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Nilu Akter
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 13, pp 36-55; doi:10.5296/ijl.v13i3.18694

Abstract:
Chinese initials play an inevitable role in learning Chinese as a second language. Without the proper knowledge of Chinese initials, learners fail to communicate with people smoothly. Therefore, learners from different countries face different difficulties in learning Chinese initials. The pronunciation of Chinese consonants is not easy for foreigners, especially for Bangladeshi learners. Therefore, errors occur in the Chinese initials of Bangladeshi learners.Although Bangladeshi students often encounter difficulties learning Chinese initials, no comprehensive research done in this area. This research aims to investigate the pronunciation errors of Chinese initials made by Bangladeshi learners. To know the types of initials errors and the reason behind these errors, the error analysis hypothesis, and the contrastive analysis hypothesis was used to analyze the data. However, 20 Bangladeshi students at the elementary level were chosen as the research participants. In this research, a questionnaire survey, interview and comparative analysis were used as research methods.The common finding is that the initials error of Bangladeshi learners occurs in labial, alveolar, velar, retroflex, dental, and palatal consonants. Among them, the highest rate of error has been found in the pronunciation of retroflex, dental, palato-alveolar consonants. The research found that the reason for initials errors of Bangladeshi Chinese learners is the negative transfer of mother tongue, similar phonetic symbols, lack of learning motivation and strategy etc. Finally, the researcher provides some suggestions to correct the pronunciation of initials errors of Bangladeshi Chinese learners.
Majid Abdulatif Al-Basri
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 13, pp 22-35; doi:10.5296/ijl.v13i3.18628

Abstract:
As its name implies, Lexical Phonology (LP) is a two-sided discipline which is very much pervasive and of a priority for particular interest. It is basically a matter of the systematic correlation of both morphology and phonology as a preliminary to screening endless items and senses. Once postulated and covered with its linguistically theoretical frames, LP has proved attractive, useful and handful in that it turns up so often in such topics as lexical items with their phonological configurations and words with their stratum-based designs. The present paper is a painstaking scrutiny of how LP is thoroughly worked out to demarcate the lexical and phonological boundaries of Zubairi Arabic lexical items with a special reference to the linguistic behavior of affix attachments. It is no doubt a massive task – it is armed with such and such amount of systematization and provided with certain 'harmless looking terms and expressions that are frequently used. In attempt to focus on this point of interaction between phonology and morphology, the paper adopts the line of reasoning that is primarily based on a tabulated description and analysis of examples so as to serve the purposes of setting some comparisons, showing certain contrasts or governing particular rules of applications as far as Zubairi words and expressions are concerned. Among many results the paper has reached is evidently the one that the structure of Zubairi Arabic lexical items is the empirical "container" in which both phonological and morphological lines of representation are sometimes crossed very sharply or sometimes paralleled very endlessly whereby their blurriness may be relative and variable.
Zhanwen Song, Ogunniran Moses Oladele
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 13, pp 1-21; doi:10.5296/ijl.v13i3.18606

Abstract:
This study aimed to examine the impact of professional learning communities on English teacher belief change with English teachers in Hospitality Institute of Sanya as a case study. The study proffered answers to magnitudes at which professional learning communities motivate English teacher belief change in Hospitality Institute of Sanya, the characteristics of professional learning communities that affect English teacher belief change in Hospitality Institute of Sanya, and the belief changes that were experienced by English teachers in Hospitality Institute of Sanya. The study adopted a qualitative research design that used structured interviews with (fifteen) 15 English teachers as participants for the study. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Findings showed that most participants had the right perspectives of their communities through the professional learning communities, which exert positive effects on English teacher belief change. Reflective dialog, feedback among teachers, collaborative activity, a shared sense of purpose, and collective focus on students' learning were found out to be the major characteristics of professional learning communities that affected English teacher belief change in Hospitality Institute of Sanya. The study recommended that teacher belief change needs to be monitored by the institution's authority, going by the nature of the activities that go on in the institution.
Quoc Hung Le Pham
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 13, pp 62-84; doi:10.5296/ijl.v13i2.18308

Abstract:
It can be said that the language reflected a national identity, its contains the nation's cultural background and ways of thinking. Euphemism reflects a national cultural system and embodies different cultural patterns. There are a lot of cultural connotations in Chinese and Vietnamese language, although there are a lot of similarities between them, but there are still differences in the way of thinking and expression. By exploring the relationship between language and cultural factors and the influence of word euphemism, euphemism can be seen in two languages in language and culture two aspects of the homogeneous and heterogeneous. On language factor terms, two languages are using assonance to replace human nature discharge, whilst the dissimilaries are metonymy, loan word and personification. On culture factor terms, the convergences are metonymy and application of the semantically-contrary-word-euphemism, whilst the difference is Chinese euphemism using allusion but Vietnamese euphemism does not.
Xiaoya Wu, Huan Peng, Weichao Wang
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 13, pp 27-61; doi:10.5296/ijl.v13i2.18575

Abstract:
In intercultural crisis communication, the globally adopted framework SCCT (Situated Crisis Communication Theory) should be adapted to meet the local contexts. By collecting online posts concerning D&G’s crisis communication from major Chinese social platforms including Sina Weibo, Zhihu (408 posts), WeChat official account (23 posts) as well as Instagram, Facebook and YouTube (344 posts), and with 10 semi-structured interviews (3 university professors and 8 students of different majors) for triangulation, this study analyzes the online posts concerning D&G’s crisis response strategies in China. We find that the public regard denial strategy as being outdated, demonstrating superiority and lack of responsibility; victimage strategy reflecting arrogance and self-centered mindset; moreover, the apologies are analyzed in terms of the manner and content of apology. Effective intercultural communication presupposes equality, mutual respect and empathy; therefore, it is necessary to uphold a glocalization approach to crisis communication.
Najah Ali Al-Jahdali
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 13, pp 85-106; doi:10.5296/ijl.v13i2.18578

Abstract:
This cognitive semantic corpus-based study attempts to outline the biological and social role/s regarding the face in the Hijazi Dialect of Arabic (HDA). The aim is to check the embodied conceptualization in relation to the kinds of emotions, character qualities, and cultural values (Maalej and Yu, 2011) that Hijazi face idioms represent in the conceptual system of HDA-speakers. This paper uses the theoretical framework of the Conceptual Theory of Metaphor and Metonymy (CTMM) (Lakoff & Johnson (1980), Lakoff (1987), and Kövecses (2002)) in analyzing the specific cognitive structures (i.e. conceptual metaphor/s, conceptual metonym/ies, image schema/s) that are thought to be implemented in the conceptual system of those speakers. It also agrees and incorporates Kövescses (2002), Maalej (2004), and Yu's (2009) views on the importance of experience, embodiment, and culture when analyzing idioms to dig beneath what appears on the surface in the form of idiomatic expressions referred by Yu (2002) as the "tip of the iceberg". Representing a rather conservative society, face is seen as a strong reflection of the culture and values embedded in the Hijaz.
Ersilia Incelli
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 13, pp 1-11; doi:10.5296/ijl.v13i2.18417

Abstract:
This contribution aims to present an overview of future predictions about the evolution and status of the English language, in particular as a global lingua franca. The paper considers recent events such as Brexit and the emergence of new economic powers, and the fact that other widely spoken languages could compete with the hegemonic longevity of English as a lingua franca. Although English will certainly remain globally dominant for a large part of the 21st century, new geopolitical landscapes may influence the role of English both in Europe and in the world. This overview is not exhaustive in reporting all the variables in the debate, but it wishes to examine the main issues of concern in the future standing of English.
Lu Zhao, Lu Zou
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 13, pp 12-26; doi:10.5296/ijl.v13i2.18371

Abstract:
The development of pragmatic ability is an essential topic in language acquisition, among which demonstratives are significant to reflect human’s cognition of the relation between language and the environment. The purpose of this research is to investigate the acquisition of spatial demonstratives “zhe” (this) and “na” (that) of Mandarin-speaking children through experimental design (different tool use, e.g. participants pointed at the objects with their finger or a laser pen), exploring the influence of perceptual distance on children’s choice of spatial demonstratives. Through comparison with adults’ data, results supported the view that 5- to 6-year-old children have already developed adult-like cognitive space when it comes to the use of spatial demonstratives, which produced an effect on the use of spatial demonstratives, proving speaker’s subjective involvement in choosing the proximal or distal demonstrative in the process of communication, and rendering more evidence on children’s early development of pragmatic ability.
Quoc Hung Le Pham
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 13, pp 1-9; doi:10.5296/ijl.v13i1.16890

Abstract:
In the field of language research, the measure word is an interesting research topic. In the world language, some languages have measure words, some languages have not. Both Chinese and Vietnamese belong to the language rich in measure words, but due to the differences in language system, cognition and cultural color, there are some differences in the expression of their syntactic structure of the measure word for noun. This study starts from the comparison of Chinese and Vietnamese languages, focusing on the meaning and structure of the measure word for noun commonly used in Chinese and Vietnamese, in order to find the similarities and differences between them.
Willie Mushing Tamfuh
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 13, pp 41-84; doi:10.5296/ijl.v13i1.18170

Abstract:
In recent times, the Cameroon society has witnessed a decline in social and moral values, which has greatly influenced people’s use of language. Over the years, English has equally witnessed a degradation of the language to such an extent that one can talk of corrupt language. Corruption is a key subject that has gained the keen attention of political and social scientists as it affects the political, economic, social and cultural life of a society. This paper sets to identify the systems or rules and conventions according to which the language of corruption operates and concerns the semantic description of the typical words and expressions Cameroonians use to denote this practice in contemporary Cameroon. The idea is that the language we use is a reflection of the society in which we live and a representation of the social reality. This investigation aims to identify, collect and analyse specimens of utterances characteristic of corruption vocabulary and to describe this form of language use from a socio-pragmatic perspective. The scope of study is limited to establish a relationship between people, the language and a complex multilingual society as Cameroon. Data was collected from both oral and written sources as a representation of the opinions gathered from a cross section of Cameroonians. The significance of our study lies in the linguistic description of some characteristic of corruption related discourse. Using the participant observation, both spoken and written data were collected from different sources from the vantage point of functional lexicology and cognitive linguistics. A combination of different known theories, notably; the variation theory, speech act theory, lexico-semantics and the Pragmatic theory relevant to describe an utterance as a speech forms capable of a communicative performative action. Findings reveal that corruption is ubiquitous, corrosive and a dishonest deviant behaviour that severely damages personal and national reputation. To counter this, those engaged in the practice use different speech features such as borrowings, coinages, synonyms, clichés, metaphors and euphemisms. Metaphors and euphemisms are indirect ways speakers communicate important information. The language of corruption is strikingly similar in its soothing, euphemistic tone. Inadvertently, as language users have developed myriads of indirect and camouflage ways to refer to corruption, the language of corruption is also developing its own lexicon and linguistic features.
Samaher AwaduAllah Alhamadi, Aidah Aljuran
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 13, pp 10-25; doi:10.5296/ijl.v13i1.17881

Abstract:
This research was conducted with the aim of investigating the impact of social constructivist SCAMPER model on creative writing skill. Saudi students face difficulties in writing skill, especially in being required to memorize pieces of ready-written paragraphs without any understanding of what they should write and how. The participants were 30 female high school students studying in the third secondary school in Yanbu Industrial City. This study was a quantitative study. The participants were divided into an experimental and a control group. Data was collected by using a pre-post writing test and a questionnaire. The results showed that the social constructivist SCAMPER model had a positive effect on students’ creative writing skill. Also, based on the questionnaire, students showed a positive attitude toward using social constructivist SCAMPER model for developing creative writing. Based on the findings, the social constructivist SCAMPER model is highly recommended to be used in EFL writing classes in order to foster creative writing.
Dana Abdul Rahman Trabulsi, Abdulfattah Abu Ssaydeh
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 13, pp 26-40; doi:10.5296/ijl.v13i1.18177

Abstract:
Intertextuality has always been examined narrowly in the legal sphere despite its paramount significance to the legal translation analysis and pedagogy. For quite some time, the notion of intertextuality was deemed as a literary tool that contributed significantly to the literary works of infamous authors, novelists and poets. Post to a wealth of research to substantiate the omnipresence of intertextuality in other disciplines in general and in legal texts in particular, findings have restricted the notion of intertextuality to quite few phenomena such as citation, cross references, legal judgments, quotations and assimilation. This study, on the other hand, is an attempt to bring other implicit forms of intertextuality in legal written texts to light, through providing evidence-based generalizations about the different forms of intertextuality that are, deliberately or inadvertently, omnipresent in legislative and private legal texts. The notion of intertextuality was broadened to include recurrent legal terminologies and salient syntactic features in contractual agreements. The rhetorical organization of several legislative texts, such as UAE Decree, UAE labor law and an executive order originated from the USA was also closely examined to establish the notion of intertextuality in the structure of such texts. The results revealed that contractual agreements share similar templates and rhetorical organization, and the same holds true for legislative texts. A set of legal terminologies were found to be commonly utilized in lease agreements, employment agreements and Power of attorneys despite their different origins. Finally, the uses of a number of syntactic features were rather remarkable in contractual agreements, such as the abundant use of modal verbs to express obligation and imply futurity.
Mohamed Farhat Mehdi, Mazen Jaradat
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 13, pp 85-97; doi:10.5296/ijl.v13i1.18254

Abstract:
Adverbs are words that are used to change, modify or qualify several types of other words including adjectives, verbs, or other adverbs. There are five basic types of adverbs in the English language, namely that of Manner, Time, Place, Frequency, and Degree. In the Arabic language, there are just two adverbs namely that of Time and Place. This research aimed to prove that the adverb of time exists in both Arabic and English languages and to compare and state the similarities and differences between the two languages. Most importantly, to show which were more the similarities or the differences? The results showed that the similarities were more than the differences despite the fact that the two languages are not from the same family.
Yousef F. Bader, Hala H. Obeidat
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 12, pp 180-205; doi:10.5296/ijl.v12i6.18113

Abstract:
The present study aims to investigate the types of impoliteness strategies used by Jordanian Facebookers when commenting on some local political posts. To achieve this goal, one hundred comments were collected from ten political posts in Jordan. The types of impoliteness strategies were analyzed according to super and sub-strategies following the model of Culpeper (1996). The findings showed that most strategies were used by Jordanian Facebookers in political posts, including the following: bald on record, positive impoliteness, negative impoliteness, and sarcasm impoliteness. In addition, due to the religious orientation of most people, Jordanians often use supplications, a new strategy not mentioned in Culpeper (1996). Negative and sarcasm impoliteness are the most frequent super-strategies, while bald on record is the least frequently used super-strategy. Each negative and positive impoliteness has sub-strategies. Positive impoliteness is expressed into disassociating from the other, being disinterested, seeking disagreement, and using taboo words. Using taboo words is the most dominant type in positive impoliteness. Negative impoliteness is expressed into frightening, condescending, putting the other’s indebtedness on record, and associating the other with a negative aspect. Associating the other with a negative aspect is the most dominant type in negative impoliteness used by Jordanian Facebookers.
Yakoub Abu Taha, Rajai Al-Khanji
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 12, pp 163-179; doi:10.5296/ijl.v12i6.17959

Abstract:
The current study aimed at discovering biases through comparing the used journalistic and lexicalizations practices in quotations patterns and representations of social actors in news coverage of the Gaza Marches of Return. The selected newspapers were The Guardian, the New York Times, The Jordan Times and Haaretz. The study sample comprised 32 news articles and 8 editorials. The findings of the study revealed that more space was given to Israeli political and military actors over their Palestinian counterparts in the New York Times and Haaretz. The Guardian and the Jordan Times quotations of Palestinian civilian actors focused on human suffering and casualties themes while Haaretz and the NYT quoted them instigating deadly attacks among other themes. The use of negative themes along with negative speakers’ descriptions of Palestinian political actors revealed biased stances against Palestinian Civilian Actors. In addition, the used reporting verbs, unbalanced quotations distributions and word counts of social actors’ quotations pointed at biased practices and adoption of one party narrative in the case of the NYT, Haaretz and the Jordan Times.
Misfer Ali Hasan Azzhrani, Ahmed Alghamdi
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 12; doi:10.5296/ijl.v12i6.17866

Abstract:
This study, based on explanatory sequential, mixed methods, descriptive research design, was conducted at eleven hospitals and medical centers in the city of Makkah in the Western Province in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The study aimed at exploring the efficacy of the current ESP courses at Saudi tertiary institutes and whether those courses meet the needs of the medical professionals with regards to medical English language proficiency. In addition, the study explored the needs of English medical language proficiency during an international crisis such as the recent corona virus (covid-19) pandemic. The quantitative and qualitative primary data collection was gathered from the medical professionals' responses to a custom designed, twenty-nine items on a psychometric five-point Likert items and open-ended questions, questionnaire. The overall sample population of the medical professional participants in this study was 315 participates (130 male and 185 female participants). The gathered quantitative data from the questionnaire was statistically analysed and the qualitative data gathered from the three open ended questions was analysed for emergent codes using open coding and eventually forming overarching themes. The findings of the study indicated that medical professionals in KSA regard English medical language proficiency as a vital necessity for the profession, especially during an international crisis requiring global communication and cooperation. Furthermore, the majority of the participants indicated that they are not satisfied with the current English language courses provided on the undergraduate level since they felt that rigid and comprehensive English for Specific Purposes (ESP) courses with designated focus on medical English to meet their English language needs are required. Suggestions and emphasis with regards to the provision of medical ESP at tertiary level institutions in KSA are given and possible recommendations for further research investigations in future are also given.
Muteb Ali Alzahrani
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 12; doi:10.5296/ijl.v12i6.17948

Abstract:
This research paper is a review of the previous literature that focuses on whether or not there is an influence of second language acquisition during 'critical period'. Critical period refers to acquiring a second language before the age of adulthood. Although there is no consensus among linguists on the impact of the critical period, numerous scholars in the field of second language acquisition agree that language learners gain more benefits during the critical period including mastering the phonological system of the target language. In addition, this paper compares between the potential linguistic benefits between young learners who acquire language at an early age of their lives and their older counterparts who begin learning a language after the age of maturation. Interestingly, those who start studying a second language during the critical period usually outperform their older counterparts due to their exceptional memory traits and fresh speech organs ultimately, it displays the appropriate teaching approaches based on age benefiting from the idea of critical period hypothesis.
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 12, pp 116-124; doi:10.5296/ijl.v12i6.17968

Abstract:
Discourse markers (DMs) are used in everyday conversations to serve different meanings and functions. The present exploratory study investigated grammatical positions of focuser like among 60 undergraduate native-English-speaking students at a midwestern university in the United States. Students were asked to read and place focuser like in this sentence: “We have to read five chapters for the final exam”. Then students were required to indicate a degree of acceptability of the placement of like at every possible position in sentences that contained the discourse marker like in 10 different grammatical positions. The results showed that students preferred inserting the DM like before a noun phrase, at the beginning of a sentence, and before a verb phrase, respectively. In terms of gender, females frequently posited focuser like before a sentence, whereas males placed it before a noun phrase. Also, the discourse marker like does not occur within auxiliary. Finally, this study draws conclusions about different grammatical positions and broader usages of discourse marker focuser like among younger students.
Simonetta Vietri
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 12, pp 81-115; doi:10.5296/ijl.v12i6.17808

Abstract:
The aim of this research is to verify the hypotheses on the asymmetry between source and goal PPs from both a syntactic and a cognitive point of view.Nam’s (2004) syntactic analysis shows that Goal PPs behave like adjuncts while Source PPs are internal arguments. Lakusta and Landau’s (2005) cognitive experimental research reveals the tendency in speakers to express Goal paths over Source paths. Landau (2010) suggests that one of the causes of this asymmetry might be related to the lexicon: are there more attachment verbs than detachment verbs? If so, the more frequent exposure to goal paths would explain the goal bias.For this purpose I have classified approximately 500 Italian transitive verbs of motion, the analysis of which revealed that verbs showing a goal pattern account for the vast majority in the lexicon, but also that goal verbs and source verbs behave differently with respect to such properties as transitive-intransitive pronominal alternation and subject alternation. The former is much more frequent with goal verbs, while the latter is applicable only to goal verbs.Furthermore, the application of diagnostics like topicalization and pro-form confirms the syntactic asymmetry between source and goal PPs.
Eatedal Alghamdi, Turki Alsolami
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 12, pp 150-162; doi:10.5296/ijl.v12i6.17949

Abstract:
This study aims to explore perceptions of the benefits and challenges of peer observation among EFL female teachers in Saudi Arabia working in public schools. A mixed-methods research design was adopted, and two sets of data were collected. The first data was collected using a questionnaire where 231 teachers filled, to elicit teachers’ perceptions. The second set of data was collected through a semi-structured interview with six teachers to understand further teachers’ perceptions and challenges to peer observation in their contexts. Findings indicate that despite teachers' positive perceptions shown in the question sure results, interviews revealed that teachers are faced with various challenges that hinder the effective implementation of peer observation.
Alaa’ Mohammad Smadi
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 12, pp 50-80; doi:10.5296/ijl.v12i6.17849

Abstract:
This study aims to analyze quantitatively and quantitatively Arabic journal articles’ abstracts written within the field of social sciences. It mainly aims to analyze the lexical and grammatical qualities of the abstracts in the five academic disciplines; Economy, Geography, Psychology, Sociology, and Law,. To achieve the goal of the study, a corpus consisting of 500,000 words was collected from various well-known Arabic journals, and then it was divided into five sub-corpora each of which represented one academic discipline. The Corpus Linguistics approach was applied to this study and the data were analyzed through using WordSmith tools (version 0.7). The quantitative results show that the abstracts in all disciplines show a similar word mean length, i.e. all of them is around (5). Qualitatively speaking, the results show that each discipline has its list of lexical words that are suitable for each discipline's genre. The results also reveal a small amount of variation in terms of the tense of the reporting verbs specifically those which are used in the introductory part of the abstracts. However, the reporting verbs used in the body and the concluding parts of all abstracts are characterized by the past tense, third person, and active voice.
Mansour Alotaibi
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 12, pp 125-139; doi:10.5296/ijl.v12i6.17895

Abstract:
The default Case is a common phenomenon in Universal Grammar (UG). There are some languages which require that all Noun Phrases have Case. For these languages default Case meets something that has become known as the Case Filter (Rouveret and Vergnaud 1980). This is to say, if a particular Noun Phrase is not assigned a Case in association with some specification in some other part of the grammar, then default Case assignment principle can apply. Typical cross-linguistic default Cases are Nominative or Genitive, though the value of the default Case can vary from one language to another. While the default Case in English is accusative, it is nominative in most languages. The default mechanism which assigns this value is only invoked when the structural mechanism is not applicable. This paper argues, by citing multiple cross-linguistic examples, that assumption of a default Case in a language accounts for a better understanding of its syntactic and morphological structure. Based on Schütze’s (2001) proposal for English, it develops a theory to account for the default Case in Standard Arabic (SA). It argues that nominal expressions in SA do not receive nominative Case by assignment of other syntactic means. As such, its mechanism does not interact with the Case Filter, which is assumed to be a syntactic constraint. This paper shows that diverse phenomena in the distribution of nominative nominal expressions in SA can be treated using default Case. Previous studies have ample evidence that such phenomena from other languages have proved that instances for default Case are common, and furthermore, that there are opportunities within the Case framework to reduce the cross-linguistic differences in Case patterns in the event of choosing a default Case.
Duo Yun, Jianying Zhang
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 12, pp 34-49; doi:10.5296/ijl.v12i6.17983

Abstract:
The present study aims to find out the anxiety of Chinese EFL learners as well as its relationship with self-efficacy in the online learning environment. A total of 492 Chinese college students from different regions participated in the research. The data obtained from the questionnaire survey were submitted to SPSS version 25.0 to do analysis. The results revealed that: (1) most English learners have a relatively high level anxiety toward online learning under the special pandemic situation, and the anxiety varies among students of different academic years; (2) there is a weak negative correlation between learning anxiety and self-efficacy (3) Anxiety affects self-efficacy in a negative way. More specifically, teaching mode and external environment have a significantly negative effect on self-efficacy.
Mu'ath Algazo
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 12, pp 140-149; doi:10.5296/ijl.v12i6.17859

Abstract:
This study aims to identify functions (Note 1) of teachers’ first language (L1) use in English as a foreign language (EFL) classes in public schools in Jordan based on students’ observations. The questionnaire items were selected based on the most common uses of L1 in second language (L2) classrooms as identified in the literature. The questionnaire was designed to elicit students’ observations to identify functions of EFL teachers’ L1 in English classes. The participants were 104 EFL students in Grades 10 and 11 in four Jordanian public schools. Participants’ responses to the questionnaire were analysed quantitatively using SPSS, a statistical software package. The study found that the students observed that their teachers shared their L1 with them in English classes to: 1) Explain complex grammar points, 2) Define some new vocabulary items, 3) Explain difficult concepts or ideas, 4) Give instructions, 5) Praise the students, 6) Translate the reading texts, and 7) Explain the similarities and differences between Arabic and English in terms of grammar, structure or pronunciation. However, the students did not observe that their teachers used the L1 in order to maintain discipline in the class as previous studies have found. The findings suggest that teachers’ L1 use in the L2 classroom may indicate the usefulness of this practice and call to license EFL teachers to use their L1 in English classes in public school in Jordan and other similar EFL contexts.
Juhaina Maen Al-Issawi
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 12, pp 95-110; doi:10.5296/ijl.v12i5.17513

Abstract:
This study aims at examining how the lexical choice of a given discourse is determined by different factors such as the type of the discourse, the content and the medium of the message, and the ideological perspectives of the tourism persuader. More specifically, the study focuses on selecting adjectives in the Jordanian tourism official websites compared to European and Asian counterparts. The finding of the study shows that adjective lexical selection, together with their collocational behavior plays a crucial role in the tourism promotional discourse. The lexical choice of adjectives is also semantically restricted in that only limited meanings of the adjectives in the discourse are used. Accordingly, the vocabulary of the Jordanian tourism websites is characterized by the co-presence of two main types of adjectives: the descriptive adjectives, describing details about the targeted destination; and evaluative adjectives, conveying positive attitudes.
, Reem A. Alosaimi
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 12, pp 255-271; doi:10.5296/ijl.v12i5.17712

Abstract:
This study utilized a developed MCDA (Multimodal Critical Discourse Analysis) framework proposed by Machin and Mayr (2012). It intends to uncover how interceded verbal and visual choices cooperate to show a shift in the construction of the female Saudi lawyer’s identity in two articles, Saudi and Iranian. The framework is indebted to Van Dijk's (1998) work in which CDA was viewed as a multidisciplinary field where ideology was the basic theory. The MCDA showed that both articles, i.e., Iranian and Saudi, maintained different ideologies in their representations of the first female Saudi lawyer's achievement and used different linguistic and visual choices to portray this achievement.
Mahmoud S. Al Mahmoud
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 12; doi:10.5296/ijl.v12i5.17503

Abstract:
This paper endeavors to explain how Najdi Arabic (NA), one of the dialects spoken in the central region of the Arabian Peninsula, diverges from Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) in its anaphoric treatment of R-expressions and pronominals. Data from a native Najdi Arabic informant suggest that only a subset of NA verbs allow proper names to be referentially bound by their antecedent pronouns in interrogative structures. Although this property is characteristic of Najdi Arabic not MSA, it yields certain challenges to the basic tenets of the Binding Theory. While Principle C of the Binding Theory requires R-expressions to be free, a referential reading of the NA data, which syntactically binds proper names with their pronominal referents, violates such principle.
Lin Zhu
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 12, pp 226-238; doi:10.5296/ijl.v12i5.17725

Abstract:
From cognitive and typological perspective, the emotion function and discourse manipulation of language are investigated and discussed. The framework of this paper is based on the cognition approach of emotion and concerned with the emotion mechanisms and the relationship between automatic and reflective evaluations. The grounding of language in emotional states can be influenced by discourse-level factors and manipulated for pragmatic purpose. Based on this approach, I propose that discourse manipulation might have a major impact on the emotion appraisal and communication through the four distinctive dimensions of emotion: arousal, valence, dominance, and subjective significance. And then I dealt with typological evidence by investigating the discourse manipulation of sentence-ended particles through the arousal, valence, dominance, and subjective significance dimensions of emotion.
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 12, pp 154-172; doi:10.5296/ijl.v12i5.17544

Abstract:
The present study examines the claim that definite relative clauses in Modern Standard Arabic exhibit free variation between resumptive pronouns and gaps. The implication of such a claim presents a problem for minimalist syntax that does not tolerate true optionality. To solve this problem, the study argues that the original claim is incorrect and that despite similarities in the PF outputs, resumptive relatives are syntactically different from gapped relatives. While the latter is derived from a standard VSO structure, I propose, the former is derived from a topic-comment structure that already contains an RP. Thus, the fact that resumptive relatives contain resumptive pronouns has nothing to do with relativization, as is generally assumed. The study demonstrates that both resumptive relatives and gapped relatives are derived by movement in contexts that do not involve islands. As it turns out, resumption in relatives is used only as a last resort strategy to save structures in which movement is genuinely blocked, such as islands, from crash. Altogether the study concludes that the variation observed does not reflect true optionality, a finding that supports robust economy principles of minimalist syntax.
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 12, pp 173-198; doi:10.5296/ijl.v12i5.17851

Abstract:
The current study aims to investigate the influence of interlingual and intralingual interference as sources of the errors of past and perfect tenses. The former refers to the errors generated by the negative effect of EFL learners' mother tongue as they try to bridge certain linguistic gabs. The latter, however, is pertaining to the errors produced by the target language itself as learners progressed in the learning process and face difficulties to employ the large amount of knowledge they have just acquired. The participants chosen are EFL Saudi Undergraduates whose academic specialisation is English. The result of the study showed that there was statistically significant difference between intralingual interference strategy and first language negative transfer as sources of errors of the past and present perfect tenses. This result revealed that the participants have reached a linguistic stage where the diverse rules of the target language itself create confusion for learners. The intralingual interference led the participants to making errors in the simple past, the past progressive, and the past perfect far more than when using L1 negative transfer strategy. While the first language negative transfer led the participants to committing errors in the present perfect progressive tense more so than when using the intralingual interference strategy. This result simply indicated that the difference in timeframe between Arabic and English led to significant number of errors which the students often transfer from their native language.
Yilun Yang, Liping Chen
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 12, pp 199-209; doi:10.5296/ijl.v12i5.17854

Abstract:
Is responsible for introducing research, attracting readers and other multiple functions, and has its own unique characteristics of discourse construction. Through objective analysis of the characteristics of discourse construction in abstracts published by Chinese and foreign scholars in international English journals, the accuracy of the expression of the articles can be increased. The author builds his own corpus and makes a contrastive analysis of the frequency, types and distribution of fuzzy restrictive language in each step of English abstracts in Chinese and foreign journals, and summarizes the unique short language types and textual functions of each step. The results show that the distribution trend of hedges in the fourth step of English abstracts in Chinese and foreign journals is generally the same, but there are significant differences in the types of use and the frequency of occurrence. Therefore, in English abstract writing, Chinese authors should properly use various types of rhetorical devices to enhance the diversity of language expression, so as to better obtain the recognition of readers.
Wenchao Li
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 12, pp 239-254; doi:10.5296/ijl.v12i5.17733

Abstract:
This study tackles sequential voicing in Old Japanese with a focus on three matters: (a) the interaction of the eight vowels and aspirated consonants; (b) the association of the written system and sequential voicing; and (c) the interaction between the combinationality of each constituent and sequential voicing. Four hundred and seventy-two compound nouns of Old Japanese were collected from the corpus ‘The Japanese Lexicon: A Rendaku Encyclopedia’ by NINJAL. The findings reveal that (i) /k/ has the largest token number of sequential voicing and /p/ has the second largest token number, followed by /s/ and /t/; (ii) regarding the eight vowels /a/, /e1/, /e2/, /i1/, /i2/, /o1/, /o2/ and /u/, /a/ is most likely to form a [N1-N2] whose initial consonant is /k/, /p/ and /t/. It is not likely for the vowel /a/ to invite a voiced ‘/s/-initial’ N1’; /o1/ and /o2/ are both likely to combine with a voiced consonant /k/; /t/ and are less likely to yield a voiced /s/; /e1/ is more likely to invite a voiced consonant than /e2/, but /e1/ does not invite a voiced /p/; /e2/ does not yield a voiced /s/; and /i1/ is likely to take a voiced consonant than /i2/. /k/ and /t/ are the two consonants that are most likely to be voiced when forming a N-N with N1 ends with /i1/. /i2/ does not invite a voiced /p/, /s/ or /t/; /u/ never results in a voiced /s/; (iii) there is a split in the characters that renders a voiced phoneme or an unvoiced phoneme; and (iv) the semantic relationship of N1 and N2 in [N1-N2] that bears sequential voicing is of six types, of which the most frequent relationship of N1 and N2 is [Modifier - N2]. The [prefix-N2] construction is not subject to sequential voicing.
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 12, pp 210-225; doi:10.5296/ijl.v12i5.17782

Abstract:
Assessment is an integral part of teaching and learning in educational organizations that requires teachers to prepare tests in order to evaluate their learners’ performance. In language teaching contexts, traditional assessment often evaluates learners’ knowledge of previously learned language items. It is a mandatory process that determines the progress of language learners and the effectiveness of teaching/learning materials. This theoretical article reviews the literature on the notion of traditional assessment or static assessment which has certain shortcomings. Owing to the various drawbacks of static assessment, the review of related literature on the topic highlights and proposes alternative assessment methods, such as authentic assessment, dynamic assessment, peer assessment, and self-assessment. In contrast to traditional assessment, these different forms of alternative assessment share a common purpose that is to provide language learners with an opportunity to reflect on their strengths and weaknesses and set their future learning goals. The most common of the assessment methods that encourage learners' reflection were peer assessment and self-assessment which involve learners to assess their own progress as well as engage with peers in classrooms to give each other feedback on their language learning tasks assigned by teachers. The studies reviewed in this article illustrate that alternative assessment methods in the form of peer and self-assessment have a positive influence on the language learners' performance and their learning outcomes.
Aram A Alhabib
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 12, pp 142-153; doi:10.5296/ijl.v12i5.17618

Abstract:
Following Martin and Rose’s (2007) Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) approach, this paper, adopting qualitative analysis, analyzed Barack Hussein Obama’s Inaugural Address “new era of responsibility” from the perspective of Appraisal System. Martin and Rose (2007) divided Appraisal System into three distinct sub-systems: Source (Engagement), Amplification, and Attitude. In the process of detailed analysis, this paper focused on Obama’s Attitude, the feelings, and values that are negotiated with the audience (Affect, Judgment, and Appreciation), towards his speech. Analyzing the data that falls under the genre of political discourse, it could be inferred that the address employed three kinds of Attitudes; Affect, Judgment, and Appreciation. The findings of the study revealed that Obama’s speech was full of hope and a positive attitude toward the future of the United States. The president used accessible language but still formal; he used affirmative and simple direct sentences in his speech, so he can easily shorten the distance between him and the audience.
Abibatou Diagne
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 12, pp 121-141; doi:10.5296/ijl.v12i5.17744

Abstract:
In this paper, we study the lexical morphology of Wolof and tools for terminologization. We focus on prefixes and suffixes. We will apply morphological analysis using the NooJ tool for the identification and extraction of terms from a corpus. We will also discuss the modality of corpus constitution and sources.The lexicon and morphology of Wolof are pretexts for terminological work. Beyond the linguistic aspects, we are interested in the sociolinguistic implications of the development of terminological units in this language. This is part of the general framework of language planning which, to be effective, must be taken into account through a clear and accepted language policy. The social impact covers the fields of scientific and general culture, thus contributing to the vitality of the language, to its social consolidation and to a change in the perception of speakers towards Wolof.Terminologie wolof: morphologie lexicale et implications sociolinguistiques
James Xianxing Du
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 12, pp 30-94; doi:10.5296/ijl.v12i5.17716

Abstract:
Multilingual mutual match in biblical etymology is a secret of civilization and definitive evidence for creation, presented for the first time in history. 恐terror is error to carry ark by two poles工to battlefield, 謬mistake is to take ark marked by cherubim to shed blood , 奉 dedication has two dactyl hands to offer cattle as tithe, 祝blessing is sibling兄, 嬰Infant is financial貝to fiancé and fiancée, 音Sound has Son童, sonic is in prison , 辨to distinguish digital hands is related to Jonah’s debate辯, 諒to forgive is related to whale鲸and capital京, and黥criminal label has capital after殳killing Abel from穀grain offering. Biblical books such as Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus and Jonah are astonishingly validated by bilingual mutual match in biblical etymology. Bilingual mutual match links退quit to quite很, 骄pride to bridge桥, 宴banquet to bank堰, 霉mould to plum blossom梅, 園garden to garment衣, 悛repent to paternal公Adam, 悔remorse to maternal母Eve, 濁opacity to optic目, 稠dense to seeds禾on altar口, 脯sausage to use用, 恿urge to courage勇, religion to grill and logged legal book, 忿anger and rage to revenge in segregation分, and朝morning to mourn悼. Many affixes are presented, such as nat+vowel of native, innate and nation as tone, wh as human near water, 乍restricted motion in炸explosion, migration to circumvent giant巨, a motion affix , 夭human to flee, 匽to hide Moses in basket near Nile bank堰, 兆water and fire, co-carriage of ark and altar, 用/甬/甫as altar’s service, and as star. Known affixes such as com, tech, 巴, , 貝and曼curtain also match biblical etymology. 爸father is to thaw fat肥in faith at thermal altar, 疤scar has sacred worshiper巴, and relative is related to altar. Creatures have biblical etymology. Clove is created to resemble cloud, tendril resembles spilled blood lines on tent’s curtain, 藤vine has vineyard , vessel舟, fire and Noah’s hands , dolphin has phonic ultrasound, and elephant has elevated sound. The systematic bilingual match in biblical etymology spans all categories. Wednesday is water condensation and seed day, 奥/謎 mystery has star , 樂music, smile and laugh have semi and halves, 球sphere/globe is ephod/robe裘’s pomegranate, textile has to exit in exile, filament has flame, fiber has fire, desperation is to tear apart dress, inheritance and heritage繼are to tear attire and fragment斷garment, 亵blasphemy is to take执divided clothes for military to humiliate Son, satire has attire, mock is blocked sunlight, Corpse is sacred Sarco on cross, 讽sarcasm is Sarco and crazy疯to validate Jesus, oath is to heat theological offering cut with hatchet, family has flame for kin to kindle, meal in flame is alumni, to incite is to incinerate, to instigate is to ignite, to stimulate is meal at flame of altar, health is to heat wheat at altar, tomb is mobility, and town is own tone and own tower, solving the etymology of numerous words. In conclusion, the entire languages of English and China and also words in additional ancient languages must have been divinely created in etymology to predestinedly and mutually match each other, and equally astonishingly, match bible, as the origin of language.
Lima A Alzamil
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 12, pp 17-29; doi:10.5296/ijl.v12i5.17486

Abstract:
The widespread popularity of social media networks has encouraged learners to use them for learning purposes. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the overall Saudi EFL learners' attitudes towards the use of Instagram as a language learning tool. It also examined the effect of gender on learners' attitudes. The study was conducted among 120 male and female EFL learners at Qassim University using a questionnaire. The results revealed that subjects had relatively positive attitudes toward the use of Instagram as a language learning tool. The results also indicated that there are no significant differences between male and female EFL learners in terms of their attitudes towards the use of Instagram as a language learning tool. The study concluded with implications related to how Instagram should be used as a supportive tool in English language teaching and learning.
Pietro Manzella, Bruce E. Kaufman
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 12, pp 111-120; doi:10.5296/ijl.v12i5.17489

Abstract:
This paper examines the English-language term ‘industrial goodwill’, which was introduced into industrial relations discourse by John R. Commons in his book Industrial Goodwill (1919). The paper then goes on to investigate the challenges resulting from the attempts to translate this concept into Italian, as no equivalent exists in the target language which fully captures its English meaning. More generally, this case study is used to highlight the relevance of language in comparative research. This is particularly true in industrial relations, as concepts in this domain are frequently culture and context specific.
Meymouna Bourzeg
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 12, pp 197-213; doi:10.5296/ijl.v12i4.17557

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Bo Hu, Hong Chen
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 12, pp 252-279; doi:10.5296/ijl.v12i4.17595

Abstract:
Modal auxiliary verbs are a type of verb that expresses the speaker’s attitude and opinion towards a proposition or an event. This paper investigates the syntactic features of modal auxiliary verbs in different languages from the aspects of semantic constraints, the deletion of complement clauses, constituent movement, pseudo-cleft construction and temporal and aspect markers, and analyzes relevant hypotheses of modal auxiliary verbs under the framework of generative grammar. We challenge the assumption that modal verbs are raising verbs, argue that modal auxiliary verbs should be analyzed as raising or control verbs.
Xuan Teng, Xinhui Zhou
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 12, pp 214-232; doi:10.5296/ijl.v12i4.17376

Abstract:
Although writing is an important skill, the writings of many high school students in China in general lack cohesion and coherence. As the Chinese National English Curriculum Standards for High School (2017) mentioned, the cultivation of senior high school students’ discourse competence is of great importance. However, traditional teaching methods paid little attention to student writing at the discourse level. In recent years, collaborative writing has been introduced to writing classes, and most researchers examined its effect on students’ writing interests andwriting scores. The purpose of this study is therefore to investigate whether collaborative writing has a positive effect on students’ discourse competence. Specifically, it seeks to explore the effect of collaborative writing on students’ textual cohesion and textual coherence.Students’ writing assignments were analyzed using Coh-Metrix 3.0. Their interaction was analyzed through the perspective of sociocultural theory. The results showed that collaborative writing effectively promoted senior high school students’ textual cohesion and coherence. It also mediated their co-construction of knowledge about discourse through peer-peer scaffolding, which led to higher level of discourse competence.
Aseel I Alzamil
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 12, pp 127-138; doi:10.5296/ijl.v12i4.17214

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Zhanghong Xu, Xiaolin Liu
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 12, pp 103-126; doi:10.5296/ijl.v12i4.17182

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Francesca Santulli
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 12, pp 43-64; doi:10.5296/ijl.v12i4.16931

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Omar Bani Mofarrej, Ghaleb Rabab'ah
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 12, pp 65-80; doi:10.5296/ijl.v12i4.17360

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Lara Mantovan
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 12, pp 18-42; doi:10.5296/ijl.v12i4.16859

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Zixuan Zhang, Yumei Ju
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 12, pp 171-184; doi:10.5296/ijl.v12i4.17351

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Abdulmoneim Mahmoud
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 12, pp 185-196; doi:10.5296/ijl.v12i4.17533

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Giuseppe Formato
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 12, pp 233-251; doi:10.5296/ijl.v12i4.17423

Abstract:
Visual arts are culturally and historically significant to Italy and a reason why many people study the Italian language. This significance is visible in Italian-language classes, from mentions of high art in beginner-level textbooks to entire courses taught in advanced-level Italian devoted to these arts and their respective movements. The importance of these works to art history and to humanity at large cannot be denied relative to learning about Italian culture in the classroom. However, as presented in this literature review, it may be useful to reevaluate how these more traditional teaching subjects can be considered neutral, with a heavy emphasis on instruction as well as a subconscious perpetuation of racist, sexist, and capitalist ideals. By instead drawing upon the contemporary Italian Arte Povera movement a tool of critical pedagogy from beginner to advanced Italian-language courses, Italian art culture and language can be taught by using a more political, multidimensional approach focused on the learners’ contexts and histories. Thus, students may better understand themselves through Italian language and foster critical thinking, in addition to ultimately acquiring the language.
Christopher D. Sams
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 12, pp 155-170; doi:10.5296/ijl.v12i4.17445

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