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Results in Journal Majalah Biomorfologi: 43

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Elisabeth Sekaringtyas Medistya Putri, Soebagijo Adi S, Mohammad Budiarto
Published: 5 January 2022
Majalah Biomorfologi, Volume 32, pp 13-17; https://doi.org/10.20473/mbiom.v32i1.2022.13-17

Abstract:
Highlight: 1. One of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in diabetes mellitus patients is coronary heart disease (CHD). 2. The risk factors for coronary heart disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients were observed. 3. The risk factors of CHD more commonly found in T2DM patients were high-risk age, male sex, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Abstract:Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic syndrome that becomes a concern in almost all countries in the world, particularly developing countries. Changes in lifestyle and genetic factors are causing the incidence of this disease to continue to increase every year. Nowadays, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) caused by insulin resistance is the most common kind. One of its complications known as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes is coronary heart disease (CHD). Insulin resistance can lead to the atherosclerosis process that is the basis of coronary heart disease. It is said that conditions of hyperglycemia, hypercoagulable state, and high cholesterol can induce the process of atherosclerosis. Besides diabetes mellitus, the other risk factors that increase the incidence of CHD are sex, age, family history, dyslipidemia, smoking, hypertension, and obesity. Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the risk factors for coronary heart disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of diabetes mellitus patients with coronary heart disease was conducted in Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2014. Data were taken from medical records at the Department of Internal Medicine. Incomplete medical records were not included in this study. Risk factors analyzed were age, sex, history of hypertension and dyslipidemia. Results of this study were presented in a frequency distribution table. Results: Based on the data of 70 samples, risk factors of CHD in T2DM patients are found as follows: 44 (62.9%) samples were male, 56 (80%) high-risk aged group, 48 (68.6%) with dyslipidemia, and 50 (71.4%) with hypertension, while 24 (34.3%) samples had three risk factors at once. Conclusion: High-risk aged, male sex, hypertension, and dyslipidemia are more commonly found in T2DM patients with CHD. The more risk factors that one may have will increase the occurrence of cardiovascular disease within 10 years forward.
Belanny Dwi Desihartati, Nyilo Purnami
Published: 5 January 2022
Majalah Biomorfologi, Volume 32, pp 35-45; https://doi.org/10.20473/mbiom.v32i1.2022.35-45

Abstract:
Highlight: 1. Assessment of the patient’s quality of life is used to establish the diagnosis of tinnitus. 2. The assessment is performed using several types of questionnaires: Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), Tinnitus and Hearing Survey (THS), Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI) and Tinnitus Primary Function Questionnaire (TPFQ). 3. THI is the questionnaire that has been translated into Indonesian so that it is easier to use in Indonesia. Background: Tinnitus is a symptom with many different causes that can interfere with daily life. The diagnosis of tinnitus can be carried out, starting by examining the history, physical examination, and audiology, and assessing the quality of life of the patient. Assessment of the patient’s quality of life and the severity of tinnitus was carried out using a questionnaire. Objective: This study aimed to explain the frequency of use of several questionnaires to assess the quality of life of patients with tinnitus, including Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), Tinnitus and Hearing Survey (THS), Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI) and Tinnitus Primary Function Questionnaire (TPFQ). Discussion: The use of THI as a research tool has been recommended for assessing the severity of tinnitus functional, emotional, and catastrophic responses. THS is used as a screening instrument to evaluate tinnitus complaints because of a hearing problem and how frequently it happens. TFI was used for identifying the functional impact on tinnitus patients, to evaluate how tinnitus affects a person’s life, while TPFQ was applied as it is a new questionnaire designed specifically for this objective. Conclusion: Many questionnaires can be used as an assessment of the quality of life of patients with tinnitus. Each questionnaire can be used and has its advantages. THI is a questionnaire that has been translated into Indonesian so that it is easier to assess.
Marsheila Harvy Mustikaningtyas, Bambang Pujo Semedi, Kuntaman Kuntaman
Published: 5 January 2022
Majalah Biomorfologi, Volume 32, pp 22-28; https://doi.org/10.20473/mbiom.v32i1.2022.22-28

Abstract:
Highlight: 1. Antimicrobial resistance bacteria isolated from VAP patients are often associated with high mortality and length of hospital stay. 2. Mortality in VAP patients was 33.3% and the VAP group had a longer hospital stay compared to the non-VAP group. 3. The three most predominant bacteria that were found were A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae. Cefoperazone-sulbactam, meropenem and amikacin were more than 70% sensitive against these bacteria. Abstract:Background: Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP) is the most common nosocomial infection in Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Antimicrobial resistant bacteria isolated from VAP patients are often associated with high mortality and length of hospital stay. Objective: This study aimed to analyze the pattern and sensitivity among pathogens that caused VAP in ICU. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted retrospectively by extracting the data of bacterial isolates from sputum specimens in the Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology, Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia and confirming the clinical data on patients suffering from VAP in ICU ward. The study started from January until December 2017. Results: The total 148 pathogens were isolated, 18 of them were diagnosed as VAP, and 130 were not VAP. The most predominant isolates in the VAP group were Acinetobacter baumannii as many as 38 (9%) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 22 (2%), E. coli 16 (7%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae 11 (1%). The pathogens showed a sensitivity rate above 70% to cefoperazone-sulbactam (SCF), meropenem (MEM) and amikacin (AK). Mortality in VAP patients was 33.3% and the VAP group had a longer hospital stay compared to non-VAP group. Conclusion: The three most predominant bacteria that were found were A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae. The pathogens had sensitivity rate above 70% to cefoperazone-sulbactam, meropenem, and amikacin.
Dyeneka Rustanti Indreswara Putri, Ummi Maimunah, Endang Retnowati
Published: 5 January 2022
Majalah Biomorfologi, Volume 32, pp 6-12; https://doi.org/10.20473/mbiom.v32i1.2022.6-12

Abstract:
Higlight: 1. The USG results of AFP level can be used for early detection and therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma that can prevent metastasis, progressivity, and recurrence. 2. The most common patients with high AFP levels are those with hepatitis B depending on etiology, younger age, male, gender, high SGOT level and BCLC B patients. Abstract:Background:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for more than 90% of liver cancer which is the second most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The incidence of HCC was 626.000 cases every year worldwide. Early detection and therapy can prevent metastasis, progressivity, and recurrence. AFP level ≥ 400 ng/ml and USG results can be used as a diagnosis parameter of hepatocellular carcinoma. Objective: To analyze the AFP level’s profile in hepatocellular carcinoma.Materials and Methods: Descriptive methods used in this study with data collected from medical records on patients that fulfilled the inclusion criteria in Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia during the periods of 1st January 2013- December 31st 2015. This study used various variables such as age, gender, etiology and size of the tumor, number of a nodule, hepatic function with child classification, staging BCLC, and AFP level.Results: This study found that the 98 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma with high AFP level or >400 ng/ml were dominated by younger patients with average age of 49.91 years, the most common etiology was hepatitis B (56.8%), poor results of laboratory tests (SGOT, SGPT), patients with all level of hepatic function based on Child-Pugh classification and staging B of the tumor (70.5%). Patients with normal AFP ≤20 ng/ml were dominated by female patients, with the most common etiology of fatty liver and others, and with BCLC A and C staging. Descriptively, there was no difference in AFP level based on the number of nodules and size of tumor.Conclusion: The most common patients with high AFP level are those who have hepatitis B as etiology, younger age, male gender, high SGOT level and BCLC B staging. Meanwhile, patients with normal AFP level dominated with female and non-hepatitis patients. In this research, we found no differences of AFP level based on number and size of tumor descriptively.
Raudhatuzzahra Kesuma, Haris Mayagung Ekorini, Tri Hartini Yuliawati
Published: 3 September 2020
Majalah Biomorfologi, Volume 30, pp 45-51; https://doi.org/10.20473/mbiom.v30i2.2020.45-51

Abstract:
Background: Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) is an infection that can cause hearing loss which is commonly found in infants in Indonesia. The hearing screening of otoacoustic emission (OAE) and automated auditory brainstem response (AABR) is essential as an early screening to prevent speech and language development disorders which may reduce the social function of the patient in the future. Objective: To analyze the profile of children with CRS who suffer from hearing loss in Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia in 2015-2017. Materials and Methods: This research employed a descriptive retrospective study by collecting 118 secondary data from the medical records. Results: CRS was mostly found in 0-3 months age group (76 patients), and was dominated by males (62 patients). The most common signs and symptoms were congenital heart disease (49 patients), followed by hearing loss (37 patients). The serological results were mostly dominated by negative IgM and positive IgG (40 patients). The most dominant results of hearing screening test were OAE and AABR bilateral refer (45 patients). Conclusion: The profile of children with CRS suffering from hearing loss is various, depending on which country the research is conducted.
M. Rifqi Wiyono, Siprianus Ugroseno Yudho Bintoro, Yetti Hernaningsi
Published: 12 June 2020
Majalah Biomorfologi, Volume 30, pp 27-33; https://doi.org/10.20473/mbiom.v30i1.2020.27-33

Abstract:
Background: Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm because of the reciprocal translocation of chromosome 22 to chromosome 9. In the United States, the incidence of CML is 1.9 cases per 100,000 people. Whereas in Indonesia, there is no specific national data on CML prevalence, especially regarding the clinical profile, even though the cancer cases reach 1.4 per 1,000 population. Objective: To evaluate the characteristics and clinical features of CML patients in Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study with data from the medical records of CML patients in 2017 at Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia. The sample in this study was CML patients with positive Breakpoint Clusters Region- Abelson (BCR-ABL), having a minimum age of 18 years and equipped with epidemiological data, complete blood count data, and peripheral blood smear data. Results: Thirty-three patients met the study criteria. The sample was predominantly male, with a ratio of 1.06 : 1 to female patients with a median age of 40 years. Spleno-megaly was found in 87.9% of the patients. The average results of leukocyte, platelet, and hemoglobin counts were 254.58 x 103/μL, 557 x 103/μL, and 9.55 g/dL. From the results of peripheral blood smear obtained normochromic normocytic anisopoikilo-cytosis erythrocyte (57.6%), all patients had a profile of increased leukocytes with blast presence in 97% of the patients, and 51.5% had a profile of an increase in platelets and the discovery of giant platelets in 33.3% of the patients. Conclusion: The sample was predominantly male with the highest incidence at a younger age range of 21-30 years. The clinical characteristics showed high leukocytosis with various stage of maturation and a tendency to develop grade 2 normocytic normochromic anemia and thrombo-cytosis was found in the patients.
Ronik Harsono Kamal, Kristanti Wanito Wigati, Achmad Lefi
Published: 3 September 2020
Majalah Biomorfologi, Volume 30, pp 39-44; https://doi.org/10.20473/mbiom.v30i2.2020.39-44

Abstract:
Background: There is a lot of research on the importance of exercise but studies on the effective time of exercise regarding regulation of blood glucose levels are not clearly known. Objective: This study aimed to determine the comparison of changes in blood glucose levels before and after moderate intensity physical exercise in the morning and evening. Materials and Methods: Healthy men (n=34), age between 17-22 years, Body Mass Index (BMI) between 18.5-22.9 kg/m2 (normal Asia Pacific), participating in the morning (8.00 am) or evening group (20.00 pm) are asked to do moderate intensity physical exercise (55-70% of maximum heart rate) using ergocycle for a total of 40 minutes. Blood glucose levels 2 hours post prandial capillaries were taken before exercise and blood glucose levels after exercise were taken acutely. Results: The mean decrease in blood glucose levels in the morning group was ± 8.353 ± 9.16 mg/dL and in the evening group was ± 6.294 ± 10.10 mg/dL. Blood glucose levels decreased significantly for the morning group (p=0.002) and the evening group (p=0.021). The comparison of changes in blood glucose levels between the morning and evening groups was not significant (p=0.538). Conclusion: There was no difference between morning or evening exercise related to changes in blood glucose levels.
Reinaldi Rachmadhianto, Tri Hartini Yuliawati, Gatot Soegiarto
Published: 12 June 2020
Majalah Biomorfologi, Volume 30, pp 19-26; https://doi.org/10.20473/mbiom.v30i1.2020.19-26

Abstract:
Background: The prevalence of asthma in prepuberty women is more common than in puberty men. Even after puberty, to a certain age, women dominate more. It is still unclear whether sex hormones affect the histological structure of male and female airways. Objective: This study objective was to examine the effect of sex difference on the histological structure of bronchial and nasal cavity of mice model (Mus musculus) with ovalbumin exposure. Materials and Methods: This study used 24 mice in four groups (male control, female control, male asthma model, and female asthma model). At the sensitization phase in days 0 and 14, the mice were injected intraperitoneally with 100 μl of a mixture of 50 μl ovalbumin (200 μl/ml) and 50 μl alum. At the exposure phase in days 21 to 23, the mice were exposed to 1% ovalbumin (aerosol, 30 minutes/per day). The mice were sacrificed 48 hours after the last exposure. The data taken included four variables, bronchial epithelial thickness, bronchial smooth muscle thickness, nasal cavity goblet cells number, and nasal cavity mucosal thickness. Then, Shapiro-Wilk normality test and parametric t-test were conducted. Results: In animal asthma models, mice with male and female exposure did not cause differences in epithelial thickness and smooth muscle thickness in bronchus compared to the control group. However, there were significant differences in the number of goblet cells and mucosal thickness in nasal cavity of male and female mice compared to the control group (respectively, p= 0.002; p= 0.006 and p= 0.003; p = 0.005). There were no significant differences between groups of male and female mice on all variables. Conclusion: In animal asthma models of mice, ovalbumin exposure did not cause differences in the values of all variables between male and female groups.
Zaky Firmawan El-Hakim, Mochammad Thaha, Yetti Hernaningsih
Published: 3 September 2020
Majalah Biomorfologi, Volume 30, pp 52-58; https://doi.org/10.20473/mbiom.v30i2.2020.52-58

Abstract:
Background: Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) is one of the biomarkers to determine a person's health condition through antioxidant and oxidant activity or oxidative stress so that it can help in determining the therapy needed. However, currently, TAC levels in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing hemodialysis (HD) and non-hemodialysis (non-HD) are still controversial, so further research is needed. Objective: To analyze the comparison of TAC in HD and non-HD CKD patient. Materials and Methods: This was an analytical cross-sectional study with clinical observation in CKD patient. A total of 71 CKD patients consisting of 28 CKD HD patients and 43 non-HD CKD patients were enrolled in this study. Data about the characteristics of the subjects were taken using the anamnesis method, while data about TAC were taken using the colorimetric method with COBAS C-501 0837-19 series and 0835-13 series to measure TAC levels in the serum of CKD patients. The data that has been obtained were analyzed using independent sample t-tests. Results: TAC levels were significantly higher in CKD patients undergoing HD compared to non-HD CKD patients (p <0.05). There are data on albumin as an antioxidant and MDA as an oxidative stress biomarker that affects TAC levels. Conclusion: TAC levels found to be higher in hemodialysis CKD patient compared to non-hemodialysis CKD patient.
Dewi Sekarsari, Viskasari P. Kalanjati, Abdulloh Machin, Prastiya I. Gunawan
Published: 3 September 2020
Majalah Biomorfologi, Volume 30, pp 34-38; https://doi.org/10.20473/mbiom.v30i2.2020.34-38

Abstract:
Background: Various risk factors of epilepsy in children had been reported although differences were found amongst regions. Objective: To identify the profile of epilepsy patients and previous febrile seizure history in children aged 0-17 years at Pediatric Ward, Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia, in 2017. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional retrospective study, using secondary data from medical records of epilepsy patients with febrile seizure history in children aged 0-17 years old at Pediatric Ward, Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia, in the period of January-December 2017. Data analysis was done using t-test and Chi- Square test (Microsoft Excel 2007 and SPSS 22). The level of significance was p<0.05. Results: Seventy-four male and 38 female patients were included. Febrile seizure history was observed in 42 patients and there was no significant difference between febrile seizure history and prevalence of epilepsy. The general type of seizure was found in 79 patients; mostly from Surabaya, Indonesia and the parents’ occupation was private employee. The most observed type of seizure was general type. Conclusion: In this study, epilepsy was predominantly found in males than females; and a significant number of the patients were without febrile seizure history. General type of seizure was the most common type amongst others. These patients were mostly from Surabaya, Indonesia, whose parents' occupation was private employees.
Ovin Nada Saputri, Viskasari P. Kalanjati, Mahrus A. Rahman
Published: 12 June 2020
Majalah Biomorfologi, Volume 30, pp 14-18; https://doi.org/10.20473/mbiom.v30i1.2020.14-18

Abstract:
Background: Malnutrition is a common cause of morbidity and mortality amongst children with TOF. Objective: To analyze the BMI profile of children with TOF aged 0 – 18 years at Pediatric Department, Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of the BMI from the medical record of TOF patients aged 0 – 18 years at the Pediatric Department, Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia, since January 2016 to December 2017 was conducted. The data included gender, age group, demographic distribution, weight, and height. BMI was calculated by WHO formula reference; body weight (kg) divided by body height squared (m2), which was converted into z-score histogram. BMI classification was guided by the Government’s Anthropometry Standards for Nutritional Status Assessment. Result: From 84 TOF patients, there were 43 males (51%) and 41 females (49%). The most dominant age group was 0 – 4 years old (n=47;56%). The majority of patients were from outside of Surabaya (n=64;76.2%). Based on their BMI, 36 patients (42.9%) had severe underweight, 10 patients (11.9%) were underweight, and 35 patients (41.7%) were normal, whilst the rests (3.6%) were overweight. Conclusion: The number of male patients was slightly higher than female patients. The majority of TOF patients were 0 – 4 years old and resided out town of Surabaya. The predominant BMI found was the underweight and severe underweight below normal BMI.
Shidi Laras Pramudito, Dewi Ratna Sari, Ninik Asmaningsih Soemyarso
Published: 12 June 2020
Majalah Biomorfologi, Volume 30, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.20473/mbiom.v30i1.2020.1-6

Abstract:
Background: The association between nutritional status and dengue infection is still considered controversial. Researches that study obesity and shock in pediatric patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) has been widely carried out. However, researches that study the association between obesity and the outcome of patients with dengue shock syndrome (DSS) are still rarely done. Objective: The objective was to study the association of obesity in body mass index-for-age (BMI-for-age), gender, and age to the outcome of patients with dengue shock syndrome (recurrent shock or death). Materials and Methods: The research was analytical retrospective observational research with a case-control design using secondary data from the medical records of pediatric patients with DSS in Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia during 2015. The analyses used to test the association of obesity (BMI-for-age), gender, age and the outcome of patients with dengue shock syndrome (recurrent shock or death) were the Chi-Square or Fisher Exact test. Results: The sample acquired was 60 data, consisting of 46 patients with DSS without recurrent shock or death and 14 pediatric patients with DSS experiencing recurrent shock or mortality. The frequency of boys and girls were found in equal numbers. Age group >5-10 years was found more common (45%). The results of the analyses test found no association between gender (p=0.542), age (p=0.314), and obesity (p=1.000) and the outcome of pediatric patients with dengue shock syndrome. Conclusion: There were no association found between obesity, age, and gender to the outcomes of pediatric patients with DSS at Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia.
Audi Salman Faza, Linda Dewanti, Ema Qurnianingsih
Published: 12 June 2020
Majalah Biomorfologi, Volume 30, pp 7-13; https://doi.org/10.20473/mbiom.v30i1.2020.7-13

Abstract:
Background: Borax, a carcinogenic toxicant, is illegally used as food additives frequently. Previous researches shown that high dose of borax exposure (300 mg/kg of BW) caused gastric ulcer, but low dose of borax, as found as usual dose in food, has not been frequently researched. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of low dose of borax for 8 weeks on the formation of gastric ulcer. Materials and Methods: Twenty four young adult rats (Rattus norvegicus) were divided into 4 groups (Control, Group 1, 2, and 3). Borax doses of 50 mg/kg, 150 mg/kg, and 300 mg/kg were administered on groups 1, 2, and 3 respectively through sonde for 8 weeks; Control group was not exposed with borax. Body weight was monitored every 2 weeks. On the last day of the experiment, rats were euthanized and gastric ulcers were histopathologically analyzed using a microscope. The data were analyzed by the comparative test of Mann-Whitney and the significancy was set on p<0.050. Results: The results showed that body weight was significantly different on the 6th week between Control vs Group 1 (p=0.010) and Control vs Group 3 (p=0.043). The grade of gastric ulcer was found higher in Group 2 and Group 3 compared to Control (p=0.019 and 0.011 respectively). Conclusion: Both of low dose (150 mg/kg BW) and high dose (300mg/kg BW) of borax exposure for 8 weeks cause microscopic gastric ulcer on rats.
Andi Muh Rahul Alfaidin, Viskasari P Kalanjati, Mudjiani Basuki
Published: 5 January 2022
Majalah Biomorfologi, Volume 32, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.20473/mbiom.v32i1.2022.1-5

Abstract:
Highlight: 1. Patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) can have both autoimmune and non-autoimmune comorbidities. 2. MG patients were predominantly aged >50 years, females and the commonest comorbidity are hypertension and diabetes mellitus. 3. Age and comorbidities were found to have significant correlation among these patients, but not between gender and comorbidities. Abstract:Background: There are limited studies on the comorbidities of myasthenic crisis (MC) associated with age and gender, specifically from Indonesia. These data might be valuable for treatment to improve the outcome of these patients. Objective: To analyze the correlation between age and gender with the comorbidities amongst the MC patients admitted in the ICU of Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia in 2017-2019. Materials and methods: A retrospective cross-sectional analytic study was conducted on 25 medical records of MC patients who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion study criteria. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests were done to determine the potential correlation between variables (significant level of p50 years (20%) while the gender predominantly found were females (68%) with 32% males. A significant correlation was found between age and comorbidities (p=0.002) whilst not between gender and comorbidities (p=0.115). The most common comorbidities observed were hypertension (30%) and diabetes mellitus (20%). Conclusion: There were 40% of patients found with comorbidities. There was a significant association between age and comorbidities found amongst myasthenic crisis patients, whilst no significant association was found between gender and comorbidities.
Frisilia Octaviana Yolanda, Hermanto Tri Joewono., Dwi . Aprilawati
Published: 5 January 2022
Majalah Biomorfologi, Volume 32, pp 29-34; https://doi.org/10.20473/mbiom.v32i1.2022.29-34

Abstract:
Highlight: 1. The widow will outsource childcare to other people, such as the widow's mother, stepmother, aunt, or other relatives who believe they know more about childcare after the wife's death. 3. There was a significant relationship between widower’s age and the number of children affecting parenting style and remarriage decision. Abstract:Background: The high maternal mortality ratio automatically represents the highest number of widowers in Indonesia. The change of status from a husband to a widower does not rule out the possibility of being able to change his role and function in the family. Objective: To describe that the widower’s age and the number of children have an impact on the parenting style and the desire to remarry. Materials and Methods: This study was an observational study with a cross-sectional design. Husbands who had been left by their wives for two years or more owing to maternal death and had one or more children before the wife's maternal death were the subjects of this study. Widower’s age, as well as kid’s parenting patterns before the death of the mother were recorded. This study was likewise subjected to an ethics review and relied on informed consent. Results: Widowers who had one child before their wife's death and decided to remarry accounted for 7 subjects (87.5%), while those who did not remarry accounted for 5 (31.3%). On the association between a widower’s age and child-rearing practices, there were two respondents (40%) who chose to entrust their children’s care to someone else or not to be cared by themselves. Conclusion: There was a significant relationship between widower’s age and the number of children and the parenting style and remarriage decision. Single parents who decided to remarry were single parents at a relatively younger age.
Heronimus Hansen Kaware, Deby Kusumaningrum, Arief Bakhtiar
Published: 5 January 2022
Majalah Biomorfologi, Volume 32, pp 18-21; https://doi.org/10.20473/mbiom.v32i1.2022.18-21

Abstract:
Highlight: 1. The signs and symptoms of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and those of diabetes mellitus were similar. 2. Male, aged 51-75 years old, and working in private sector are characteristics of most of the diabetic patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Abstract:Background: Diabetes Mellitus is a type of disorder where the patients’ blood sugar is above average. Diabetes Mellitus can cause an abundance of comorbidities, from viral infection until metabolic abnormalities. The increased risk of infections is mostly because diabetes mellitus changes how the body works. The changes range from changes in mechanical barriers (humoral immunity) and cellular changes (cellular immunity), the changes of the humoral immunity that can increase the chance of protracting pulmonary tuberculosis. Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics of diabetes mellitus in pulmonary tuberculosis in Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia from January to December 2016. Materials and Methods: The research method used was an observational study using a cross-sectional design conducted in Central Medical Record for hospitalized patients, Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia. The diabetes mellitus patients’ data collected from the medical records of Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia in 2016 were 1,410 and 11 of them were also diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis. The final data taken were from 67 out of 115 patients due to the incomplete medical record. Results: According to the data, the most of the diabetic patients with pulmonary tuberculosis were male, age of 51-75 years old, and worked in private sector. Conclusion: There was a significantly higher number of diabetes mellitus with pulmonary tuberculosis patients in older age, males, and private-sector workers. Diabetic patients with pulmonary t
Katharina Ratri Benita, Hendrian Dwikoloso Soebagjo, Siprianus Ugroseno Yudho Bintoro
Published: 29 January 2021
Majalah Biomorfologi, Volume 31, pp 24-30; https://doi.org/10.20473/mbiom.v31i1.2021.24-30

Abstract:
Background: Ocular trauma is an accident caused by a foreign object that affects the eye tissue. Ocular trauma can cause pain and a decrease in the person’s best-corrected visual acuity. Mechanical ocular traumas can cause morphological and functional eye changes that are serious enough to cause blindness. Blindness is often used to describe a severe visual impairment with the remaining visual function. Objective: To determine and to analyze the relationship between mechanical ocular trauma and the best-corrected visual acuity of the patients of Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia in 2016-2018. Material and Method: This study was an analytic study with a cross-sectional design. The data were collected using the medical records of the patients of Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia in 2016-2018. The population of this study consists of all patients with pure mechanical ocular trauma with a total of 198 subjects. Results: Fisher exact test results showed a value of p=0.054, showing that there was no significant relationship between the best-corrected visual acuity and mechanical ocular trauma. Conclusion: No significant relationship was present between mechanical ocular trauma and the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) based on the medical record of patients with ocular trauma in Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia, Surabaya, in 2016–2018. Most of the patients had BCVA 6/24 - 2 meter counting finger.
Hana Letitia Anjani, Marijam Purwanta, Maftuchah Rochmanti
Published: 29 January 2021
Majalah Biomorfologi, Volume 31, pp 18-23; https://doi.org/10.20473/mbiom.v31i1.2021.18-23

Abstract:
Background: People nowadays suffer from refractive disorder that declines the vision. The most common therapy to overcome this problem is to use glasses. The continuous use of glasses and the difficulties on disinfecting the entire surface can cause bacterial contamination. Those bacteria can cause various eye diseases. This fact pushed the researcher to find out if there were bacterial contaminants on glasses used by students of Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia, class of 2016. Objective: To prove the species of bacterial contaminants and pathogenic bacteria on glasses used by students of Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia class of 2016. Materials and Methods: Cotton swab moistened in sterile distilled water was swabbed to 30 glasses on its inside lens and the part touching the nose. The sample was then inoculated on blood agar and Mac Conkey, and incubated for 24 hours in 37oC. Then, the isolates were identified macroscopically and microscopically. Results: The whole sample that had been examined was contaminated with pathogenic bacteria with risk of causing eye diseases. Those bacteria were identified as Bacillus sp. (50%), Pseudomonas sp. (46%), Staphylococcus aureus (20%), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (16%). Conclusion: The result of this research showed that there was contamination by bacteria on glasses used by students of Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia class of 2016. All bacteria found were pathogenic to the eye. This showed that glasses could become a reservoir of the pathogenic bacteria that could potentially cause recurring eye infection.
Ogiska Chaherfa Nadasya, Johanes Nugroho Eko Putranto, I Ketut Sudiana, Agus Subagjo
Published: 29 January 2021
Majalah Biomorfologi, Volume 31, pp 6-10; https://doi.org/10.20473/mbiom.v31i1.2021.6-10

Abstract:
Background: Coronary heart disease is a deadly disease for human. The incidence of coronary heart disease is different, so that this research reported the profile of coronary heart disease patients in Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia. Objective: To analyze the profile of CHD patients in Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia from February to September 2018. Materials and Methods: A descriptive research based on the medical records. Results: There were 65 male patients and 20 female patients. There were 58% patients aged 50-60 years old, 24% patients aged more than 60 years old, and 18% patients are under 50 years old. The patients’ occupations were as follows: 42% civil servants, 36% private employees, 9% housewives, 5% retirees, 3% entrepreneurs, 1% for teacher, driver, fisherman, priest, and merchant. The complaints included chest pain (40%), shortness of breath (23.5%), PCI (4.6%), thump chest (1.2%), lower right abdominal pain (1.2%), right leg pain (1.2%), nausea (1.2%), vomitting (1.2%), cough (1.2%), dysentry (1.2%), and no complaint (23.5%). CHD patients in Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia had the history of hypertension (30.6%), heart disease (22.6%), diabetes mellitus (21.9%), smoking (5.6%), COPD (0.8%), and no history of disease (12.9%). Sixty-one percent of the patients had blood sugar level of ≥100 mg/dl, 19% patients had blood sugar level of <100 mg/dl, 20% patients did not have data. Conclusion: There were 85 patients, predominantly males of 50-60 years old. The most common occupation of the patients was civil servant and they came with major complaint of chest pain with the history of hypertension.
Jihan Jauza Fairuz, Dewi Ratna Sari, Soebagijo Adi Soelistijo
Published: 29 January 2021
Majalah Biomorfologi, Volume 31, pp 11-17; https://doi.org/10.20473/mbiom.v31i1.2021.11-17

Abstract:
Background: Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factor which consists of central obesity, hypertriglyceride, low High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) level, hypertension, and hyperglycemia. Its incidence among the office workers is increasing. Uric acid is often associated with cardiovascular disease while risk factor of cardiovascular disease is associated with metabolic syndrome. Objective: To analyze correlation between metabolic syndrome and serum uric acid level in office workers. Materials and Methods: This study used medical record of health examination of PT Wijaya Karya Divisi IV male office workers aged of 20 – 60 years. The data taken consisted of abdominal circumference, triglyceride level, HDL level, fasting blood glucose level, blood pressure, and serum uric acid levels. The diagnostic criterion of metabolic syndrome used in this study was National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) that had been modified for Asians. The correlation of metabolic syndrome and serum uric acid level was analyzed with chi-square test with IBM SPSS Statistic 20 application. Results: There was no significant correlation (p=0.598) between metabolic syndrome and serum uric acid leves in male office workers of PT Wijaya Karya Divisi IV. Conclusion: Metabolic syndrome and serum uric acid level among male office workers of PT Wijaya Karya Division IV had no correlation.
Ridhwan Biosia Wiratama, Samsriyaningsih Handayani, Soetjipto Soetjipto
Published: 3 September 2020
Majalah Biomorfologi, Volume 30, pp 59-66; https://doi.org/10.20473/mbiom.v30i2.2020.59-66

Abstract:
Background: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is one of the diseases that cause death in the world caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Since it was first discovered in 1987 until December 2017, the number of person with AIDS was 102,667, and the number of person with HIV infections was 280,623. HIV/AIDS cases in East Java occupy the second highest position in Indonesia. Surabaya is the first city in East Java with 934 HIV cases in 2017. Shemale is one of the groups at risk of getting HIV/AIDS with prevalence was 24.82%. Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors that influence shemale related to the incidence of HIV/AIDS in Surabaya. Materials and Methods: This study was an analytic research using a cross sectional approach. The subject was 80 shemale respondents. Data were collected using questionnaires then analyzed using Chi-square test, with α=0.05. Results: The highest age group was 42-46 years (22.5%), the last level of education was dominated by high school (41.3%), and the most types of work were private employees (47.4%). There was no correlation between predisposing factors in the form of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and respondent's HIV status (p=0.729), there was no correlation between enabling factors in the form of condoms and respondent's HIV status (p=0.624), there was no correlation between the reinforcing factor in the form of family support with the HIV status of the respondent (p=0.674) and there was no correlation between preventive behavior and the HIV status of the respondent (p=0.540). Conclusion: The need for support between shemales for the dangers of HIV/AIDS and shemale should be more aware of their own health and environment with their social patterns.
Desy Trilistyoati, Betty Agustina, Awalia Awalia
Published: 30 June 2021
Majalah Biomorfologi, Volume 31, pp 49-56; https://doi.org/10.20473/mbiom.v31i2.2021.49-56

Abstract:
Background: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with unknown aetiology. SLE attacks multiple organs with diverse clinical manifestations. Most patients get immunosuppressant therapy that suppresses immune system, causing the body to be susceptible to infection. Objective: to describe clinical manifestations, laboratory abnormalities, and incidence of infections in SLE patients hospitalized at Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia in 2016. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive observational study used medical records of 273 SLE patients hospitalized at Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia in 2016. Results: Clinical manifestations found in this study were malar rash 7.33%, discoid rash 2.93%, oral ulcer 8.42%, allopecia 16.48%, arthritis 26.74%, serositis 13.19%, kidney 35.9%, neurology 24.91%, anemia 73.71%, leucopenia 32.67%, lymphopenia 76.89%, and thrombocytopenia 33.86%. Laboratory abnormalities found in this study were hematology (anemia 73.71%, leucopenia 32.67%, lymphopenia 76.89%, thrombocytopenia 33.86%), kidney function (high serum creatinine levels 39.66%, high BUN levels 41.2%, hypoalbuminemia 62.6%), urine (proteinuria 68.21%, hematuria 51.79%) and liver function (high ALT levels 36.65%, high AST levels 29.86%). Infection occurred in 33.7% patients. The most common infections were pneumonia (70.65%), urinary tract infections (51.09%), and sepsis (35.87%). Conclusion: The most common clinical manifestations experienced by SLE patients are hematological disorder, kidney disorder, and arthritis. Prominent laboratory abnormalities are anemia, lymphopenia, and proteinuria. Infection is a common complication, with the most common types pneumonia, urinary tract infection, and sepsis.
Alfi Nureta Rachmani, Mamiek Dwi Putro, Alphania Rahniayu
Published: 30 June 2021
Majalah Biomorfologi, Volume 31, pp 70-74; https://doi.org/10.20473/mbiom.v31i2.2021.70-74

Abstract:
Background: Perforated peptic ulcer is a form of complications from peptic ulcer and one of the most common emergency conditions in medicine. Objective: To describe the characteristic and histopathological features of patients with perforated peptic ulcer who underwent open surgery therapy in Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia. Materials and Methods: This study was a descriptive study by observing patients’ data from medical records (secondary data) at Medical Record Center of Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia, in 2016. Data obtained were analyzed descriptively. Results: Forty-six patients were identified (34 male, 12 female), most of them were between 56-65 years old for male and ≥66 years old for female. Majority of the subjects had a history of herbal medicine consumption (54%) as risk factors for developing perforated peptic ulcer and the most frequent comorbid diseases were diabetes and hypertension. The histopathological features found mostly were inflammation (100%), necrosis (44%), fibrosis (36%), granulation (17%) and positive Helicobacter pylori (6%). Conclusion: Majority of the subjects were male, mostly between 56-65 years old for male and ≥66 years old for female. The histopathological features showed that all subjects had inflammations.
Elvira Esmeralda Poerwosusanta, Igb Adria Hariastawa, Ariandi Setiawan, Sulistiawati Sulistiawati, Agung Ary Wibowo
Published: 30 June 2021
Majalah Biomorfologi, Volume 31, pp 66-69; https://doi.org/10.20473/mbiom.v31i2.2021.66-69

Abstract:
Background: Hirschsprung's disease may lead to gastrointestinal obstruction if not appropriately treated. The initial-surgery or colostomy is intended to decompress the large bowel, prevent enterocolitis, and the stooling-patterns can be measured after definitive surgery. Objective: To determine the correlation between initial-surgery age with stooling-patterns. Materials and Methods: We performed an analytic observational study in Ulin Hospital in Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan, Indonesia, from November to December 2015 with a total sample of 31 patients. The initial-surgery age was divided into before and after 30 days, while the stooling-patterns were divided into satisfied and not satisfied. Results: There was no significant correlation between initial-surgery age with stooling patterns. Most of the patients, 18/31 (58.1%), underwent initial-surgery after 30 days, and 23/31 (74.2%) had satisfied stooling patterns after surgery. Conclusion: No significant correlation between initial-surgery age and stooling patterns among Hirschsprung's disease patients.
Miftahul Khoirul Insan, Prananda Surya Airlangga, Lilik Djuari
Published: 30 June 2021
Majalah Biomorfologi, Volume 31, pp 57-65; https://doi.org/10.20473/mbiom.v31i2.2021.57-65

Abstract:
Background: The Emergency Department (ED) has the main purpose of receiving, triageing, stabilizing, and providing acute health services to patients, including those who require resuscitation and emergency patients to some degree. An indicator of the success of medical treatment of emergency patients is the speed of providing adequate assistance both in daily routine situations or during disasters. Factors that influence nurses’ motivation to work, especially implementing triage at the Emergency Department include the characteristics of nurses such as age, sex, education, length of work and training. Objective: To analyze the effect of workload of the medical staff of the Emergency Department on the response time in the Emergency Department of Sampang Hospital, Indonesia. Materials and Methods: Observational analytic research with cross-sectional design. Sampling was performed with total sampling method to 24 people who met the criteria. Data collection was done by questionnaire and observation. Data were analyzed using the Chi-square correlation test and Fisher’s exact test. Results: There was a significant influence between workload and response time of triage P1 of Emergency Department staff at Sampang Hospital, Indonesia (p=0.015), whereas in triage P2 and P3 there was no effect of workload of staff on response time (p>0.05). Conclusion: In Emergency Department of Sampang Hospital, Indonesia, the response time in all categories of emergency (P1/red, P2/yellow, and P3/green) is fast. Workload correlates significantly with response time in P1/red category, while in P2/yellow and P3/green categories the workload has no effect on the response time.
Naura Ega Kahayani, Hermanto Tri Joewono, Rio Wironegoro
Published: 30 June 2021
Majalah Biomorfologi, Volume 31, pp 44-48; https://doi.org/10.20473/mbiom.v31i2.2021.44-48

Abstract:
Background: Obesity in pregnant women has been linked to negative outcomes for both the mother and the fetus. Gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and postpartum haemorrhage are all threats for mothers during pregnancy. These may also affect labor outcomes because fat accumulation in the pelvis makes obese pregnant women more likely to have a caesarean section. Objective: To analyze the outcome of maternal obesity in pregnancy in 2017. Materials and Methods: This was an analytic cross-sectional, observational study in pregnant women with obesity in Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia, within the period of January 1st – December 31st 2017 using medical records. Sample size was determined using cross-sectional sample size calculation with the result of n=162. After receiving approval of ethical clearance, medical records were collected and analyzed. The statistical analysis was done using chi-square test. Results: From a total of 162 subjects, most of the patients were 21-34 y/o (56.8%), under graduate (90.7%) and 58% of the subjects worked. Proportion of grade I, II and III were 60.5%, 22.2%, and 17.3%, and 67% suffered from complications such as PE, DM, PE with DM with percentages as follows: 56.2%, 4.9%, and 6.2%. Neonatal complications were preterm 42.6%, macrosomia 4.3%, stillbirth 4.9%, and low Apgar score 48.1%. No association was identified between maternal age and complications in grade I (p=0.764) and grade III (p=0.716). Obesity grades I and III had correlation with complications (p=0.035). Conclusion: No significant association was found between age and complications in grade III obesity, while there was significant correlation between obesity levels (grade I and grade III) and complications.
Dina Arini Izzah, Suksmi Yitnamurti, Nancy Margarita Rehatta
Published: 30 June 2021
Majalah Biomorfologi, Volume 31, pp 39-43; https://doi.org/10.20473/mbiom.v31i2.2021.39-43

Abstract:
Background: Depression is a mental disorder with a relatively high prevalence rate in medical students around the world. Medical students are often faced with a variety of pressures ranging from academic to social stress so that the prevalence of depression in medical students tends to be higher than general population. Objective: to find the prevalence of depression in medical students at Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia. Materials and Methods: This research was a descriptive cross-sectional study of first-year medical students at Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia in the academic year of 2017/2018. The data collection was carried out using Beck Depression Inventory II questionnaires as a measurement instrument and was analyzed by SPSS 16.0. Results: From 86 samples obtained from first-year students, 37.20% of them experienced mental conditions that were considered abnormal (mean score of 10.14 ± 7.093), starting from mild mood disturbance (23.26%) to the most severe category, severe depression (1.16%). There was no extreme depression category in this study. Furthermore, mean score of male subjects is 8.57 ± 6.120 while mean score of female subjects is 10.64 ± 7.351. Conclusion: This study revealed that the prevalence of depression in first-year medical students at Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia in the second semester of academic year 2017/2018 was quite high, which was more than one third of the total respondents, while the prevalence in female subjects was higher than in male subjects.
Yohanes Widyakusuma Eka Saputra, Kristanti Wanito Wigati, Rina Yudiwati, Ni Wajan Tirthaningsih
Published: 30 June 2021
Majalah Biomorfologi, Volume 31, pp 31-38; https://doi.org/10.20473/mbiom.v31i2.2021.31-38

Abstract:
Background: The habit of smoking tobacco is a lifestyle that has become a necessity for some people. Sometimes, social needs is the main reason for someone to have a smoking habit. Based on this problem, the level of cigarette consumption in the community has increased. Nowadays, the total number of couples visiting an infertility clinic is on the rise. This have led to an assumption among the community that smoking tobacco is one of the main factors causing male infertility. Objective: to compare light smokers and heavy smokers towards the results of semen analysis in infertile male patients. Materials and Methods: This study was an observational analytics, with a retrospective-cross sectional. The instrument used in this study was taken from medical records of the patients who visited the Andrology Clinic of Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia, for the period from January to December 2017. The observed semen analysis parameters were concentration, motility, and morphology for microscopic examination and liquefaction, pH, and volume for macroscopic examination, by following the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: Ninety-two samples of infertile male participants (50 light smokers and 42 heavy smokers) were included in this study. Semen analysis on its concentration, motility, spermatozoa morphology, as well as liquefaction, pH, and volume) towards the number of cigarette consumption showed no significant difference (p>0.05) between light smokers and moderate smokers. Conclusion: There was no significant difference between the light smoker and heavy smoker groups on the results of the semen analysis.
Ogiska Chaherfa Nadasya, Johanes Nugroho Eko Putranto, I Ketut Sudiana, Agus Subagjo
Published: 29 January 2021
Majalah Biomorfologi, Volume 31, pp 6-12; https://doi.org/10.20473/mbiom.v31i1.2021.6-12

Abstract:
Background Coronary heart disease is a deadly disease for both men and women. Risk factors for coronary heart disease include age, sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia. The incidence of coronary heart disease is not uniform thus here we reported the profile of coronary heart disease patients in Soetomo General Hospital Objective To analyze the profile of coronary heart disease patients in RSUD dr. Soetomo from February 2018 until September 2018. Materials and Methods A descriptive research based on the medical records patients was done Result There are 65 male patients (76%) and 20 female patients (24%). There are 58% patients aged 50-60 years (49 people), 24% patients aged more than 60 years old (21 people) and 18% patients less than 50 years old (15 people). Types of patients' occupations include 42% public servants (36 people), 36% private employees (31 people), 9% housewives (8 people), 5% retirees (3 people), 3% entrepreneurs (2 people), 1% teachers (1 person), 1% drivers (1 person) , 1% fishermen (1 person), 1% pastor (1 person) 1% merchant (1 person). The main complaints of patients included chest pain (40% or 34 cases), shortness of breath (23.5% or 20 cases),PCI pro staging therapy (4.6% or 4 cases), thump chest (1.2% or 1 case), lower right abdominal pain (1.2% or 1 case), right leg pain (1.2% or 1 case), nausea (1.2% or 1 case), vomiting (1.2% or 1 case), cough (1.2% or 1 case), dysentery (1.2% or 1 case) and no complaints (23.5% or 20 cases). Inpatients with coronary heart disease in Dr. Soetomo General Hospital have a history of hypertension (30.6% or 38 people), heart disease (22.6% or 28 people), diabetes mellitus (21.9% or 26 people), smoking (5.6% or 7 people), dyslipidemia (3.2% or 4 people), stroke (2.4% or 3 people) ), pulmonary TB (0.8% or 1 person), COPD (0.8% or 1 person) and no history of disease (12.9% or 16 people). Fifty-two patients had blood sugar levels of ≥100 mg / dl with a data percentage of 61%. While 16 other patients had blood sugar levels
Hana Letitia Anjani, Marijam Purwanta, Maftuchah Rochmanti
Published: 29 January 2021
Majalah Biomorfologi, Volume 31, pp 21-26; https://doi.org/10.20473/mbiom.v31i1.2021.21-26

Abstract:
Background: People nowadays suffer from refractive disorder that declines the vision. The most common therapy to overcome this problem is to use glasses. The continuous use of glasses and the difficulties on disinfecting the entire surface can cause bacterial contamination. Those bacteria can cause various eye diseases. This fact pushed the researcher to find out if there were bacterial contaminants on glasses used by students of Faculty of Medicine Universitas Airlangga class of 2016. Objective: To prove the species of bacterial contaminants and pathogenic bacteria on glasses used by students of Faculty of Medicine Universitas Airlangga class of 2016. Material and Method: Cotton swab moistened in sterile distilled water was swabbed to 30 glasses on its inside lens and the part touching the nose. The sample was then inoculated on blood Agar and Mac Conkey, and incubated for 24 hours in 37°C. Then, the isolates were identified macroscopically and microscopically. Results: The whole sample that had been examined was contaminated with pathogenic bacteria with risk of causing eye diseases. Those bacteria were identified as Bacillus sp. (50%), Pseudomonas sp. (46%), Staphylococcus aureus (20%), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (16%). Conclusion: The result of this research showed that there was contamination by bacteria on glasses used by students of Faculty of Medicine Universitas Airlangga class of 2016. All bacteria found were pathogenic to the eye. This showed that glasses could become a reservoir of the pathogenic bacteria that could potentially cause recurring eye infection.
Jihan Jauza Fairuz, Dewi Ratna Sari, Soebagijo Adi Soelistijo
Published: 29 January 2021
Majalah Biomorfologi, Volume 31, pp 13-20; https://doi.org/10.20473/mbiom.v31i1.2021.13-20

Abstract:
Background: Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factor which consists of central obesity, hypertriglyceride, low High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) level, hypertension, and hyperglycemia where the incidence increases among the office workers. Uric acid is often associated with cardiovascular disease while risk factor of cardiovascular disease is associated with metabolic syndrome. Objective: To analyze the correlation between metabolic syndrome and serum uric acid level in office workers. Method: This study used medical record of health examination of PT Wijaya Karya Divisi IV male office workers aged of 20 – 60 years. The data taken consisted of abdominal circumference, triglyceride level, HDL level, fasting blood glucose level, blood pressure, and serum uric acid levels. The diagnostic criterion of metabolic syndrome which was used in this study was National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) that had been modified for Asian. The correlation of metabolic syndrome and serum uric acid level was analyzed by chi-square test with IBM SPSS Statistic 20 application. Results: There was no significant correlation between metabolic syndrome and serum uric acid leves in male office workers of PT Wijaya Karya Divisi IV (p=0.598). Conclusion: Among the male office workers of PT Wijaya Karya Division IV, it had no significant correlation between metabolic syndrome and serum uric acid level.
Katharina Ratri Benita, Hendrian Dwikoloso Soebagjo, Siprianus Ugroseno Yudho Bintoro
Published: 29 January 2021
Majalah Biomorfologi, Volume 31, pp 27-33; https://doi.org/10.20473/mbiom.v31i1.2021.27-33

Abstract:
Background: Ocular trauma is an accident caused by a foreign object that affects the eye tissue. Ocular trauma can cause pain and a decrease in the person’s best-corrected visual acuity. Mechanical ocular traumas can cause morphological and functional eye changes that are serious enough to cause blindness. Blindness is often used to describe a severe visual impairment with the remaining visual function. Objective: To determine and to analyze the relationship between mechanical ocular trauma and the best-corrected visual acuity of Dr. Soetomo General Hospital patients in 2016-2018. Material and Method: This study was an analytic study with a cross-sectional design. The data was collected using the medical records of Dr. Soetomo General Hospital patients in 2016-2018. The population of this study consists of all patients with pure mechanical ocular trauma with a total of 198 subjects. Results: Fisher exact test results showed a value of p=0.054 which means there is no significant relationship between the best-corrected visual acuity with mechanical ocular trauma. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that there is no significant relationship between mechanical ocular trauma and the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) based on the medical record of patients with ocular trauma in Dr. Soetomo General Hospital Surabaya in 2016–2018, on the most results with patients who have BCVA 6/24 - 2 meter finger count.
Windy Ayustyas Trisna, Sahudi Sahudi, Etty Hary Kusumastuti
Published: 29 January 2021
Majalah Biomorfologi, Volume 31, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.20473/mbiom.v31i1.2021.1-5

Abstract:
Background: Globocan data in 2018 shows the cancer incidence in Indonesia. The highest case in women is breast cancer. The chance of survival for patients with high malignancy (Grade III) is only 11.86%, while for patients with low malignancy (Grade I) can reach 71.69%. Estrogen exposure is a risk factor for breast cancer. The hormone causes its effect through the estrogen receptor which is a core protein. Patients with positive receptor have 5 and 10 years survival rate which is better than patients with negative estrogen receptor. Objective: To identify the correlation between hormonal status of estrogen receptor and malignancy degree of invasive ductal breast cancer. Material and Method: This research is an observational analytic study. The sample used was patient medical record data in 2015-2017 in Anatomical Pathology Unit, Central Laboratory Installation, Dr. Soetomo General Hospital. Results: The data used was 694 patients medical record in 2015-2017. Approximately 56 patients (86%) had hormonal status of positive estrogen receptor with grade I cancer, 180 patients (70%) were in grade II, and 217 patients (45%) were in grade III. Approximately 9 patients (14%) had hormonal status of negative estrogen receptor with grade I cancer, 71 patients (28%) were in grade II, and 161 patients (34%) were in grade III. The result using Chi-Square test found Chi-Square value in the amount of 27.413 with a significance value of 0.000 (p
Ridhwan Biosia Wiratama, Samsriyaningsih Handayani, Soetjipto Soetjipto
Published: 3 September 2020
Majalah Biomorfologi, Volume 30, pp 69-77; https://doi.org/10.20473/mbiom.v30i2.2020.69-77

Abstract:
Background: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is one of the diseases that cause death in the world caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Since it was first discovered in 1987 until December 2017, the number of person with AIDS was 102,667, and the number of person with HIV infections was 280,623. HIV/AIDS cases in East Java occupy the second highest position in Indonesia. Surabaya is the first city in East Java with 934 HIV cases in 2017. LGBTQ is one of the groups at risk of getting HIV/AIDS with prevalence was 24.82%. Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors that influence LGBTQ related to the incidence of HIV/AIDS in Surabaya. Material and Method: This study was an analytic research using a cross sectional approach. The subject was 80 LGBTQ respondents. Data was collected using questionnaires then analyzed using Chi-square test, with α = 0.05. Result: The highest age group was 42-46 years (22.5%), the last level of education was dominated by high school (41.3%), and the most types of work were private employees (47.4%). There was no correlation between predisposing factors in the form of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and respondent's HIV status (p = 0.729), there was no correlation between enabling factors in the form of condoms and respondent's HIV status (p = 0.624), there was no correlation between the reinforcing factor in the form of family support with the HIV status of the respondent (p = 0.674) and there was no correlation between preventive behavior and the HIV status of the respondent (p = 0.540). Conclusion: The need for support between LGBTQs for the dangers of HIV/AIDS and LGBTQ should be more aware of their own health and environment with their social patterns
Ronik Harsono Kamal, Kristanti Wanito Wigati, Achmad Lefi
Published: 3 September 2020
Majalah Biomorfologi, Volume 30, pp 45-50; https://doi.org/10.20473/mbiom.v30i2.2020.45-50

Abstract:
Background: There is a lot of research on the importance of exercise but studies on the effective time of exercise regarding regulation of blood glucose levels are not clearly known. Objective: This study aims to determine the comparison of changes in blood glucose levels before and after moderate intensity physical exercise in the morning and night. Material and method: Healthy men (n=34), Age between 17-22 years, Body Mass Index (BMI) between 18.5-22.9 kg/m2 (normal Asia Pacific), participating in the morning group (8.00 am) or the night group (20.00 pm) are asked to do moderate intensity physical exercise (55-70% of maximum heart rate) using ergocycle for a total of 40 minutes. Blood glucose levels 2 hours post prandial capillaries are taken before exercise and blood glucose levels after exercise are taken acutely. Result: The mean decrease in blood glucose levels in the morning group was -8.353±9.16 mg/dL and in the night group was -6.294±10.10 mg/dL. Blood glucose levels decreased significantly for the morning group (p=0.002) and the night group (p=0.021). The comparison of changes in blood glucose levels between the morning and night groups was not significant (p=0.538). Conclusion: There is no difference between morning or night exercise related to changes in blood glucose levels.
Zaky Firmawan El-Hakim, Mochammad Thaha, Yetti Hernaningsih
Published: 3 September 2020
Majalah Biomorfologi, Volume 30, pp 59-68; https://doi.org/10.20473/mbiom.v30i2.2020.59-68

Abstract:
Background: Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) is one of the biomarkers to determine a person's health condition through antioxidant and oxidant activity or oxidative stress so that it can help in determining the therapy needed. However, currently, TAC levels in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing hemodialysis (HD) and non-hemodialysis (non-HD) are still controversial, so further research is needed. Objective: To analyze the comparison of TAC in HD and non-HD CKD patient. Material and Method: This was an analytical cross-sectional study with clinical observation in CKD patient. A total of 71 CKD patients consisting of 28 CKD HD patients and 43 non-HD CKD patients were enrolled in this study. Data about the characteristics of the subjects were taken using the anamnesis method, while data about TAC were taken using the colorimetric method with COBAS C-501 0837-19 series and 0835-13 series to measure TAC levels in the serum of CKD patients. The data that has been obtained were analyzed using independent sample t-tests. Result: TAC levels were significantly higher in CKD patients undergoing HD compared to non-HD CKD patients (p
Raudhatuzzahra Kesuma, Haris Mayagung Ekorini, Tri Hartini Yuliawati
Published: 3 September 2020
Majalah Biomorfologi, Volume 30, pp 51-58; https://doi.org/10.20473/mbiom.v30i2.2020.51-58

Abstract:
Background: Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) is an infection that can cause hearing loss which is commonly found in infants in Indonesia. The hearing screening of otoacoustic emission (OAE) and automated auditory brainstem response (AABR) is essential as an early screening to prevent speech and language development disorders which may reduce the social function of the patient in the future. Objective: To analyse the profile of children with CRS who suffer from hearing loss in Dr. Soetomo General Hospital, Surabaya in 2015-2017. Material and Method: This research employed a descriptive retrospective study by collecting 118 secondary data from the medical records. Result. CRS was mostly found in 0-3 months age group (76 patients), and was dominated by males (62 patients). The most common signs and symptoms were congenital heart disease (49 patients), followed by hearing loss (37 patients). The serological results were mostly dominated by negative IgM and positive IgG (40 patients). The most dominant results of hearing screening test were OAE and AABR bilateral refer (45 patients). Conclusion. The result of the CRS study is different, and depends on which country the research is conducted.
Dewi Sekarsari, Viskasari P. Kalanjati, Abdulloh Machin, Prastiya I. Gunawan
Published: 3 September 2020
Majalah Biomorfologi, Volume 30, pp 40-44; https://doi.org/10.20473/mbiom.v30i2.2020.40-44

Abstract:
Background: Various risk factors of epilepsy in children had been reported although differences were found amongst regions. Objective: To determine the differences in risk factors and type of epilepsy patients with febrile seizure history in children aged 0-17 years old at the Pediatric Ward, Dr. Soetomo General Hospital, Surabaya in 2017. Material and method: This is a cross sectional retrospective study, using secondary data from medical records of epilepsy patients with febrile seizure history in children aged 0-17 years old at Pedicatric Ward, Dr. Soetomo General Hospital, Surabaya in the period of January-December 2017. Data analysis was done using t-test and the Chi-Square test (Microsoft Excel 2007 and SPSS 22); level of significance was p
Ovin Nada Saputri, Viskasari P. Kalanjati, Mahrus A. Rahman
Published: 12 June 2020
Majalah Biomorfologi, Volume 30; https://doi.org/10.20473/mbiom.v30i1.2020.16-21

Abstract:
Background: Malnutrition is a common cause of morbidity and mortality amongst children with TOF. Objective: To analyze the BMI profile of children with TOF age 0 – 18 years old at Pediatric Department, Dr. Soetomo General Hospital, Surabaya. Material and method: A cross-sectional study of the BMI from the medical record of TOF patients age 0 – 18 years old at the Pediatric Department, Dr. Soetomo General Hospital, Surabaya since January 2016 to December 2017 was conducted. The data included gender, age group, demographic distribution, weight, and height. BMI was calculated by WHO formula reference; body weight (kg) divided by height squared body (m2), which was converted into z-score histogram size. BMI classification was guided by the Government’s Anthropometry Standards for Nutritional Status Assessment. Result: From 84 TOF patients, there were 43 males (51%) and 41 females (49%). The most dominant age group is 0 – 4 years old (n=47;56%). The majority of patients were from outside of Surabaya (n=64;76,2%). Based on their BMI, 36 patients (42.9%) have severe underweight, 10 patients (11.9%) were underweight, and 35 patients (41.7%) were normal, whilst the rests (3.6%) were overweight. Conclusion: In this study, the number of male patients was slightly higher than female patients. The majority of TOF patients were 0 – 4 years old and resided out town of Surabaya. The predominant BMI found was the underweight and severe underweight below of normal BMI.
Audi Salman Faza, Linda Dewanti, Ema Qurnianingsih
Published: 12 June 2020
Majalah Biomorfologi, Volume 30, pp 8-15; https://doi.org/10.20473/mbiom.v30i1.2020.8-15

Abstract:
Background: Borax, a carcinogenic toxicant, is illegally used as food additives frequently. Previous researches shown that high dose of borax exposure (300 mg/kg of BW) caused gastric ulcer, but low dose of borax, as found as usual dose in food, has not been frequently researched. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of low dose of borax for 8 weeks on the formation of gastric ulcer. Material and Method: Twenty four young adult rats (Rattus norvegicus) were divided into 4 groups (Control, Group 1, 2, and 3). Borax doses of 50 mg/kg, 150 mg/kg, and 300 mg/kg were administered on groups 1, 2, and 3 respectively through sonde for 8 weeks; Control group was not exposed with borax. Body weight was monitored every 2 weeks. On the last day of the experiment, rats were euthanized and gastric ulcers were histopathologically analyzed using a microscope. The data were analyzed by the comparative test of Mann-Whitney and the significancy was set on p
M. Rifqi Wiyono, Siprianus Ugroseno Yudho Bintoro, Yetti Hernaningsi
Published: 12 June 2020
Majalah Biomorfologi, Volume 30, pp 32-39; https://doi.org/10.20473/mbiom.v30i1.2020.32-39

Abstract:
Background: Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm because of the reciprocal translocation of chromosome 22 to chromosome 9. In the United States, the incidence of CML is 1.9 cases per 100,000 people. Whereas in Indonesia, there is no specific national data on CML prevalence, especially regarding the clinical picture even though cancer cases reach 1.4 per 1,000 population. Objective: Evaluate the characteristics and clinical features of CML patients in Dr. Soetomo General Hospital, Surabaya. Method: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study with data on the medical records of CML patients in the 2017 period at the Dr. Soetomo General Hospital, Surabaya. The sample in this study was CML patients with positive Breakpoint Clusters Region-Abelson (BCR-ABL), having a minimum age of 18 years and equipped with epidemiological data, complete blood count data, and peripheral blood smear data. Result: Thirty-three patients met the study criteria. The sample was predominantly male, with a ratio of 1.06 : 1 to female patients with a median age of 40 years. Splenomegaly was found in 87.9% of patients. The average results of leukocyte, platelet, and hemoglobin counts were 254.58 x 103 / μL, 557 x 103 / μL, and 9.55 g / dL. From the results of peripheral blood smear obtained normochromic normocytic anisopoikilocytosis erythrocyte (57.6%), all patients had an image of increased leukocytes with blast presence in 97% of patients, and 51.5% had the image of an increase in platelets and the discovery of giant platelets in 33.3% of patients. Conclusion: The sample is predominantly male with the highest incidence at a younger age range of 21-30 years; The clinical characteristics of high leukocytosis with various stage of maturation and a tendency to develop grade 2 normocytic normochromic anemia and thrombocytosis was found in the patients.
Shidi Laras Pramudito, Dewi Ratna Sari, Ninik Asmaningsih Soemyarso
Published: 12 June 2020
Majalah Biomorfologi, Volume 30, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.20473/mbiom.v30i1.2020.1-7

Abstract:
Background: The association between nutritional status and dengue infection is still considered controversial. Researches that study obesity and shock in pediatric patients with dengue hemmorhagic fever (DHF) has been widely carried out. However, researches that study the association between obesity and the outcome of patients with dengue shock syndrome (DSS) are still rarely done. Objective: The objective is to study the association of obesity in body mass index-for-age (BMI-for-age), gender, and age to the outcome of patients with dengue shock syndrome (recurrent shock or death). Material and method: The research was analytical retrospective observational research with a case-control design using secondary data from the medical records of pediatric patients with DSS in Dr. Soetomo General Hospital during 2015. The analyses used to test the association of obesity (BMI-for-age), gender, age and the outcome of patients with dengue shock syndrome (recurrent shock or death) were the Chi Square or Fisher Exact test. Result: The sample acquired was 60 data, consisting of 46 patients with DSS without recurrent shock or death and 14 pediatric patients with DSS experiencing recurrent shock or mortality. The frequency of boys and girls were found in equal numbers. Age group >5-10 years was found more common (45%). The results of the analyses test found no asssiation between gender (p=0.542), age (p=0.314), and obesity (p=1,000) and the outcome of pediatric patients with dengue shock syndrome. Conclusion: There were no association found between obesity, age, and gender to the outcomes of pediatric patients with DSS at Dr. Soetomo General Hospital.
Reinaldi Rachmadhianto, Tri Hartini Yuliawati, Gatot Soegiarto
Published: 12 June 2020
Majalah Biomorfologi, Volume 30, pp 22-31; https://doi.org/10.20473/mbiom.v30i1.2020.22-31

Abstract:
Background: The prevalence of asthma in prepuberty woman is more common than in puberty men. However, after puberty to a certain age, women dominate more. It is still unclear whether sex hormones affect the histological structure of male and female airways or not. Objective: This study objective is to examine the effect of sex difference on the histological structure of bronchial and nasal cavity of mice model (Mus musculus) with ovalbumin exposure. Material and Method: This study used 24 mice in four groups (male control, female control, male asthma model, and female asthma model). At the sensitization phase in days 0 and 14, mice were injected intraperitoneally with 100 μl of a mixture of 50 μl ovalbumin (200 μl / ml) and 50 μl alum. At the exposure phase in days 21 to 23, mice were exposed to 1% ovalbumin (aerosol, 30 minutes / per day). Mice were sacrificed 48 hours after the last exposure. The data taken included four variables, namely: bronchial epithelial thickness, bronchial smooth muscle thickness, nasal cavity goblet cells number, and nasal cavity mucosal thickness. Next, Shapiro-Wilk normality test and parametric t-test were conducted. Result: In animal asthma models, mice with male and female exposure did not cause differences in epithelial thickness and smooth muscle thickness in bronchus compared to the control group. However, there were significant differences in the number of goblet cells and mucosal thickness in nasal cavity of male and female mice compared to the control group (respectively, p = 0.002; p = 0.006 and p = 0.003; p = 0.005). There were no significant differences between groups of male and female mice on all variables. Conclusion: In animal asthma models of mice, ovalbumin exposure did not cause differences in the values of all variables between male and female groups.
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