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Results in Journal Communications of the ACM: 13,815

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George V. Neville-Neil
Communications of the ACM, Volume 64, pp 25-25; https://doi.org/10.1145/3481431

Abstract:
The use and limits of bisection.
Hannah Thinyane
Communications of the ACM, Volume 64, pp 22-24; https://doi.org/10.1145/3481429

Abstract:
Applying the unique experiences of designing technologies for vulnerable communities.
Osku Torro, Henri Jalo, Henri Pirkkalainen
Communications of the ACM, Volume 64, pp 48-55; https://doi.org/10.1145/3440868

Abstract:
Beyond the pandemic, organizations need to recognize what digital assets, interactions, and communication processes reap the most benefits from virtual reality.
Andrei Sukhov, Igor Sorokin, Doug Meil
Communications of the ACM, Volume 64, pp 6-7; https://doi.org/10.1145/3479972

Abstract:
The Communications website, http://cacm.acm.org, features more than a dozen bloggers in the [email protected] community. In each issue of Communications , we'll publish selected posts or excerpts. twitter Follow us on Twitter at http://twitter.com/blogCACM http://cacm.acm.org/blogs/blog-cacm Andrei Sukhov and Igor Sorokin ponder the potential benefits of DECT to the Internet of Things, while Doug Meil considers how software engineers should reflect on their accomplishments.
Don Monroe
Communications of the ACM, Volume 64, pp 8-10; https://doi.org/10.1145/3479974

Abstract:
Two-dimensional materials---graphene and its cousins---could enable better integrated circuits.
Kendra Walther, Richard E. Ladner
Communications of the ACM, Volume 64, pp 19-21; https://doi.org/10.1145/3481356

Abstract:
Strategies for incorporating accessibility into computing education.
Jeannette M. Wing
Communications of the ACM, Volume 64, pp 64-71; https://doi.org/10.1145/3448248

Abstract:
The pursuit of responsible AI raises the ante on both the trustworthy computing and formal methods communities.
Mark Tannian, Willie Coston
Communications of the ACM, Volume 64, pp 56-63; https://doi.org/10.1145/3474359

Abstract:
Experienced and aspiring computing professionals need to manage their qualifications according to current market needs. That includes certification achievement as well as formal education, experience, and licenses.
Michael A. Cusumano
Communications of the ACM, Volume 64, pp 16-18; https://doi.org/10.1145/3481354

Abstract:
The dilemma of social media platforms.
Matthew Groh, Ziv Epstein, Nick Obradovich, Manuel Cebrian, Iyad Rahwan
Communications of the ACM, Volume 64, pp 40-47; https://doi.org/10.1145/3445972

Abstract:
Technologies for manipulating and faking online media may outpace people's ability to tell the difference.
João Varajão
Communications of the ACM, Volume 64, pp 32-35; https://doi.org/10.1145/3453932

Abstract:
Creating a software solution with fast decision capability, agile project management, and extreme low-code technology.
Devdatt Dubhashi
Communications of the ACM, Volume 64, pp 30-31; https://doi.org/10.1145/3481581

Abstract:
Three books offer varied perspectives on the ascendancy of artificial intelligence.
Chris Edwards
Communications of the ACM, Volume 64, pp 13-15; https://doi.org/10.1145/3479979

Abstract:
The introduction of the nanosheet transistor is just one step in the continuing attempt to stick to the spirit of Moore's Law.
Keith Kirkpatrick
Communications of the ACM, Volume 64, pp 11-12; https://doi.org/10.1145/3479977

Abstract:
Algorithms can have a devastating impact on people's lives, especially if they already are struggling economically.
Jihoon Lee, Gyuhong Lee, Jinsung Lee, Youngbin Im, Max Hollingsworth, Eric Wustrow, Dirk Grunwald, Sangtae Ha
Communications of the ACM, Volume 64, pp 85-93; https://doi.org/10.1145/3481042

Abstract:
Modern cell phones are required to receive and display alerts via the Wireless Emergency Alert (WEA) program, under the mandate of the Warning, Alert, and Response Act of 2006. These alerts include AMBER alerts, severe weather alerts, and (unblockable) Presidential Alerts, intended to inform the public of imminent threats. Recently, a test Presidential Alert was sent to all capable phones in the U.S., prompting concerns about how the underlying WEA protocol could be misused or attacked. In this paper, we investigate the details of this system and develop and demonstrate the first practical spoofing attack on Presidential Alerts, using commercially available hardware and modified open source software. Our attack can be performed using a commercially available software-defined radio, and our modifications to the open source software libraries. We find that with only four malicious portable base stations of a single Watt of transmit power each, almost all of a 50,000-seat stadium can be attacked with a 90% success rate. The real impact of such an attack would, of course, depend on the density of cellphones in range; fake alerts in crowded cities or stadiums could potentially result in cascades of panic. Fixing this problem will require a large collaborative effort between carriers, government stakeholders, and cellphone manufacturers. To seed this effort, we also propose three mitigation solutions to address this threat.
Jessie Frazelle
Communications of the ACM, Volume 64, pp 36-39; https://doi.org/10.1145/3464909

Abstract:
Time to move forward from decades-old design.
Cory Doctorow
Communications of the ACM, Volume 64, pp 26-29; https://doi.org/10.1145/3446789

Abstract:
Seeking to make Big Tech less central to the Internet.
Shichao Yue, Dina Katabi
Communications of the ACM, Volume 64, pp 75-83; https://doi.org/10.1145/3481038

Abstract:
Surface tension is an important property of liquids. It has diverse uses such as testing water contamination, measuring alcohol concentration in drinks, and identifying the presence of protein in urine to detect the onset of kidney failure. Today, measurements of surface tension are done in a lab environment using costly instruments, making it hard to leverage this property in ubiquitous applications. In contrast, we show how to measure surface tension using only a smartphone. We introduce a new algorithm that uses the small waves on the liquid surface as a series of lenses that focus light and generate a characteristic pattern. We then use the phone camera to capture this pattern and measure the surface tension. Our approach is simple, accurate, and available to anyone with a smartphone. Empirical evaluations show that our mobile app can detect water contamination and measure alcohol concentration. Furthermore, it can track protein concentration in the urine, providing an initial at-home test for proteinuria, a dangerous complication that can lead to kidney failure.
Hadas Kress-Gazit, Kerstin Eder, Guy Hoffman, Henny Admoni, Brenna Argall, Rüdiger Ehlers, Christoffer Heckman, Nils Jansen, Ross Knepper, Jan Křetínský, et al.
Communications of the ACM, Volume 64, pp 78-84; https://doi.org/10.1145/3433637

Abstract:
As robots begin to interact closely with humans, we need to build systems worthy of trust regarding the safety and quality of the interaction.
Lamont A. Flowers
Communications of the ACM, Volume 64, pp 38-40; https://doi.org/10.1145/3450758

Abstract:
Diversifying usability studies utilizing rapid application development.
James R. Larus
Communications of the ACM, Volume 64, pp 41-42; https://doi.org/10.1145/3454007

Abstract:
Should two private companies have complete control over the world's cellphones?
Emma Tosch, Eytan Bakshy, Emery D. Berger, David D. Jensen, J. Eliot B. Moss
Communications of the ACM, Volume 64, pp 108-116; https://doi.org/10.1145/3474385

Abstract:
Online experiments are an integral part of the design and evaluation of software infrastructure at Internet firms. To handle the growing scale and complexity of these experiments, firms have developed software frameworks for their design and deployment. Ensuring that the results of experiments in these frameworks are trustworthy---referred to as internal validity ---can be difficult. Currently, verifying internal validity requires manual inspection by someone with substantial expertise in experimental design. We present the first approach for checking the internal validity of online experiments statically, that is, from code alone. We identify well-known problems that arise in experimental design and causal inference, which can take on unusual forms when expressed as computer programs: failures of randomization and treatment assignment, and causal sufficiency errors. Our analyses target PLANOUT, a popular framework that features a domain-specific language (DSL) to specify and run complex experiments. We have built PLANALYZER, a tool that checks PLANOUT programs for threats to internal validity, before automatically generating important data for the statistical analyses of a large class of experimental designs. We demonstrate PLANALYZER'S utility on a corpus of PLANOUT scripts deployed in production at Facebook, and we evaluate its ability to identify threats on a mutated subset of this corpus. PLANALYZER has both precision and recall of 92% on the mutated corpus, and 82% of the contrasts it generates match hand-specified data.
Athman Bouguettaya, Quan Z. Sheng, Boualem Benatallah, Azadeh Ghari Neiat, Sajib Mistry, Aditya Ghose, Surya Nepal, Lina Yao
Communications of the ACM, Volume 64, pp 86-95; https://doi.org/10.1145/3464960

Abstract:
A blueprint for leveraging the tremendous opportunities the IoT has to offer.
Sherif Sakr, Angela Bonifati, Hannes Voigt, Alexandru Iosup, Khaled Ammar, Renzo Angles, Walid Aref, Marcelo Arenas, Maciej Besta, Peter A. Boncz, et al.
Communications of the ACM, Volume 64, pp 62-71; https://doi.org/10.1145/3434642

Abstract:
Ensuring the success of big graph processing for the next decade and beyond.
Michael Gardiner, Alexander Truskovsky, George Neville-Neil, Atefeh Mashatan
Communications of the ACM, Volume 64, pp 54-61; https://doi.org/10.1145/3466174

Abstract:
A discussion with Michael Gardiner, Alexander Truskovsky, George Neville-Neil, and Atefeh Mashatan.
Atefeh Mashatan, Douglas Heintzman
Communications of the ACM, Volume 64, pp 46-53; https://doi.org/10.1145/3464905

Abstract:
Is your organization prepared?
Kelly Idell, David Gefen, Arik Ragowsky
Communications of the ACM, Volume 64, pp 72-77; https://doi.org/10.1145/3434641

Abstract:
Organizational distrust, not compensation, is more likely to send IT pros packing.
Logan Kugler
Communications of the ACM, Volume 64, pp 19-20; https://doi.org/10.1145/3474355

Abstract:
A new blockchain-based technology is changing how the art world works, and changing how we think about asset ownership in the process.
Peter J. Denning
Communications of the ACM, Volume 64, pp 35-37; https://doi.org/10.1145/3473612

Abstract:
Back-of-the-envelope calculations are a powerful professional practice.
Thomas Haigh
Communications of the ACM, Volume 64, pp 28-34; https://doi.org/10.1145/3473610

Abstract:
Exploring Ellen Ullman's 'Close to the Machine' and AMC's 'Halt and Catch Fire.'
Marjory S. Blumenthal
Communications of the ACM, Volume 64, pp 25-27; https://doi.org/10.1145/3473608

Abstract:
Seeking security improvements for smart cities.
Keisuke Sakaguchi, Ronan Le Bras, Chandra Bhagavatula, Yejin Choi
Communications of the ACM, Volume 64, pp 99-106; https://doi.org/10.1145/3474381

Abstract:
Commonsense reasoning remains a major challenge in AI, and yet, recent progresses on benchmarks may seem to suggest otherwise. In particular, the recent neural language models have reported above 90% accuracy on the Winograd Schema Challenge (WSC), a commonsense benchmark originally designed to be unsolvable for statistical models that rely simply on word associations. This raises an important question---whether these models have truly acquired robust commonsense capabilities or they rely on spurious biases in the dataset that lead to an overestimation of the true capabilities of machine commonsense. To investigate this question, we introduce WinoGrande, a large-scale dataset of 44k problems, inspired by the original WSC, but adjusted to improve both the scale and the hardness of the dataset. The key steps of the dataset construction consist of (1) large-scale crowdsourcing, followed by (2) systematic bias reduction using a novel AFLITE algorithm that generalizes human-detectable word associations to machine-detectable embedding associations. Our experiments demonstrate that state-of-the-art models achieve considerably lower accuracy (59.4%-79.1%) on WINOGRANDE compared to humans (94%), confirming that the high performance on the original WSC was inflated by spurious biases in the dataset. Furthermore, we report new state-of-the-art results on five related benchmarks with emphasis on their dual implications. On the one hand, they demonstrate the effectiveness of WINOGRANDE when used as a resource for transfer learning. On the other hand, the high performance on all these benchmarks suggests the extent to which spurious biases are prevalent in all such datasets, which motivates further research on algorithmic bias reduction.
Illah Reza Nourbakhsh
Communications of the ACM, Volume 64, pp 43-45; https://doi.org/10.1145/3478516

Abstract:
Integrating ethics into artificial intelligence education and development.
Anupam Chander
Communications of the ACM, Volume 64, pp 22-24; https://doi.org/10.1145/3473606

Abstract:
Considering the perceived dangers of the global information flow.
Samuel Greengard
Communications of the ACM, Volume 64, pp 16-18; https://doi.org/10.1145/3474357

Abstract:
Highly efficient light-based processors can overcome the bottlenecks of today's electronics.
Doug Meil, Mario Antoine Aoun
Communications of the ACM, Volume 64, pp 10-11; https://doi.org/10.1145/3474351

Abstract:
The Communications website, http://cacm.acm.org, features more than a dozen bloggers in the [email protected] community. In each issue of Communications , we'll publish selected posts or excerpts. twitter Follow us on Twitter at http://twitter.com/blogCACM http://cacm.acm.org/blogs/blog-cacm Doug Meil considers a third distinct type of development, while Mario Antoine Aoun ponders alternate names for ACM.
Leah Hoffmann
Communications of the ACM, Volume 64; https://doi.org/10.1145/3474361

Abstract:
2019 ACM Computing Prize recipient David Silver on developing the AlphaGo algorithm, his fascination with Go, and on teaching computers to play.
Marina Krakovsky
Communications of the ACM, Volume 64, pp 13-15; https://doi.org/10.1145/3474353

Abstract:
The architect of the Sagrada Familia appears to have done parametric modeling in his head; software is helping to complete the structure a century later.
Chris Edwards
Communications of the ACM, Volume 64, pp 13-15; https://doi.org/10.1145/3469283

Abstract:
The quest to find greater security through obscurity.
Georgios Petropoulos
Communications of the ACM, Volume 64, pp 24-26; https://doi.org/10.1145/3469104

Abstract:
Considering a new regulatory proposal for addressing digital market competition concerns.
Sarah E. Chasins, Elena L. Glassman, Joshua Sunshine
Communications of the ACM, Volume 64, pp 98-106; https://doi.org/10.1145/3469279

Abstract:
Collaborations between two communities have unearthed a sweet spot for future programming efforts.
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