of families.
Gutiérrez L. Ruiz, Cespedes D. García, Ramirez R. Covarrubias
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 08, pp 799-809; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2017.87050

Abstract:
The aim of this study is to apply the methodology for assessment of environmental impact of the heritage town with health tourism interest that is assessed. Health tourism is based on the appropriate employment of natural resources, landscapes and the natural and cultural heritage of a place. In order to carry out the study, a set of both theoretical and empirical methods were used to analyze the case of Baños de Agua Santa. The theoretical methods include the analysis and synthesis employed throughout the research process, as well as in the bibliographic study and the evaluation of the information obtained. In addition, the inductive-deductive method was employed to analyze, process, and treat the information and data that were used frequently in this work. As for the empirical methods, the researchers employed participatory techniques with community stakeholders, in order to gather information through interviews. Also, researchers conducted direct observation of community activities. The automated method software is used which requires a baseline study of the environment assessment in Tungurahua, Ecuador, to be prepared. In addition, the analysis of the social perception on tourism of the local people from the course work of students at the UIDE shall be applied. The conclusions of the case studies undertaken allow for strategic proposals and recommendations to be prepared so that they can be incorporated into the management plans for health tourism in the town with natural heritage value.
Graham Brown, Isabella Luu, Gwen O’Sullivan
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 08, pp 733-743; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2017.86047

Abstract:
Conifer needles bioaccumulate atmospheric pollutants, including trace metals, and may be used to monitor variations in atmospheric concentration. Needles were analyzed to determine whether a correlation exists between elevations and trace metal concentrations in proximity to roadways and other non-point sources. Composite samples of white spruce (Picea glauca) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea) needles were collected along hillsides in eastern and western Calgary, respectively. A combined total of 11 sites was sampled along two transects of increasing elevation. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of trace metal concentrations was completed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and synthesized using regression analysis. The concentrations of cobalt, nickel, and calcium in the samples were found to exhibit a significant (P < 0.05) relationship with respect to elevation and proximity to roadways.
Rainer Malisch
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 08, pp 744-785; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2017.86048

Abstract:
The identification of contamination sources within the food chain with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs), (“dioxins”), and PCBs is difficult and complex. PCDD/PCDF can be formed as unintentional compounds in a number of chemical processes as well as in almost every combustion process. PCBs were intentionally produced chemicals that were manufactured for decades before the ban in marketing and use in many countries around 1985. The pattern of occurrence can change from the original source in particular via feedingstuffs to food of animal origin as result of bioaccumulation. A number of examples illustrate the challenging detective work and key scientific aspects for identification of the sources, for support of the risk management and for performance of monitoring programs. The contamination of milk and milk products in European countries with dioxins was caused by compound feeds containing citrus pulp pellets from Brazil which had high dioxin levels as a result of the use of heavily contaminated lime used for neutralization. The Belgian dioxin crisis was caused by a feed additive heavily contaminated with PCBs which were discharged into a recycled fat used in the production of animal feed. Guar gum from India was contaminated with sodium pentachlorophenate and dioxins. Clay was found to be possibly highly contaminated with dioxins possibly formed by geothermal processes over time; use of such clay as feed additive or for human intake led to elevated dioxin levels in food and humans. Bioanalytical screening in combination with comprehensive physicochemical investigations led to the detection of brominated flame retardants and brominated dioxins in a feed additive. Buffalo milk was contaminated in Italy presumably caused by illegal deposition of waste. High PCB levels in fuel oil for drying of breadcrumb used as a feed ingredient caused a major dioxin crisis with pork meat in Ireland. Fatty acids for technical purposes originating from a biodiesel company were used for production of feed fat which contaminated parts of the food chain in Germany. In addition to effects on human and animal health these incidents also have serious economic consequences which could be mitigated by more frequent control on food and feed. Addressing both these issues, the European Community has developed a strategy to reduce the presence of dioxins and PCBs in the environment and in feed and food comprising the establishment of maximum and action levels.
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 03, pp 949-955; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2012.328110

Abstract:
Market gardening, in the swampy lowlands of the Dschangcity, plays an important role in terms of providing employment, and supply the city with fresh products. However, waterborne diseases, which occur in the city, are both attributed to the bad quality of drinking water and sanitation practices. This work aims to characterize watering waters of crop, to assess the health risks associated with the use of these waters. Water from eleven streams and five wells used to irrigate crops were sampled and analyzed once a week for a month. Analyses focused on physico-chemical parameters (temperature, suspended matter, pH, electrical conductivity, COD, BOD5, NO-3 , Al, Fe, Cu, Ni), parasitological (helminthes eggs) and bacteriological (total coliforms, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococcus). The results show that, the physico-chemical quality of well waters generally approaches the WHO standards of crop watering water. The physico-chemical of streams waters and bacteriological quality of wells and streams waters are bad, according to WHO guide. These bad quality waters could contaminate crops, some of which are eaten raw, which is surely a cause of the outbreak of waterborne diseases in the city. The waters from streams are more affected. The pretreatment of the water before use for irrigation of vegetables is highly recommended.
Jinan S. Al. Hassany, , Abbas Murtadeh, Hassany Jinan S. Al., Nidhal Sulaaiman
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 03, pp 940-948; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2012.328109

Abstract:
In present study three stations are located on Diyala River has been investigated to study phytoplankton community, the first station was located in jalawlaa area, second station in Himreen impoundment, while the third station is located after the Himreen Dam in Al-Soddur area, A total 134 taxa of Phytoplankton were identified during the study period, 63, 82 and 84 were identified in stations 1, 2 and 3 respectively. The higher density of Phytoplankton observed in station 3, result ranged between 21.16 - 23.88 × 102 cell/l during September and October respectively, then station 2 which has density ranged between 18.44 - 66.188 × 102 cell/l during January and September respectively, while the station 1 has the lowest values during the study comparable to other stations, the result ranged between 5.495 - 70.62 × 102 cell/l during January and April respectively. Species Richness Index ranged from 2.9 - 7.46 in station 1, 4.08 - 7.85 in station 2 and 5.71 - 8.77 in station 3. The result revels that the station 3 show to increase in Richness index value in the most of the months comparable to other stations. The Similarity index also has been calculated among the common species of Phytoplankton through the three station by using the Hierarchical cluster analysis is the highest Similarity percentage in reach in 43.5% for the common species of Phytoplankton between stations 2 and 3.
, Abdallah Abusam, Abulbasher Shahalam
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 03, pp 935-939; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2012.328108

Abstract:
Kuwait has recently implemented a vigorous campaign that aims to reclaim and reuse all treated wastewater in an at- tempt to alleviate water scarcity problem and to preserve seawater quality. This paper assesses the present status of wastewater treatment, reclamation and reuse in Kuwait, and discusses the impact of wastewater reuse on the amounts of pollutants discharged into the sea. Through analysis of the historical records of the wastewater treatment plants, it has been found that reuse of reclaimed wastewater in Kuwait has greatly reduced the amounts of pollutants discharged into the sea. Results showed that more than 50% reduction in volumes of wastewater discharged into the sea had been achieved from year 2000 to year 2010. However, this study has predicted that the amounts of wastewater discharged into the sea will start increasing again by the year 2020 due to shortages of storage capacity for reclaimed wastewater and due to the limitation of wastewater reuse applications to basically agricultural and landscape irrigations. In contrary, the on-going works and future plans of the Ministry of Public Works (MPW) are expected to overcome this problem and lead to a zero discharge of wastewater into the sea.
Ahmed Sayed Mohamed Ahmed, Mohamed E. Abou-Elhaggag, Hesham El-Badry
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 03, pp 922-934; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2012.328107

Abstract:
The Gulf of Aqaba (GOA) is unique as it contains significant percentage of the world’s natural marine biodiversity. This unique environment is potentially vulnerable to pollution particularly at its northern tip. One of the major activities affecting the environment of the gulf is the man-made desalination plants that abstract sea water and dispose desalinated brine. In this context, the paper discusses the impact of the abstract and disposal activities on the GOA environment. A 3D hydrodynamic model was developed to cover the GOA. Relevant data were collected for 3D hydrodynamic modeling construction. Delft-3D model developed by Deltares was applied in this study. The 3D model reliability was confirmed since the model results have revealed the existence of a structure of primary eddies along the axis of the Gulf which was previously reported by different researchers. Further numerical simulations were carried out by incorporating various alternatives of seawater abstraction and desalinated brine disposal off the north and north east coast of the GOA. The developed GOA hydrodynamic model, at the present stage, is preliminary where the results provide qualitative assessment on the potential impacts on the water circulation. Accordingly, this study is considered a pace ahead for a better model development and validation in the future studies
, Agada P. Onuche, Rufus Sha’Ato
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 03, pp 915-921; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2012.328106

Abstract:
The study investigates the spatial and temporal variation in water quality parameters at ten different locations along River Benue for twelve consecutive months. In order to explore the spatial variation among different stations and seasonal changes, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to group these on the basis of spatial similarities. MANOVA on season and station shows that there is no significant difference between the stations investigated while there is for the seasons. This could be viewed as a resulting from the narrow spatial sampling interval (12 km at 0.7% total length of River Benue). However, discriminate analysis identified all the parameters to discriminate between the three seasons with 99.2% correct assignations. Two discriminate functions were found and the total variance cumulative was 100% between seasons. The first function explained 64.8% of the total variance between the seasons while the second function explained 35.2%. Total solids (TS) were the highest contributor in discriminate functions 1 and 2. Therefore, discriminate function analysis would enable us to predict the likely season a water sample from metropolitan Makurdi was collected given the values of the water quality parameters. It also enables us to conclude that all the parameters were responsible for significant seasonal variations in River Benue water quality
Karthryn M. Quinn-Hosey, James J. Roche, Andrew M. Fogarty,
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 03, pp 902-914; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2012.328105

Abstract:
A diverse range of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) was examined, using an in vitro test system, for critical events required for the onset of carcinogenesis in vivo. The initiation stage of carcinogenesis is a genotoxic process. 4-Octylphenol (alkylphenol), bisphenol A (plasticiser), coumestrol and genistein (phytoestrogens), 2,4-dichlorophe- noxyacetic acid and toxaphene (pesticides) and ethinylestradiol (synthetic hormone) were investigated for potential mutagencicity, DNA strand breakage, clastogenicity and DNA repair. Significant induction in the percentage of cells containing micronuclei was observed for all the EDCs. Toxaphene and coumestrol were mutagenic in the Ames assay. They also induced significant levels of unscheduled DNA synthesis and DNA strand breakage. Bisphenol A induced low level DNA strand breakage in HepG2 cells in the comet assay. The EDCs, with the exception of toxaphene, induced transcriptional activation in the yeast estrogen screen (YES) assay. They were potently oestrogenic in the mammalian based MVLN (transactivation) and E-SCREEN (proliferation) assays. This report on the transactivational, proliferative and genotoxic ability of the EDCs suggests that these chemicals may play a role in the etiology of male and female reproductive cancers.
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