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Results in Journal WSEAS TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRONICS: 34

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Kruti Thakore, D. J. Shah, N. M. Devashrey
WSEAS TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRONICS, Volume 12, pp 116-124; https://doi.org/10.37394/232017.2021.12.16

Abstract:
This paper presents low phase noise, precise frequency tuning range LC Voltage controlled Oscillator (VCO) circuit of Phase lock loop, to support - IEEE 802.11a/b/g, Bluetooth, Zigbee and IEEE 802.15.4., operating on 2.4GHz ISM band (Industrial, Scientific, Medical). The presented circuit is implemented in Cadence virtuoso environment and using GPDK090 Library of 90nm CMOS Technology. The presented VCO is tuned at 2.4GHz frequency with tuning range of 80MHz. The measured Phase noise is -126.3dBc/Hz at 1MHz offset frequency. The total power consumption of the presented VCO is 4.7mw at 1V power supply.
Oscar Secundino-Sánchez, José F. Sánchez-Ramírez, Joel Diaz-Reyes
WSEAS TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRONICS, Volume 12, pp 106-115; https://doi.org/10.37394/232017.2021.12.15

Abstract:
TiO2 nanofibres were synthesised by means of the electrospinning technique, which were annealed at high temperatures to achieve the crystalline phase transformation. The chemical stoichiometry of electrospun TiO2 nanofibres was estimated by EDS, finding that at low annealing temperatures excess of oxygen was detected and at high temperatures excess of titanium that originates oxygen vacancies. TEM images show clearly the formation of TiO2 nanofibres that exhibit a homogeneous and continuous aspect without the presence of crystalline defects, whose surface morphology depends strongly on the annealing temperature. The crystalline phase transformation was studied by Raman spectroscopy, which revealed that annealed TiO2 nanofibres showed a crystalline phase transformation from pure anatase to, first a mix of anatase-rutile, then pure rutile as the annealing temperature increased, which was corroborated by X-ray diffraction and high-resolution TEM microscopy. The average grain size, inside the nanofibres, increased with the crystalline phase transformation from 10 to 24 nm for anatase-TiO2 and from 30 to 47 nm for rutile-TiO2, estimated by using the Scherrer-Debye equation. The band gap energy (Eg), obtained from optical absorption spectra, decreases monotonically, where a local minimum is observed at 700 °C, which is ranged in 3.75  Eg  2.42 eV, caused by the anatase → rutile crystalline phase transformation. The photoluminescence shows that radiative bands present a gradual red-shift as the annealing temperature increases due to the continuous change of Eg.
Minsha Shah, Hitesh Mandaliya, Lavkesh Lachhvani, Manu Bajpai, Rachana Rajpal
WSEAS TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRONICS, Volume 12, pp 100-105; https://doi.org/10.37394/232017.2021.12.14

Abstract:
Microcontroller based trigger control circuit for fast pulsing of electrode potentials on wide range of time scales has been designed, installed, and tested for electron plasma experiments which are carried out in partial toroidal trap SMall Aspect Ratio Toroidal Electron plasma EXperiment in C – shaped geometry (SMARTEX – C), a device to create and confine non-neutral plasma (electron plasma). The sequence of trap operation is inject-hold-dump for which electrodes need to be pulsed with applied voltages at a high switching speed of few nanoseconds. Also this sequence of operation needs to be controlled over a very wide range of time scales from few microseconds to few seconds. As the available COTS (Commercial-Off-The-Shelf) high voltage DC power supplies generally do not provide this feature of fast switching at nanosecond time scale, MOSFET based circuit is developed which provides fast switching in the range of 20 – 100 nanoseconds of high voltages (200Vdc - 500Vdc) of multiple electrodes. The timing pulse widths of these trigger pulses are controlled using a microcontroller-based circuit. This experimental set-up also requires the triggering of a high current dc power supply used for an Electro-magnet (Toroidal Field Coil) to generate a toroidal magnetic field, at the start of this experiment. For this purpose, a Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) based circuit is used. The gate pulse to trigger the SCR circuit is also generated from this microcontroller-based circuit. National Instrument’s LabVIEW software based Graphical User Interface (GUI) is developed for triggering the SCR and electrodes with a programmable time period through the serial link.
Chang-Ju Wu, I-Fong Chen, Chia-Mei Peng, Wen-Yi Tsai, Jwo-Shiun Sun
WSEAS TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRONICS, Volume 12, pp 93-99; https://doi.org/10.37394/232017.2021.12.13

Abstract:
In this letter, the design of a compact planar Fractal-shaped O-ring monopole antenna based on the Sierpinski carpet concept is studied and proposed for modern broadband wireless applications. The planar fractal-shaped O-ring monopole antenna is on the basis of Sierpinski category construction and then modifies the state of the plane inward with a radius of 27mm over the two iterations. The antenna structure is low profile and easy to be fabricated, and it has performed the simulation and measurement with the result VSWR ≤ 2 that can achieve a wide impedance bandwidth 636% from the frequency band 1.57GHz ~ 10GHz. The geometric scale factor of the Sierpinski fractal is according to the same scale element that defines the geometrical self-similarity. In our experiments, the results show that use of fractal-shaped O-ring into monopole antenna structure can effectively improve input impedance matching, and obtain a larger bandwidth and better radiation pattern, while also having predictable multi-band characteristics.
Nihar Jouti Sama, Manash Pratim Sarma
WSEAS TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRONICS, Volume 12, pp 89-92; https://doi.org/10.37394/232017.2021.12.12

Abstract:
OP-AMPs finds applications in different domains of electronics engineering including communications. There has been several OP-AMP configurations realized in the last decades for different target applications. But with the evolution of communication standards, to meet the demand for high data rate over the years, requirement for a high frequency and high BW OP-AMP is gaining attention. This makes the design challenge much higher. This paper presents a two-stage CMOS amplifier which uses frequency compensation method to facilitate higher BW. Different parameters like Gain, Gain band width product (GBWP), Phase Margin and Total Power dissipation are considered in this design. A step-by-step procedure for an efficient amplifier design is followed using frequency compensation. We have achieved a gain-bandwidth product (GBWP) of 110 MHz that is capable of driving large capacitive loads. It also achieves 77.7 dB gain with a phase margin of 60o.
Marcelo G. Cendoya, Graciela M. Toccaceli
WSEAS TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRONICS, Volume 12, pp 81-88; https://doi.org/10.37394/232017.2021.12.11

Abstract:
A very attractive and relatively simple option to simulate a DC-DC converter is to use a hybrid model. In this case, the need to use very small simulation steps (as those necessary to simulate models carried out at the physical level) is avoided. Furthermore, unlike the averaged state-space models, it has the advantage that the model is valid throughout the entire working range of the converter and for both conduction modes (continuous and discontinuous). By simulating several renewable energy conversion systems incorporating DC-DC converters, the authors have discovered the true potential of this modeling method. Despite its inherent advantages, this approach to DC-DC converters simulation is not as widely adopted as it should be. This work tries to encourage the reader of its use in certain typical situations. In this article the implementation of the hybrid model of the DC-DC Buck-Boost converter, using Statechart techniques, is performed. This model was written in the Stateflow language, a tool from the MATLAB®/Simulink environment, and allowed the creation of a building block formed by the described converter model with adequate interfaces to the SimPowerSystem and Simulink environments. The block is validated by comparing simulation results, realized under different operating conditions, with calculations done employing well-known and proven formulas. As an example of the use of the presented block, a buck-boost DC-DC converter with voltage and current control loops is simulated, corroborating its correct performance
Alexander Zemliak, Fernando Reyes, Olga Felix
WSEAS TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRONICS, Volume 12, pp 61-72; https://doi.org/10.37394/232017.2021.12.9

Abstract:
An analog circuit design methodology based on applications of control theory is the basis for constructing an optimal or quasi-optimal design algorithm. The main criterion for identifying the required structure of the algorithm is the behavior of the Lyapunov function, which was decisive for the circuit optimization process. The characteristics of the Lyapunov function and its derivative are the basis for finding the optimal structure of the control vector that determines the structure of the algorithm. A block diagram of a quasi-optimal algorithm that implements the main ideas of the methodology is constructed, and the main characteristics of this algorithm are presented in comparison with the traditional approach
Tarkeshwar C. Patil
WSEAS TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRONICS, Volume 12, pp 55-60; https://doi.org/10.37394/232017.2021.12.8

Abstract:
In this paper, ferromagnetic Schottky contacts for GaN based spin injection are being studied. The electrical characterization of this Co/n-GaN and Fe/n-GaN Schottky contacts showing the zero-bias barrier height comes closer to unity as the temperature is increased. Also, the Richardson constant is extracted for this Schottky contact. Both the zero-bias barrier height and the Richardson constant are verified both experimentally as well as theoretically. Thus, this Schottky contacts will serve as spin injector for GaN based spin devices specifically for GaCrN based devices
Felix Sadyrbaev, Inna Samuilik, Valentin Sengileyev
WSEAS TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRONICS, Volume 12, pp 73-80; https://doi.org/10.37394/232017.2021.12.10

Abstract:
We consider mathematical model of genetic regulatory networks (GRN). This model consists of a nonlinear system of ordinary differential equations. The vector of solutions X(t) is interpreted as a current state of a network for a given value of time t: Evolution of a network and future states depend heavily on attractors of system of ODE. We discuss this issue for low dimensional networks and show how the results can be applied for the study of large size networks. Examples and visualizations are provided
Adel Elgammal, Tagore Ramlal
WSEAS TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRONICS, Volume 12, pp 46-54; https://doi.org/10.37394/232017.2021.12.7

Abstract:
This article forecasts the performance of smart-grid electrical transmission systems and integrated battery/FC/Wind/PV storage system renewable power sources in the context of unpredictable solar and wind power supplies. The research provided a hybrid renewable energy sources smart grid power system electrical frequency control solution using adaptive control techniques and model predictive control (MPC) based on the Multi-Objective Practical Swarm Optimization Algorithm MOPSO. To solve the problems of parameter tuning in Load Frequency Control, the suggested adaptive control approach is utilized to accomplish on-line adjustment of the Load Frequency Control parameters. During the electrical grid's integration, the system under investigation is a hybrid Wind/PV/FC/Battery smart grid with variable demand load. To achieve optimal outcomes, all of the controller settings for various units in power grids are determined by means of a customized objective function and a particle swarm optimization method rather than a regular objective function with fluctuating restrictions. To suppress the consumption and generation balance, MPCs were designed for each of the Storage Battery, Wind Turbine Generation, and the model Photovoltaic Generation. In addition, demand response (real-time pricing) was used in this scheme to reduce the load frequency by adjusting the controlled loads. The suggested control strategy is evaluated in the Simulink /MATLAB environment in order to analyse the suggested approach's working in the power system, as well as its effectiveness, reliability, robustness, and stability. The simulation findings show that the proposed control method generally converges to an optimal operating point that minimises total user disutility, restores normal frequency and planned tie-line power flows, and maintains transmission line thermal restrictions. The simulation results further indicate that the convergence holds even when the control algorithm uses inaccurate system parameters. Finally, numerical simulations are used to illustrate the proposed algorithm's robustness, optimality, and effectiveness. In compared to previous methodologies, the system frequency recovers effectively and efficiently in the event of a power demand disturbance, as demonstrated. A sensitivity test is also performed to assess the suggested technique's effectiveness.
Chang-Ju Wu, I-Fong Chen, Chia-Mei Peng, Jwo-Shiun Sun
WSEAS TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRONICS, Volume 12, pp 38-45; https://doi.org/10.37394/232017.2021.12.6

Abstract:
In this letter, a single layer dual-polarization printed bow-tie slot broadband antenna with C-band stop is presented. The proposed antenna consists of two pairs of mirror-symmetric and mutually perpendicular bow-tie slots with two coplanar waveguide (CPW)-fed. The proposed antenna has a very simple structure and the measured results demonstrate the antenna performance can be achieved a wide impedance bandwidth 79.1% for | S11 | and | S22 | ≦ -10dB from 1.3 ~ 3 GHz and 62.3% from 5.25 ~ 10 GHz, which has been implemented the operating band for GPS (1575MHz), WLAN band (2.4GHz and 5.8GHz), and 6 GHz unlicensed spectrum (5.925 ~ 7.125 GHz), UWB band (3.1 ~ 10.6 GHz), LTE Upper band (LTE, 1710 ~ 2690 MHz) applications. The measured in-band isolation performance between the two ports | S21 | ≦ -15.5dB from 1.4 ~ 3 GHz, and | S21 | ≦ -21dB from 5 ~ 10 GHz is significantly achieved and the radiation pattern, peak gain, and efficiency of the proposed antenna are measured as well. In the end, the simulated and measured radiation patterns are compared.
R.G. Jesuwanth Sugesh, A. Sivasubramanian
WSEAS TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRONICS, Volume 12, pp 32-37; https://doi.org/10.37394/232017.2021.12.5

Abstract:
Scaling up of photonic devices is the current research of interest to meet the alarming demand growth in the data centres. The efficiency of the modulator is determined by the performance of the phase shifter. In this paper, a plus-shaped PN junction phase shifter is designed and analysed. This design improved the modulation efficiency and reduced optical loss for high-speed data operation. The width of the P doped region and thickness of thedoped regions in the slabs are varied to obtain high modulation efficiency. The circuit-level simulation analysis was performed on the proposed phase shifterimported in a travelling wave electrode silicon Mach Zehnder modulator. At 80 Gbps, a maximum extinction ratio of 12.39 dB with a bit error rate of 8.67×10-8 was obtained at VπLπ of 1.05 V.cm for the length of the phase shifter of 3.5 mm. The calculated intrinsic 3 dB bandwidth is ~38 GHz and the energy per bit transmission is 1.71pJ/bit.Further analysis was performed to identify the maximum communication distance supported by this proposed phase shifter design in the silicon Mach Zehnder modulator for the data centre requirements.
Mohamed B. El Mashede, Magdy M. Zaky, A. A. Saleh, M. EL Hanash
WSEAS TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRONICS, Volume 12, pp 19-23; https://doi.org/10.37394/232017.2021.12.3

Abstract:
This paper introduces the Ozone generator parameters analysis and its engineering design aspects. Practically, Ozone is successfully used in water treatment applications; furthermore, it can be used to treat the secondary system cooling water in nuclear research reactors. The main element in this process is the Ozone generator; it has many parameters that need to be set at its design. These parameters can be divided into those related to the electrical equivalent circuit of corona dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), those associated with injected gas flow between the two electrodes, and those belonging to temperature of the electrodes. This paper is intended to those parameters that are related to the electrical equivalent circuit which has two standard models: linear and nonlinear. In this regard, the determination of the component values of nonlinear model can be achieved very hardly. To handle such determination, the nonlinear model can be approximately treated as a linear model in an approaching fashion. Based on this approximation, Lissajous plot and differential evolution (DE) methodologies are used for the computation of DBD ozone chamber parameters. Additionally, a new theoretical technique will be presented
N. Т. Isembergenov, A. J. Sagyndikova, M. Zh. Konyrova
WSEAS TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRONICS, Volume 12, pp 24-31; https://doi.org/10.37394/232017.2021.12.4

Abstract:
Heating oil in oil pipelines to the required temperature, with the most efficient use of electrical energy,is possible with using of the induction heating method. The most important parameter of induction heating settings is frequency. For each process, there is an optimal frequency range that provides the best technological and economic results. Induction heating of the oil pipeline occurs as follows, if alternating high-frequency current is passed through the windings of the oil pipeline inductor (Fig. 1), an alternating magnetic field is formed, which intersects the metal walls of the oil pipeline and induces eddy currents in them. These currents heat the metal walls of the pipeline to the desired temperature and, accordingly, the oil. MITSUBISHI's VIPM Series Intelligent Power Transistor Modules (IPM), which is a functionally complete product, are currently developed and marketed. These transistor modules are designed for high voltages, currents and power. A frequency converter made on these transistor modules allows to heat large diameter oil pipelines. A prototype IGBT transformer was designed and manufactured. Figure 2 shows a prototype of a frequency converter with a power of 6 kW at frequencies from 2 to 20 kHz. Induction heating of metal was used as a load for the frequency converter
Philippe Dondon, C. A. Bulucea
WSEAS TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRONICS, Volume 12, pp 9-18; https://doi.org/10.37394/232017.2021.12.2

Abstract:
Servomotors are widely used and well known by hobbyists for control of small scale radio controlled boats, cars or planes. The control is done using a simple PWM signal modulation, easily compatible with a 2 or 4 channels remote control system. As hobbyists are generally simple users, a light knowledge is generally enough to drive this kind of motor. However, in some electronic applications, we need deeper information on servomotors behaviour. Unfortunately, servo manufacturers never give detailed datasheet and no information is available on various WEB sites. Thus, we present in this paper, a SPICE modelling for hobbyist servomotor. Simulation and practical experimentations are done to validate the modelling. Finally, an additional lively 3D modelling is proposed and a concrete didactical application is described before conclusion
Sujata A. A, Lalitha. Y. S
WSEAS TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRONICS, Volume 12, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.37394/232017.2021.12.1

Abstract:
The recent technologies in VLSI Chips have grown in terms of scaling of transistor and device parameters but still, there is challenging task for controlling current between the source and drain terminals. For effective control of device current, the FinFET transistors have come into VLSI chip, through which current can be controlled effectively. This paper is to address the issues present in CMOS technology and majorly concentrated on the proposed 4-bit Nano processor using FinFET 32nm technology by using the Cadence Virtuoso software tool. In the proposed Nano processor, the first part is to design using 4bit ALU which includes all basic and universal gates, efficient and high-speed adder, multiplier, and multiplexer. The Carry Save Adder (CSA) and multiplier are the major subcomponents which can optimize the power consumption and area reduction. The second part of the proposed Nano processor is 4-bit 6T SRAM and Encoder and decoder and also Artificial Neural Network (ANN). All these subcomponents are designed at analog transistors (Schematic level) through which the Graphic Data System (GDS-II) is generated through mask layout design. Finally, the verification and validation are done using DRC and LVS, at the last chip-level circuit is generated for chip fabrication. The ALU is designed by using CMOS inverters and the designed ALU schematic is simulated through 32nm FinFET technological library and compared with CMOS technology which is simulated through 32nm CMOS library (without FinFET). The power consumption of AND, OR, XOR, NOT, NAND gates, SRAM, Encoder, Decoder and ANN are 36.09nW, 64.970nW, 61.13nW, 33.31nW, 37.45nW, 32.5% optimization in power dissipation and 47% optimization in leakage current, 2.68uW, 1.98uW and 7.5% improvement in power consumption and 0.5% information loses compressed subsequently respectively. The basic gates and universal gates, CSA, subtraction, and MUX are integrated for 4-bit ALU design, and its delay, power consumption, and area are 0.104nsec, 314.4uW, and 56.8usqm respectively
Hussein B. Al Husseini
WSEAS TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRONICS, Volume 11, pp 151-158; https://doi.org/10.37394/232017.2020.11.18

Abstract:
Chaos synchronization of two quantum dot light emitting diodes (QDLEDs) theoretically is studied, which is delay coupled via a closed or open –loop and mutual coupling system. Whereas the synchronized- chaotic systems, the dynamics of there are identical to uncoupled DLED under optical feedback effect. Complete synchronization was obtained under certain conditions for the coupling parameters. We evaluated the range of the QDLED’s chaos with extrinsic optical feedback in methods of the chaos synchronization residue diagram and discussion as well of the coherence for the optimal coupling strength range. With proper conditions of the coupling parameters and the evaluation methods, the synchronization was satisfactorily obtained between the transmitter and receiver
Vinod Kumar, Sanjeev Kumar Dhull
WSEAS TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRONICS, Volume 11, pp 143-150; https://doi.org/10.37394/232017.2020.11.17

Abstract:
The direction of arrival estimation is the main key problem in array signal processing. In this paper, the alternating projection maximum Likelihood (AP-ML), Alternating projection sub space framework (APSSF) and ESPRIT algorithm are studied. The simulation is performed in MATLAB for single and multiple sources. The effect of the varying number of spacing between antenna elements, number of snapshots and SNR are studied. The performance comparison shows that ESPRIT algorithm performs better as compared to the AP-ML and AP-SSF. Key-Words: - AP-ML, AP-SSF, Direction of Arrival, ESPRIT, Snapshots, SNR
H. Shams, H. Abou Gabal, S. Soliman, S. Ebrahim, S. Agamy
WSEAS TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRONICS, Volume 11, pp 127-142; https://doi.org/10.37394/232017.2020.11.16

Abstract:
Several Techniques had been applied to measure Ionizing Radiation. Majority of thistechniques are costly and very complicated. We focus on this research to chemically deposition of CdS to formwith CdTe junction x-ray sensor. CdTe has been electrodeposited onto CdS/FTO glass substrate to formwith previously fabricated CdS layer 4 µm thickness. The optimum potential for CdTe deposition hasbeen studied by potentiostat measurement, it shows that -1.3 is the optimum working potential. The XRDanalysis showed that the CdTe films have highly oriented crystallites with the cubic phase zinc blend withpreferred orientation (111). The band gap Eg extrapolated to be 1.4 eV. Four stacked sensors wereconnected in series to measure the device performance. It was observed that amplitude of the pulseformed due to exposed FTO/CdS/CdTe/Mo detector to X-ray of 33 keV and 1mA intensity is 1.03 V.
J. Chatzakis, S. Hassan, E. Clark, M. Tatarakis
WSEAS TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRONICS, Volume 11, pp 120-126; https://doi.org/10.37394/232017.2020.11.15

Abstract:
A high quality, compact 1GHz preamplifier suitable for operation in conjunction with micro channelplates (MCP) and silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM), that is comprised of two integrated circuits is described inthis paper. The amplifier requires no adjustment and has a flat response from low frequencies and adequatebandwidth for high speed measurement systems.
Hussein B. Al Husseini
WSEAS TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRONICS, Volume 11, pp 112-119; https://doi.org/10.37394/232017.2020.11.14

Abstract:
Chaos synchronization of two quantum dot light emitting diodes (QDLEDs) theoretically isstudied, which is delay coupled via a closed or open –loop and mutual coupling system. Whereas thesynchronized- chaotic systems, the dynamics of there are identical to uncoupled DLED under opticalfeedback effect. Complete synchronization was obtained under certain conditions for the couplingparameters. We evaluated the range of the QDLED’s chaos with extrinsic optical feedback in methodsof the chaos synchronization residue diagram and discussion as well of the coherence for the optimalcoupling strength range. With proper conditions of the coupling parameters and the evaluationmethods, the synchronization was satisfactorily obtained between the transmitter and receiver.
K. R. Haripriya, Ajay Somkuwar, Laxmi Kumre
WSEAS TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRONICS, Volume 11, pp 105-111; https://doi.org/10.37394/232017.2020.11.13

Abstract:
Leakage power consumption has been almost a serious problem these days in semiconductor industry. Many low power techniques like multi-voltage, power gating etc. are deployed to improve power saving. Power aware verification hence has become a critical issue now. Static low power verification has been developed to verify that low power architectures are designed in correct approach meeting all electrical rules in SoC. The UPF(Unified Power Format) is the standardized format that has all power intent information and can be used throughout the design flow to ensure that the power specification is intact. Firstly, this paper describes the special cells and its operation used in low power techniques. Secondly it describes the major checks examined at each stage using Synopsys VCLP tool and finally debugging with the tool and conclusion.
Abdelkader Rahmouni
WSEAS TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRONICS, Volume 11, pp 96-104; https://doi.org/10.37394/232017.2020.11.12

Abstract:
The work presented in this paper is a contribution to the problem of controlling the reactive powers and the voltages in an electrical network. Among these control tools, the static reactive power compensator (SVC) has been chosen because of its simplicity of control. The SVC is among the FACTS 'Alternative Flexible Current Transmission Systems' devices that help to deal with problems encountered in the operation of electrical networks either in the distribution side or in the transport side. In this work, the SVC is used to control the reactive power and the voltage in an electric power transmission network. In order to improve its efficiency, three voltage regulation systems have been chosen in the control system of this compensator.
Abdeljalil Métioui, Louis Trudel
WSEAS TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRONICS, Volume 11, pp 86-95; https://doi.org/10.37394/232017.2020.11.11

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to develop a two-tier test to diagnose unipolar reasoning in electricity. Thus, at first, we built a questionnaire composed of four questions with two choices (True / False) with justification. The justification step is methodologically essential; it has allowed us to identify different categories of conceptual representations. Then we administered it to students (N = 100) in the Science education training program. The students’ answers were analyzed and used to create the choices for the two-tier questions. The two-tier questions allow the student to give his explanation if the choices presented do not conform to his representation. Finally, high school students (N = 25) completed an electronic version of the two-tier test to solicit their commentary. The majority was enthusiastic about their participation, despite the conceptual destabilization generated by completing this test.
Ashwani Kumar, V. M. Mishra, Rakesh Ranjan
WSEAS TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRONICS, Volume 11, pp 80-85; https://doi.org/10.37394/232017.2020.11.10

Abstract:
This article presents an critical review on various issue concerning to HRES like types, storage, trends for research and control strategies of HRES. Various interconnection techniques for HRES are presented. It has been made a short review of Mathematical model for renewable energy sources. Conclusion and result of control strategies work of HRES, Storage techniques of HRES for energy flow management is presented. Finally, it has been made a summary of the future analysis, challenges in techniques and improvements of HRES based power generation techniques for Isolated and grid connected applications.
P. Kanirajan, M. Joly
WSEAS TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRONICS, Volume 11, pp 60-71; https://doi.org/10.37394/232017.2020.11.8

Abstract:
This paper presents a new approach to detect and classify power quality disturbances in the power system using Fuzzy C-means clustering, Fuzzy logic (FL) and Radial basis Function Neural Networks (RBFNN). Feature extracted through wavelet is used for training, after training, the obtained weight is used to classify the power quality problems in RBFNN, but it suffers from extensive computation and low convergence speed. Then to detect and classify the events, FL is proposed, the extracted characters are used to find out membership functions and fuzzy rules being determined from the power quality inherence. For the classification,5 types of disturbance are taken in to account. The classification performance of FL is compared with RBFNN.The clustering analysis is used to group the data in to clusters to identifying the class of the data with Fuzzy C-means algorithm. The classification accuracy of FL and Fuzzy C-means clustering is improved with the help of cognitive as well as the social behavior of particles along with fitness value using Particle swarm optimization (PSO),just by determining the ranges of the feature of the membership funtion for each rules to identify each disturbance specifically.The simulation result using Fuzzy C-means clustering possess significant improvements and gives classification results in less than a cycle when compared over other considered approach.
Samuel Kristiyana, Dilan Dwanurendra
WSEAS TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRONICS, Volume 11, pp 54-59; https://doi.org/10.37394/232017.2020.11.7

Abstract:
Guiding and triggering of discharges from a three phase Tesla coil type 280 kHz AC high voltage source using filaments created by a femtosecond Terawatt laser pulse. Without the laser the discharges were maximum 30 cm long. With the laser straight, guided discharges up to 110 cm length were detected. The discharge length was limited by the voltage amplitude of the Tesla coil. A significant reduction of the breakdown voltage threshold due to the pre-ionization of the air gap by laser pulse filamentation was observed. The lifetime of filaments is measured by using time-resolved fluorescence spectrum, and the lifetime of filaments generated by dual fs laser pulses was doubled due to the re-ionization by the succeeding pulse
G. Vishwanath, M. Lokesh, N. Mohan, A. D. Kulkarni
WSEAS TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRONICS, Volume 11, pp 72-79; https://doi.org/10.37394/232017.2020.11.9

Abstract:
In recent years, the Electrical Distribution system is operated with the integration of various Distributed Generators close to its working limits. Some of the D-facts devices such as D-STATCOM, DVR, and UPQC are placed in the Distribution system to enhance the power quality and to improve the overall stability of the system but the placement of these D-Facts devices in DG environment is essential for the overall power quality improvement. In this paper, a novel technique is introduced based on weighted multi-objective function with power quality indicators for finding the most sensitive bus concerning power quality disturbance in the Distribution system. The optimal sensitive bus is identified for integration of Power quality disturbance mitigating devices with Rotating and Static Distributed Generators
G. Kishor Babu
WSEAS TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRONICS, Volume 11, pp 42-53; https://doi.org/10.37394/232017.2020.11.6

Abstract:
A linear discrete stable control system is considered. The Power Factor Correction (PFC) converter to allow independent control of current and voltage. It converter are fast and slow states to inheres sty present small parameters inductor and capacitor its computes stiffness and to include switching ripple effects. As an alternative a Singular Perturbation Method (SPM) is presented Boundary Value Problem (BVP) and Optimal Problem. It is applied to two state switching power converters to provide rigorous justification of\ the time scale separation. It is modeled as a one parameter singularly perturbed system. SPM consists of an outer series solution and one boundary layer correction (BLC) solution. A boundary layer correction is required to recover the initial conditions lost in the process of degeneration and to improve the solution. SPM is carried out up to second-order approximate solution for the PFC converter model for BVP and optimal control problems. The results are compared with the exact solution (between with and without parameters). The results substantiate the application.
Bouanane Abdelkrim, Yahiaoui Merzoug, Benyahia Khaled, Chaker Abdelkader
WSEAS TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRONICS, Volume 11, pp 22-32; https://doi.org/10.37394/232017.2020.11.4

Abstract:
-Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System devices (FACTS) are power electronic components. Their fast response offers potential benefits for power system stability enhancement and allows utilities to operate their transmission systems even closer to their physical limitations, more efficiently, with improved reliability, greater stability and security than traditional mechanical switching technology. The unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) is the most comprehensive multivariable device among the FACTS controllers. According to high importance of power flow control in transmission lines, new controllers are designed based on the Elman Recurrent Neural Network (NEWELM) and Neural Inverse Model Control (NIMC) with adaptive control. The Main purpose of this paper is to design a controller which enables a power system to track reference signals precisely and to be robust in the presence of uncertainty of system parameters and disturbances. The performances of the proposed controllers (NEWELM and NIMC) are based neural adaptive control and simulated on a two bus test system and compared with a conventional PI controller with decoupling (PI-D). The studies are performed based on well known software package MATLAB/Simulink tool box.
Felix A. Himmelstoss, Karl Edelmoser
WSEAS TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRONICS, Volume 11, pp 33-41; https://doi.org/10.37394/232017.2020.11.5

Abstract:
Some hundred DC/DC converters have been constructed. Here a modified one is investigated. The modification consists in the position of the output capacitor. This does not change the voltage transformation ratio, but leads to constant input current compared to a pulsating one in the original topology. The function of the converter is investigated by inspection and by constructing the signals, the large and small signal model of the converter and the transfer function are derived, dimensioning hints are given and simulations are shown.
Deepak Agrawal, Rajneesh Kumar Karn, Deepak Verma, Rakeshwri Agrawal
WSEAS TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRONICS, Volume 11, pp 18-21; https://doi.org/10.37394/232017.2020.11.3

Abstract:
With the increase in technological advancements and impetus to work for the reduction of electrical energy consumption among different types of consumers, there is a primary need to take into account all forms of energy efficiency improvement methods available for electric and electronic equipment been used. It has been noticed that in commercial lighting, in terms of efficiency light-lamps based on light-emitting diodes(LEDs) are far better as compared to those where traditional high pressure sodium (HPS) lamps which are still in use in major underdeveloped and developing areas worldwide in specifically street lighting. The LED have numerous advantages such as high luminous efficiency, life span and it has no mercury in its composition. Therefore, recently researchers of this area has been setting a goal to utilize LED as a good alternative to save electricity from major parts of this planet. In this paper simulation of LED driver circuit is presented to utilize the 12 V LED lighting strip which has been used in Indian hawkers/small shopkeepers since a long time.
Gabriel Nicolae Popa, Corina Maria Diniș
WSEAS TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRONICS, Volume 11, pp 11-17; https://doi.org/10.37394/232017.2020.11.2

Abstract:
Low-voltage three-phase induction motors are most often used in industrial electric drives. Electric motors must be protected by electric and/or electronic devices against: short-circuit, overloads, asymmetrical currents, two-phase voltage operation, under-voltage, and over-temperature. To design the electronic protection currents, voltages and temperature must be measured to determine whether they fall within normal limits. The electronic protection was design into low capacity PLC. The paper presents the designs and analysis of complex electronic protection for general purpose low-voltage three-phase induction motors. The electronic protection has Hall transducers and conversion electronic devices for AC currents to DC voltages, AC voltages to DC voltage, temperature to DC voltage, a low capacity PLC, switches, motor’s power contactors, and signalling lamps has been developed. Experiments with complex electronic protection, for different faults are presented. The proposed protection has the advantages of incorporating all usual protections future for the low-voltage three-phase induction motors.
Manash Pratim Sarma, Kandarpa Kumar Sarma
WSEAS TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRONICS, Volume 11, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.37394/232017.2020.11.1

Abstract:
- The development of latest generation of wireless communication standards in the recent years has created enormous possibility to deploy high speed wireless network throughout the globe. There is always demand for high speed, seamless data connectivity. But it is a well-known fact that the increase in speed always makes the power consumption higher. Also while attempting to cater to the need of connectivity to a remote location, the major bottleneck is the availability of power. Hence incorporating self-sustainability to a wireless network is becoming the need of the hour. Radio frequency (RF) energy harvesting (EH) is gaining much attention in contemporary communications in this context. In the design of an EH system, the high frequency rectifier plays a significant role. Apart from several design hurdles that exist in a high frequency rectifier, to attain a high percentage conversion efficiency (PCE) at lower input power is the primary design challenge. This paper presents a design of a modified transmission gate (TG) based high frequency rectifier with two substrate voltage compensation techniques, viz. capacitor and MOS based compensation for RF EH system.The proposed capacitor and MOS based techniques enable the rectifier to achieve a PCE upto 86% and 92% at -5dBm respectively in its single stage implementation. This can be claimed to be the highest in-class efficiency as compared to recently published works. The frequency responses with both the techniques depict a wide band performance covering all popular wireless bands. The dynamic power dissipations (DPD) observed are 12nW and 16nW at -5dB, whereas the leakage power (LP) is 20x10-51W and zero respectively. Further such an performance are obtained using minimal number of transistors, viz. 4 and 5 respectively.
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