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Results in Journal Highlights in BioScience: 49

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Mostafa Essam Eissa, , Dalia Essam Eissa
Published: 24 August 2022
Highlights in Bioscience; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.202204

Abstract:
The recent pandemic that has hit the world has affected humanity in all aspects of life. Since the outbreak of this worldwide epidemic, a huge amount of data has been generated. In this article, we have provided a new simplified insight into the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) using the Pareto principle to highlight the main contributors to morbidity and mortality. A time series database of confirmed cumulative cases and deaths for all countries was processed from the Humanitarian Data Exchange website provided by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. More than 85% of the incidents recorded worldwide were from the AMRO, EURO, and SEARO WHO regions, and the United States, Russia, and India were found to account for the largest proportion of cases and deaths in these affected areas. The application of Pareto analysis is useful in finding focus groups for further study and modeling
Bobita Ray,
Published: 15 January 2022
Highlights in Bioscience; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.202201

Abstract:
In this review, it is discussed the prominent effect generated from aquaculture wastewater considered as the major water polluting crisis in the entire world. The cause rose due to intense development and improvement in aquaculture by the aquatic habitat species triggering quite a challenge in the environment. Scrutinizing this problem, researchers have found a way to tackle it by cultivating algal species in aquaculture wastewater in order to remove its high content of organic and inorganic pollutants. The theory proves wastewater serves as a nutrient source for algal growth and development such as phosphorous, nitrogen, and other trace elements. Besides harvesting the algal biomass from aquaculture wastewater, the extraction of lipid is also processed for biofuel production. Hence, the discussion includes conversion of wastewater into organic and inorganic pollutant-free water with low cost-effective method via algal cultivation in wastewater and high lipid yield for biofuel with a carbon-free and sustainable environment.
Hala A. Abdelgaid, , , Abdelgawad A. Fahmi, Ahmed I. Amin
Published: 27 December 2021
Highlights in Bioscience; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.202111

Abstract:
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are common liver diseases that lead to death in Egypt, especially in men. The current study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity of arginase (ARG) activity, alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT), and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in the sera of patients with HCV (with & without viremia) and HCC. A total of 190 men classified as 40 healthy used as control (G1), 100 infected with HCV (subdivided into 50 with viremia (G2) and 50 without viremia (G3), and 50 with HCC (G4). The activity of ARG significantly decreased in HCV and HCC groups along with significant elevation in the level of AAT and AFP as compared with the control. Although a non-significant variation was scored in AST/ALT, significant differences were observed among AST/ARG and ARG/ALT in the pathogenic groups as compared with the healthy group. Moreover, significant variations in ARG, AAT, AFP, AST/ARG, and ARG/ALT were observed between viremia and non-viremia. Although AFP scored significant change among the viremia and HCC, the rest parameters scored non-significant changes between both groups. Furthermore, a receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) showed the diagnostic ability for the selected parameters with high sensitivity and multiple linear regressions exhibited good associations between those parameters. These findings suggest the using possibility of ARG, AAT, and AFP in the diagnosis and/or follow-up of patients with HCV or HCC.
, Faiz M. Al Guthami, Mohamed H. Basiouny, Ahmed F.M. Al Gethami
Published: 29 November 2021
Highlights in Bioscience; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.202110

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to provide more light on the effect of Qatada (Acacia hamulosa) honey from Saudi Arabia as a dressing on pilonidal sinus wound healing, antibacterial activity, and cytokine levels. The results revealed that the pH of 3.56 of tested honey, where glucose was 378 mmol/l also the specific gravity was 1.435, while contents of total phenolic and flavonoid and DPPH activity (32.15 mg GAE/100 g honey), (54.27 mg RE/100 g honey) and (127.83 mg/ml) respectively. The mean duration of pilonidal sinus wounds to be ready for surgical closure was 43.5 days in the control (standard dressing) group where the honey dressing group was 28.5 days. Less pain, edema, and foul-smelling discharge were expressed in the honey group if compared with the standard dressing group. The total bacterial count was 9 × 109 at the begging of the experiment then it reduced after the application of standard dressing traditional therapy to (9 ×105) and honey treatment group (9 ×102) after 21 days post-treatment. Significant reduction (p<0.05) was observed in serum TNFα(-52), IL6 - 46), and IL-17 (-60) relatively to pre-treatment values. Based on our findings, we may conclude that Qatada honey bioactivities aided wound healing by increasing tissue growth while decreasing overall bacterial count and inflammation.
Sükrü Kirkan, U ̆gur Parin, Halil Çapakçioglu
Published: 10 October 2021
Highlights in Bioscience; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.202109

Abstract:
The scope of this study was to investigate the presence of pathogenic bacteria in milk from female camels with mastitis and to select antibiotics for treatment with antibiotic susceptibility testing. A total of 40 milk samples taken from 20 dromedarian females, after application of CMT test and determination of SCC values, the camels were diagnosed with subclinical mastitis. Milk samples were inoculated into blood agar for identification of bacterial agents leading to mastitis. A total of 4 (12.5%) Staphylococcus aureus, 4 (12.5%) S. auricularis, 2 (6.25%) S. pettenkoperi, 2 (6.25%) S. cohnii spp. cohnii, 2 (6.25%) S. equorum, 2 (6.25%) S. capitis, 2 (6.25%) Streptococcus agalactiae, 2 (6.25%) S. dysgalactiae, 4 (12.5%) Escherichia coli, 2 (%) 6.25) Pseudomonas pseudalcaligenes, 2 (6.25%) Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, 2 (6.25%) Aerococcus viridans and 2 (6.25%) Gemella morbillorum were identified. Gram-positive bacteria were sensitive to Levofloxacin, Linezolid and Tetracycline and Daptomycin, resistant to Beta lactam-group antibiotics and macrolides. Vancomycin resistance was determined in S. aureus and S. cohnii spp. cohnii strains. Gram-negative strains are found generally susceptible to Cefepime and Pipersilin; resistant to Trimethoprim-sulfomethoxazole and Amoxicillin-Clavulanic acid. As a result, it is recommended to use antibiotic use to prevent the development of antimicrobial resistance as well as mastitis control methods such as the prevention of infection and monitoring the health status of the mammary of camels.
Imene Chetoui, Feriel Ghribi, Safa Bejaoui, Mohamed Ghalghaa, M'hamed El Cafsi, Nejla Soudani
Published: 20 January 2021
Highlights in Bioscience; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.202101

Abstract:
The objective of the present work is to evaluate the possible toxic effect engendered by graded doses of lead chloride (PbCl2) on Mactra stultorum mantle and adductor muscles through a battery of biomarkers responses. M. stultorum were divided into 4 groups and exposed to three concentrations of PbCl2 (D1:1mg/L, D2: 2.5 mg/L and D3: 5 mg/L) with control during five days. Our findings showed decreases of lipid contents in both organs following PbCl2 exposure, while, proteins declined only in the adductor muscles of the treated M. stultorum. During our experiment, the PbCl2 exposure induced the levels of metallothionein (MTs), malondialdehyde (MDA) and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) in both organs as compared to the control. These biomarkers responses are distinctly different between mantle and adductor muscles.
Hamidreza Khezri, Mojtaba Farzaneh, Zeinab Ghasemishahrestani, Ali Moghadam
Published: 3 August 2021
Highlights in Bioscience; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.202108

Abstract:
Melanoma is one of the most dangerous skin cancers in the world. It accounts for 55% of all deaths associated with skin cancer. Researchers believe that skin cancer increases the risk of other cancers if not diagnosed early. Therefore, prompt and timely diagnosis of this disease is very important for the successful treatment of the patient. This system can detect melanoma lethal carcinoma from other skin lesions without the need for surgery, with a low cost, accuracy of about 98.88% and specificity 99%. In this article, a new, intelligent and accurate software (Delphi) system has been used to diagnose melanoma skin cancer. To detect malignant melanoma, the ABCDT rule, asymmetry (A), boundary (B), color (C), diameter (D) and textural variation (T) of the lesion are calculated and finally, an artificial neural network (ANN) is used to obtain an accurate result. The ANN with Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) contains the five extraction Characteristics (ABCDT) of lesions is used as inputs, two hidden layers, and two outputs. Very good results were obtained using this method. It was observed that for a dataset of 180 dermoscopic lesion images including 80 malignant melanomas, 20 benign melanomas and 80 nevus lesions. Due to its automatic recognition and ability to be installed on a computer, this system can be very useful for dermatologists as well as the general public.
Pramod Prasad Dahal, Komal Bahadur Basnet, Shrawan Kumar Sah, Tika Bahadur Karki
Published: 31 March 2021
Highlights in Bioscience, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.20226

Abstract:
A study was conducted on research farm of National Maize Research Program (NMRP), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal during winter season of 2015/16 laid out in split-split plot design with three replications consisting of two FYM levels (FYM at 10 t ha-1 and no FYM application), three nitrogen levels (100, 75 and 50% N of recommended dose P and K remaining constant) and two levels of seed inoculation (Azotobacter chrococcum seed inoculation and no inoculation) with Rampur-2 maize hybrid in Nepal. One of the major factor affecting maize production is weather and this paper is prepared to assess the suitability of weather condition at different growth stages of winter season hybrid maize in condition of western Chitwan, Nepal at NMRP. The result shows that the requirement of the maize crop during different growth stages i.e. temperature, rainfall, relative humidity were fulfilled which helped to obtain remarkably higher grain yield (4.26 t ha-1) in the experiment compared to average national grain yield (2.84 t ha-1) of maize
Emad I. Y. Adam, Yousif O.H.M. Assad, Marwa M. E. Eltohami, Nabil H.H. Bashir, Samira H. Abdelrahman, Bakri Y. M. Nour
Published: 31 March 2021
Highlights in Bioscience, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.202107

Abstract:
Currently mosquitoes control is the cornerstone to minimize the rising number of mosquito borne diseases. There is an urgent need looking for alternatives to the current reliance on synthetic insecticides for the vectors control. Application of active toxic agents from plant extracts as an alternative control strategy was available from ancient times. These are non-toxic, easily available at affordable prices, biodegradable and show broad-spectrum target-specific activities against different species of vectors. Natural products with repellency properties are urgently needed. An insect repellent works by masking human scent, and a number of natural and synthetic mosquito repellents were studied. The main aim of this study was to identify the phytochemicals and compare their potentials as mosquito repellents from the ethanol (Et. OH) and hexane (hex) leaf extracts (LEs) of Ocimum basilicum, Coleus forskohlii, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Cymbopogon flexuosus under laboratory conditions at 50 and 100% concentrations. Phytochemical analysis showed that alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, terpenes, tannins and terpenoids were present/or absent in the 4 plant-LEs. At 50% concentration of Et. OH extracts, C. forskohlii exhibited higher repellency potential on Anopheles gambiae with protection time of 137.3 min, while O. basilicum, E. camaldulensis and Cy. flexuosus registered protection time of 30.6, 15.3 and 19 min, respectively. At 100% concentration of ethanol- extracts, C. forskohlii caused the highest protection time against the vector with protection time of 182 min. O. basilicum, E. camaldulensis and Cy. flexuosus were equally less potent against the insect, with protection time 42.6, 32.6 and 28 min, respectively. Regarding hex-extract, at 50% concentration of C. forskohlii, the highest repellency potential , with protection time of 174 was registered, while O. basilicum, E. camaldulensis and Cy. flexuosus registered protection times of 44, 18 and 28.6 min, respectively. However, the 100% concentration of Et. OH-extracts of, C. forskohlii and O. basilicum exhibited the highest protection time, with protection times of 228 and 116min, respectively. E. camaldulensis and Cy. flexuosus were less potent, with protection times 28.6 and 54.6 min, respectively. The EOs of C. forskohlii and O. basilicum L EOs proved to have potentials as repellency agents against Anopheles. GC-MS analysis of the extracts identified the compounds of both solvents extracts and the terpens were the major compounds. According to the results, further studies are required, especially on the extracts of basil and coleus since they proved to be effective.
Published: 21 March 2021
Highlights in Bioscience; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.202105

Abstract:
Coronavirus, the current pandemic that takes lives of 1,936,632 until the time of the paper. Scientists over the world exhibited all efforts to fight the virus. Many supplements developed to fight coronavirus by supporting the immune system which is the strongest worrier against it for now. One of the neglected strategies to enhance immunity is music therapy. Music therapy can drive immunity into different conditions. Not only able to boost and suppress immunity but also many physiological and psychological diseases are treated with music therapy. It is more than just entertainment, and research shows that music therapy may be helpful and cost-effective to support standard therapy. This systemic review tries to explore the effect of music therapy and arrives at a conclusion suggesting routine procedures to support the patient with music therapy. However, the idea of using music therapy in improving the immune system must undergo clinical and medical confirmation to be used
Kouka Fidèle Tiendrébéogo, , Naoura Gapili, Mahamadi Hamed Ouédraogo, Razacswendé Fanta Ouédraogo, Kiswendsida Romaric Nanema, Adjima Ouoba, Mahamadou Sawadogo
Published: 18 March 2021
Highlights in Bioscience; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.202106

Abstract:
Jatropha curcas is a highly promising species for biodiesel production in Burkina Faso and other countries in the tropics. It is rustic, grows in warm regions and is easily cultivated. These characteristics and high-quality oil yields from the seeds have made it a priority for biodiesel programs. Consequently, this plant merits genetic investigations aimed at improving yields. The present study was conducted to determine the extent of genetic variability and relationships among 30 accessions from Burkina Faso using 7 qualitative characters and 20 quantitative characters. For most of the traits, there were highly significant differences among the accessions. A positive and significant correlation between the 100-seed weight trait and the oil content trait was observed. The oil content trait is significantly and positively influenced by growth traits such as plant height and crown diameter. Based on the petiole base pigmentation, three morphotypes were identified: green morphotype, purple morphotype and brown morphotype. The green morphotype was characterized by very high oil content and high 100-seed weight while the brown morphotype presents low oil content and low 100-seed weight. The purple morphotype registered a high oil content and medium 100-seed weight. These results are important for the continuity of breeding programs, aimed at obtaining cultivars with high grain yield and high oil content in seeds.
Alsamman M. Alsamman, Ratiba Bousba, Michael Baum, Aladdin Hamwieh, Nourhan Fouad
Published: 20 February 2021
Highlights in Bioscience; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.202104

Abstract:
Heat and drought are among the leading environmental stresses which have a major impact on plant development. In our research, identification and characterization of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) regulating the response of wheat to drought, heat and combined stress was carried out. We analyzed data from the Gene Expression Omnibus database (GEO) microarrays containing 24 samples of wheat, which were categorized by different treatments (control: ctrl, drought: D, heat: H, and mixed: HD). Significant DEGs were examined for gene annotation, gene ontology, co-expression, protein-protein interaction (PPI) and their heterogeneity and consistency through drought, heat and combined stress was also studied. Genes such as gyrB, C6orf132 homolog, PYR1 were highly associated with wheat response to drought with P-value (-log10) of 9.3, 7.3, 6.4, and logFC of -3.9, 2.0, 1.6, respectively. DEGs associated with drought tolerance were highly related to the protein domains of lipid-transfer (LTP). Wheat response to heat stress was strongly associated with genes such as RuBisCO activase B, small heat shock, LTP3, YLS3, At2g33490, PETH with p-values (-log10) ranging from 9.3 to 12.3. In addition, a relatively high number of protein interactions involved the SDH, PEPCK, and G6PD genes under heat stress.
Yachana Jha
Published: 25 January 2021
Highlights in Bioscience; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.202103

Abstract:
Applications of synthetic chemical fertilizers and pesticides lead to several environmental hazards, causing damages to entire ecosystem. To reduce damage caused by such chemical inputs in agriculture and environment required a serious attention for replacement of chemicals input with eco-friendly options. In this study decaying macrophytes were selected as an option for organic agriculture, by analyzing its ability to provide important mineral nutrient to the maize crop grown in low nutrient soil as well as for providing resistant towards many common phyto-pathogens to enhance yield. The results of the study showed that decaying macrophytes have high concentration of stored important mineral nutrient in their body mass, which get released in the soil during its decay and to be used by the maize plant. The decaying macrophytes leaf extract have considerable amount of phenolic and flavonoids also having antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity of the leaf extract has been analyzed against the common phyto-pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and S. aureus by agar disc method and the formation of clear zone indicate its potential as bio-control agent. So under intensive agricultural practices, application of such biological waste is of particular importance for enhancing soil fertility without chemical input, to ensure sustainable agriculture.
Munyandamutsa Fulgence, Mucumbitsi Joseph, Yadufashije Callixte, Niyonzima William
Published: 16 January 2021
Highlights in Bioscience, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.36462/202102

Abstract:
Antiretroviral therapy is used for the suppression of the HIV virus and stops its progression to cause disease. Despite its role, it has the pathophysiologic effect to kidney function for users. The study was conducted to evaluate the renal function for HIV patients under highly active antiretroviral therapy at Kibagabaga District Hospital. Venous blood samples (4mL) were collected by vein puncture in phlebotomy services by means of the dry tubes from 170 patients under antiretroviral therapy. Blood samples were transported to clinical biochemistry department for analysis. Rotor centrifuge was used to separate the serum and other blood components; creatinine level was analysed for renal function analysis. The total of 170 HIV patients were considered in the study. Of the 170, 50 HIV patients were used for primary data collection, while 120 HIV patients who previously received antiretroviral therapy were considered as secondary data collection source. The patients between 25-45 years old have experienced the highest level of abnormal concentration of renal tests 25%, patients with above 45 years old was ranked the second to have the abnormal level (14.2%). Females were 59% and have experienced the high risk of renal dysfunction than males, the level of glomerular filtration rate was 67 (39.4%), and was higher than creatinine 42 (24.7%). Antiretroviral therapy has a negative effect on kidneys. Abnormalities of the kidney parameters were prevalently high among both male and female. The serious follow is needed for this vulnerable population.
Munyandamutsa Fulgence, Mucumbitsi Joseph, Yadufashije Callixte, Niyonzima William
Published: 16 January 2021
Highlights in Bioscience; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.202102

Abstract:
Antiretroviral therapy is used for the suppression of the HIV virus and stops its progression to cause disease. Despite its role, it has the pathophysiologic effect to kidney function for users. The study was conducted to evaluate the renal function for HIV patients under highly active antiretroviral therapy at Kibagabaga District Hospital. Venous blood samples (4mL) were collected by vein puncture in phlebotomy services by means of the dry tubes from 170 patients under antiretroviral therapy. Blood samples were transported to clinical biochemistry department for analysis. Rotor centrifuge was used to separate the serum and other blood components; creatinine level was analysed for renal function analysis. The total of 170 HIV patients were considered in the study. Of the 170, 50 HIV patients were used for primary data collection, while 120 HIV patients who previously received antiretroviral therapy were considered as secondary data collection source. The patients between 25-45 years old have experienced the highest level of abnormal concentration of renal tests 25%, patients with above 45 years old was ranked the second to have the abnormal level (14.2%). Females were 59% and have experienced the high risk of renal dysfunction than males, the level of glomerular filtration rate was 67 (39.4%), and was higher than creatinine 42 (24.7%). Antiretroviral therapy has a negative effect on kidneys. Abnormalities of the kidney parameters were prevalently high among both male and female. The serious follow is needed for this vulnerable population.
Bharath Prasad Cholanayakanahalli Thyagaraju, Srikantha Gowda, Sharanagouda Patil, Chandrashekar Srikantiah, Kuralayanapalya Puttahonnappa Suresh
Published: 1 October 2020
Highlights in Bioscience, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.20224

Abstract:
COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 19) is the deadliest pandemic, and by August 2, >18.2 million population worldwide were infected with SARS-CoV-2 virus causing burden on human life and economic loss. Disease outbreak analysis has become a priority for the Indian government to initiate necessary healthcare measures in lowering the impact of this deadly pandemic viral disease. In this study, time series data for COVID-19 disease was extracted from the website www.covid19india.org, analysed by using periodic regression model, the expected number of cases till 02 October 2020 was predicted and to develop a stochastic models using periodic regression in the top 15 highly infected states in India. The analysis reported increasing pattern at initial days of prediction and showed a decreasing trend for the number of reporting cases, which may reduce in future days for states like West Bengal, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Telangana, Assam and Odisha. However, for the states of Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana and Madhya Pradesh, showed a rapid phase of increase in disease outbreak that is likely to infect more population and indicates the pandemic nature of this disease over a period. Presently, Delhi shows a drastic reduction in the number of cases, that may increase in the future, which can be controlled if appropriate preventive measures are followed strictly and effectively. Our model highlights that continuous and constant efforts are needed for the prevention of new infections of the disease in all states that helps to effectively mitigate the disease and to allocate scarce resources effectively in the future that could improve the economic wealth in India.
Adeoti Olatunde Micheal, Oni Abosede Catherine, Adeoye Kafilat Adenike, Adeoti Oluwole Adeola, Adeoye Basirat Adedamola, Adesina David Ademola
Published: 26 September 2020
Highlights in Bioscience, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.20223

Abstract:
Members of the Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) have been severally implicated as excellent growth enhancers, yield promoters as well as bio-fertilizers. A study on antibiotics surveillance of PGPR is urgently needed as caution towards its continued usage in Bio-science and Agro-allied. Antimicrobial resistance has become a great concern in agriculture and public health. The detection and characterization of antimicrobial resistance move from targeted culture and enzyme-based reaction to high-throughput metagenomics; acceptable resources for the analysis of large-scale information area unit as an expected rescue. The excellent bioinformatics tool newly curated for Antibiotic Resistance information (CARD; https://card.mcmaster.ca) could be a curated hub and resource-providing-referenced server for deoxyribonucleic acid and protein sequences as well as detection models on the molecular radar for antimicrobial resistance. This study employed CARD as pathogenomics repertoires for high-quality reference information on retrieving antibiotics resistance information on twenty-two carefully-selected members of Rhizobacter from NCBI. NCBI and CARD on-line platform were employed in polishing of antiobitics resistance info of selected PGPR genera such as Leguminosarum, Azotobacter, Azospirillum, Erwinia, Mesorhizobium, Flavobacterium Paenibacillus Polymyxa, Bacilli mycoides, B. subtilis, and Burkholderia pseudomallei among others. The data generated showed evidence that these rhizobacteria could be resistant to certain drug classes under a different Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) Gene families using different phyto-pathogenic genes (ARO terms) using different resistance mechanisms. This distinctive platform provides bioinformatics tool that bridges antibiotic resistance considerations, which could be a fallback for policies in healthcare, agriculture and the environment.
Zaharaddeen Salisu, Sanusi Shamsudeen Nassarawa, Sadisu Farouq
Published: 20 September 2020
Highlights in Bioscience, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.20222

Abstract:
Roasted and fried meats are the two commonest and preferred meat varieties consumed in northern Nigeria. The consumption of these meat varieties is, nevertheless, without ascertaining its fitness in terms of contamination by pathogens. In line with this occurrence and preference, it is a good approach to assess the quality of roasted and fried meat in one of the prehistoric towns of northern Nigeria, which is Gumel. A total of 10 samples of both fried and roasted meat were randomly collected, prepared and microbiological analyses for mesophilic bacteria, fungi and coliform group conducted in the laboratory. The mean bacterial load was observed between 3.0 x 104 and 6.5 x 104 CFU/g for roasted beef meat and 4.7 x 104 and 5.3 x 104 CFU/g for fried beef meat. It was 4.5 x 104 and 6.0 x 104 CFU/g in roasted chicken meat and 4.0 x 104 and 4.7 x 104 CFU/g in fried chicken meat. For the fungal load, it was observed to be between the range of 1.0 x 104 and 3.0 x 103 CFU/g for roasted beef meat and 1.0 x 104 and 7.0 x 103 CFU/g for fried beef meat. For the chicken meat, it ranges from 1.0 x 104 to 4.0 x 103 CFU/g for the roasted type and 1.0 x 104 and 7.0 x 103 CFU/g for the fried meat. Investigation of the coliform group showed no growth in both samples. On biochemical tests, bacterial species confirmed to be present were Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp, and Streptococcus spp. while Penicillium spp, Mucor hiemalis, Aspergillus species and Rhizopus spp. are the fungal species observed in the meats. This research was, therefore, conducted to assess the quality of roasted and fried meat sold in Gumel town to relate it to some common diseases affecting the community.
Roan Zaid,
Published: 10 September 2020
Highlights in Bioscience, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.20221

Abstract:
ABO and Rh (rhesus) blood grouping is one of the most widely available laboratory tests that could prevent possibly deadly mismatches following blood transfusion and organ transplantation. The distribution of the blood group antigens varies between different populations and ethnic groups. Our objective was to showcase these variations within the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region and to outline the relationship between blood type and disease risk association to determine the current findings and outline possible future study areas. In healthy blood donors, blood group O was found to consistently be the most prevalent blood group and AB the least prevalent blood group except in Turkey where A is the most prevalent and, in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), where B is the least prevalent blood type.
Ahmed G. Hegazi, Faiz M. Al Guthami, Mohamed H. Basiouny, Ahmed F.M. Al Gethami
Published: 10 September 2020
Highlights in Bioscience, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.20220

Abstract:
Honey has been documented as the oldest traditional medicine. It has been effective in suppressing inflammation, wound repair enhancer, and rapid autolytic debridement. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the role of Saudi Arabia Talh honey (Acacia nilotica) dressing as a good alternative in care of diabetic foot (DFU) healing activity for twenty patients, wound total bacterial count, and serum cytokines levels (IFN-γ, IL-1, and IL-6). The results showed that Talh honey stimulates the wound healing process, broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, and reduction in the proinflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, IL-1, and IL-6 levels. It could be concluded that Talh honey bioactivities enhance wound healing by promoting tissue growth leading to wound repair, antibacterial, and reduction of inflammation.
Asmaa Hassan, Naglaa Abdallah, Mohamed A-Bouzeid, Ghada Abu El-Heba
Published: 10 September 2020
Highlights in Bioscience, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.20219

Abstract:
Blkn is a Medicago truncatula mutant that is achieving null function-black nodule phenotype. blkn is a Tnt1-retrotransposon mutant, Tnt1 is Nicotiana tabacum retro-transposon which is replicated via RNA copy and integrated in plant genome. Interestingly, blkn exhibited double contents of phenolic compounds comparing to R108 wild type. The mutated black nodule is displaying cells abnormality in both infection and nitrogen fixation zones. Transverse section of blkn nodule doesn’t display clearly characteristic shape like the control and the symbiotic cells don't totally filled with bacteroids along with high lignification at the cell wall periphery. Our goal was blkn mutant; phenotype, physiological, and molecular characterizations. AFLP-based PCR method was used to detect the mutated gene(s) in this mutant line. About 25 Tnt1-tagged fragments ranging from ~100 to ~500 bp were isolated, sequenced and submitted to Genbank. The Tnt1 insertion was precisely located next to the base number 303 post ATG start codon of M. truncatula L-type lectin-domain receptor kinase VII.2 gene encodes Lectin_LegB Receptor Like Kinase (MtLectinRLK). MtLectinRLK contains Lectin_legB domain, two transmembrane helix (TMhilex) and an extracellular Receptor Protein kinase (Pkinase). MtLectinRLK is an ancestry related to probable L-type lectin-domain containing receptor kinase Cicer arietinum, Trifolium pretense, Phaseolus vulgaris, Vigna radiate and Glycine soja.
Oluwasegun Victor Omotoyinbo, Emmanuel Olumide Awojulu, David Morakinyo Sanni
Published: 18 August 2020
Highlights in Bioscience, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.20216

Abstract:
This study evaluated the phytochemical compositions, antioxidant properties, chlorophyll content and anti-tyrosinase activity of methanol leaf extracts of two tomato varieties, Lycopersicon esculentum (var. Eva F1) and Lycopersicon esculentum Mill (var. Hausa). The dried pulverized of the plant’s leaves were extracted by decoction and mild agitation. Phytochemicals such as flavonoids, tannin, glycoside, saponin, terpenoid and anthraquinone were present in the extracts of both varieties examined, while alkaloid and phlobatannin were confirmed absent in the extracts. The presence of steroid was observed in var. Eva F1 but absent in var. Hausa. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of var. Eva F1 were 505.9 ± 2.61 mg GAE/ge, and 35.5 ± 1.64 mg RE/ge, while var. Hausa recorded a TPC and TFC value of 344.3 ± 2.01 and 7.8 ± 0.15 mg RE/ge respectively. The chlorophyll content of the extracts were 6.6 ± 0.02 mg/ge (chlorophyll a), 5.7 ± 0.05 mg/ge (chlorophyll b) and 12.6 ± 0.14 mg/ge (total chlorophyll content) for Eva F1 variety, while the chlorophyll contents for var. Hausa were 7.6 ± 0.32 mg.ge (chlorophyll a), 5.6 ± 0.06 mg/ge (chlorophyll b) and 13.7 ± 0.14 mg/ge. Eva F1 and Hausa showed percentage inhibition of 76.3 % and 61.2 % at 400 μg/mL. The IC50 value of var. Eva F1 and var. Hausa were 110 μg/mL and 160 μg/mL. The inhibition constant (KI) of var. Eva F1 and var. Hausa, were 0.006 and 0.016 μg/mL, respectively, and both extracts showed partial competitive inhibition. Hence, this confirms the phytoprotective and tyrosinase inhibitory properties of tomato plant leaves.
Iniobong Ime James, Mayen Godwin Ben, Agnes Monday Jones, Patience Saturday Akpan, Idorenyin Idorenyin Eka, Albert Ema Oruk, Aniefon Alphonsus Ibuot
Published: 31 August 2020
Highlights in Bioscience, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.20218

Abstract:
Changes in soil physicochemical properties and bacterial species present in soil contaminated with waste engine oil were evaluated at three auto-mechanical workshops in Uyo, Nigeria. This work was aimed at isolating and identifying hydrocarbon degrading bacteria from waste engine oil polluted soil, and assessing their hydrocarbon-utilizing ability. Waste engine oil pollution affected soils significantly with increases in soil physicochemical properties, and heterotrophic bacterial population counts. Eight bacterial species Corynebacterium kutscheri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Flavobacterium aquatile, Serratia odorifera, Micrococcus agilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus substilis were isolated by the selective enrichment technique and screened for hydrocarbon utilization capability in mineral salt media with 1% (v/v) waste engine oil as a sole carbon and energy source. The extent of bacterial growth observed was related to the ability of organisms to biodegrade hydrocarbons present in the medium bacterium species, which showed varying hydrocarbon utilization during the 15 days of incubation. Growth in hydrocarbon medium was the most efficient in cultures of Corynebacterium kutscheri. All isolates also showed variable emulsification ability, with Corynebacterium kutscheri, showing the highest ability. These results demonstrate the presence of indigenous bacteria in hydrocarbon-polluted soils and the potential toward the remediation of hydrocarbons.
La Ode Afa, Bambang S. Purwoko, A. Junaedi, Oteng Haridjaja, Iswari S. Dewi
Published: 31 August 2020
Highlights in Bioscience, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.20217

Abstract:
Two experiments were conducted at (i) irrigated lowland, village of Bojong, Cikembar, Sukabumi Sub-district, Indonesia, from November 2011 to February 2012, and (ii) rain-fed lowland, village of Sanca, Gantar sub-district, Indramayu, Indonesia, from April to July 2012. The objective of the experiment was to determine the yield of drought-tolerant hybrid rice genotypes. A randomized block design with three replications was used. The treatment consisted of 8 hybrid rice genotypes (BI485A/BP3, BI485A/BP5, BI485A/BP10, BI485A/BP12, BI485A/BP15, BI599A/BP5, BI599A/BP15 and BI665A/BP6) and 2 check varieties (Hipa 7 and Ciherang) for the experiment in irrigated lowland, 4 hybrid genotypes (BI485A/BP3, BI485A/BP12, BI485A/BP15 and BI599A/BP15) and 3 check varieties (Hipa 7, IR64 and Limboto) for the experiment in rain-fed lowland. On irrigated lowland, all tested-genotypes produced grain yield per hectare, which was not significantly different from the check varieties Ciherang and HIPA 7. The yield of genotype BI485A/BP12, BI485A/BP15 and BI559A/BP15 under irrigated lowland showed non-significant different with check varieties Ciherang and Hipa 7, i.e 5.63, 6.87, and 6.30 tons ha-1, respectively. Genotype BI599A/BP15 under severe drought rain-fed lowland yielded 0.90 tons of grain ha-1, whereas Hipa 7 (hybrid variety, suitable for rain-fed lowland) and Limboto (drought-tolerant check variety) reached 0.34 and 0.29 tons ha-1, respectively. Genotype BI599A/BP15 is a new hybrid genotype that potential for advanced development in rain-fed lowland and in irrigated lowland with a high yield potential and quiet early-maturity age.
Peter Gboshe, Ebiloma Stella Osarenakhue
Published: 13 August 2020
Highlights in Bioscience, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.20214

Abstract:
The study was designed to determine the effect of concentrated feed regimes on nutrients digestibility of grasscutters (Thryonomys swinderianus) fed Pennisetum purpureum as basal feed. A total of fifty grower Grasscutters were randomly assigned to 5 treatment groups of 10 Grasscutters each with 5 replicates, two animals serving as a replicate. Treatment was 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 for 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9%, respectively, of concentrated feed served at their weekly live weight. Parameters measured included apparent coefficient of digestibility and percentage digestible nutrients. The results obtained showed that the coefficient of digestibility showed a significant difference in all the nutrients evaluated. Percentage digestible nutrients and total digestible nutrients were also significantly affected. The high coefficient of digestibility of the various nutrients and total digestible nutrients are indications that adequate nutrients were available for growth and maintenance of the grasscutters. The findings of this study suggested that supplementation of forage with formulated concentrate can be an aid in the digestion of nutrients by grasscutters for their growth performance while in captivity. The digestibility of nutrients when concentrate supplement and elephant grass were combined, particularly 5% concentrate supplement was not affected. Based on the results, it was, therefore, recommended that it should be used in improving the growth performance of grasscutters.
Adeoti O Micheal, Aboladale A. Olayemi, Adeoye K. Adenike, Abiola A. Olabiyi, Olufemi S. Olufemi, Adedokun E. Olajumoke, Adesina D. Ademola, Olaoye O. Joy
Published: 5 August 2020
Highlights in Bioscience, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.20215

Abstract:
Only healthy surface tissues of healthy animals that are constantly in contact with the environment can easily be colonized by various microbial species, including pathogenic ones. However, these microorganisms are usually the cause of opportunistic infections in animals. Two plants; Vernonia amygdalina (taxonomic ID number 112605) and Ocimum gratissimum (taxonomic ID number 112606) were identified at the Nigerian Federal Research Institute in Ibadan and subsequently concentrated with methanol, water and n-hexane. Twelve pre-slaughter healthy cattle in the same ratio of male to female were selected for this study. Samples from the mouth, skin, nose, vaginal and gastrointestinal tract were collected. Susceptibility patterns for antimicrobial agents were performed using disk-diffusion agar method. All isolates were subjected to bacteriological and molecular identification (PCR and sequencing techniques). Preliminary identification was carried out based on standard bacteriological, microscopic identification, biochemical criteria, while PCR and DNA sequencing techniques were used for molecular identification and analysis. Basic local alignment sequence tools (BLAST) were used to compare retrieved bacterial sequences to a set of previously published strains in the database. The morphological and biochemical profiles of six out of eight normal flora from different sites were Gram-negative. All bacterial cultures were oxidase-positive, including 7 catalase-positive cultures. The majority of isolated bacteria were moderately sensitive to all the extracts tested but resistant to Amoxylin. Noticeable amplification of 16S rRNA genes from Klebsiella pneumoniae strain EMB and Enterobacter bugandensis strain AdM2 was obtained. The amplification of the resistant genes of the two isolates was approximately 1,500 base pairs; however, some of the suspected virulence and antibiotic genes were within this base pair range.
Alexander Shuaibov, Alexander Minya, Antonina Malinina, Alexander Malinin, Zoltan Gomoki
Published: 27 July 2020
Highlights in Bioscience, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.20211

Abstract:
The results of studying the conditions of synthesis and luminescence of aluminum oxide nanoparticles in a plasma of an overstressed nanosecond discharge ignited between aluminum electrodes at an interelectrode distance of 2 mm and air pressure in the range of 50-202 kPa are presented. It was shown that the plasma of the investigated discharge is characterized by a wide luminescence band in the spectral range of 300–430 nm, which is associated with the formation of F and F + centers. The research results can be used in micro-nanotechnology, biomedical engineering to obtain nanostructured alumina substrates, on which other nanodevices and films from biomaterials can be placed. The aim of the work was to establish the possibility of detecting small nanoparticles - aluminum oxide nuclei by emission spectroscopy methods and the synthesis of nanostructured alumina films under atmospheric conditions (without the use of vacuum technology) over a large area.
Published: 22 July 2020
Highlights in Bioscience, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.20205

Abstract:
Coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction (MI) have reached epidemic levels in the Arab world. The well-recognized familial clustering of CAD implies that genetics plays a key role in its development. Several CAD/MI genetic association studies have been conducted, but the outcomes have been inconsistent. In this study, we aimed to systematically review and quantitatively summarize the current evidence on genetic polymorphisms associated with CAD/MI risk in the Arab world. We systematically searched five literature databases (Science Direct, PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, and Web of Science). We included all genetic polymorphisms with odds ratio (OR) 1 that were significantly associated with CAD/MI risk among Arabs. Review Manager software v5.02 was used to conduct the meta-analysis. Publication bias was measured using Begg’s funnel plot and Egger’s test based on STATA software v15.1. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed to estimate the association. I2-statistic was used to assess heterogeneity. In total, 75 studies comprising 36,125 cases and 31,730 controls were included, and 62 studies were eligible for meta-analysis. A total of 80 captured variants within or near 59 genes were found to be associated with an increased CAD/MI susceptibility. We performed 46 individual meta-analyses tests for 46 variants. The pooled OR of association with CAD/MI ranged from 1.14 to 7.57, with a median (interquartile range) of 1.83 (1.64 – 2.57). With the few studies published so far, there appears to be a unique genetic and clinical susceptibility profile for Arab patients with CAD/MI. The findings of this study will pave the way to perform future genetic association studies that will help identify potential therapeutic targets against CAD/MI.
Mohammed Sulieman Ali Eltoum, Almustafa Ahmed Mohamed Elfaki
Published: 30 June 2020
Highlights in Bioscience, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.20206

Abstract:
Curcumin is a chemical compound produced by Curcuma longa plants that is widely used as a coloring agent and a dietary supplement and has some therapeutic activity. Our aim is to evaluate the use of curcumin as color coating material for metronidazole tablets. Curcumin was extracted at higher yields from three different samples of turmeric plants. The extract obtained was characterized by Infrared Red Spectroscopy (IR), Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and ash content and melting point (MP). The curcumin produced has an MP content ranging from 182 ° C to 184 ° C and an ash content ranging from 1.5 to 3.17 %. Curcumin material was used as a colorful agent for the coating of metronidazole tablet pills using spray coating technology. Experimental results have shown that curcumin-coated metronidazole tablets exhibit strong color stability even at higher temperatures, and that the taste of bitterness in metronidazole pills has been reduced or has disappeared entirely.
Salma Younes, Zumin Shi, Hatem Zayed
Published: 22 July 2020
Highlights in Bioscience, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.20213

Abstract:
Coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction (MI) have reached epidemic levels in the Arab world. The well-recognized familial clustering of CAD implies that genetics plays a key role in its development. Several CAD/MI genetic association studies have been conducted, but the outcomes have been inconsistent. In this study, we aimed to systematically review and quantitatively summarize the current evidence on genetic polymorphisms associated with CAD/MI risk in the Arab world. We systematically searched five literature databases (Science Direct, PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, and Web of Science). We included all genetic polymorphisms with odds ratio (OR) > 1 that were significantly associated with CAD/MI risk among Arabs. Review Manager software v5.02 was used to conduct the meta-analysis. Publication bias was measured using Begg’s funnel plot and Egger’s test based on STATA software v15.1. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed to estimate the association. I2-statistic was used to assess heterogeneity. In total, 75 studies comprising 36,125 cases and 31,730 controls were included, and 62 studies were eligible for meta-analysis. A total of 80 captured variants within or near 59 genes were found to be associated with an increased CAD/MI susceptibility. We performed 46 individual meta-analyses tests for 46 variants. The pooled OR of association with CAD/MI ranged from 1.14 to 7.57, with a median (interquartile range) of 1.83 (1.64 – 2.57). With the few studies published so far, there appears to be a unique genetic and clinical susceptibility profile for Arab patients with CAD/MI. The findings of this study will pave the way to perform future genetic association studies that will help identify potential therapeutic targets against CAD/MI.
Imene Chetoui, Safa Bejaoui, Feriel Ghribi, M'hamed El Cafsi
Published: 12 July 2020
Highlights in Bioscience, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.20210

Abstract:
The present study assessed the consequences of environmental changes on the biochemical quality and the physiological condition of the whole body and others organs Mactra stultorum collected from the north coast of Tunisia. Significant variations in the biochemical components, PE and CI have shown between seasons. The depletion of glycogen in all tissues was recorded during spawning periods (late spring and summer). Lipid accumulation in gonad–visceral mass during the early and late gametogenesis stages was associated with the increase in CI and GSI. However, decreases in lipid and protein contents were recorded in all the tested organs during summer when the animals are in the spawning period, suggesting that clams could accumulate proteins and lipids. Regarding the environmental factors, a negative and a significant correlation was recorded between glycogen, lipid contents and water temperature. Based on these results and as M. stultorum is appreciated by the consumers, we suggest that the harvesting of M. stultorum should be concentrated on February to June when the whole body was characterized by an important amount of the biochemical composition when the seafood is at its highest nutritive value as compared to August to January. Because of its high nutritive value especially it’s richness by some important and essentials fatty acids, M. stultorum seems to be considered as an important commercial species in many countries and in Tunisia particularly. We suggest that harvesting of M. stultorum should be concentrated on the period when the seafood is at its highest nutritive value. survivability rates from malignancy. The greatest variations in the mortality ratios existed within the European countries.
Engy Refaat Rashed, Mostafa Essam Eissa
Highlights in Bioscience, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.20208

Abstract:
Statistical Process Control (SPC) methodologies are a set of statistical methods and techniques that were initially designed for industrial processes but could be adopted for non-industrial applications. The current prospective study aimed to provide a unique quantitative investigation of an epidemiological disease using the SPC program platform. The selected case herein was a long-term monitoring record of the yearly cancer mortality rates in women worldwide. Multidimensional segregation of the dataset into subgroups was conducted to visualize the clustering pattern based on nations (42 countries as boxplot), time and the Gaussian Mixture Model (two-interfering bell-shaped distributions approach). The trend of death rates versus the elapsed years would demonstrate a moderately negative correlation with the time following the theory of splines. Construction of control chart based on the fitted Weibull distribution showed a gradual steady improvement in survivability rates from malignancy. The greatest variations in the mortality ratios existed within the European countries.
Alexander Shuaibov, Alexander Minya, Igor Shevera, Antonina Malinina, Roksolana Gritsak, Alexander Malinin, Zoltan Gomoki, Vladislav Danilo
Highlights in Bioscience, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.20207

Abstract:
Curcumin The design of the device for producing a high-current, bipolar nanosecond discharge over the surface of a non-metallic liquid (water, electrolytes, alcohols, etc.) in air is given. Air pressure is ranged from 5 to 101 kPa. The distance between the tip of the blade and the surface of water or liquid (5% solution of copper sulfate in distilled water) was 4 mm, and the distance between parallel metal blades was 40 mm. The conditions for uniform plasma overlapping of the electrolyte surface between the metal blades are established. The spatial, electrical, and optical characteristics of the discharge are investigated. It is shown that the discharge under study allows obtaining colloidal solutions of copper nanoparticles in distilled water in a macroscopic amount (1 liter or more). The developed reactor is of interest for use in poisonous chemical solution disinfection systems, solutions based on dangerous bacteria and viruses for which the use of traditional systems with a point spark discharge or a barrier discharge becomes ineffective. The rector is also promising for the synthesis of colloidal solutions of transition metal oxide nanoparticles from solutions of the corresponding salts. These solutions can be used in micro-nanotechnology and for antibacterial treatment of plants in greenhouses, processing of medical instruments and materials.
Yimer Mulugeta, Fantu Lombamo, Anberber Alemu, Meseret Yohanise, Zewdu Assefa, Endashaw Shibru, Mekoro Beyene, Gutu Kitila, Garoma Getahun, Dessalegn Sifer, et al.
Published: 12 July 2020
Highlights in Bioscience, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.20212

Abstract:
Rabies infection is almost always a 100% lethal viral disease in all mammals, including humans. Although more than 60,000 people worldwide are preventable, 2,700 people in Ethiopia die of fatal human rabies annually. The aim of this study was to generate strategic information on the extent of the burden of rabies and major response strategies in place, only to overcome and bring attention to the management of rabies outbreaks. The cross - sectional case - based study design was used to discuss the disease areas of the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples ' Regional States of Ethiopia. Data analysis revealed a total of 16 fatal human rabies and 287 suspected rabies exposures. The highest attack rate of 116.3 cases per 100,000 human subjects was reported in Tembaro woreda. As a result, 48 animal deaths of rabies have been reported, while cattle (28) have been more affected than other animal species. The lack of dog immunization, lack of community awareness of dog management, and inaccessibility and inefficiency of anti - rabies vaccines were major risk factors associated with the spread of rabies exposure between humans and animals. In conclusion, this study has clearly shown that both the existence and the high magnitude of fatal human and animal rabies are significant in the area. Multidisciplinary approach interventions to increase community awareness of dog vaccination, effective and immediate treatment of exposed individuals is recommended as a method of disease control and prevention
Suchitra Rakesh, Jayakumar TharunKumar, Bhavya Sri, Karuppaiyan Jothibasu, Subburamu Karthikeyan
Highlights in Bioscience, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.20209

Abstract:
Microalgae have been explored for sustainable production of biofuel and chemicals. Microalgae is promising feed stock for the production of several oleochemicals. It has the ability to utilize a variety of low cost feed stocks, accumulated large quantities of lipids and variety of value added products in their biomass. One of the major obstacles associated with the conversion of algae into value-added products is harvesting. The harvesting of algae is the most problematic area due to its low sedimentation rate, low biomass concentration, and high capital costs. Harvesting of algae is carried out by different physical, chemical, mechanical, biological, and electrolytic methods such as sedimentation, centrifugation, microstraining, dissolved air flotation, electrolytic flotation, chemical flocculation, bioflocculation, autoflocculation, Filtration. This review highlights the various methods of microalgae harvesting with advantages and future perspective of sustainable and cost-effective harvesting of microalgae.
Gábor Ternák
Published: 20 June 2020
Highlights in Bioscience, Volume 3, pp 1-3; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.20204

Abstract:
The discovery and extensive utilization of antibiotics are highly contributed to the considerable lengthening life expectancy of human beings. Antibiotics, mixed with animal fodder, produced considerable growth promoting effect and hence, extended the indications of antibiotics at a much higher level. The indiscriminate use of antibiotics quickly resulted in the emergence of poly-resistant pathogens and the extensive antibiotic pollution of the environment, particularly of the surface water and rivers trough human and animal excreta. Along with extensive and ever increasing antibiotic consumption/pollution, the pandemic-like spreading of certain non-contagious diseases like obesity, diabetes (Type 1-2 T1DM, T2DM), Alzheimer disease (AD), Parkinson disease, multiple sclerosis (MS) etc. started unfolding, which was called as a slow moving disaster, without having any appropriate explanation of the phenomenon. The parallel appearance of those “pandemics”, which appeared simultaneously with the extensive antibiotic consumption, might indicate some kind of association. As far as several publications have reported the crucial role of altered gut flora in the development of metabolic disorders (diabetes, obesity) and neurodegenerative diseases alike (PD, AD, MS), it might be suspected that antibiotics, acting through the modification of microbiome, could influence the morbidity (prevalence) of those, non-infectious diseases. This concept, described below, might serve as a unified explanation, not excluding other, contributing causative factors, for the phenomenon, outlined above.
Published: 25 October 2019
Highlights in Bioscience; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.20195

Abstract:
Extracting gene data from the human genome is a tricky task. Gene name is the key information for harvesting its sequence, annotation, and other related data. Unfortunately, most human genes have different and multiple names, depending on the database and the resource in which they have been published. Such an issue is delaying the ability of researchers to gather the necessary knowledge and to build their opinion on the function of genes. Here we introduce GeneSyno, a simple, versatile, and reliable tool that can be used to extract gene information from human genome data even though it is synonymous gene names. GeneSyno was written using C and Python programming languages and could easily be integrated into another pipeline
Laila Dabab Nahas, Alsamman M. Alsamman, Aladdin Hamwieh, Naim Al-Husein, Ghinwa Lababidi
Highlights in Bioscience, Volume 3, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.20203

Abstract:
Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is an important staple food around the world. The enormous volume of the genome of wheat makes it quite slow to progress in traditional scientific research. On the other hand, incessant databases and suitable tools on web sites make progress in wheat research quicker and easier. Drought is a major abiotic stress in accordance with weather changes and accelerated increase in drylands. In this study, 9077 ESTs related to drought tolerance in hexaploid wheat were downloaded from NCBI and assembled into 12062 contigs and 4141 singletons. It was found that trinucleotide had the highest frequency 64.71%. Moreover, 53.80% of SSRs found in coding regions in respect of ORFs. The highest amino acids found for tri-and hexanucleotides were Arginine. In addition, 81% of SSR-containing unigenes had one chromosome location and the highest number of loci was found in chromosomes 1B (69). The distribution of genic SSR loci among the 21 wheat chromosomes, the three subgenomes, and the seven homoeologous groups of wheat chromosomes was significant, with P<0.01 indicating a non-random distribution. Functional annotation and characterization of SSR-containing unigenes have been performed. Eighty-six sequences were identified and sorted into 25 putative TF families and establish 166 pathways using KEGG. Primer-BLAST was used to predict the polymorphism, which was 39% of the 63 primer pairs of SSR markers. Our current study attempts to help farmers in wheat breeding programs to have drought-tolerant accessions, particularly in developing countries.
Asmaa Hamdy Hassan, Mohamed A-Bouzeid, Ghada Abu El-Heba
Published: 1 April 2020
Highlights in Bioscience, Volume 3, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.20202

Abstract:
Genetic mutagenesis is a very efficient tool in studying genes function. Because of the great benefits of legumes as human food and animal feed worldwide, we used a model plant Medicago truncatula for identification gene function related to nitrogen fixation process. Our mutant is a Medicago mutant line contains a tobacco Tnt1 retro-transposon mobile element with the two Long Terminal Repeats (LTR) inserted within the genome. Our mutant is predicted to contain a mutation in gene/s belonging to symbiotic interaction between legume and rhizobia. A novel technique was used based on using fluorescent oligonucleotide primers against oligonucleotide primers for Tnt1-LTRs of our mutant. This novel protocol was very successful in detecting the polymorphism between our mutant line and the wild variant R108 using Biosystems 310 Genetic Analyzer. Electropherograms of the mutant line and wild type gave a total of 561 well- resolved AFLP peaks, 357of which were polymorphic peaks and 204 were monomorphic peaks. This novel technique enables the calculation percentage of polymorphism between the mutant line and the wild type. Additionally, primers combinations amplified more bands from others to detect polymorphism between the plants
Peter T Habib, Alsamman M Alsamman, , Aladdin Hamwieh
Published: 21 March 2020
Highlights in Bioscience, Volume 3, pp 1-3; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.20201

Abstract:
Pneumonia is a respiratory disease caused by Streptococcus Pneumoniae infection. It is a life-threatening disease that causes a high mortality rate for children under 5 years of age every year. Under such circumstances, we have a vital need to develop an appropriate and consistent protocol for the identification and diagnosis of pneumonia. The incorporation of computational approaches into the diagnosis of disease is extremely efficient, promising and reliable. Our goal is to integrate these methods into pneumonia routine diagnosis to save countless lives around the world.We used the machine learning algorithm of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) to identify visual symptoms of pneumonia in X-ray radiographic images and make a diagnostic decision. The dataset used to construct the computational model consists of 5844 X-ray images belonging to the pneumonia affected and normal individuals. Our computational model has been successful in identifying pneumonia patients with a diagnosis accuracy of 84%. Our model may increase the efficiency of the pneumonia diagnosis process and accelerate pathogenicity studies of the disease.
Alsamman M Alsamman, Khaled H. Mousa, Ahmed E. Nassar, Ghada A. Shereif, Peter T. Habib, Shafik D. Ibrahim
Published: 10 November 2019
Highlights in Bioscience, Volume 2, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.20194

Abstract:
Chickpea is an important crop that delivers nutritious food to the increasing global community and it will become increasingly popular as a result of climate change. Our objective was to use comprehensive data analysis to locate and identify candidate genes for fungal disease resistance. We used a comprehensive bioinformatics pipeline of sequence alignment, phylogenetic analysis, protein chemical and physical properties assessment and domain structure classification. In order to study gene evolution and genetic diversity, we compared these genes with known anti-fungal genes in different species of plants. A total of 19721 protein sequences belonging to 187 plant species have been downloaded from public databases, including the entire chickpea genome. We have successfully identified 23 potential anti-fungal genes in 10 different chromosomes and genomic scaffolds using sequence alignment and gene annotation. Ca2 and Ca6 have the highest number of genes followed by Ca3 and Ca4. Anti-fungal chickpea proteins have been identified as cysteine-rich (10), thaumatin (6), pathogenesis (4) and plasmodesmata (3) proteins. Analysis of the chemical and physical correlation of anti-fungal proteins revealed a high correlation between different aspects of anti-fungal proteins. Five different pattern patterns have been detected in the anti-fungal chickpea proteins identified, including domain families associated with fungal resistance. The maximum likelihood of phylogenetic analysis was successful in distinguishing between anti-fungal chickpea proteins as seen in their protein patterns/domains.
Published: 12 October 2019
Highlights in Bioscience pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.20193

Abstract:
Bioinformatics became a significant field in life sciences that, draws a number of researchers and extends into a wide range of biological disciplines. Rendering bioinformatics analysis techniques are the most desirable skills in a variety of scholarship programs and academic positions. Teaching bioinformatics is very challenging since it is a multidisciplinary field, where most of the undergraduate programs in colleges provide only one area required for bioinformatics. Besides the regular education system, few bioinformatics training courses are offered and less are affordable to fresh graduates in countries most of which are categorized as developing countries. The high cost of learning, confusing education systems, and the complexity of bioinformatics science has made it very difficult to be taught and more challenging to be studied in Arab countries. This review provides possible solutions to most of these issues and offers the best practice to guide future Arab bioinformaticians to learn bioinformatics in a way that fits our social, financial and academic circumstances. Moreover, it discusses the key aspects that a bioinformatician needs to be aware of and the basic knowledge that must be gained. On the other side, it will illustrate how to start learning, to address some of these challenges and how to deal with some of the related social issues.
Ahmed E. Nassar, Khaled H. Mousa, Ahmed A. Madbouly, Shafik D. Ibrahim,
Published: 10 November 2018
Highlights in Bioscience pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.20185

Abstract:
For the majority of world populations, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) would be the first essential and economic cereal grain crop. Pests and pathogens in both rich and developing countries are constantly threatening wheat production and sustainable development. Multiple gene pathways were recorded to share an association with fungal pathogens with wheat biological resistance. Our aim to use such tools in order to detect and classify fungal resistance genes in wheat through sequence alignment, protein domain identification and phylogenetic analysis. In addition the introduction for restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) for such genes in the new primer database. Approximately 138 sequences of DNA were recovered from the wheat genome by aligning 3845 anti-fungal amino acids through tblastn tool. The NCBI blastn online tool used to detect sequences with functional genes, where 92 genes have been detected. The total number of nucleotides was 48385, where the smallest DNA sequence have 302 bp and the longest contains 977 bp with an average length of 525.9 bp per sequence. The wheat chromosomes 3D, and 4B have the highest number of sequences (9) followed by chromosomes 3B (7) and 3A(6), where wheat genomes A, B and D have 30, 35 and 27 genes, respectively. Five different amino acids motifs have been revealed among studied wheat amino acid sequences. The gene annotation tools used to infer studied amino acid gene annotation. Amino acid sequences belongs to lectin, kinase, tyrosine-protein kinase (STK), thaumatin, and cysteine-rich repeats representing 2, 9, 8, 19, 23 genes respectively, in addition to 31 hypothetical genes. The proteins chemical content have been assessed through 16 different amino acid chemical and physical characteristics.
S. Zaimah
Published: 12 August 2019
Highlights in Bioscience, Volume 1, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.20192

Abstract:
Plants have developed systems of effective and passive protection to safeguard themselves from pathogens. Active processes include kinds of immune responses that are adaptive and intrinsic. Adaptive immunity is focused on reaction type RNAi and works primarily against viruses. Biological immunity is more general and allows the plant to protect itself against a wide range of pathogens through bacterial and model resistance receptors (PPRs) and forms of resistance (R proteins). PPRs identify molecular models associated with microbes or pathogen that are preserved in a specific category of pathogens. With such big marker amounts, it has become feasible to scan the entire genome for interactions of individual markers with particular quantitatively hereditary traits called whole-genome studies (WGS), genome-wide association trials (GWAS), or association genetics at exceptionally elevated marker densities. Several SNP recognition methods have been used in a specified plant to identify significant amounts of SNPs. These include: identification of SNP based on EST feature information; identification of SNP from sequenced genomes; re-sequencing of amplicons; identification of SNP using sequencing techniques of the next generation and identification of SNP based on cluster tests. Pathologic recognizes parts of Genbank completely annotated genome and MetaCyc has been used as a database for the reference pathway. In contrast to sequence similarity information used in other systems, Pathologic uses Genbank annotation information and the EC assignment as evidence of the presence of each pathway in the genome of interest reference database. When the matching task is finished, pathologic will infer a number of reactions expected to take place in the destination genome and will determine which one of those pathways in the target genome are likely to exist.
Published: 12 August 2018
Highlights in Bioscience, Volume 1, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.20182

Abstract:
Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is among the earliest fruit crops cultivated in the arid Arab Peninsula, North Africa, and Middle East territories. Dates are a significant source of food and revenue for Middle East and North Africa's local communities. It has distinctive features of biology and development that require special methods of reproduction, culture and governance. In varying date-growing regions, there are thousands of date plant cultivars and varieties. The lengthy life cycle, long juvenile lifespan, and date palm dioecism produce cultivation difficult. Every year, the percentage of crop genomes sequenced has continued to increase. The incredible rate at which DNA samples become accessible is mainly due to the enhancement in cost-and speed-related sequencing techniques. Modern sequencing techniques enable the sequencing at realistic price of various cultivars of tiny plant genomes. Although many of the published genomes are deemed incomplete, they have nevertheless proven to be useful instruments for understanding significant plant characteristics such as fruit maturation, grain characteristics and adaptation of flowering time, here we review date palm genomic studies and determine its genomics element.
Zubir Awan
Highlights in Bioscience, Volume 1, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.20191

Abstract:
Many of plant biological database comprises data from study fields including metabolomics, proteomics, genomics, microarray gene expression, and phylogenetic. Information in biological databases involves the role of genes, composition, chromosomal location, clinical impacts of mutations, and similarity of biological sequences and characteristics. We are here targeting to review and rank some of the plant databases according to their use and feature. Hoping that scientists could use this study to pick, combine and correlate distinct databases, based on their study needs and objective specifications.
Abo-Bakr A. Youssef,
Published: 30 June 2018
Highlights in Bioscience, Volume 1, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.20183

Abstract:
Since discovering Agrobacterium tumefaciens distinctive capacity to incorporate a specified part of their transfer-DNA (T-DNA) into eukaryotic cells, the bacteria were commonly used for crop transformation originally of dicotyledonous crops and subsequently of nearly all organisms. To achieve this, the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid was changed to extract phytohormone and opine biosynthetic proteins (cytokinin and auxin) so as not to interfere with ordinary morphological growth. Overall, the conversion mediated by Agrobacterium was easier, more effective and less costly relative to other technologies. It also results in insertions with small copy count. Tumor development in crops has also proved the susceptibility of explants from field-grown sugar beet crops to Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Early efforts by Agrobacterium tumefaciens to transform sugar beet were unsuccessful, primarily owing to inability to regenerate crops from stably modified callus or suspended cells. A genotype-independent method was defined under which cotyledonary explants of various sugar beet genotypes are inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens comprising whether kanamycin tolerance and GUS activity or kanamycin resistance, GUS activity and glyphosate tolerance. GUS expression, NPT dot blot as well as EPSPS assays verified the presence of transgenes; progeny showed Mendelian genetically modified inheritance and glyphosate tolerance at deadly concentrations to control plants. Unfortunately, there was no publication of technical information of the technique. Here we reviewed the concept Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and how to be applicable
Kumar Girish
Highlights in Bioscience, Volume 1, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.20184

Abstract:
A biological database is a big, structured body of continuous information, generally connected with computerized software intended to update, query, and recover information elements deposited within the framework. A straightforward database could be a single folder comprising several data, each carrying the same number of data. Such famous databases are GenBank from the National Center for Biotechnology Information, SwissProt from the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics and PIR from the Protein Information Resource. Biological databases are bibliotheques of life science data, gathered from science studies, published literature, high-performance experimental technology, and computational analysis. Here we brefly described some recently published molecular databases.
Published: 26 June 2018
Highlights in Bioscience, Volume 1, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.20181

Abstract:
Artificial seed propagation of crops broadens the horizon of plant biotechnology and farming. The technology offers techniques for micropropagulated seed analogs such as axillary leaves, embryogenic calli, somatic embryos, apical shoot tips, and protocorm-like organs. Micropropagules are embedded in gelling medium and carboxyl methyl cellulose active coatings. A variety of plant species, such as mulberry, sandalwood, cardamom, banana, sugar beet, maize, and relative, have recorded encapsulation of micro shoots and somatic embryos and subsequent recovery of full plantlets. This knowledge has shown that artificial seed manufacturing is possibly helpful for the propagation of economically significant species ' inferior hybrids on a big scale. Artificial seed development can only succeed with effective upstream manufacturing of micropropagules and downstream germination procedures for an elevated proportion of plant regeneration as one of the significant value-added plant tissue culture goods. Different micropropagules were regarded for the manufacturing of artificial seeds; however, mostly favored were somatic embryos and axillary stem buds. As micropropagules, somatic embryos were used to create artificial seeds in a wide range of fruit and plant organisms, which include Daucus carota, Picea abies, Arachis hypogaea, Medicago sativa, Psidium guajava, and Vitis vinifera. The review illustrated the concept of synthetic seeds and encapsulation procedure of sugar beet
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