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, Kieng H. Ong, , Anton Vonk-Noordegraaf, Coen A. C. Ottenheijm
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 02, pp 104-107; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2012.24021

Abstract:
Diaphragm eventration or paralysis causes elevation of the ipsilateral diaphragm. Some patients have symptoms. The most common symptom is dyspnea. In symptomatic patients with unilateral diaphragm paralysis and dyspnea disproportionate to the degree of physical activity, diaphragm plication is the treatment of choice to relieve dyspnea. We report on our experience with laparoscopic plication of a paralysed hemidiaphragm. The laparoscopic approach is an attractive surgical alternative for the treatment of phrenic nerve palsy. This technique combines the advantage of an excellent field of vision during surgery with a fast postoperative recovery and early discharge from hospital. In accordance to recent literature, we have successfully applied the laparoscopic approach to treat our patients who suffered from a unilateral paralysis of the diaphragm. Preoperative symptoms of exertional dyspnea and orthopnea were significantly reduced.
, Jean Berjaud, Claire Renaud, Pierre Berthoumieu, ,
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 02, pp 111-117; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2012.24023

Abstract:
Background: Esophageal perforation is a rare and potentially life-threatening condition requiring urgent management. Successful therapy depends on the underlying etiology, clinical presentation, the time between rupture and diagnosis, the extent of the rupture and the underlying health of the patient. Method: From 2005 to 2012, the author retrospectively analyzed 36 patients treated for esophageal perforation. Data were evaluated for cause of perforation, symptoms, comorbidities, the method of diagnosis, delay in diagnosis, therapeutic regimen, complications, hospital stay, follow-up and mortality. Results: The cause of perforation were iatrogenic in 14 cases (38.8%), foreign body ingestion in 11 (30.5%), spontaneous in 9 (25%), chest trauma in 1 (2.8%) and esophageal cancer in 1 case (2.8%). The most frequent signs and symptoms were chest pain in 27 cases (75%), fever in 15 (41.6%), dysphagia in 11 (30.5%), mediastinitis in 9 (25%) and vomiting in 8 (22%). The treatment included surgery in 26 cases (72.2%) which consists of thoracotomy (right or left), with or without esophageal suturing, washing, drainage with three chest tubes, jejunostomy and gastrostomy. The second group were patients treated medically in 10 cases (27.8%), medical treatment includes nil per os (NPO), parenteral nutrition, intravenous antibiotics and observation. Complications include fever (n = 14), auricular fibrillation (n = 7), esophageal fistula (n = 3), reoperation (n = 2), renal failure (n = 2), cerebrovascular accident (n = 1), pulmonary embolism (n = 1), pneumonia (n = 1) and deep vein thrombosis (n = 1). The average hospital stay for patients treated surgically was 36 days and for patients treated medically was 14.2 days. The overall mortality was 25% involving 8 patients treated surgically and 1 patient treated medically. Conclusion: The treatment method still must be chosen on an individual basis. Rapid diagnosis of this often life threatening condition is critical for expediting the choice of an optimal treatment strategy, whether surgical or non-surgical.
Rahul Vemula, , Lournes J. Willekes Ii
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 02, pp 108-110; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2012.24022

Abstract:
Osteochondroma is the most common benign cartilage tumor. Although, most lesions are asymptomatic, life-threatening conditions caused osteochondromas have been reported in the literature such pneumothorax, hemothorax, diaphragmatic rupture, and lung injury. We report a case of a thirty year old male who presented with shortness of breath and was found to have a pneumothorax on chest X-ray. Subsequent Computed Tomography of the chest revealed a 1.3 cm growth on the posterior portion of the fourth right rib protruding into the right middle lobe. The patient underwent thoracoscopic resection of the lesion along with a wedge resection of the right middle lobe. The rib was reconstructed using a metal plate. He remains asymptomatic without recurrence on a one year follow up.
Moussa Bazongo, Gilbert Patindé Bonkoungou, Lamine Mohamed Sissoko, Mamadou Windsouri, Clarisse Laure Yaméogo, Rodrigue Namékinsba Doamba, Adama Sawadogo, Sadio Yena, Adama Sanou
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 07, pp 46-53; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2017.73007

Abstract:
Objective: To report our experience of the esophageal plasty for caustic stenosis of the esophagus. Methods: Retrospective study of caustic stenosis of the esophagus in patients aged over 15 years, operated in Ouagadougou from 2008 to 2016. Nine patients were operated. Patients ranged in age from 25 to 53 years. Caustic ingestion was voluntary in 6 cases. Psychiatric disorders were confirmed in one case. The type of surgery and the postoperative evolution were analyzed. Results: In 6 patients the plasty was preceded by a gastrostomy or a feeding jejunostomy. The transplant, always placed in retro sternal position, was colic in 8 cases and gastric in one case. The evolution was marked by the occurrence of a cervical fistula in 5 cases, postoperative peritonitis in 2 cases, parietal suppuration in 2 cases and pneumothorax in 3 cases. One case of death was noted. After a follow-up of 6 months to 9 years, we noted a case of dysphagia. Conclusion: Esophageal plasty is a saving gesture that restores normal nutrition to the patient. It deserves to be promoted.
Masaho Okada, Hirotaka Watanuki, Kayo Sugiyama, Yasuhiro Futamura, Katsuhiko Matsuyama
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 07, pp 39-45; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2017.73006

Abstract:
A case of abnormal chordae of the mitral valve (MV) associated with systolic anterior motion (SAM) is not commonly encountered in clinical practice. Here we report MV repair via the edge-to-edge technique in a 56-year-old male with MV regurgitation associated with papillary muscle displacement and posterior leaflet prolapse. Echocardiography revealed obstruction of the left ventricular outflow tract caused by SAM because of papillary muscle displacement and mitral regurgitation associated with posterior leaflet prolapse due to chordae rupture. MV repair was successfully performed by reconstruction with an Alfieri stitch. The outcome of this case demonstrated that this surgical technique is preferable for MV abnormalities with no complex malformations.
Abdel-Maguid Ramadan, Adel Rizk, Ayman Nosseir, Tamer Zakhary, Sarah Waheeb
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 07, pp 29-37; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2017.72005

Abstract:
Background: Chest trauma is a catastrophic event that affects large number of population and leads to morbidity, disability and mortality. The definition of an occult pneumothorax is uncontested. It is a pneumothorax that was not suspected on the basis of clinical examination or plain radiography, but was ultimately detected with CT and usually treated conservatively. We evaluated the success of selective conservative management of small pneumothorax following stab chest injuries, in Emergency Department patients. Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 30 adult patients admitted to the emergency department with small traumatic pneumothorax following stab injury. All enrolled patients (n = 30) were assessed for the following, demographic data, laboratory investigations, chest x-ray and CT scan. The outcomes measured were discharge safely after successful conservative management, Initial conservative then invasive measurement. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between conservative and non-conservative types of management in the incidence of complications after 1 week follow up (p = 0.001). Conclusion: The majority of asymptomatic small pneumothorax patients following a stab injury can be managed conservatively. Haphazard chest tube insertion and aging may lead to complications in such patients.
Edgar Ouangré, Maurice Zida, Moussa Bazongo, Elie Yamba Sawadogo, Aristide Sam, Rock Kafando, , Si Simon Traoré
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 07, pp 23-28; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2017.72004

Abstract:
Introduction: Thoracic wounds by firearms are frequent and severe. They may involve the patient’s prognosis. Objective: To study the epidemiological, clinical, paraclinical, therapeutic and evolutionary aspects of the thoracic wounds by firearms. Material and method: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study of all patients over the age of 15 who consulted in the university hospital-YO in the department of general and digestive surgery over a period of 5 years. Results: We collected 50 cases of thoracic wounds by firearms on 183 thoracic wounds with a prevalence of 27.3%. There were 48 men (96%). The average age was 30 years. The patients came from urban areas in 66% of cases; the informal sector accounted for 44% of the cases. The pistol was the most involved firearm (46.9%). The consultation period was less than 6 hours in 78% of patients. An unstable hemodynamic state was found in 42% (n = 21). A fluid and mixed pleural effusion syndrome was found in 46% and 26% of patients, respectively. Associated lesions were diaphragm involvement, and lesions of intra-abdominal hollow organs. Thoracic drainage was performed in 24 patients (48%) and was associated with a laparotomy in 8 patients. The average hospital stay was 7.5 days. Mortality was 14%. Conclusion: the thoracic wounds by firearms are frequent in civilian practice. The thoracic CT allows mapping of the lesions and thoracic drainage constitutes the essential part of surgical treatment. The fight against the proliferation of weapons deserves to be promoted.
, , Hiroki Mori, Eiichi Chosa, Kunihide Nakamura
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 05, pp 35-42; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2015.53008

Abstract:
A 64-year-old female had noticed an 11 × 6 cm mass growing on her left first rib. We performed a resection of the first and second ribs and a reconstruction of the chest wall. A thoracotomy was performed at the anterolateral second intercostal space. The second rib cartilage was divided at the left parasternum. Based on a transmanubrial osteomuscular sparing approach, the left-upper part of the sternum and the first rib cartilage were both cut at the left clavicular-sternum joint. The posterior parts of the two ribs involving the tumor were resected at the transverse process of the vertebral bone by tearing off the anterior, middle, and posterior scalene muscles, subclavicular artery and vein. The defect size of the thorax was 15 × 9 cm, which was reconstructed by covering with a polytetrafluoroethylene dual mesh (Dual mesh, Gore tex, 2 mm). The major pectoral muscle flap was used to cover the mesh. The postoperative pathological examination diagnosed a poorly differentiated fibrosarcoma. Eventually, she had palliative therapy for the postoperative metastatic chest wall. She died 14 months after the operation.
Anna Hartmann Schmidt, Thomas Decker Christensen, Line Bille Madsen, Anette Højsgaard, Sten Schytte, Hans Kristian Pilegaard
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 05, pp 21-25; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2015.52005

Abstract:
Primary tracheal cancer is a well-known disease while metastases to the trachea from distant sites are exceedingly rare. We report a case of endotracheal metastasis from a colon cancer in a female, who underwent surgery for a sigmoid cancer with no metastases. Five years later, she was diagnosed with a solitary pulmonary metastasis and underwent a left lower lobectomy. After further two years, a tracheal metastasis was found. She was successfully treated with a tracheal resection. In conclusion, it is important to know that colorectal cancer may provide endotracheal metastases. Definitive and aggressive treatment of these metastases is advisable.
, Makoto Taoka, Imun Tei, Shuko Nakamura, Ei-Ichi Tei
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 02, pp 10-12; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2012.21003

Abstract:
A 72-year-old man with abdominal aortic aneurysm and angina pectoris underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) prior to abdominal aortic surgery. Perioperatively, he developed thrombocytopenia ((29,000 mm3), which was suggested as heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Cardiac status was also aggravated at the same time, suggestive of bypass graft thrombosis. The results of platelet factor 4 (pf4) antibody test were negative, but platelet aggregation test was positive for heparin. Heparin was immediately discontinued, and replaced by argatroban; the patient’s cardiac status improved. One month later, he underwent abdominal aortic surgery using argatroban without issues related to anticoagulation and hemostasis. Autologous donated fresh blood prepared by the “switch-back” method was also used in this case, and its value was confirmed.
, , , Axel Haverich, Malakh L. Shrestha
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 02, pp 13-14; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2012.21004

Abstract:
Cerebral Thrombemboli with left ventricular origin are occasionally seen in patients with post-infarction left ventricular aneurysm or dilatativer cardiomyopathy of non-ischemic cause. Freedom of medical history of cardiac disease and corresponding symptoms may delay the proper diagnosis, particularly in patients with distinct neurological symptoms and normal findings in electrocardiogram or cerebral MRI. We report on a rare case of long standing neurological symptoms and late diagnosis of a left ventricular thrombus without clinical symptoms or medical history of cardiac disease. The patient underwent a thrombus extraction via left ventricular apical approach. He was discharged from hospital after an uneventful course in our clinic with remaining mild neurological symptoms that were partially recurrent under physiotherapy and logopedic therapy in the course of the following two years. An echocardiographical evaluation of cardiac function and exclusion of a cardiac source of emboli as a first line diagnostic tool may have led to an early diagnosis. Therefore, it should be implemented in the routine examination, independent of cardiac history or present cardiac symptoms.
Aarne Jyrala, Nicole M. Gatto, Gregory L. Kay
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 02, pp 5-9; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2012.21002

Abstract:
Background: Phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDI) are used in cardiac surgery to improve and stabilize cardiac function after surgery. The aim of this study is to evaluate changes in hemodynamics and early outcomes when PDI (Inocor/inamrinone) is given in terminal warm blood cardioplegia to on-pump CABG only patients and compare results with patients who did not receive the drug. Material and methods: From April 2003 through September 2004 241 pts underwent elective on-pump CABG only surgery. 141 pts received Inocor in the terminal warm blood cardioplegia (Group 1) and 100 pts did not (Group 2). Results: Demographic data, preoperative EuroSCORE risk scores and operative details were similar. Of pts preoperatively in sinus rhythm (SR) 80.15% in Group 1 and 69.79% in Group 2 regained spontaneous SR (p = 0.07) after release of crossclamp. Inotropic support was needed in 5 pts in Group 1 and in 12 pts in Group 2, p = 0.02. Post cardiopulmonary by-pass (CPB) IABP support was needed for 4 pts in Group 2 and none for Group 1 pts, p = 0.01. There was no operative mortality in either Group and hospital/30 day mortality was similar (3/2.13% vs 3/3.00%, p = 0.69). There were no statistical difference in stay in postoperative intensive care unit (p = 0.15), total hospital stay (p = 0.07), appearance of postoperative atrial fibrillation (p = 0.23) or appearance of postoperative kidney injury (p = 0.27). Post CPB cardiac index improved 16.90% in Group1but decreased 1.49% in Group 2, p < 0.0001. Mean arterial pressure decreased 7.46%in Group 1 pts and 5.08% in Group 2 pts, p = 0.002, but no pts in either Group needed medication for too low blood pressure. Systemic vascular resistance decreased 28.40% in Group 1 and 9.02% in Group 2, p < 0.0001. Conclusions: Inamrinone in terminal warm blood cardioplegia (hot shot) is safe and effective way to improve and stabilize cardiac function after on-pump CABG surgery but does not affect short-term outcomes.
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 02, pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2012.21001

Abstract:
Background: Multiple valve surgery exposes patients to major morbidity and mortality. Little is known about the effect of gender on the outcomes of multiple valve surgery. Methods: In 69 patients who had multiple valve surgery for rheumatic valvular heart disease, 51 patients had mitral and aortic valve replacement, 9 patients had mitral and aortic valve replacement and tricuspid valve repair, 4 patients had mitral valve replacement and tricuspid valve repair, 4 patients had mitral and tricuspid valve repair, and 1 patient had mitral and tricuspid valve replacement. Outcomes were evaluated with univariate analysis. Results: Women had significantly smaller body surface area and smaller left ventricular end-systolic area than men. Women and men had similar left ventricular ejection fraction and New York Heart Association functional class. Univariate analysis showed that in women (but not men), older age, atrial fibrillation, lower left ventricular ejection fraction, and New York Heart Association functional class II and III were associated with longer hospital and intensive care unit stay. In men (but not women), longer cardiopulmonary bypass time was associated with increased left ventricular end-systolic area at 12 months after surgery. Longer aortic cross-clamp time was associated with increased left ventricular end-systolic area in men but only weakly in women. Conclusion: We concluded that gender is an independent predictor of outcomes after multiple valve heart surgery.
Samarpita Das, Kyle Grant, Connie Drewbrook, Dorsa Mousadoust, Renelle Myers, Basil Nasir, John Yee, Anna McGuire
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 07, pp 14-21; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2017.71003

Abstract:
Background: High chest tube drainage following lung surgery is a rate-limiting step to discharge, increasing length of hospital stay. There is a paucity of evidence-based clinical research on safe maximal daily chest tube drainage prior to removal. Objectives: To describe the practice patterns of Canadian thoracic surgeons with respect to daily chest tube drainage after routine pulmonary surgery. Methods: A self-reported electronic questionnaire was administered to members of the Canadian Association of Thoracic Surgeons (CATS). Data was tabulated on the primary outcome of acceptable maximal daily pleural output prior to chest tube removal, and secondary outcomes of: years in clinical practice, academic versus community setting and rational for chest tube management. Descriptive and univariate analysis was conducted for each response by maximal daily pleural drainage category. Results: A total of 124 surveys were distributed. Response rate was 56%, with a 93% completion rate. Acceptable maximal pleural drainage among surgeons was highly variable. Rationale for tube removal was also variable, including individual clinical experiences (n = 23, 33%), evidence based guidelines (n = 18, 26%), and group practice pattern (n = 12, 17%). Academic surgeons comprised 72% of respondents. Community based surgeons were more likely to remove tubes at a lower mean volume. Years in clinical practice did not influence acceptable daily pleural drainage. Conclusion: There is great variability in post-operative management of chest tube fluid output among Canadian thoracic surgeons. Future research on this topic is warranted, with the aim of developing an evidence-based chest tube management algorithm incorporating daily chest tube drainage volumes as a key variable.
, , Eiichi Chosa, Takashi Asada, Kazuyo Tsuchiya, Kunihide Nakamura
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 07, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2017.71001

Abstract:
We retrospectively analyzed the prognostic significance of preoperative serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) surfactant protein-D (SP-D) levels in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with interstitial pneumonia (IP). We enrolled 41 NSCLC patients with IP who have undergone curative surgery. Prognostic significance of serum KL-6 and SP-D levels was examined. We found a significant relationship between serum KL-6 and SP-D levels in NSCLC patients with IP. However, the 5-year survival of patients with high serum KL-6 level was poor, whereas serum SP-D level was not related to patients’ survival. Univariate analysis revealed that there was a trend towards an association between serum KL-6 level and patients’ prognosis but this did not reach statistical significance. This might be due to small number of study patients. In conclusion, there is a possibility that serum KL-6 level is a prognostic marker regardless of the presence of IP.
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 07, pp 8-13; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2017.71002

Abstract:
Objective: Pneumomediastinum (PM) can be observed after blunt and penetrating chest trauma. Most of the patients with PM due to trauma can be managed conservatively. This study aimed to evaluate the cases with PM on thorax computed tomography (CT) after blunt chest trauma (BCT). Methods: Medical records of patients with PM due to BCT between January 2000 and December 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. Thorax CT was used to verify pneumomediastinum in all patients. Twenty-four patients which had different causes of PM (penetrating trauma, iatrogenic, spontaneous) were excluded from the study. Data of sixty-nine patients with the diagnosis of PM secondary to BCT and who were observed without any further procedure for the cause of PM, were evaluated retrospectively. Results: There were 59 male and 10 female patients with the mean age of 47.60 ± 17.47 years (range, 16 to 80 years). The most common cause of PM etiology was traffic accident with a rate of 38 (55.06%) patients, followed by fall from height in 25 (36.24%), compression in 3 (4.35%) and drubbing in 3 (4.35%) patients. There was a 12.46 ± 6.42 days (range, 6 to 28 days) mean duration of chest tube drainage which was performed for accompanying pathologies like pneumothorax and hemothorax. No complication was determined for short and long term follow-up of patients when all hospital records were analyzed in terms of complication. Conclusions: PM after BCT may be a marker of esophageal and tracheobronchial injury and invasive procedures like bronchoscopy and endoscopy can be needed for differential diagnosis. We evaluated 69 patients in good general status and no need for intensive care management with PM in this study and observed them without any further procedure. As a result of these findings we concluded that for the PM patients after BCT with uneventful clinical course, conservative treatment without any further procedure is a safe and sufficient method.
Anna McGuire, Patrick J. Villeneuve, Harman Sekhon, , Sudhir Sundaresan, , Andrew E. J. Seely, Farid M. Shamji
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 06, pp 57-69; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2016.64008

Abstract:
Background: Solitary fibrous tumors of the pleura (SFTP) are rare neoplasms with unpredictable behavior. Lack of unifying criteria for benign or malignant SFTP has resulted in reports of SFTP exhibiting malignant behavior years after complete surgical resection (despite benign initial diagnosis). Additionally, the role of trans-thoracic needle biopsy in initial management of SFTP is unclear. Understanding predictors of malignancy identifies patients at unacceptably high risk for non-surgical primary therapy, and for recurrence despite complete surgical resection. Objectives: The primary objectives were to identify clinicopathological predictors of malignancy & recurrence in SFTP. The secondary aim was to determine the role of trans-thoracic needle biopsy in the management decision algorithm of SFTP. Methods: Retrospective chart review was conducted (Jan. 1983-Dec. 2013) at the Ottawa Hospital for pathologically confirmed SFTP. Data were collected on biopsy-related, clinical, histopathological & immunohistochemistry (IHC) variables. Appropriate tests of statistical inference were conducted for all variables. Results: Pathologically confirmed SFTP was identified in 26 cases. Transthoracic needle biopsy was conducted in 22 (84.6%); with 16 (72.7%) biopsies diagnostic of SFTP with IHC; 3 (13.6%) being malignant. Primary management was surveillance in 3 and complete surgical resection in 23. Surgical pathology reported 15 (65.2%) benign and 8 (34.8%) malignant cases. Local recurrence occurred in 3 and distant recurrence in 1. Initial pathology was benign in 3 (75%) with recurrence. Clinicopathologic variables analyzed did not predict recurrent disease. IHC features did not differ between malignant & benign pathology significantly. Predictors of malignant pathology included: infiltrative cellular pattern (p = 0.042), nuclear crowding (p = 0.006), tumour necrosis (p < 0.001) and >4 mitoses/ 10 high power field (p < 0.003). Conclusion: Because numerous variables analyzed did not predict recurrent disease, long-term follow-up is warranted regardless of benign or malignant initial histology. Histologic not IHC features predicted malignant pathology. Trans-thoracic needle biopsy did identify malignant SFTP; however its main use should be to differentiate SFTP from other pleural neoplasms using IHC.
Elias Amorim, Raimunda Ribeiro da Silva, Armando Da Veiga Cruz Filho
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 06, pp 70-73; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2016.64009

Abstract:
Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma (PHG) is a rare nodular disease of unknown etiology. PHG can present with solitary or bilateral lung nodules and be asymptomatic or present with fever, cough, dyspnea, chest pain and hemoptysis.
, Angelika Oellerich, Laszlo Füzesi, Regina Waldmann Beushausen, Friedrich A. Schöndube, Hanibal Bohnenberger,
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 06, pp 47-56; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2016.64007

Abstract:
Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a potent antiangiogenesis agent, is a multifunctional protein with important roles in regulation of inflammation and angiogenesis. It has recently attracted attention for targeting tumor cells in several types of tumors. PECAM-1 is an integral membrane protein, a cell adhesion molecule with proangiogenic activity and plays an important role in the process of angiogenesis. The correlation between proangiogenic activity PECAM-1 and antiangiogenic activity PEDF in Non-Small-Cell-Lung Cancer has not been reported. The present study was designed to evaluate using immunohistochemical techniques and multivariate analysis the interplay between PECAM-1 and PEDF in NSCLC, especially in adenocarcinoma and in squamous cell carcinoma stage IA-IIIB. Analyzing the mixed study collectively (n = 69), there was no significant correlation (p = 0.553) between PECAM-1 signal and PEDF area. Only including patients with adenocarcinoma (Figure 2), we found a positive correlation between PECAM-1 signal and PEDF area (p = 0.025). In patients with squamous cell carcinoma, we did not find a significant correlation between PECAM-1 signal and PEDF area (p = 0.530). In patients with squamous cell carcinoma, PECAM-1 and PEDF show a significant different expression pattern, measured via staining intensity (p = 0.013). These results might support the hypothesis that squamous cell carcinomas heavily rely on angiogenic processes.
, , , Eiichi Chosa, Kazuhiro Higuchi, Kunihide Nakamura
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 06, pp 18-24; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2016.63004

Abstract:
There is a wide range of anatomical variations in the pulmonary vessels. Some of these variations may cause surgical morbidity during general thoracic surgery. We intended to perform a left upper lobectomy for a 73-year-old male with suspected left lung cancer (lt.U, S3, 20 × 20 mm, P0, E0, D0, PM0, N0, T1aN0M0, c-stage IA). Preoperatively, we did not recognize the existence of the common trunk of the left pulmonary vein. After the open thoracotomy, due to a severe intrathoracic adhesion, we omitted releasing the adhesion of the lower lobe. We did not exactly confirm the location of the inferior pulmonary vein (IPV). After cutting the interlobular pulmonary arterial branchies, we resected the superior pulmonary vein (SPV) using auto sutures. After division of the lung parenchyma and incomplete fissures using auto sutures, we intended to resect the upper bronchus. However, we could not find an IPV at the normal IPV site. A thin IPV was found to be returned to the peripheral site of the resected SPV. The SPV and IPV formed a common trunk at the normal site of the SPV. Although we considered reconstructing the resected common trunk, we finally made a decision of performing an incidental pneumonectomy in order to prevent any postoperative complications on the reconstruction of the IPV such as thrombus occlusion at the anastomosis site and venous return congestion. Retrospectively, we confirmed the preoperative images of the computed tomographic scanning, which showed a narrow IPV that returned to the peripheral site of the SPV. It is important to confirm both accurate locations of the SPV and IPV when performing a lobectomy.
Ramzi A. Addas, Farid M. Shamji, Sudhir R. Sundaresan, , , ,
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 06, pp 25-31; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2016.63005

Abstract:
Spontaneous pneumothorax, primary or secondary, is a common medical emergency for which specific indications for surgical intervention are well defined in selected patients. The traditional surgical approach has been by limited thoracotomy using axillary or posterolateral incision. With the advent of video-assisted minimally invasive technique in the last 20 years the traditional approach is infrequently used. The definitive operation to prevent recurrent pneumothorax by surgical approach requires bullectomy and parietal pleurectomy. The recurrence rate after the traditional open surgical approach has been low at <2%. On the other hand, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, although better tolerated has a higher recurrence rate at 5% [1]. Information on post-operative morbidity and mortality are lacking. For this reason, we have reviewed our experience at one institution on the outcome of the VATS approach. We found that prolonged post- operative air leak is the most common complication and cigarette smoking remains an important associated factor.
Connie Drewbrook, Samarpita Das, Dorsa Mousadoust, Basil Nasir, John Yee, Anna McGuire
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 06, pp 33-46; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2016.64006

Abstract:
Introduction: Prolonged air leak (PAL) is a common complication following pulmonary resection. It is associated with pneumonia, empyema, increased length of hospital stay and health-care costs. Intraoperative techniques have been developed to mitigate the risk of developing a PAL, but for their use to be efficient, identification of patients at risk for PAL is necessary. Aim: To determine the incidence of PAL following lobectomy and lesser pulmonary resections, risk factors for development of PALs, and the impact of PAL on hospital stay and readmission rates. Methods: The following variables were analyzed as PAL risk factors: patient characteristics of age, sex, body mass index (BMI), forced minute expiratory volume and capacity ratio (FEV1 and FEV1/FVC), diffusion capacity (DCLO), and transplant recipient status. Validated scoring systems included the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnea score, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (EGOC) score. Surgical factors included surgical technique, unplanned conversion from video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) to thoracotomy, location and extent of resection, presence of adhesions, completeness of fissures, and method of fissure completion. Length of hospital stay and readmission rates were analyzed. Statistical tests performed on the data include univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results: Over the 9-month study duration there were 269 lung resections, of which 31 (11.52%) had an air leak lasting longer than 5 days. Mean length of stay in hospital was significantly longer in patients with PAL compared to the control group (13 vs 5 days, P < 0.001). Significant risk factors for PAL from multivariate analysis include normal BMI (P = 0.009), right upper lobectomy (P = 0.001), and unplanned conversion from video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) to thoracotomy (P = 0.023). Conclusion: The incidence of PAL in our study population is similar to that found in previous studies. PAL prolongs hospital length of stay. Normal BMI, right upper lobectomy, and unplanned conversion from VATS to thoracotomy are risk factors for PAL.
Mohammed Elkehal, Sani Rabiou, , Saad Slaiki, Hicham Elbouhadouti, Yassine Ouadnouni, , Taoufiq Harmouch, Mohamed Smahi
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 06, pp 13-17; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2016.63003

Abstract:
Post traumatic diaphragmatic injuries have long been known. However their varied clinical, expressions lead to difficulties which cause its delay. The occurrence of herniation of hollow viscera in the thoracic cavity followed by its necrosis or perforation, is a delayed complication, a rare entity with a poor prognosis. The discovery of a colonic tumor in a diaphragmatic hernia is an exceptional clinical circumstance. Here we report the case of a patient with a complicated diaphragmatic hernia, whose symptoms are precipitated by the presence of a colon stenosing tumor. The management consisted of an exclusive laparotomy had allowed dealing in one surgical intervention with both the abdominal and thoracic injuries.
Haruchika Yamamoto, Yuji Hirami, Tomohiro Toji, Yoko Shinno, Tetsuya Ota, Minoru Naito, Akio Andou
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 06, pp 7-11; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2016.62002

Abstract:
Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) rarely metastasizes to bone or mediastinum. In some patients, surgical treatment of oligometastatic lesions from colorectal cancer, breast cancer, or non-small cell lung cancer results in satisfactory survival. However, data concerning oligometastatic lesions from HCC are scarce. We report the case of a patient with long-term survival after resection of metachronous oligometastases of HCC. A 54-year-old woman underwent hepatic resection for non-B, non-C HCC. A solitary left tenth rib tumor was detected 20 months after initial surgery and was surgically resected. A solitary mediastinal tumor was detected 6 months after the second operation and the patient again underwent surgical resection. Histopathological examination of both lesions confirmed metastasis of HCC. The patient has had no further recurrence 7 years after initial surgery without chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
Ali Ozdil, , Ufuk Cagirici
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 06, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2016.61001

Abstract:
Background: A survey was conducted on preferences for thoracotomy opening and closure as well as post-thoracotomy pain management among academic teaching staff of thoracic surgeons in Turkey. It was aimed to assess the attitudes of the thoracic surgery training-center academicians on aforesaid topic. Methods: A 7-question questionnaire was performed by face-to-face interview or online by e-mail to the academic professionals working at resident-training centers. Eighty-eight randomly selected academicians were invited to complete the questionnaire, and 48 of them answered. Based on the complete and valid responses, the methods for opening and closure of thorax, the number of chest drains placed, the method of analgesia in per-or postoperative period and the analgesic agents used commonly were assessed. Results: Thirty-three (68.8%) of 48 were working at university hospitals and 24 (50.0%) were in age group of 40 - 49 years. Muscle-sparing (41.7%) and standard posterolateral thoracotomies (41.7%) were the most preferred incision. The most used method for closing thorax was pericostal sutures. Per-or postoperative analgesia was stated to be performed by all of the participants, while 45 (93.75%) of them reported that they preferred to administrate more than one procedure. Intercostal/paravertebral nerve block (26.4%), epidural analgesia (24.5%), systemic parenteral non-steroid drugs (24.5%) and systemic parenteral opioid (20.9%) were the most commonly used methods. Conclusion: Preventing intercostal nerve injury decreaseed post-thoracotomy pain, as well as the necessity of post-operative analgesic use. Conversely, most of the academic staff did not prefer the methods for preserving intercostal nerve. More than one analgesia procedure were said to be used by majority of the participants.
, Jacques Robin, Younes Moutakiallah, , Olivier Metton,
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 03, pp 19-21; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2013.31005

Abstract:
Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) should be strongly suspected in young women with few or no traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis. Prompt diagnosis and treatment improve survival. The most appropriate strategy for managing SCAD is still controversial due to the heterogeneity of this population. We describe a case of spontaneous left main coronary artery (LMCA) dissection in a young women that was successfully managed by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) followed by coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), this case illustrates the utility of coronary computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imagery (MRI) in assessing complex coronary dissection, thereby helping to determine the best timing for surgery.
, , Kelvin W. Lau, Nicholas Harvey,
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 03, pp 15-18; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2013.31004

Abstract:
Patients who undergo pneumonectomy for lung cancer are at risk of recurrent disease and metachronous tumours in the remaining lung. Establishing a diagnosis can be difficult as biopsy may induce a pneumothorax, whilst resection is limited by remaining lung function. However, pneumonectomy should not be a contraindication to further lung resection. We report two cases of lung cancer resection in the residual lung 6 and 11 years following pneumonectomy respectively. A limited resection can be safely performed for a new pulmonary parenchymal lesion on a background of a previous pneumonectomy.
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 05, pp 31-34; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2015.53007

Abstract:
Thoracic traumas have an important place among all injuries as they can cause significant mortality and morbidity. The thoracic injuries are the large part of trauma with head and extremity injuries. Thoracic traumas are divided into two groups, including penetrating and blunt. The primary causes for penetrating traumas are wounds caused by gunshot and sharp objects. The lungs are the most injured organ in penetrating thoracic traumas with many organ injuries accompanied. This case report is about a rebar impalement into bilateral hemitoraces and pericardium after falling down in spite of any injury is not occurred in heart, lung and great vessels. The fact that an injury to such an extent does not cause any intrathoracic catastrophic event is something that has not been reported in the past.
Claudia Hannele Mazzetti, Patrick Carlier, Alexis Therasse, Jean Lemaitre
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 05, pp 26-29; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2015.52006

Abstract:
Chest wall reconstruction after rib resection is essential to ensuring chest wall stability, avoiding flail chest and pulmonary hernia, and improving pulmonary function. Traditionally, a synthetic mesh and a musculocutaneous flap have been used to bridge the chest wall defect. However, a risk of secondary prosthesis infection exists. Acellular dermal collagen mesh implants (Permacol™) are indicated for the reconstruction and reformation of human soft connective tissue. A case of a complex chest wall reconstruction after rib resection for osteomyelitis due to staphylococcus aureus infection in a malnourished, immunosuppressed, and methadone-addicted patient is presented. The patient underwent a left posterolateral thoracotomy and chest wall resection, involving three ribs and the soft tissues overlying an infected cutaneous fistula. The chest wall was reconstructed using a 28 × 18 cm piece of porcine sterile acellular dermal collagen mesh. A successful chest wall repair was achieved with no incisional herniation and with complete mesh incorporation, allowing physiologic respiratory movements. A typical wound seroma developed and resorbed over the following months. There was no infection. In conclusion, this case report suggests that Permacol™ surgical implant can be used successfully as an alternative to synthetic mesh in reconstruction of an infected chest wall.
, Axel Skuballa, Uwe Eichfeld
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 03, pp 8-14; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2013.31003

Abstract:
Objectives: Patients with hyperhidrosis suffer from an extreme perspiration that cannot be aligned with natural or situational standards. Endoscopic sympathectomy is a meaningful option for palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis. A standardized method of monitoring the immediate intraoperative success has not been established yet. The presented investigation shows one proposed sollution by monitoring skin surface temperature. The main aspect is to demonstrate a significant rise in temperature with utility for monitoring the immediate success of surgery. Methods: Twenty patients with primary hyperhidrosis were observed and treated in a standardized setting against a control group (n = 10). We obtained diverse data that permit determination of a point of time of measurement of surface temperature and definition of a degree of temperature variance. Results: After 5 minutes a significant change of 0.5? Celcius was noted on the palms; after 10 minutes on average 1.2? Celcius. Axillary temperature had significantly changed after 10 minutes with a mean temperature variation of 0.8? Celcius on the right side and 0.6? Celcius on the left side. Conclusions: Under consideration of appropriate time intervals of measurement and determined changes in surface temperature an early control of correct clip application in ETS is possible. In the palmar aspect an increase of 0.5? Celcius at an 5 minutes interval, and more than 1? Celcius at 10 minutes after placement of the clip as compared to basic values before application of the clip can be proposed.
, Abdel-Maged Salem, Khaled Mostafa
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 03, pp 4-7; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2013.31002

Abstract:
Background: Lung cavities sometimes result from a number of pathological processes including suppurative necrosis, caseous necrosis, ischemic necrosis and cystic dilatation of lung structures. The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of intercostals muscle flap as a successful method to fill the lung cavity for reduction of symptoms and treatment of patients presented with symptomatic pulmonary cavity and to avoid the risk of pulmonary resection. Methods: This is a prospective study conducted between 2009 to 2012, in department of cardiothoracic surgery, Zagazig University Hospital. The study included 32 patients suffering from cavitary lung lesions divided into two groups, group (A): 14 patients treated by using intercostal muscle flap to fill the defect after Cavernostomy without lung resection; and group (B): 18 patients treated by traditional methods by lung resection. Patients with high risk of lung resection, suspicion of dense adhesion, symptomatic chronic lung abscess and patients with bad pulmonary function tests were included in group (A). Results: 20 patients were male and 12 were females in both groups, the large numbers of cases were lung abscess in group A (4 cases 28.5%) followed by Aspergilloma and TB cavity (3 cases 21.4%). Hemoptysis, persistent cough and expectoration were the main presentation of our patients. Poor pulmonary function was significant finding in group A (7 cases 50%). Complications reported in our study were bleeding, recurrent symptoms and one case mortality in group B after Pneuomenectomy. Conclusion: Using the intercostal muscle flap implanted inside the lung cavity after cavernostomy is a successful alternative curative method especially in cases with high risk of lung resection.
Atsushi Hata, , , Nobuyuki Yamaguchi
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 05, pp 15-20; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2015.51004

Abstract:
Objective: The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the feasibility of exercise testing (ET) for predicting postoperative complications in patients with impaired pulmonary function. Methods: Thirteen patients were prospectively enrolled. The enrollment criteria were FEV1.0% < 70% and emphysema score > 8 by the Goddard classification or interstitial pneumonia on chest computed tomography. Patients underwent testing for pulmonary function, six-minute walking test (6MWT), and stair-climbing test (SCT). Postoperative cardiopulmonary complications (PCPCs) were recorded. Results: Four patients developed PCPCs. There were no significant differences between the patients with PCPCs (n = 4) and those without PCPCs (n = 9) for background data and PFT. The distances achieved in the 6MWT were 503 ± 72.7 m for patients without PCPCs and 369 ± 50.7 m for patients with PCPCs (p = 0.011). The SCT climbing heights were 20.4 ± 5.3 m for patients without PCPCs and 14.9 ± 4.0 m for patients with PCPCs (P = 0.187). Cut-off points, including a 6MFT distance of less than 400 m, SCT height lower than 15 m, and SCT climbing speed less than 8.5 m/min, were predictive of CPCP. Conclusions: Exercise testing is more feasible for predicting postoperative cardiopulmonary complications than stationary pulmonary function testing.
, Tamizo Kimura, Katsunori Tanaka, Kenji Nishimura, Nozomu Yamanaka, Shin-Ichi Taguchi, , Norihisa Karube,
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 05, pp 10-14; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2015.51003

Abstract:
A left ventricular (LV) free wall rupture is a highly lethal condition. A 75-year-old female who experienced chest pain was diagnosed as having an acute aortic dissection Stanford type A and underwent emergent surgery. Under cardiopulmonary bypass with LV venting through the right superior pulmonary vein, a proximal aortic stamp was formed. The patient was cooled, selective antegrade brain perfusion was performed, and a hemiarch repair was performed. After the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit, her blood pressure suddenly fell to 50 mmHg. She had a blowout rupture in the left ventricular anterolateral free wall. Since the bleeding hall was not large and the damage to the surrounding left ventricular tissue was not very wide, an off-pump multilayered sutureless repair was performed by using three layers of collagen fleece squares with fibrinogen-based impregnation (TachoComb; CSL Behring, Tokyo, Japan) and three layers of gelatin-resorcin-formalin glue reinforced by an equine pericardial patch (Xenomedica; Edwards Lifesciences, LLC, Irvine, CA). The blow-out rupture seemed to be caused by perioperative myocardial infarction generated by the compression of the left ventricular vent to the LV lateral wall. The patient was free from re-rupture or aneurysm enlargement. The thickness of the hemostatic material seemed to help control the bulging of the aneurysm and to prevent further LV aneurysm enlargement and re-rupture.
, Tamizo Kimura, Katsunori Tanaka, Kenji Nishimura, Nozomu Yamanaka, Shin-Ichi Taguchi, , Norihisa Karube,
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 05, pp 4-9; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2015.51002

Abstract:
Preoperative echography of a saphenous vein graft (SVG) was studied. In 58 cases of consecutive coronary artery bypass grafting, 31 patients underwent SVG echography. Preoperative assessment revealed vein caliber, branching, or varicose saphenous veins. The location of the saphenous vein was marked. Saphenous veins were harvested by the open harvest technique, and the caliber of the veins and the availability of the anastomosis device were recorded. Postoperative morbidity was recorded. Preoperative findings revealed that four (6.5%) of 62 femoral saphenous veins were estimated as “not graftable” because of being a varicose vein or having a small caliber. Seven of 32 lower saphenous veins were estimated as “not graftable”. The mean discrepancy of the caliber was 0.6 mm undersized with preoperative estimation. During harvesting, one of 31 patients had a wrong marking. We were able to use all harvested veins. The morbidity of saphenous harvesting was observed in two (6.5%) of 31 patients. One patient whose marking was wrong had minor skin necrosis. Another patient experienced a hematoma because of the excess effect of warfarin. Preoperative ultrasonic mapping of the saphenous vein reduced useless harvesting, provided information concerning anastomosis device availability, and seemed to reduce morbidity because dissection can be minimal.
, Tamizo Kimura, Katsunori Tanaka, Kenji Nishimura, Nozomu Yamanaka, Shin-Ichi Taguchi, Norihisa Karube, ,
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 05, pp 1-3; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2015.51001

Abstract:
A 73-year-old male patient with a 3-year history of hemodialysis was admitted for the treatment of pericardial effusion. Echocardiography suggested a diagnosis of effusive pericarditis. Pericardiocentesis was performed several times. Six weeks after the admission, the patient developed cardiac tamponade. Surgical pericardiotomy showed the epicardium had a diffuse shaggy and hemorrhagic surface. To control diffuse oozing, fibrin sealant patches (Tachosil; CSL Behring, Tokyo, Japan) were attached to the epicardium. Oozing was then controlled.
, Theodore T. Theologes,
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 04, pp 94-99; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2014.44019

Abstract:
The CycloneTM System (Castlewood Surgical, Inc., Concord, MA) is a novel device that facilitates the attachment of the saphenous vein onto the ascending aorta for the purpose of creating a bypass graft during a coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) operation. It allows the surgeon to perform a hand-sewn anastomosis with no disruption of the intima of the aorta, and no need for partial clamping. During a 36-month period 109 CABG operations were performed, and the CycloneTM System (and its predecessor, the HexalonTM) was utilized to create 138 proximal anastomoses. This study demonstrates that this is a safe and effective method of creating a clampless, no-touch proximal anastomoses during off-pump CABG.
, Tatsuo Nakagawa, Naohisa Chiba, Yasuto Sakaguchi, Shinya Ishikawa
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 04, pp 90-93; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2014.44018

Abstract:
Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) is occasionally encountered in clinical oncology. Wide variation exists in CUP. We herein report a rare case of CUP of a mediastinal lymph node. A 61-year-old man with dermatomyositis was referred to our hospital for treatment of mediastinal adenopathy and gastric cancer. Biopsy of both lesions showed that they were histologically different from each other. Mediastinal lymphadenectomy and total gastrectomy were performed for a definitive diagnosis and radical cure. Pathological examination revealed two distinctly different disease processes. The patient underwent postoperative chemotherapy for residual gastric cancer. Twenty months postoperatively, he is alive with cancer. Although CUP usually has a poor prognosis, surgical treatment of metastatic mediastinal lymph node CUP is a feasible therapeutic option.
, Tatsuo Nakagawa, Naohisa Chiba, Yasuto Sakaguchi, Shinya Ishikawa
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 04, pp 87-89; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2014.44017

Abstract:
Mediastinal thoracic duct cyst is a rare benign cystic disease. The lesion is generally in the post-erior or superior mediastinum, where the thoracic duct passes. We herein report an extremely rare case of surgically resected anterior mediastinal thoracic duct cyst. A thoracic duct cyst should be considered as an uncommon differential diagnosis of an anterior mediastinal lesion.
, Gregory S. King, Marintha R. Short
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 04, pp 78-85; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2014.43016

Abstract:
Background: The platelet inhibitory response of clopidogrel is substantially variable among patients, and numerous studies have shown that post-percutaneous intervention, patients with high on-treatment platelet reactivity have an increase in risk of major adverse cardiovascular events. No published studies to date have utilized platelet function monitoring assays prior to coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, but determination of patients’ antiplatelet effects prior to surgery may decrease time to surgery and length of hospital stay. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of non-elective CABG patients analyzed by the VerifyNow P2Y12 platelet-function monitoring assay prior to surgery compared to a similar set of patients not analyzed by the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay. Methods: This was a retrospective, single center, cohort study. The primary endpoints of this study were time to surgery and length of hospital stay. Results: From March 2013 to July 2013, 60 patient charts were reviewed and included in this study. 49 patients were analyzed by the VerfiyNow P2Y12 assay, and 16 of these patients underwent non-elective CABG surgery. Eleven patients underwent non-elective CABG surgery and were not analyzed by the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay. There was no difference between groups regarding time to surgery (p = 0.75) or length of stay (p = 0.42). Based on the assay’s P2Y12 reaction unit results, 69% of VerifyNow P2Y12 patients went to surgery sooner than the institution’s recommendations which generated more bleeding events, half of which were considered major bleeds. Conclusions: Utilization of the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay prior to non-elective CABG surgery does not shorten time to surgery or overall length of hospital stay. However, insufficient P2Y12 reaction units prior to surgery may lead to more bleeding events, thus the application of platelet function monitoring assays prior to procedures may be beneficial as a bleeding risk-assessment tool.
, Rajan Kalaivani, Kurudamannil Abraham Abraham
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 04, pp 74-77; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2014.43015

Abstract:
Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) with preserved ventricular function is a rare congenital coronary artery anomaly when diagnosed in an adult patient and remains an important cause of sudden cardiac death. We report a 42-year-old patient with ALCAPA managed with intrapulmonary interruption of the left main coronary artery (LMCA) ostea and grafting of the LMCA with left internal mammary artery so as to restore antegrade coronary flow. This restores a dual-coronary-artery system and also allows antegrade blood flow as in a normal coronary artery to a large area of viable myocardium. This strategy is simple to accomplish and is more physiological in an anteriorly placed and dilated LMCA as seen in our case.
, Patrick Ratliff, Marintha Short
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 04, pp 66-73; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2014.43014

Abstract:
Background: In June 2013, the FDA issued a Black Box Warning on synthetic colloids resulting from data indicating an increased risk of mortality, renal injury, and excess bleeding incidence in septic patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), and patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of mortality, incidence/severity of renal injury and bleeding in septic ICU patients, and patients undergoing CABG surgery who have received hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 or albumin. Methods: This was a retrospective, single center, cohort study conducted at a 433 bed tertiary care hospital in Lexington, Kentucky. Computer generated lists provided patients who received hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 or albumin during inpatient stay as either a sepsis patient in the ICU or post coronary artery bypass graft patient. All cause mortality was the primary endpoint and secondary endpoints included overall renal dysfunction, incidence of bleeding, and overall length of stay. Results: A total of 89 patients were evaluated that received albumin or hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 alone with either septic ICU or CABG diagnosis codes. There was no significant difference in all cause mortality (p = 0.64). Overall renal dysfunction showed no statistically significance between the two groups (p = 0.66). There was no statistically significant difference between the albumin or HES 130/0.4 arms with respect to bleeding (TIMI Minimal p = 0.57, TIMI Minor p = 0.69, TIMI Major p = 0.35). Patient who received albumin had a statistically significant longer hospital overall length of stay (p = 0.003). Conclusion: There was no difference between HES 130/0.4 and albumin in mortality, renal dysfunction, and bleeding in septic ICU and CABG patients. Patients receiving albumin had an increased overall length of stay. These findings suggest that hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 may be safe in the studied patient populations; however, further investigation into specific HES agents should be conducted.
Masaki Hamamoto, Taira Kobayashi, Masamichi Ozawa, Hiroshi Kodama
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 04, pp 62-65; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2014.43013

Abstract:
We report a case of supra-annular mitral valve replacement for a patient with prosthetic ring endocarditis that developed late after undergoing undersized mitral annuloplasty (UMAP). A 58-year-old man had undergone left ventriculoplasty and UMAP with a 26-mm semi-rigid full ring for dilated cardiomyopathy and functional mitral regurgitation. The mitral valve had progressively stenosed and he developed prosthetic ring endocarditis 5 years after the operation. In the surgery, there were brownish fresh vegetations around the anterior mitral leaflet and the prosthetic ring. The mitral annulus was very small, even after removal of the infected ring prosthesis and debridement of the infected tissues. We implanted a 22-mm mechanical prosthesis in the supra-annular position using everting mattress sutures to prevent the valve leaflets from getting stuck by the thickened subannular tissue. Herein, we discuss the surgical procedures for a shrunken mitral annulus.
, Abdessamad Abdou, Noureddine Atmani, Anis Sergouchni, Younes Moutakiallah, Hatim Ghadbane, Mohamed Drissi, Abdelatif Boulahya
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 04, pp 59-61; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2014.43012

Abstract:
Although the majority of patients with perimembranous ventricular septal defect and septal aneurysm remained asymptomatic, some of them presented with serious complications during adulthood and thus required high risky surgery. In accordance with other rare condition, the incidence and natural history have not been well documented. This case describes the occurrence of a septic pulmonary emboli associated with right ventricular outflow tract obstruction in a young child.
Ibrahim M. Helmy, , Inas M. ElFiki, Osama E. Arafa
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 04, pp 48-58; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2014.42011

Abstract:
Aims: The aim of this study is to have a pictorial review on the role of 64-slice multi-detector computerized tomography (MDCT) in detecting post coronary artery graft (GABG) cardiothoracic complications. Materials & Methods: During the period from November 2012 to December 2013, a prospective evaluation of 40 patients with suspected post-operative cardiothoracic complications underwent MDCT coronary angiography in our clinical radiology department. Informed consent was obtained from all patients and the study had institutional review board approval. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Results: There were 35 males and 5 females, their mean age ± (SD) of 57 ± 3.9 years. A total of 60 grafts were available for evaluation. Two patients could not be evaluated due to clip-artifacts and advanced atherosclerotic disease. Eleven patients showed occluded graft (9) at proximal and distal (2) anastomosis. Seven patients showed pericardial effusion and pleural effusion (8). Two patients had chest wall infection with retrosternal extension and associated mediastinal involvement. One patient showed aneurysm at the re-implanted coronary artery after Bentall procedure, another patient had postoperative myocardial infarction, one patient showed dissection of the ascending aorta, one patient pseudoaneurysm of left ventricle, two patients localized pericardial hematoma, two patients pulmonary embolism, and two patients showed pneumonia. All these complications occurred from 1-60 days from surgery. Conclusion: HD MDCT is an easy non-invasive technique which showed to be effective in diagnosis of most postoperative CABG cardiothoracic complications and is gaining more ground in difficult clinical situations.
, Tuende Kertess-Szlaninka, Sonja Dippacher, Martin Hulpke-Wette
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 04, pp 44-47; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2014.42010

Abstract:
We report about a successful heart failure therapy with carvedilol in two children with neonatal Marfan syndrome (nMFS). As shown in Case 1, double valve replacement in an infant with neonatal Marfan syndrome is feasible but its benefit on long term is uncertain. Excluding our patient, 3 infants with nMFS from the literature died early after cardiac surgery. Our second case is a unique patient who survives nMFS despite diaphragmatic herniae, dilated neonatal cisterna magna and severe atrioventricular valve insufficiencies. Treated with 0.7 mg/kg/day Carvedilol since his seventh month of life, he never developed severe heart failure. However despite his good health status at the age of 9 years, a progressive aortic root dilatation and left conornary aneurysm are still waiting for surgical repair.
Ragab S. Shehata, ,
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 04, pp 39-43; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2014.42009

Abstract:
Introduction: Effective anticoagulation depends on demographic factors, patient education, drug knowledge and compliance. The aim of our study is to determine the factors that influence compliance to warfarin in the mechanical valve patient population and its relationship with thrombo-embolic and bleeding events. Patients and Methods: 113 patients underwent mechanical valve replacement (Aortic, mitral or both) at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, from 2006 to 2012, patients divided into two groups according to warfarin compliant. Results: 113 patients reviewed in our study, 69 (61.1%) patients found compliant, 36 (31.9%) patients found non compliant, and 8 (7.1%) patients missed. The mean age for all patients was 39.25 y: 76 (67.3%) ware male, 37 (32.7%) were female. Mean age for compliant patients was 40.19 y versus 33.3 y for noncompliant patients with p value 0.017. Male patient less complaint than female with significant 0.01, the mean frequency of follow up was less (32.32 days) in compliant vs. (67.73 days) in non complaint patient. Conclusion: younger age, female gender, Arabic race, assistance at home, education, and single drug use are factors associated with patient compliant, non compliance are associated with higher mortality and valve related complication.
Aya Nakasuji, Satoshi Matsushita, Hirotaka Inaba, Taira Yamamoto, Kenji Kuwaki, Eiichi Inada, Atsushi Amano
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 04, pp 32-38; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2014.42008

Abstract:
Introduction: Anticoagulation is essential during CPB in cardiac surgery. It is generally performed using heparin; however the widely used formula for its dosing is based solely on body weight. Although the formula assumes activated clotting time (ACT) to be within normal range, baseline ACT varies in each patient. Thus, we developed an original formula, which takes into account baseline ACT in addition to body weight to calculate a more proper dose for initial administration of heparin. In this study, we monitored the ACT to examine if the dose of heparin calculated using our formula can prolong the ACT to the target range, and we determined the factors which interfere with the prolongation of ACT. Methods: Between October 2010 and April 2011, 141 consecutive patients underwent cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass at our hospital. We measured ACT 3 minutes after the initial administration of heparin and considered ACT values >400 seconds as appropriate for safe initiation of CPB. Results: Using the proposed formula, administered heparin dose was 241 ± 27 IU/kg and target ACT was achieved in 86.4% of patients. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine the effect of patient background factors on target ACT achievement. Body weight, age, and preoperative heparin therapy, which showed significant differences, were further analyzed. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that our newly developed formula could be used to properly calculate the optimal initial dose of heparin.
, Tarik Ziadi, Ahmed Rhari, Karim Nador, Issam Serghini, Moulay Hassan Tahiri
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 04, pp 27-31; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2014.42007

Abstract:
The Askin tumour is a highly malignant rare tumour with small cells, pertaining to the group of the primitive neuroectodermal tumours. It develops with the costs of the soft parts of the thoracic wall and it’s characterized by extra and endothoracic fast extension. We report seven cases colliged in our service by specifying the role of the imagery in the diagnosis but especially the assessment of extension of these tumours.
, , Donald Adam, Ehab Bishay
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 04, pp 21-26; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2014.42006

Abstract:
Subclavian artery aneurysm is a rare phenomenon in the West, but its prevalence is increasingly proportionate to incidence of atherosclerotic disease in the population. It is generally accepted that gold standard care is surgical resection but with limited experience opportunity remains to optimise this. We report on a 66-year-old female arteriopath with an 8 cm intra-thoracic aneurysm of the right subclavian artery, just distal to the brachiocephalic trunk. Lack of a proximal landing zone prohibited endovascular repair thus we utilised the anterior transcervical approach described by Dartevelle. This approach provided excellent visualisation of the aneurysm, along with right vagus and phrenic nerves, facilitating proximal and distal control and subsequent decompression. Post operative recovery was swift and not marred by substantial pain or inhibition of chest wall mechanics, associated with median sternotomy and thoracotomy incisions usually advocated for such aneurysms. As such we purport this approach to offer excellent operative exposure for this increasing disease burden, with less morbidity associated than the currently accepted approach, representing an advance in the management of this condition.
Hamoud Obied, Asim Miari, Mohammed Alreshidan, Fahad Alghofaili, Mohammad Ibrahim, Abdulaziz Albaradai, Mohammed Koudieh
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 04, pp 17-20; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2014.42005

Abstract:
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the true incidence and the risk factors associated with carotid disease in the sitting of high risk patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) using carotid duplex scan and to find out if routine preoperative carotid duplex scan is needed among all these patients. Methods: This retrospective study included 402 consecutive patients who underwent bilateral carotid duplex scan admitted for CABG during the period from January 2006 to December 2008. We excluded patients in cardiogenic shock who were taken to operating room emergently. Results: The prevalence of associated risk factors showed diabetes mellitus recorded the highest (93.3%) whereas peripheral vascular disease the lowest (1.7%), hypertension (89.3%), dyslipidemia (72.6%), smoker (21.1%), left main disease (4.7%), and previous stroke (3%). Patients undergoing CABG has high incidence of carotid disease (68.7%) and severe stenosis is more in patients aged 60 and above (13.5%) versus (2.3%) in age 60, previous stroke and left main disease). Conclusion: This study showed that carotid screening is recommended for all patients who are undergoing CABG due to high incidence of carotid disease.
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