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Yunxia Shi, Rumeng Zhang, Chunhao Ma
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v13n3p33

Abstract:
Place attachment can effectively increase the revisit rate of tourists, which is significant for the sustainability of rural tourism. However, previous studies have rarely explored what kind of host-guest emotional closeness can promote tourist place attachment. This study explores the relationship between local residents’ emotional labor strategy, perceived authenticity, and tourists’ place attachment based on the rural tourism context. A total of 266 valid questionnaires were collected from rural tourists in Yantai as the research subjects by random sampling method. Structural equation modeling was applied to test the hypotheses. The results showed that local residents’ deep acting positively influenced tourists’ place attachment, and perceived authenticity partially mediated the relationship between the two. The negative effect of surface acting on rural tourists’ place attachment was not significant.
Edson Coutinho Da Silva
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v13n3p21

Abstract:
This theoretical paper aims to approach the major customer value drivers and then, describe the main five stages required to support customer experience (CX) professionals in order to conceive, design and implement CX improvement projects. The CX focuses on customer’s perceptions and related feelings caused by the one-off and cumulative effect of interactions with a supplier’s employees, systems, channels, or products. The CX encompasses every interaction the customer has with an organisation throughout the customer lifecycle through multichannel. Generally speaking, providing a good experience can affect and impact customer satisfaction, loyalty, and engagement. Business companies recognised the competitive advantage of CX and the value creation reside not only in what a company delivers for its customers but in how it delivers products and services. Therefore, a positive CX requires coordination across different functions within an organisation, for instance, marketing, product or service development, customer care, operations, or retail branches.
Alessandro Gandolfo
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v13n3p9

Abstract:
The primary aim of this paper is to draw practitioners’ attention to lesser-known risks of digital marketing research: while it enables quick and low-cost results, quality and reliability are not guaranteed. The paper also surfaces broader consequences of transitioning from traditional research, based on offline investigations and face-to-face interviews carried out by professionals, to digital research. The paper presents the results of a survey on a cohort of 200 freelance interviewers working for Italy’s main research institutions, conducted through a self-administered questionnaire. Recently online marketing research, especially through panels, has gained meaningful traction. As demand for traditional marketing research contracts, professional interviewers are experiencing a material drop in requests for their in-field services and a worsening working environment. In return, this affects the quality of on field research they can provide. This is the first study, to the best of the author’s knowledge, where issues and limitations of digital research are studied from the perspective of professional interviewers. This study enables managers and organisations that commission marketing research to make more informed decisions when facing the trade-offs between traditional and digital methods. Furthermore, it provides a view on how such choices may impact the future of professional interviewers and their services.  
Safaa Adil, Ahmad Mostafa Abdeltawab, Danielle Lecointre-Erickson
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v13n3p1

Abstract:
Advertisings usually display thin bodies creating and endorsing the beauty standards of the society. Large body size models are sometimes featured in advertisings to show a more inclusive marketing communication. Previous researches have investigated consumer responses to more diverse body sizes in Beauty and Fashion industries ads. This paper aims at investigating advertisement effectiveness, for both print and digital advertisings, through consumer responses (Memorization, Aad, Ab, and Purchase Intention) to body sizes in food advertisements. We used a mixed design study with a between group factor (Media type: Print or Digital) and a within-subject variable (body shape: large, thin or no model), via a folder test procedure. Participants were exposed to a fictive magazine to measure their responses toward advertisements featuring large size model versus thin one. The findings reveal that “large model” advertisements are less effective compared to “thin model” advertisements for Memorization, Attitude towards Ad, and Purchasing Intention. However, participants expressed the same Attitude towards the Brand for both conditions. Moreover, hardly any significant influence of the means of exposure to ads (printed or digital) was found. Despite the latest consumer pertinacity trends on companies to adopt diversity for social reasons; consumers, of the food industry, are still better influenced by thin models when it comes to Memorization, Aad, and PI. Furthermore, this study offers practical and societal implications not only for the experimental design, but also for practitioners to comprehend and utilize the match‐up hypothesis of body size condition needed for their marketing and advertising objectives.
Adler Hilary Laisak, Anita Rosli, Nurzalikha Sa’Adi
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v13n2p53

Abstract:
Service quality is a vital factor that influences customer satisfaction. For profit organizations such as public bus companies, high customer satisfaction is a sign for business success and the ability to create long-term relationships with their customers. This research is to assess the effects of service quality attributes on customers’ satisfaction towards service quality provided by inter-district public bus companies in the Central Region of Sarawak. The research adapted SERVQUAL model proposed by Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry (1988). A total of 400 respondents were obtained among inter-district public bus users through a convenient sampling method. The mean score for customers’ satisfaction was 2.24, which means the level of customer satisfaction towards the service quality of inter-district buses in the Central Region was low. Meanwhile, the result from the multiple regression analysis showed that service quality dimensions of empathy, assurance, and responsibility had significant effects on customers’ satisfaction. The inter-district public bus companies in the Central Region of Sarawak should improve their service quality by building and obtaining customer trust to keep existing customers and at the same time to attract potential customers. Good customers’ experience towards service and the power of word mouth are marketing tools to enhance business reputation relative to other competitors.
BoMi Lee, Michelle Childs
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v13n2p12

Abstract:
Cosmetic brands typically seek growth opportunities and advertising in the international market. The objectives of this study are to test the differences in consumers’ trust responses based on advertising factors, the moderating role of ad appeal in this relationship, and the subsequent impact on consumers’ purchase behavior. Results show that Asian models are considered more trustworthy than Caucasian models in cosmetic advertisements; however, a US brand is considered more trustworthy when compared with an Asian brand. The impact of model ethnicity and brand origin on advertising trust differs based on levels of ad appeal.
Getie Andualem Imiru
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v13n2p36

Abstract:
The area of export performance has been attracting both academic and managerial attention at an increasing pace. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of Export Promotion Programs on Export Performance mediated by marketing implemenattion capbaility in the case of Exporting Companies in Ethiopia. The target repsondnets of this study were Exporting companies operating in Ethiopia. The total number of exporting companies operating in the country are 938. The number of questionnaires distributed were 280 and 218 (78%) of the collected questionnaires were used for anlaysis. The validity of the data was tested by measuring construct validity and discriminant validity. Data were analyses using partial least squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). The study findings showed that the use of export promotion programmes has a positive and significant effect on export Performance. Results of the total model also revealed that market implementation capability mediated the effect of Education, Training and Development-related EPPs, Legal-Related EPPs, Marketing Selection-Related EPPs on export performance positively and significantly. On the other hand, Market Implementation Capability didn’t mediate the effect of Information-Related EPPs, Financial Aid-Related EPPS, Marketing Strategy-Related EPPs and Miscellaneous EPPs on export performance. Marketing implementation capabilities was found to have a partial mediation role between EPPs and Performance. The findings of the study are expected to provide a source of information for policy makers, researchers and exporters and marketing professionals to understand link between Export Promotion Programs, with the immediate role marketing implementation capability in exporting companies operating in Ethiopia.
Evelina Francisco, Nadira Fardos, Aakash Bhatt, Gulhan Bizel
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v13n2p20

Abstract:
The COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting stay-at-home orders have disrupted all aspects of life globally, most notably our relationship with the internet and social media platforms. People are online more than ever before, working and attending school from home and socializing with friends and family via video conferencing. Marketers and brands have been forced to adapt to a new normal and, as a result, have shifted their brand communication and marketing mix to digital approaches. Hence, this study aims to examine the shift of influencer marketing on Instagram during this period and the possible future implications. By employing an online survey for exploratory research, individuals answered questions addressing their perceptions about the impact of the pandemic, brands and influencers’ relationship, and the overall changes made in marketing strategy.
Noelle Defede, Nina Marie Magdaraog, Sakshi Chiragbhai Thakkar, Gulhan Bizel
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v13n2p1

Abstract:
The way in which people communicate has changed significantly in the past decade. For instance, instead of reading newspapers to find out the latest news many flock to Twitter™ to see what is trending for the day. Communication online via social media has changed the way people view many things. Therefore, with this understanding, it is notable to understand how social media is influencing the way people communicate: verbally and written. This paper dives more into finding more descriptive explanations of how it does so, such as whether they have changed the way they speak in person and online or the way they type their emails and texts. Using methods that involve secondary sources such as research journals and articles as well as conducting a survey questionnaire composed of participants from the United States and India is reflected in this paper. The research findings indicate that social media does influence the way people communicate because of how it allows people to gain more knowledge and information, it has become more accessible for others and it fuels conversion in terms of using emoticons. This research paper reflects the change that social media has brought forth to interpersonal communication.
Laura Patnaude, Carolina Vásquez Lomakina, Akshat Patel, Gulhan Bizel
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v13n1p69

Abstract:
The rapid growth of social media platforms and mobile technology presents the opportunity to analyze the sentiments Tweets express. For this paper, Twitter will be the focus of study related to Black Lives Matter throughout the summer of 2020. In addition, the language and sentiment at that particular time are evaluated to uncover public opinion and track how it changed throughout a season. Although a tweet may be classified as positive or negative, there are key terms and tones used with both classifications. By understanding what makes a tweet positive or negative, the root of public opinion can be identified.
Alyssa Sun
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v13n1p85

Abstract:
Reviewer acknowledgements for International Journal of Marketing Studies, Vol. 13, No. 1, 2021.
Carla Rossi
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v13n1p42

Abstract:
In a nutshell, co-creation is described as a way to open up a company to the outside world, helping to generate product innovations and to update brand meanings. Drawing on the online community and co-creation literature, this paper aims at contributing to exploring the main intra-organizational challenges of online customer co-creation for innovation, from the viewpoint of middle managers. The intent is to broaden the existing conceptual understanding of the main internal factors hindering customer co-creation but also of the practices that could be adopted to best manage the related challenges. The study adopts a qualitative approach and is based on the results of eight in-depth, semi-structured interviews with digital and marketing managers, working closely with co-creation initiatives in the Italian food industry, with the aim of exploring intra-organizational challenges perceived by those who are directly involved in co-creation implementation. The results complement existing literature by 1) offering a more longitudinal vision of the implementation process—and the related internal hurdles, 2) identifying the most appropriate coping strategies and 3) formulating some hypothesis that could support an interpretative model of the capabilities needed to start the process and managing it in a strategic perspective.
Zachary Daniels
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v13n1p63

Abstract:
Smart Devices have become a fixture in consumers’ lives because of their ability to provide consumers with “Optimal User Experiences.” However, to provide an “optimal user experience,” consumers must give private data to the Smart Devices. The actual sharing of private data is not an issue in consumers’ minds, but the private data’s potential to be hacked is quite concerning. For example, a consumer’s Amazon Alexa Echo could be accessed remotely, and the consumer could be video streamed without their knowledge or consent. The study analyzes the correlations between consumer desire for “Optimal User Experiences” from their Smart Devices and their general perception of sharing their private information to achieve “OUX.” The study attempts to determine the foundational aspects of a wide variety of consumer opinions about their risk tolerance by sharing personal data and their desire for the “OUX” in relation to the Smart Devices they utilize regularly.
Sharjana Alam Shaily
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v13n1p26

Abstract:
The research studies the factors of customers’ awareness of their online behavior. This paper aims to highlight the gaps in customer awareness and views regarding data privacy, marketing research, and factors that impact the purchasing intentions in developing nations like India and Bangladesh. Previously it can be seen that there has been much research done in this area, but mostly those were for developed nations. However, in developing nations, like Bangladesh and India, which are outstanding and growing markets for online marketers, the concept of data privacy is not observed meticulously. Descriptive, relational, and quantitative research methodologies were applied for the study. Inferential statistics via SPSS were used to accomplish the purpose of the research. The target population was infinite, and the sampling frame was focused on Bangladesh and India’s internet users. 440 respondents were approached, and the received response rate was close to 81%, 354 responses. Unlike this study, commonly explorative and qualitative research methodologies were considered for similar research before. The research outcomes demonstrate that consumers in Bangladesh and India are mindful of data privacy, and the result of this research supports the current literature. The outcomes showed a significant positive relationship between the consumers’ view of how online platforms of companies handle their data with their buying intentions. Nevertheless, in these recommended relationships from the framework, customer commitment’s moderating influence plays a significant role in forming buying intention. The research is particularly important for marketing professionals to understand customers’ expectations from the companies regarding customize marketing. This research envisioned to cause some influence the literature and executive implications with development of a new research framework, adjusting new variables, and hypotheses, which were solely based on keeping in mind, the customers of Bangladesh and India.
Mandy Mok Kim Man, Ricky Cai Qian Qiu
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v13n1p14

Abstract:
Since a couple of years ago, the development of shopping malls is booming in the Klang Valley-Kuala Lumpur area in Malaysia. Motivating consumers for frequent visits to shopping complexes is imperative in order to run a successful shopping mall in such a competitive retail environment like the Klang Valley-Kuala Lumpur with over 100 shopping plazas. Getting knowledge of the elements attracting consumers to visit a shopping mall and make purchases is of greatest importance in order to achieve high profit return and increase economic growth and development of a nation. The objective of this research paper is to study the factors influencing the consumers’ buying behaviours in the shopping malls. The environmental related factors (building structure, atmosphere, sounds and music and fragrance and smell), services related factors (personal services, price, advertising and promotion), administrative related factors (tenant mix, anchor tenant, entertainments) as well as transportation and location related factors (parking, location, accessibility) were identified as independent variables and consumer’s buying behaviour within the malls as a dependent variable. A research framework was developed based on a thorough literature review. There were 200 responses collected from consumers in four shopping malls in Klang Valley-Kuala Lumpur area. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were carried out using the SPSS software package to obtain the results. The results of this research indicate that environmental, transportation and location related factors have significant impact on consumers’ buying behaviours in the shopping malls. The results congruent with previous studies by Brengman et al. (2012) and Grimmer et al. (2016) that indicated that environmental related factors have positive effects on consumers’ purchase behaviours. Additionally, this study also found that transportation and location related factors have significant relationship with consumers’ purchase behaviours as mentioned by Saber et al. (2017) and Samiran et al. (2015). The findings can be adopted by the shopping malls’ managers to improve overall shopping malls’ performance as well as by mall developers to evaluate the mall site’s location and construction designs. For academicians, this study could be used as a ground work for further exploration of the possibilities to influence consumers’ purchase behaviours through different marketing strategies to increase sales and profits.
Sarah Frankel, Michelle Childs, Youn-Kyung Kim
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v13n1p1

Abstract:
Alternative hedonism is an unconventional form of consumerism that offers a middle-ground consumption practice between sustainability and hedonism. Based on a review of the literature, we identified three major themes of alternative hedonism: seeking pleasure from consuming differently, civic responsibility, and voluntary simplicity. This study is designed to determine whether tattoo coverage (none, light, or heavy) and community type (urban, suburban, or rural) have main and interaction effects on alternative hedonism practices such as community engagement, green consumption, shopping small, and holistic wellness. We collected data via online survey from 168 lightly tattooed, 213 heavily tattooed, and 185 non-tattooed individuals. We discuss implications of our findings for both scholars and practitioners.
Alyssa Sun
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v12n4p104

Abstract:
Reviewer acknowledgements for International Journal of Marketing Studies, Vol. 12, No. 4, 2020.
Abbas N. Albarq
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v12n4p93

Abstract:
This study aims to investigate the influence of some critical factors (store/brand perceptions, and trust in the webstore) on online repurchase intention. A pre-validated questionnaire was distributed to a convenience sample with response rate of 95.2% (n = 684) web-store buyers that were examined for assessing the research model. Primary data were collected during the period between December 2019 and February 2020, from respondents in Amman the capital of Jordan. Using AMOS 22.0 software, the collected data were analysed with structural equation modelling (SEM). Confirmatory factory analysis (CFA) was used to estimate the measurement model with respect to convergent and discriminant validities. This was followed by testing the structural model framework and research hypotheses. The results showed that retailers are able to increase trust in the web-store by carrying strong brands, and reap a number of benefits including image enhancement and pre-established demand, it has been found that the store as a brand could turn out to be as important that make it easier for customers to build trust, constituting a strong antecedent of behavioural intentions where behavioural intentions can lead to repurchase patterns. Unlike extant research, this study makes a novel contribution—to adduce evidence as per which both trust and intentions can have impact repurchase as far as web-stores are concerned. The relevancy can be explained with the fact that prior models were only found to have purchase intentions as the final dependent variable.
Mickey M. Kislev, Shira Kislev
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v12n4p63

Abstract:
The study analyzes the diffusion of electronic cigarettes as an innovation, as well as how industry, society, and the individual affect its market dynamics. The study is based on five surveys conducted during the years 2017-2019, and including participants of all ages (age 12 to 80 and beyond). The article describes indicators for evaluating the sustainability of a really-new product like electronic cigarettes, following the market trajectory of this product as it sets its dominant design and shapes the use-system for the product type from now onward. This process has two phases: trial and adoption. The probability of each nicotine product type’s adoption is different, depending on the prevalence of trials of that product among the population. The results of e-cigarette trials and additional indicators reveal the point (critical mass-point) where social influence outweighs rational evaluation by the individual regarding nicotine products. By using triers’ prevalence as the indicator for measuring an entry of really-new product into the market, the authors could identify the sustainability of that really-new product at a much early phase. Therefore, the prevalence of triers can be used as a predictor for the diffusion rate of an innovative product in a certain population and should be measured. The authors also propose a regression model that estimates the prevalence of triers based on the extent of users in the population.
Yifei Chen, Feiyan Lu, Siyu Zheng
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v12n4p48

Abstract:
The year 2019 witnessed an exponential growth of the e-commerce live streaming industry. Notably, competitions among live streamers have become increasingly fierce as more newcomers are marching in. To survive and thrive in the cut-throat market competitions, it is key for them to increase consumers’ repeat purchase rate and win customer loyalty. This study uses empirical research methods to probe into the influence of e-commerce live streaming on consumer repurchase intentions. According to this study, perceived entertainment and perceived similarity have a positive impact on consumer repurchase intentions, and this relationship is partially mediated by consumer satisfaction. In addition, perceived product quality, perceived interactivity, and perceived professionalism have a positive and indirect effect on consumer repurchase intentions, and this relationship is fully mediated by consumer satisfaction.
Songbai Liu, Lu Guan
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v12n4p43

Abstract:
Social networking has been increasingly used by both individual and organization in the workplace. This paper addresses gaps in the current literature and tries to demonstrate the negative impacts and consequences of social networking. Qualitative study is applied in this study, including the conduction of user survey, interviews and case studies, which are conducted in the context of China. The article reports on work in progress on the research. The early findings highlight that despite the benefits generated by social networking, issues are also obvious, including such as data security, privacy protection, work-life imbalance, increased work pressure and stress, boundary and role ambiguity. Such findings contribute to organizational policy making and generating modern management practice in the context of information society.
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v12n4p30

Abstract:
Recently various brands have been promoting their products through social issues that consumers are engaging with, by moving from social corporate responsibility to leadership and harnessing the brands' power to inspire social and environmental problems and change. Whether brands are creating social leadership campaigns to raise profit margins, or because they simply care about the issues they discuss, several brands have been playing this role through their campaigns, as seen for example with brands like Nike, Under Armor, Gillette, and Uber. This paper follows the qualitative methodology by proposing an analytical study of the advertising messages and concepts through a case study of Nike advertising promoting their products through social leadership campaigns, and an analysis which aims to measure the impact of these campaigns on brand image, profit margins, and the means the social causes are being perceived by the consumers.
M. J. Alhabeeb
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v12n4p1

Abstract:
This study exposes the meaning and role of the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) and lays out the key elements that make it work. It shows the model’s theoretical strength and examines its applicability and validity as a technical tool to measure the expected return to the investment in stock, along with assessing the market risk associated with that investment.
Mustapha Iddrisu, Akolaa Andrews Adugudaa, Albert Martins
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v12n4p14

Abstract:
The advancement in technology is influencing the ways in which organizations conduct business and marketing activities. Mobile Marketing has become one of the most widespread media to communicate with potential and existing customers mainly in the form of text advertisements through the internet. This study is aimed at finding out the receiving and action-oriented attitudes of the youth towards mobile marketing, particularly the rate at which the youth use mobile marketing to determine the propensity to be influenced in their actions. The study also investigated the factors affecting consumer attitudes and their relationship with mobile marketing. The study employed descriptive and exploratory research methodology design and the data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Four hundred (400) questionnaires were administered to young people between the ages of 18 and 35 years in Accra and Three hundred and fifty 350 were used. We found a high rate of youth’s preference for mobile marketing messages and a relationship between youth attitude and mobile marketing messages and/or the youth’s attitude being influenced by mobile marketing messages. Finally, it revealed that there is a relationship between the youth’s receiving and action-oriented attitude and consumer factors that influence the use of mobile marketing.
Alyssa Sun
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v12n3p80

Abstract:
Reviewer acknowledgements for International Journal of Marketing Studies, Vol. 12, No. 3, 2020.
John Donnellan, Melanie McDonald, Michael Edmondson
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v12n3p71

Abstract:
Due to the tremendous growth in Internet usage around the globe during the last ten years, marketing teams now must better understand the impact of social media on consumer buying patterns. With Internet penetration estimated to continue to grow during the next decade, especially in second and third world markets, marketing executives will need to prioritize understanding the changes related to consumer buying patterns. Many papers have discussed this phenomenon and it was explored and analyzed as a result of new media advertising through social media ad repetition on consumer buying behavior. This study tested hypotheses on repetition and relevance, separately and jointly, with respect to obtaining a positive decision-making experience. Test subjects were given single and mixed ads via a video presentation then surveyed through SurveyMonkey. Test subjects came from similar academic universities in New Jersey USA and Changzhou China. The results reflect that ad repetition has a positive effect on consumer buying patterns.
Mostaque Ahmed Zebal, Anushe Zebal
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v12n3p52

Abstract:
Purpose—The purpose of the study is to explore and identify the factors that shape the success of local retail apparel clothing brands in a Southeast Asian market, Bangladesh. The study further offers relevant propositions on the basis of the results. Design/methodology/approach—Focus group methodology was used for data collection from the local retail clothing consumers of Dhaka and Chittagong divisions in Bangladesh. Framework analysis was applied for coding, categorizing, identifying the themes from the audiotapes and transcripts. The focus group transcripts were coded for common themes, issues, or ideas as expressed by the participants. Similar responses were identified from a prepared data matrix on the basis of the most frequent mentioned and less frequently mentioned responses. The research results were presented in a narrative to retain the authenticity of the local dialect and provide insight into the consumer behavior. Findings—Three critical factors were identified responsible for the success of local retail apparel clothing businesses in Bangladesh. The results revealed that the retail companies were heavily benefited by the adoption of intrinsic/extrinsic factors (product quality, price, and building retailers’ reputation and brand name) and culture specific marketing efforts (after sales service, easiness of online transaction, convenient location, store atmosphere, availability of outlet, promoting cultural events, and local celebrity endorsement). The companies were further found advantageous of the socio-economic factors of the country (increase of purchasing power, rapid expansion of tertiary academic institutions, family influence, and change of behavioral pattern). Originality/value—The study enriches the consumer behavior literature related to local retail apparel branded companies and leaves implications to both the mangers and academics.
Chen Chen
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v12n3p65

Abstract:
This study is inspired by the rapid spread of smart tourism product/service involved in travel experiences, which has dramatically changed tourist behavioral and has stimulated tourist satisfaction with tourism destination. The aim of this study is to investigate the interrelationship among the tourist experience, tourist perceived value, tourist satisfaction and behavioral intention in regard to smart tourism products and services. Quantitative research method applies for the empirical tests. The results have significant emphasized the importance of smart tourism product/service in improving destination competitive.
Jiyoung Kim, Sejin Ha
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v12n3p41

Abstract:
The purpose of this research is to propose and empirically test a research framework that illustrates how Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and performative action influence consumer’s perception of organizational legitimacy and loyalty intention, based on institutional theory. Further, we examine the interaction effect of CSR and performative action on organizational legitimacy, where we propose that the effect of CSR on legitimacy becomes amplified when performative action is high. To test the hypotheses, a total of 222 usable data were collected from consumers residing in a metropolitan area. Hypotheses were tested using Moderated Structural Equation Modelling. The study result reveals that both CSR and performative action are critical in establishing organizational legitimacy. Further, the result shows that the interaction coefficient for the interaction is significant that the relationship between CSR performance and legitimacy intensifies when performative action is high. The research outcome provides valuable implications to practitioners that legitimacy from the institutional environment and loyalty from the economic environment has to exist as separate domains for business to survive.
Michael Neubert
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v12n3p14

Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to analyze the pricing strategies of French FinTech Firms (FFFs) using quantitative descriptive and correlational research methods. Based on a representative sample of 246 FFF, the study provided consistent support for the hypotheses, which argues that FFFs with high price-setting power may implement a combination of the price-setting strategy (PSS) “skimming” and the price-setting practice (PSP) “value-informed”. FFFs applying “market-based” PSSs tend to use “competition-informed” PSP preferring “pay-per-use” price-setting model (PSM). Whilst FFFs who apply “penetration” PSS tend to use “cost-informed” PSP and “pay-per-use” PSM. The findings support founders and senior management in their pricing decisions. This paper contributes to the existing literature on pricing strategies of early-stage high-tech companies. There is a need for further research about the change of pricing strategies during the lifecycle of a firm using for example a longitudinal quantitative study.
Moreno Frau, Ludovica Moi, Francesca Cabiddu
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v12n3p1

Abstract:
Outside-in, inside-out, and blended marketing strategy perspectives represent an unbroken line of inquiry. Nonetheless, still few studies have empirically explored the distinctive characteristics of these three marketing strategy approaches. This study performs an in-depth retrospective longitudinal case study to explore how outside-in, inside-out, and blended marketing strategy approaches evolved. With this article, we enrich the marketing strategy debate by elucidating the in-depth features of the three approaches. This work also provides practitioners with a useful managerial diagnostic tool through which to identify firms’ marketing strategy approach, and potential mismatches with the environment.
Daniel Adrian Gârdan, Iuliana Petronela Gârdan, Mihai Andronie, Ionel Dumitru
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v12n3p26

Abstract:
Consumption of sport events has raised the specialists’ interest since it has become a global phenomenon, accessible to a large mass of consumers. At the same time, this consumption generates implications from an economic, social, and cultural point of view, in the countries/locations where various sport events have been organized, through the development of cultural and sport tourism. Sport event consumption belongs to the category of consumption acts that presume total implication apart from individuals and accordingly, their emotional involvement. This involvement is correlated on the one hand with the typology and the nature of needs and consumption motives underlying this consumption, and on the other hand with the more and more intensive promotion of these events and the easier participation access of consumers. Consumer involvement is a multidimensional construct, so the idea of an “involvement profile” is more appropriate to describe how the consumer relates to such products or services. The purpose of our paper is to clarify whether involvement within consumption for sport events customers is determining a specific behavior for the hedonic type of consumption also related to other categories of products or services. The consumption of sport events represents mainly a hedonic type of consumption correlated with a high level of emotional involvement during the consumption process, an involvement developed against the backdrop of the special role, and specific meaning that sport events can have at the level of individuals’ perception.
Alyssa Sun
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v12n2p136

Abstract:
Reviewer acknowledgements for International Journal of Marketing Studies, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2020.
Nidal Ismail Abu-Alkeir
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v12n2p127

Abstract:
The main objective of the study is to examine the impact factors on consumer’s intention towards purchasing hybrid cars from Arab Buyers perspective. Data were collected from a sample of 200 customers in Amman Capital. The study findings are analyzed by IBM SPSS (v22). After testing the five hypotheses using various techniques, it was found that there is a positive impact of price, Reputation of manufacturer, Fuel economy on purchase intention. It also indicates that there is a negative impact of brand image and safety rating on customer intention towards purchasing electric cars. According to these results, the study suggested several recommendations to sales & marketing managers of electric & hybrid cars to improve buyer intentions by take in consideration the price and fuel economy factors and reinforcement the reputation of manufacturer in their marketing activities.
Munir A. Abbasi, Azlan Amran, Hadiqa Riaz, Noor E. Sahar, Hassan Ahmed
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v12n2p115

Abstract:
This study examined the impact of pester power on parent’s buying decisions, considering the peer influence, store environment, product packaging, and advertisement as stimuli of pester power. Data were collected by distributing a survey questionnaire in supermarkets and shopping malls in Pakistan from 200 parents and were analyzed by using PLS-SEM. The results confirmed the Pakistani children’s dominance in parents buying decisions for various Fast-Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) products. The results significantly indicate that product packaging, peers’ product preferences, and advertisements affects parents buying decision. The findings of this study contribute to the existing literature on the impacts of pester power on the parents buying decisions through peer influence, product packaging, and advertisement. In addition to that, this study is the first attempt in the Pakistan context, especially the FMCG industry. The findings of this study may benefit marketers to increase their market share by developing their strategies and marketing campaign; and store managers to plan product placement in their stores in such a way that cultivates quest in children for products, considering them as influencers on parents buying decisions, in line with the study findings.
Amira Omar
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v12n2p104

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Brand experience has received a lot of attention within the business industry. Customers are looking for not only valuable brand benefits but also, emotional skills as well as brand experience theory. In this regard, the Egyptian Telecommunications Industry tries, also, to provide answers on how to measure brand experience and how it affects customers’ behaviors. This research examines in the context of the Egyptian telecommunications market the relationship between Brakus et al.’s (2009) four whole experience dimensions (sensory, affective, intellectual, and behavioral), brand personality, and brand loyalty. The author produced an online questionnaire, which, based on a simple sampling method, was distributed to and collected from the Egyptian telecommunications industry (Vodafone Egypt, Orange Egypt, Etisalat Egypt, and We Egypt). Four hundred fifty questionnaires were distributed and, excluding those that were incomplete, the author obtained 392 samples. This represented an 87% response rate. The results indicate that brand experience has a positive impact on the brand’s personality. Brand experience has, also, a strong positive effect on brand loyalty and, ultimately, brand personality has a strong positive effect on brand loyalty. Besides the brand experience’s direct effect on brand loyalty, it has a significant indirect effect on brand loyalty by impacting on brand personality. Among the relationships between the variables, the relationship between brand personality and brand loyalty is the strongest. More particularly, it is noteworthy that the correlation with the findings shows that the relationship between brand experience and brand loyalty is greater than the direct relationship. Therefore, in order to strengthen customer brand loyalty, telecommunications managers should pay more attention to customer brand personality.
Michela Floris,
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v12n2p50

Abstract:
Social media represent today an essential part of marketing strategies in business life. These communication tools are used as a source of information and dissemination of knowledge and belong to very important business marketing tactics as they help create new business opportunities, develop a stronger market position and, often contribute to changing consumer behaviour. In particular, this study investigates if and how the use of Facebook and Instagram positively affects business performance. Analyzing a sample of 30 successful European businesses that have registered relevant revenue growth in the last 3-year period, findings show that Facebook and Instagram adoption is neutral with reference to the achievement of positive financial and economic performance. An interpretive model is conceived to point out different kinds of social media adopters. Implications and limitations are discussed.
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v12n2p62

Abstract:
The research statistical population was unlimited and included all salesmen in the stores of four large and famous commercial complexes in the Bandar Abbas City at Hormozgan Province/Iran during four months leading up to July 2019. Based on the research theoretical framework, the salesmen’s emotional intelligence is an independent variable, their demographic characteristics are a mediating variable, and in-person sales skills are a dependent variable. The data collection tool was Schering’s standardized emotional intelligence questionnaire and Basir et al.’s standardized sales skills questionnaire which was distributed among the salesmen in the real environment of the commercial complexes. Data analysis was performed under two broad categories of descriptive and inferential statistics. Pearson’s statistical test was used to determine the correlation between the variables and testing the research hypotheses. In addition, the partial correlation test was used to examine the moderating role of demographic variables on the relationship between salesmen’s emotional intelligence and their sales skills. All statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS v.22.0. The research results show that there is a direct and significant relationship between all components of emotional intelligence (self-awareness, self-management, self-motivation, social awareness and social skills) and in-person sales skills. Furthermore, it was found that the demographic variables were not modulated relationship between emotional intelligence and in-person sales skills of salesmen.
, Binuyo Adekunle Oluwole, Afolabi Gabriel Kolawole
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v12n2p78

Abstract:
Integrated Marketing Communications (IMCs) is critical to the performance of an organisation. However, many of the previous studies have focussed on manufacturing firms with very few targeted at private universities. Moreover, empirical evidence revealed that private universities have not been able to effectively deploy IMCs to enhance their performance and have been confronted with the challenge of poor customer satisfaction. The study investigated the effect of IMCs on customer satisfaction of selected private universities in South-West Nigeria. The study adopted cross-sectional survey research design. The population of the study comprised 554 employees of the Institutional Marketing Department and ad-hoc staff of the Registry Department of the universities selected for the study. Total enumeration method was used. The instrument used was a validated adapted questionnaire. The Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficients of the constructs ranged from 0.701 to 0.832. The response rate was 85%. Data were analysed using multiple linear regression. The results revealed that IMCs had positive and significant effect on customer satisfaction (Adj. R2 = 0.834, F (5, 467) = 475.554, p < 0.05). The relative effects of IMCs on customer satisfaction showed that advertising had a positive and significant effect (β = 0.132, t = 3.038, p < 0.05), service promotion had a positive and significant effect (β = 0.195, t = 4.502, p < 0.05), online marketing had a positive and significant effect (β = 0.269, t = 5.972, p < 0.05), public relations also had a positive and significant effect (β = 0.377, t = 7.415, p < 0.05). The effect of direct marketing was however insignificant though positive (β = 0.059, t = 1.130, p > 0.05). The study concluded that IMCs affect customer satisfaction. The study recommended that private universities should prioritise their promotional efforts on advertising, service promotion, online marketing and public relations rather than direct marketing in their bid to sustain and improve their customer satisfaction record.
Mandy Mok Kim Man, Yace Chen
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v12n2p72

Abstract:
In recent years, the medical and health system face the stern competition of medical market and patients have more choices to choose the medical services that they want. Improving patients’ satisfaction has become the overall development of hospitals and it is one of the important contents to increase the competitiveness of the markets. This paper provides a further understanding about patient satisfaction by examining the determinants of patients’ satisfaction in the medical industry in China. Service quality and quality of medical environment were tested towards patients’ satisfaction. The results show that quality of service and medical environment have significant positive impacts on patient satisfaction.
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v12n2p85

Abstract:
The main aim of this study is building and testing a model that includes most factors that may affect and interpret customers’ loyalty to mobile services companies’ brands. Designed questionnaire was distributed to Egyptian mobile services companies’ customers sample in stores of these companies. Data were obtained from 373 respondents and were analyzed using Amos.18 and Spss.16 to test hypotheses established in a research model. The results indicated that there is a positive significant relationship between brand awareness and brand associations. The results revealed that there is a positive significant relationship between brand associations and perceived brand quality. It is found that there is a positive significant relationship between brand associations, perceived brand quality and brand loyalty. It is found also that older customers are more loyal to the brand than younger customers. It is concluded that higher income customers are more loyal to the brand than lower income customers.
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v12n2p38

Abstract:
In Taiwan, the total annual sale of shoes is NT$ 60 billion in which female shoes accounted for about NT$36 billion. The purpose of this research is to examine female consumers’ purchase intentions of fashion shoes by applying the Theory of Planned Behavior model. Additionally, this research incorporated hedonic shopping value as an independent variable to TPB model and examined the mediation role of fashion consciousness between dependent variables and independent variable. A total of 450 questionnaires were distributed outside department stores using Mall-intercept method in Southern cites, Taiwan. The results indicated attitude, subjective norm, behavior control, and hedonic value have positive effects on fashion consciousness and purchase intention of fashion shoes. In addition, fashion consciousness has partial mediation effects between the relationships of attitude, subjective norm, and behavior control and purchase intention of fashion shoes. Full mediation effect is found between the relationship of hedonic value and purchase intent of fashion shoes.
Bassant Eyada,
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v12n2p23

Abstract:
This article presents a review of comparative advertising from a theoretical perspective and uses a combination of literature review and content analysis as a research methodology. The main objective of the article is to propose a legislative framework for marketers in the Middle East for using comparative advertising. Advertising plays a significant role in promoting and marketing products and brands. Comparative advertising affects consumer behaviour, decision making and consumerism following the ethical standards of advertising which control the form of competition between products which affects the brand image and the relation between consumers and the products. While competition between brands becomes hostile in some cases, the purpose of competitive or comparative advertising is to compare the entity of a product to the entity of its competitor on the basis of one or more product characteristics, as part of an advertising campaign. Known to have two different types: direct and indirect, where the name of the competitor is specifically mentioned, and superiority is established over them within the direct form, as for the indirect the product places superiority over its competitors without explicitly mentioning the name, which is widely seen in the Middle East advertising campaigns. This research aims to study the ethical standards of comparative advertising, implications of direct comparative advertising on consumer behaviour through content analysis of comparative ads to set guidelines for using other product’s name or trademark in advertising within the Middle East. The lack of availability of the empirical data on comparative advertising in the Middle Easts presents both a challenge and an opportunity for academicians. The paper concludes with the notion that comparative advertising is an effective way to attract consumers, and it is recommended to be used in the Middle East with the proposed guidelines.
, R. Senathiraja, Jurgen Poesche, Ilkka Kauranen
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v12n2p13

Abstract:
Personal selling, especially in knowledge intensive contexts, demands effective knowledge transfer between all the parties involved. In our study, we have developed a new conceptual model of sequential coherence that helps to better understand knowledge flows in personal selling. The model describes how social capital, contact intensity, trust and rewards influence sequential coherence. Sequential coherence refers to the reciprocal result of the pushing effects induced by individuals of a teaching firm and the pulling effects induced by individuals of a learning firm that enables knowledge to flow across the boundaries of firms (Yapa et al., 2019). The objective of this concept paper is to explain how sequential coherence can be used as a success factor in personal selling of technology products. Our contribution is useful to both scholars and practitioners.
Chi-Horng Liao
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v12n2p1

Abstract:
Due to the overuse of the environment and natural resources, our environment has suffered long-term damage and natural disasters have been exacerbated by climate change, resulting in a significant impact on people’s livelihood and security. People must consider saving the environment as everyone’s responsibility. Hence, Environmental consciousness should be promoted to inspire public participation. This study used the Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) method to identify the key success factors of social marketing in promoting environmental consciousness. The DEMATEL method has been proven highly effective in gathering the views of experts and thereby providing information of greater reliability in many areas. The results of this research suggest that “Take advantage of existing successful campaign”, “Using appropriate media channel to increase the participation”, and “Enhancing campaign success by appropriate research” are the main strategies for promoting environmental consciousness. The findings of this study may be used in future success factor evaluations where social marketing is compared with other measures aiming to increase the efficiency of the campaign.
Alyssa Sun
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v12n1p73

Abstract:
Reviewer acknowledgements for International Journal of Marketing Studies, Vol. 12, No. 1, 2020.
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v12n1p62

Abstract:
As the implication of digital economy and the result of the technological innovation associated with change, new or transformed roles have been added to the online supply chain. The release of Industry 4.0 has brought about enormous changes, not only as regards to the increase of participants in the online marketplace, but also in terms of changing job responsibilities and job schedules. Design/methodology/approach—This article defines the most important trends on the online markets based on faculty literatures, on e-commerce and e-marketing conferences and on in-depth interviews (qualitative research method) with Hungarian experts. Furthermore, the article outlines how difficult is it to include these processes for webshop operators, according to their experiences. Findings—The article presents some results of e-commerce trends for which direction the online market might evolve and what sphere/division must focus on to exploit the opportunities of web. I tried to assess the difficulty of starting a new webshop during my research (on scale of 1–6). The innovative nature of the research is that it intends to illustrate Hungarian trends based on the processing of the professional literature of the subject. Originality/value—Much of the discussion is based on Web 4.0 and Industry 4.0. This article pushes a few new and high priority trends and to suggest the evolution of the Internet with a reason which is based on future consumer society.
Naveen R. Gowda, , Sanjay Kumar Arya, H. Vikas, Nayana Kollalackal Narayanan, C. P. Linto
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v12n1p52

Abstract:
Background: A lively, dynamic and interactive feedback system that can connect all the stakeholders and engage them in a sustainable loop of seamless information flow is quintessential for any organization with significant public interface. It is important to balance the asymmetry in the patient doctor relationship and empower the patients. Methodology: In this regard, process mapping of existing system was done. Ethnographic methods were used with triangulation of data for validity. Three key bottlenecks were identified; the system to collect feedback, the feedback form itself and the overall mindset about the feedback system. A de novo, systematic approach akin to the PDSA (Plan-Do-Study-Act) steps in quality improvement was adopted to create a new feedback system and its continuous incremental improvements thereon. Results: Short, attractive form with interactive emoticons graded over a likert scale was created and made accessible through standalone kiosks across the institute. Key attention to ease of access, minimizing the number of clicks, removing human interface and providing SMS/E-mail acknowledgement to feedbacks have all contributed to sustainability of the new system with consistently high turn-out/participation. Conclusion: Designing a customized, hospital specific feedback system rooted more in the experiences on ground is more sustainable and reliable rather than standardized surveys. The same has been reiterated in literature. They can also be used to assess the impact of new interventions. Robust feedback systems can be envisioned as part of accreditation and continuous quality improvement.
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v12n1p39

Abstract:
This research paper analyzes the developing effect that the European Union’s (EU) recently developed General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) will have on the marketing strategies of firms that rely on big data. Big data is identified as consisting of data and data analytics involving a huge volume of data, a diverse variety of data, and a high velocity of data capture and collection. This analysis begins with some discussion of the concept of big data and follows this up with overviews of both the GDPR and big data use in the marketplace. The EU replaced its older Data Protection Directive or DPD with the GDPR. The GDPR consists of a series of chapters and articles that require, among other things, consent to collect and store data, the anonymization of data, announcement in 72 hours of a data breach, provision of encryption and the identification of a Data Protection Officer. Marketing and the marketing function can implement emergent technologies that augment big data and its analysis while simultaneously achieving compliance with regulatory frameworks like the GDPR. These marketing related solutions are those such as blockchain marketing applications like Brave Browser and Blockstack among others. The report also examines the way in which enterprises use big data in their marketing strategies and how they are affected by it now that it has come into effect. Some of the more marketing-oriented uses and applications of big data are found in sophisticated loyalty programs, demand forecasting and customization either of experience or product/service. This study also offers some final recommendations related to GDPR compliant marketing strategies. These include the development of a comprehensive program to purchase consumer data directly from consumers and the introduction of blockchain as a means to facilitate a smoother transition to GDPR compliance.
, Abderrazak Gharbi
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v12n1p30

Abstract:
The use of nostalgia in the marketing domain has been the subject of several researches about consumer behaviour in general and advertising in particular. This multi-faceted concept offers a better understanding of consumer behavior and brand preferences on one side, as well as a better understanding of the purchase intent. This paper discusses the nostalgia theories from different perspectives. It provides an overview of the contributions in the marketing domain for a better use of this concept by marketers.
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