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Results in Journal SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences: 112

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M.A. Ali, M.S. Hassan, , A.H. Ali
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 159-171; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.97093.1143

Abstract:
Evaluation of sugarcane clones is an important step to choose selection criteria for improvement of cane yield. This study was carried at Kom-Ombo Agric. Res., Station, Aswan governorate, ARC, Egypt to study the performance, phenotypic correlation and path-coefficient analysis of some sugarcane clones. Twenty four clones of sugarcane along with their parents and the check variety (G-T-54-9) were investigated in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates for the two years; 2018/2019 and 2019/2020. In each season and over seasons, the differences were highly significant among clones for all the studied traits; stalk length, stalk diameter, cane yield, brix, sucrose, purity, sugar recovery and sugar yield. In addition, mean squares due to years and years × clones interactions were significant (p˂0.01) for all the studied traits, except brix. The combined mean demonstrated that the clone No. 281 produced the highest cane yield and sugar yield compared to the check variety (G-T-54-9). This clone is promising and could be take steps as new sugarcane clone for Upper Egypt based on cane yield and sugar yield. All studied traits were high in broad sense heritability except sucrose percent was moderate. Cane yield recorded positive correlation with stalk length, stalk diameter and sugar yield, and it was negative with the other traits under study. Path analysis exhibited that sugar yield and brix were the two important traits for cane yield improvement.
R.E. Ibrahim, M.M. El-Akad, M.K. Rizkalla
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 132-140; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.91791.1139

Abstract:
This experiment was carried out at the Experimental Orchard of Assiut University, Faculty of Agriculture during two successive seasons 2018 and 2019 on 13 years old grapevines of White Banaty (Thompson Seedless) grape cultivar. The experiment aimed to examine the effect of GA3 at different concentration (10, 20, 40 ppm and 10 + 20 + 40 ppm) and caffeic acid as alternative, safety compound at different concentration (1, 2, 3 g / litter and 1 + 2 + 3 g/Litter) on yield and fruit quality of Thompson Seedless grape cultivar. The obtained results revealed that spraying the clusters with GA3 at 10 + 20 + 40 ppm gave the highest values of yield components and increased total acidity % while it decreased fruit quality. On the other hand, spraying caffeic acid at 2 g/Litter at full bloom was effective in improving yield, bunch, berry weight and berry quality. This study concluded that the beneficial effects of spraying caffeic acid (CA) at 2 g/Litter at full bloom as a new alternative compound to improve yield and fruit quality of White Banaty (Thompson Seedless) grape cultivar. This study concluded that the beneficial effects of spraying caffeic acid (CA) at 2 g/Litter at full bloom as a new alternative compound to improve yield and fruit quality of White Banaty (Thompson Seedless) grape cultivar. Key words: GA3, Caffeic acid, Thompson Seedless (White Banaty), Grape vine.
I.A.A Tantawy, H.H. Soltan, Asmaa S. Ezzat
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 119-131; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.90269.1137

Abstract:
This study was conducted to evaluate the potential effect of foliar spray with different doses of two bio-stimulants Chitosan (CS) and Royal Jelly (RJ) on growth and yield and quality of two garlic cultivars (Egaseed1 and Balady i.e(Egyptian) at two winter seasons of 2017/2018 and 2018/2019.Generally, the foliar spray of all tested bio-stimulates treatments considerably improves almost all plant growth traits of garlic cultivars which reflected on plants yield and quality. Data showed that spraying Ega1 plants with different doses of CS and RJ considerably increased total yield (TY) in both seasons as compared with control (13.39 and 14.64 tons). The highest values of TY were found in Ega1 plants treated with 0.1g/l RJ (15.29 and 15.80 tons) and 0.3g/l RJ (15.08 and 16.61 tons) at both seasons respectively. On the other side, there was clear increase in TY of Egy plants treated with different CS and RJ doses at both seasons as compared with control (7.57 and 8.69 tons, respectively). The highest values of TY were found in Egy. plants treated with 0.2g/L RJ (9.23 and 8.53 tons) at both seasons respectively as compared with all other treatments. As compared to control, foliar spray with CS and RJ reduced weight loss % and deterioration of bulbs during storage. In general, foliar application of chitosan (1000 and 1500 ppm) and Royal Jelly (0.2 and 0.3 g.L-1) could be recommended to improve productivity, quality and storability of the two garlic cultivars grown under Minia Governorate conditions.
, R.O.H Allam, Heba A. Mohamed, M.M.S. Bakry
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 84-104; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.85028.1125

Abstract:
Field studies were done on faba bean plants at the El-Mattana Agricultural Research Station in Luxor Governorate, Egypt, throughout two successive growing seasons (2019/20 and 2020/21) to investigate the seasonal activity of the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora (Koch) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) (Giza 843 cultivar). As well, estimate the effects of some climatic conditions and plant ages on the seasonal abundance of A. craccivora. In this study, two insect expressions were used, i.e., insect numbers and incidence of infestation, which articulated the population of this pest. Results indicated that A. craccivora infested faba bean plants from 21st November 2019 to 12th March 2020 during the first growing season and from 22nd November 2020 to 13th March 2021 through the second one. For the two growing seasons, the cumulative counts of A. craccivora were 321.48 and 340.66 individuals each season, respectively. Furthermore, the overall mean of A. craccivora population was 18.91 ± 0.92 and 20.04 ± 1.52 individuals per 10 plants, during the first and second growing seasons, respectively. As well, the general average of the percentages of abundance was 66.73 ± 1.60 and 58.43 ± 2.28 for the two seasons, respectively. Climatic conditions of weekly inspection dates were more favourable for A. craccivora to increase its population in November, January and February for the two seasons. Additionally, in two consecutive growing seasons, the number of A. craccivora disappeared during the faba bean maturation stage in end March. According to the findings, the combined impacts of environmental conditions and plant ages can explain changes in A. craccivora population density. The results revealed that the effects of weather conditions and plant ages on population density and infestation incidence percentages by A. craccivora were highly significant during the two seasons studied, and that these parameters varied from season to season. Also, the dew point and mean daily minimum temperature were the most effective variable for the changes in the insect population and the percentages of infestation incidences under the studied seasons. These information can aid in the development of an aphid IPM program for faba bean plants.
H. Bahgat, S.A.M. Hassan, S. Salaheldin,
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 73-83; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.84280.1124

Abstract:
In vitro culture parameters were investigated in order to develop an effective protocol for Artemisia annua cultivation and artemisinin production. The explants, shoot tips and axillary buds, were individually cultured on MS medium contained 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) or growth regulators. Treatment with mercuric chloride (1.0%) for 5 min gave the highest survival percentage (86.0% and 90.0%) and the lowest contamination percentage (40.0% and 64.0%) for terminal shoot tip and axillary bud, respectively. Axillary bud explants surpassed shoot tips in development and direct regeneration. High concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) plus 0.5 mg/L BAP were suitable for callus induction while low concentrations and the control induced less necrosis and more explant development, as well as increased artemisinin concentration. Lower BAP concentrations induced an increased growth rate, while the higher BAP concentration encouraged proliferation. Seven treatments with different concentrations of NAA, 2,4-D, and salicylic acid produced lower amounts of artemisinin than that produced by control (0.5 mg/L BAP). Decreasing level of artemisinin could be due to reduced rates of plant growth and decreased amounts of green matter by growth regulators, which may affect the plastidic pathway for artemisinin production
, H. Mahrous, M.A. Sayed, M.G. Housein
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 105-118; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.94700.1140

Abstract:
Soil salinity is one of the serious abiotic stresses adversely affects crop production. The objectives of this study were to screen fifteen long-staple cotton belong to Gossypium barbadense L. for salinity tolerance, salinity indices, genotypic correlations, and path-coefficient analysis. Under normal soil the genotypes differed significantly in most traits in both years. Under saline soil the differences among genotypes re significant in one year and in the combined analysis for SCY/P, LY/P, SI, NS/B, PH, and Pressley index. The cultivars “G 90 x Aus”, G95, G 90, G 80, and G 83 showed the highest performance in SCY/P, LY/P, Lint%, NB/P and NS/B either under normal or saline soil. The reduction% caused by salinity was observed for PH (55.92%), LY/P (52.21%), SCY/P (48 75%), NB/P (32.47%), LI (5.68%), Micronaire reading (11.22%), Pressley index (6.63%) and UHM length (0.89%). Giz90 x Aus followed by Giza 90 showed the best tolerance to salinity stress. The STI, MP, GMP, HM and DI detected both of tolerant and susceptible genotypes and could be considered the best tolerant indices. The direct and indirect effects of SCY/P components varied greatly under both environments. The direct effects of the SCY/P components under normal soil were 0.504, 0.401, 0.153 and 0.147 for NB/P, LY/P, SI, and NS/B, respectively. However, under saline soil the direct effects were 0.802, 0.178, 0.128 and 0.050 for LY/P, NB/P, NS/B and SI, respectively. Therefore, under both environments, selection should be paid mainly on NB/P and LY/P.
, A.A. El- Shimy, M.A. Sayed, Amer F. Mahmoud, Aya Salah
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 141-158; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.97097.1144

Abstract:
Fusarium is one of the most dangerous fungal diseases that cause great loss of the sesame yield worldwide. The present work aimed to improve tolerance and/or resistance to Fusarium through two cycles of pedigree selection on sesame population for eight selection criteria started in the F3-generation. Genotypic coefficient of variability in the F3 varied from 4.34% for days to 50% flowering to 38.15% for seed yield (SY/P). Days to 50% flowering showed negative correlations with all traits except height to first capsule (HFC). Height to first capsule was negatively correlated with length of fruiting zone (LFZ), 1000-SW, oil% and infection%, and positively correlated with capsules/plant (NC/P) and SY/P. Single trait selection was an efficient method to improve selection criterion, but it caused adverse effects on some correlated traits. Selection for days to 50% flowering improved earliness, but it was better in improving yield if the selection was restricted by SY/P. Selection for oil% restricted by yield was better in improving yield than selection for oil% per se. Therefore, the inclusion of a trait as independent culling level improved the efficiency of selection. The best genetic gain in SY/P in percentage from the mid-parent was obtained from selection for days to 50% flowering restricted by SY/P (35.56**), LFZ restricted by HFC (19.53**), days to 50% flowering (19.32**), oil% restricted by SY/P (19.02**), SY/P (17.38**), 1000 SW (14.09**) and LFZ (14.032**). Therefore, selection index incorporating favorable trait is recommended.
, M.A. Sorour, H. Abd El-Galel, Walaa K. Ahmed
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 63-72; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.89539.1135

Abstract:
Whereas the nutritional value of pulses is generally recognized, the presence of antinutritional elements in their composition limits their use. Effect of soaking and germination process on removal or reducing of (total phenolic, tannins and phytic acid) content of commonly consumed pulses in Egypt were studied. Four pulses namely faba bean (Vicia Faba) Giza 843, chickpea (Cicer arietinum) Giza 1, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) krymy 7 and soybean (Glycine max) Giza 111 were used in this research. The total phenolic compounds, tannins, and phytic acid content of four pulses were significantly decreased after soaking for 12 hours and germination treatment for varied periods (24, 48, and 72 hours). On a dry weight basis, the phenolic compounds content of raw pulses was 370.9, 132.5, 763.4, and 249.4 mg/100g, for faba bean, chickpea, cowpea, and soybean respectively, while tannin content was 684.5, 488.1, 390.9, and 225.5 mg/100g, and phytic acid content was 1050.6, 719.2, 987.2, and 1076.2 mg/100g. Soaking for 12 hours significantly decreased the concentration of total phenolics, tannins and phytic acid contents of the investigated pulses by 4.0-22.7%, 7.1-26.5% and 7.0-15%, respectively. Germination process for 72 hours reduced total phenolics, tannins and phytic acid contents of studied pulses by 21.4 -56.9%, 23.9-64.8% and 54.6-65.0%, respectively. From the obtained results it could be concluded that the reduction of antinutritional factors content was increased with the progress of both soaking and germination periods in all studied pulses.
, A.H. Said, Z.A. Mar'ie
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 50-62; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.89533.1134

Abstract:
This manuscript aimed to study the effect of co-exposure of both lead acetate and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) on the major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) region and 16S rRNA sequence in vivo. Twenty-four male albino Swiss mice have randomly separated into four groups; Group 1 (control): was received only distilled water. Groups 2-4 received lead acetate (400 mg/kg body weight, orally by gavage for 15 consecutive days) + either distilled water (orally), or ZnCl2 (4 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneal injection), or titanium deoxidize nanoparticles TiO2 (200 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneal injection) for additional 15 consecutive days, respectively. According to the results of 16S rRNA sequence that the highest P-distance value (0.002) found between control group and both (lead acetate and lead acetate+TiO2)-treated groups which reflected the genetic effects of both lead acetate and TiO2 NPs. The results of microsatellites revealed that the exposure to lead acetate affected the genetic structure, where the genetic similarity between control group and lead acetate-treated group was 0.83, while zinc chloride decrease lead acetate-induced genotoxicity where the genetic similarity was 0.88 comparing to the control group. Moreover, the co-exposure to lead acetate and TiO2 NPs led to more genotoxicity and DNA damage, that is clear in the genetic similarity between control group and lead acetate+TiO2-treated group which was 0.74.
F.A. Abdel-Galil, S.M.A. Amro, A.A. Abd El-Raheem, Dalya Y. A. Darwish,
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 20-29; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.85811.1128

Abstract:
The main goal of this study was to determine the seasonal abundance of the white butterfly Pieris rapae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) on several local and imported cabbage cultivars in old and reclaimed lands. The impact of certain cabbage metabolites on P. rapae populations was examined, as well as the relative susceptibility of different cabbage cultivars. Damage caused by P. rapae Varies. During the first two months following transplantation, P. rapae can cause economic damage to cabbage plants in both areas. One month later, its population had multiplied several times in the old land. Three of the six tested cabbage cultivars were appeared as susceptible (S) cultivars and harbored high numbers of the pest with an average of 0.63, 0.60 and 0.53 Kenz, Crossina and Ganzory cultivars, respectively. However, the imported white cabbage hybrids, 728, 730 and 747 showed sort of resistance and appeared as low resistant (LR) hybrids and harbored 0.40, 0.41 and 0.45 individuals/plant, respectively. Chlorophyll only showed highly significant negative correlation with P. rapae populations. However, the remaining metabolites showed non-significant positive correlation. In a comparison between P. rapae populations in Assiut (the old area) and El-Fath province (the reclaimed area), it can be note that the pest populations, the damaged (infested and unmarketable) plants were multiplied several times in the later. It can be noted that the general mean of the pest numbers recorded in the reclaimed area (2.14 individuals/plant) was found to equal 4.28 folds more than that recorded in the old area (0.50 individuals/plant).
A.M. Anwer, Kh.M. Ibrahim,
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 30-49; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.89530.1133

Abstract:
Heat stress is one of abiotic stress that has deleterious effects on crops yield. Therefore, this study aims are to evaluate heat-tolerant maize lines and characterizing them by DNA molecular markers. Inbred lines were generated for two generations by selfing pollination. They were evaluated in each generation for the performance of some agro-morphological traits under normal and heat stress conditions. All the traits of the S1 and S2 inbred lines varied significantly among them under both conditions, except plant height was not significant under heat stress for the S1 lines. The L6 inbred line had the highest yield under the stress conditions in both S1 andS2 generations. Moreover, the heat susceptible index showed that the lines, L6 and L40 were the highest tolerant in the both generations. Furthermore, cluster analysis based on morphological traits for the 5 selected S2 inbred lines could be able to isolate the worst S2 inbred line under heat stress conditions in an independent cluster. In addition, they were characterized by ISSR and SRAP molecular markers. The ISSR detected higher polymorphism (79.79%) than SRAP marker (58.46%). The ISSR clustering patterns managed to classify the highest yield line (L6) under the heat stress in a separated cluster, but both the SRAP and combined isolated the worst line (L32) in one cluster. The Mantel’s test showed a positive correlation among all the studied markers. Additionally, the correlation was significant and highly strong (r=0.915) between morphological traits under normal conditions and SRAP marker. However, the identified S2 inbred lines with resistance to heat tolerance could be a beneficial source in the development of heat-tolerant maize hybrids.
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.85111.1127

Abstract:
The present investigation was carried out to determine the effect of growing season on four sunflower genotypes (Sakha 53, Giza 102, L120 and L770) at Shandaweel agricultural research station, Agricultural Research Center, Egypt during the two years 2019 and 2020 for yield, its components and oil quality sown during winter and summer seasons. A randomized complete block design with 3 replications. The combined analysis showed that growing season had significant effect on genotypes for yield components and chemical properties. The highest each of content of oil (44.20%), total protein (21.33%) in seeds and the best oil quality recognized the highest proportion from unsaturated fatty acids (TMUF % and (TPUF%) with high oleic acid and linolenic acid, low proportion saturated fatty acids were in winter season. The summer season produced the highest 100-seed weight, yield/plant and seed yield/fed. The genotype L120 had the heaviest 100-seed weight (6.88 g) and yield/plant (48.15 g) and seed yield/fed (1223.90 kg) in summer season. Giza 102 recorded the highest proportion in TMUF % (18.16) and oleic acid% (17.10), L770 recorded the highest proportion in TPUF % (75.50) and Linoleic acid % (73.40). Correlation coefficients among various studied characters and seed yield/fed in sunflower genotypes across the environments demonstrated that seed yield (kg/fed) were positively associated and highly significantly with head diameter, 100-seed weight and seed yield/ plant and between oil percentage with 50% flowering and steam diameter across the seasons and years.
H. Ferweez,
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 20-29; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.88797.1130

Abstract:
Drought is one of the significant abiotic stress factors that affect plant development and productivity. Screening and producing of more tolerant genotypes with higher yield capacity is the breeders' principal purpose. Therefore, this work was carried out to evaluate the performance of four sugar beet cultivars (Top, Hossam, Hercules and Kawamera) under water limitation. The drought stress experiment was applied based on three water regimes, 25%, 50% and 75% (severe, moderate and non-stress conditions, respectively) of relative water capacity (RWC). The study incorporated some productivity and quality traits. The results showed that drought stress has a significant effect on all studied traits. Whereas, increasing of water deficiency led to decrease of the productivity traits and increasing of quality parameters. Kawamera cultivar has superior performance in all the studied traits under all three different levels of water regime. Besides, the four cultivars were assessed by both SSR and ISSR molecular markers. SSR marker exhibited a higher polymorphism percentage (71.43%) than ISSR marker (44.26%). In addition, the mean polymorphism information content (PIC) value was higher for the SSR marker (0.25) than the ISSR marker (0.18) too. Moreover, the constructed dendrograms revealed that the SSR marker was able to separate the cultivars according to their drought-tolerance, where the highest drought-tolerant cultivar (Kawamera) was classified alone in the main cluster. However, the superiority of Kawamera cultivar under drought stress indicated that it could be utilized in breeding programs for developing more drought-tolerant sugar beet cultivars.
A.A.A. Alshater, R.A. Ali, Hala F. Dakhly
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 108-121; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.73696.1105

Abstract:
This study aimed to investigate ameliorative effects of the crude extract (SIE) and polysaccharide (SIP) of the ink of Sepia officinalis, on some biochemical and hematological disorders induced by cyclophosphamide (CP). Forty adult male albino Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n= 8 each). In the control group, rats were administered orally with 0.9% isotonic saline solution at a dose (5 ml/kg b.w.). All the other groups were i.p. injected with a single dose of CP (200mg/kg b.w.) only for one time. Then the third group was treated with oral administration of (SIE) (200mg/kg b.w.) daily for 60 days, the fourth group was treated with oral administration of (SIP) (80mg/kg b.w.) daily for 60 days and the fifth group was treated with oral administration of (SIE, 200mg/kg b.w. + SIP, 80mg/kg b.w.) daily for 60 days. All the animals were slaughtered by the end of the experiment for collecting the blood samples for hematological and biochemical assays. The biochemical results indicated that administration of CP was associated with a significant increase in the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), urea, creatinine and uric acid. Moreover, a significant decrease in the levels of albumin and total protein was recorded. In addition, hematological disorders including a significant suppression on the numbers of RBCs, WBCs and PLTs, with a remarkable reduction in hemoglobin contents (Hb) and a significant drop in PCV values. Concomitant administration of SIE and SIP alleviated the altered biochemical and hematological parameters.
Safwat Abdullah, K.A. Hamam, A.M. Abdul-Hamid
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 178-178; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.83141.1122

Abstract:
A field experimentt was conducted at a private farm in Sohag, Egypt in 2016-17 and 2017-18 to evaluate planting method, seeding rate and chemical weed control on bread wheat productivity and associated weeds. Weeding treatments were: Pyroxsulam (Pallas) herbicide and the check. Planting methods were: ridges (narrow beds); rows; dry-; and wet- broadcasting. The seeding rates were: 45, 60, and 75 kg/feddan (fed=4200 m2). Results revealed that Pallas significantly reduced the biomass of weeds by 91 % vs. the check. Wet seeding resulted in the smallest biomass of weeds vs. the dry methods. Increasing seeding rate from 45 to 75 kg/fed significantly reduced the biomass of total weeds by 65.8 %. The 75 kg/fed rate + Pallas significantly reduced biomass of weeds. Pallas significantly increased numbers of spikes/m2, grains/spike and grain yield vs. the check. Pallas increased grain yield by 5.4 ardeb (150 kg)/fed vs. the check. Ridges planting had superior effect on numbers of spikes/m2, number of grains/spike vs. other methods. As for grain yield, ridges was the first and rows the second, while wet and dry methods were significantly equal in the third class. The 75 kg/fed seed rate significantly increased spikes/m2 and grain yield. Pallas with 75 kg/fed rate gave the highest values of spikes/m2 and grain yield. Ridges method with Pallas also produced the highest grain yield. The ridges method seeded by 75 kg/fed and treated by Pallas produced the highest grain yield (10.48 t/ha) and could be recommended for producing bread wheat under similar conditions.
, M.R. Gad El- Kareem
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 146-155; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.79063.1114

Abstract:
This examination was conducted during the 2018 and 2019 seasons to examine the effect of foliar application of (0.5 to 2 %) Spirulina Platensis Algae and (50 to 150 ppm) salicylic acid on Flowering (%), growth, yield, and fruit quality of Koroneiki olive trees grown under the sandy soil. The trees received two sprays at the mid of December and the 1st week of Jan. Applications of Spirulina Platensis Algae at 0.5 to 2 % and salicylic acid at 50 to 150 ppm alone, or combination had a pronounced stimulation on vegetative growth, shoot length, leaf area and the number of leaves, percentage of N, P and K in leaves, Flowering (%), yield, fruit weight and dimensions and fruit oils % over the control. The stimulation of these parameters was materially associated with increasing concentrations of both materials. Using Spirulina Platensis Algae was superior to using salicylic acid in this regard. Combination applications were practical than using each material alone in this respect. Application of two sprays at mid-December and the 1st week of Jan. of a mixture of 1 % Spirulina Platensis Algae and 100 ppm salicylic acid gave the best yield and fruit quality results Koroneiki olive trees grown under the sandy soil.
A.G.A. Khaled, T.M. Elameen, A.Y.M. Ahmed, M. Mohiy, I.F.O. Elshazly
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 133-145; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.78975.1113

Abstract:
Sequence Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP) molecular technique was used for assessing the genetic diversity of eight Egyptian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes. Five SRAP primers combinations were able to expose the polymorphism between the studied genotypes. The percentage of polymorphism (P %) ranged from 40 to 79.90 %. Furthermore, the Polymorphic Information Content (PIC) values for SRAP primers combination varied from 0.11 to 0.31 with an average of 0.19. The ME5F-EM2R and ME1F-EM2R primer combination cleared higher levels of polymorphism of 66.67 and 76.90%, respectively. The results of Single Marker Analysis (SMA) showed that the SRAP marker ME1-EM21320bp could be considered probably as candidate marker linked to spike length in the tested genotypes. Moreover, ME1-EM2900bp and ME1-EM2575bp could be considered as markers linked to plant height and tillers number /plant traits, respectively. Results of Single Marker Analysis (SMA) showed significant marker-trait associations for spike length (P= 0.04), plant height (P= 0.02) and number of tillers/plant (P= 0.03). Me1F-Em6R850bp marker could be also considered as candidate markers probably linked to plant height, with a specific fragment of 850bp for the tolerant genotype (P1). UPGMA cluster analysis based on SRAP markers separated the studied wheat genotypes into three significantly different clusters. The dendrogram based on morphological traits divided the studied wheat genotypes into two different clusters. The Mantel test revealed that there was a positive but non-significant correlation between the genetic similarities based on phenotypic data and SRAP marker (r = 0.36, P> 0.05).
, Mohamed El-Dekashey, Mohamed Mohamed, Dalia El-Shuwaikh
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 124-124; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.82736.1121

Abstract:
The current investigation was conducted during 2016/2017, 2017/2018 and 2019/2020 seasons to study the effect of intercropping faba bean (main crop) –onion (secondary crop) on the yield and yield components and nutrient uptake. The experiment design was a randomized complete blocks with three replicates. The experiment included 11 treatments of cropping system (sole faba bean, sole onion, 1faba bean:1 onion, 1faba bean:2onion , 1faba bean:3onion, 2faba bean:1onion, 2faba bean:2onion, 2faba bean:3onion, 3faba bean:1onion, 3faba bean:2onion and 3faba bean:3onion). Results reported that 1faba bean :3onion was not significantly different as compred with sole onion and recorded the highest value of vegetative parameters; plant height (cm), leaf number, bulb diameter (cm) and plant fresh weight (g). Same trend was observed for yield and yield components, and nutrient uptake compared to other intercropping systems. However, regarding to faba bean vegetative characters, 3faba bean :1onion gave the greatest value with no significant difference comparing with sole faba bean and other intercropping systems treatments. Similar trend turned into discovered for nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake. Among all intercropping and sole faba bean treatments, 3faba bean:1onion recorded significant increase in total yield of faba bean with an increase percentage 13.51%, 16.55% and 13.84% during 1st, 2nd, and 3rd seasons ,respectively. the intercropping system of 3faba bean:1onion or 1faba bean : 3onion could be againful model to obtain the greatest use efficiency of land and irrigation water.
, M.A. Ali, H.M. Hmadi
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 178-178; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.81953.1120

Abstract:
A study was conducted during 2016-2017 and 2017-2018 seasons at the Experimental Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, South Valley University, Qena, Egypt, with the objective to study the effect of different date of sowing and fertilization treatments on productivity of barley cultivar Giza 121. The experiment was in a split-plot arrangement was based on a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Three sowing dates were assigned to the main plots and thirteen fertilization treatments to the sub-plots. There was a significant effect of the interaction between sowing dates and fertilization treatments on study traits (plant height, spike length, spike weight, number of spikes/m2, 1000-grain weight, grain yield/plant, grain yield per feddan and straw yield per feddan). The highest values of previous traits were recorded under sowing barley cultivar Giza 121 at 15th of November and applied of 75% recommended NPK + biofertilization + humic acid. Keywords: Sowing date, NPK, humic acid, biofertilizer
, S.F. Abo-Elwafa, G.H. Abdel-Zahir, N.I. Abdelrahman
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 177-177; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.81692.1119

Abstract:
Drought stress is a serious abiotic factor adversely affects cotton yield and fiber properties. The objectives of this study were to screen several genotypes of cotton belong to Gossypium barbadense L. for drought tolerance, study drought indices, correlations, and path-coefficient analysis. Fourteen long staple cottons cultivated, and obsolete cultivars were screened for drought tolerance at normal irrigation and drought stressed experiments for two years. Mean squares indicated significant (p ≤ 0.01) differences among genotypes in separate and combined analysis. The effect of years showed significant (p≤ 0.05 to p≤ 0.01) differences in most cases. The interaction of genotypes by years were significant for all traits except few cases. The reduction % caused by drought stress in SCY/P ranged from 31.44 to 39.39 with an average of 33.93. Among ten tolerant indices STI, MP, GMP, HM and DI could be considered the best tolerant indices to detect both of tolerant and susceptible genotypes. The correlation of SCY/P under normal irrigation was high with LY/P, Lint %, NB/P, LI and BW, moderate with NS/B and upper half mean length, and low with DFF, Pressely index and negative with Micronaire reading. However, the picture was different under drought stress, in which drought affected lint rather than seeds. The direct and indirect effects of SCY/P components varied greatly under both environments, and LY/P, NB/P and NS/B should be considered as selection indices under normal irrigation, NB/P and NS/B under stress when selection practiced for SCY/P.
A.T. Abdel-Rahmeem
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 166-166; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.81285.1118

Abstract:
A field experiment was carried out during 2017 and 2018 summer seasons at Arab El-Awamer Station, Assiut, Egypt to study the response of two sorghum cultivars to foliar spray by different zinc oxide nanoparticles concentrations. The field experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design using a strip plot arrangement with three replications. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) concentrations (control, 50, 100, 150 ppm) were allotted horizontally, while two genotypes of sorghum (Giza 15 and Dorado) were assigned vertically. The obtained results showed that plant height, panicle length, panicle width, 1000 kernel weight and grain yield / plant were affected highly significant or significant by different zinc oxide nanoparticles in the two growing seasons, except 50% flowering was insignificant in both seasons. Grain sorghum plants which were sprayed by 100 ppm ZnO NPs gave the highest mean values of grain yield /plant over both cultivars (44.87 and 44.90 g), as against (40.10 and 39.92 g) in control plants for the first and the second season, respectively. The same trend was observed for 1000-kernel weight, since the highest mean values of two cultivars obtained from plants which sprayed by 100 ppm ZnO Nps (32.23 and 32.55 g) with compared to control plants (28.25 and 28.45 g) for both seasons, respectively. The interaction between ZnO NPs concentrations and genotypes had a non significant effect on the all studied traits in the first season, while in the second season the interaction between ZnO NPs concentrations and genotypes had significant effects on plant height , panicle length, grain yield / plant and 1000 kernel weight.
Mona M.H. Abdelsalam, H.A. Hassan, Z.S.H. Ismail, W.M. Salem, H.G.M. El-Sayed,
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 50-61; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.78354.1111

Abstract:
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Jojoba Oil and nanoparticles of Silver supplementation on growth performance, viability and economics in broiler chickens. A total of 192 Ross 308 broiler chicks (1-day-old) were allocated to 4 experimental treatments: CONT (control diet), JO (CONT diet with 150 mg/kg of Jojoba oil), Nano-Ag (CONT diet with 4 mg/kg nanoparticles of Silver), and JO+Nano-Ag (CONT diet plus Jojoba Oil and nanoparticles of Silver). Each treatment had 6 replicates of 8 birds. The experiments lasted for 35 days. Starter and grower diets, based on corn and soybean meal, and water were available ad libitum. Body weight and feed intake were measured from 0 to 35 days. Body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were calculated. Survivability rate and cost economics were calculated. Statistical comparisons were performed using a One-way ANOVA. Supplementation of JO and Nano-Ag separately as well as in the form of combined usage, increased (P<0.05) body weight and body weight gain compared to CONT. Supplementation of broiler diets with JO, Nano-Ag or their combination improved feed conversion ratio, without any significant effect on feed intake. Interestingly, a lower mortality rate was recorded in the supplementation groups and, therefore, a higher net return was observed. Hence, the present study demonstrates that supplementation of JO and Nano-Ag separately as well as in the form of combined usage, improved growth performance and economic return of broiler chickens.
A.A. Ahmed, , E.M.M. Elnenny
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 96-107; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.74407.1107

Abstract:
A field experiment was performed at the Arb El-Awamer Research Station, Assuit Governorate, Agricultural Research Center, Egypt during the two consecutive summer seasons of 2017 and 2018 to achieve the highest yield and good oil quality of nine tested sunflower genotypes. In both seasons, the experiment was conducted using the split plot design in randomized complete block design with three replicates arrangement keeping irrigation system (sprinkler and drip) in the main plots, and sunflower genotypes (L990, L770, L465, L125, L460, L880, L120, Giza 102 and Sakha 53) in the sub plots. Yield and quality traits were significantly influenced by irrigation system and genotypes as well as their interactions in both seasons and their combined analysis. The drip irrigation system seems to be a good compromise between the highest seed yield /fedden and good fatty acid composition of oil. Line 120 was ranked in the first order in head diameter, 100-seed weight, seed weight /plant, flowered late and hence seed yield /fedden, as well as seed oil content, whereas, Sakha 53 characterized with it contained the highest proportion of unsaturated fatty acids. The highest values of head diameter, 100-seed weight, seed weight /plant and hence seed yield /fedden as well as the highest proportion of unsaturated fatty acids composition were obtained by grown sunflower L120 at drip irrigation system.
K.R.A. Hussien, Z.S.H. Ismail,
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 156-156; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.80159.1116

Abstract:
Nanotechnology has the potential to revolutionize in poultry industry with new tools for the enhancing the ability of poultry to absorb nutrients and therefore improving growth performance, nutrient digestibility and productive performance of poultry. The essential trace elements play important roles such as nutrients metabolism, antimicrobial, antioxidant, component of numerous metalloenzymes and protein. Numerous studies have already confirmed the effects of zinc sources at lower and higher doses on productive performance of broiler chickens. Most of these studies showed slight positive effects, however significant results were rare. Since there are almost unlimited possibilities concerning levels and sources of zinc there is still more research needed. Using zinc as nanoparticles size can be used at lower doses and can provide better result than the conventional zinc sources. Nanoparticles Zinc oxide can act as antibacterial agent, modulates the immunity and production of broilers. Using of Nanoparticles Zinc oxide in broiler nutrition may support and improve the broiler production. Nevertheless, there is still further studies under more standardized conditions needed to evaluate the optimum dosage as well as the exact mode of action of Nanoparticles Zinc oxide. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to give an overview on the potential of nanoparticles of zinc oxide as feed additives in broiler diets, in order to evaluate the optimum dosage and observe their influence on feed intake, growth performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass criteria, and physiological responses.
M.A. Ali, M.S. Hassan, , A.A. Abbas
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 166-166; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.78731.1112

Abstract:
This work aimed to study the efficiency of pedigree selection for number of bolls/plant to isolate superior families in two segregating population of Egyptian cotton (Giza-90 × Giza-86) and (Giza-95 × Giza-80) in the F2 - F4-generations. The experiments were conducted at South Valley University Experimental Farm, Qena, Egypt during summer seasons 2018 to 2020. Differences among the F4-selected families were highly significant for the selection criterion; number of bolls/plant and all correlated traits after two cycles of selection in both populations. The genetic variability retained after two cycles of selection was greater and sufficient for further cycles of selection of the selection criterion; number of bolls/plant in both populations. However, all studied correlated traits showed greater genotypic variability in both populations after two cycles of selection. After two cycles of selection, number of bolls/plant increased by 10.67 and 12.41% in population I and 10.58 and 17.26% in population II from the better parent and the bulk sample, respectively. Selection for number of bolls/plant was accompanied by favourable decrease in days to first flower in both populations. However, desirable increase for most correlated traits i.e., boll weight, seed cotton yield/plant, lint yield/plant and lint percentage in both populations. Two families; No. 96 and 178 in population I and family No. 60 in population II could be considered the best selected families resulted from selection for number of bolls/plant. Pedigree selection for number of bolls/plant was effective in isolating genotypes for high number of bolls.
A.M Fahmy, E.H. Salem, R.O.H. Allam
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 85-95; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.69717.1096

Abstract:
Grape mealybug consider the most universally important vineyard insect pest. Insecticides are the main strategy to grapevine insect control. The result showed that the recommended rate of Imidacloprid is succeeded in controlling of mealybug since its initial reduced of the infestation were 89.26, 84.21and 85.71 % for first season and 82.71, 82.94 and 83.56 % for second season for Flame seedless, Early sweet seedless and Sugraone seedless, respectively. Meanwhile, the total mean of reduction after 3,7, 14 and 30 days were 95.79, 64.83 and 72.82 % for first season and 85.20, 66.33 and 69.84 % for second season on Flame seedless, Early sweet seedless and Sugraone seedless, respectively. On the other hand, the total mean of reduction after 3,7, 14 and 30 days were 72.56, 80.40 and 82.50% for first season and 68.88, 76.13 and 75.56% for second season on Flame seedless, Early sweet seedless and Sugraone seedless, respectively. In addition, all of them are above 70% reduction. From these results, it should be suggested using some effective alternatives such as Palmito compound in controlling mealy bug incompatible program with chemical insecticides instead of conventional individuals' insecticides. The grapevine variety, Early sweet seedless showed the significant superiority in the quality traits. Under conditions of this investigation, the grapevine variety, Early sweet seedless was recorder the highest values for yield per vine, TSS and total sugar% in both seasons.
M.N. Rasslan, S.M. Mahmoud, , A.A.A. Basha
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 71-84; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.66837.1089

Abstract:
This study aims to study the effect of adding rock phosphate and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), in the physical and chemical properties of the corn residues compost during aerobic decomposition. Four composting heaps were included in this study as it follows, 1) traditional method composting heap (T1), 2) heap was supplied with rock phosphate (T2), 3) heap was supplied with rock phosphate + Bacillus megatherum culture (T3), and 4) heap was supplied with rock phosphate+(Bacillus.megatherum, Azospirillum lipoferum, Azotobacter chroococcum) mixed cultures (T4). All compost treatments showed an increase in temperature right after composting started. The heap treated with three bacterial inoculums (T4) reached the highest peak values of 62.2°C on day 12 compared to other treatments. At the end of the composting period T1 recorded the lowest value of bulk density (533 kg/m3) compared to other treatments. The pH value declined to stabilize with the end result at 100 days being 6.9, 7.4, 7.1 and 7.0 for composting treatment T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively. The initial C/N ratio was 61:1 for all composting treatments, and the final values of total C/N ratio after the 100 days were 15:1, 14:1, 12:1 and 10:1 for composting treatments T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively. Compost supplied with rock phosphate and three bacterial inoculums (T4) reached has more N, P and K content compared to other composting treatments T1, T2, T3. These results indicated that adding rock phosphate and (PGPR) to corn residues during composting improve nutritional value of the resulting compost.
A.M. Alsalhy, , M.M. Abada, A.M. Mostafa
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 60-70; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.70197.1099

Abstract:
This study was conducted during 2018, 2019 and 2020 seasons, on 10 years old Flame Seedless grapevines, grown on the experimental vineyard of Research Station Agriculture, EL-Matana, Esna, Luxor, Egypt to study the effect of organic and bio-fertilization on vegetative growth, nutrient status, and fruiting of Flame Seedless grapevines. The experiment was arranged in a complete randomized block design with seven treatments and three replications two vine per each. The obtained results could be summarized as follow: Using the recommended dose of nitrogen (RDN) via 50 or 25% mineral plus 50 or 75% or 50% organic and bio-form significantly increased, pruning wood weight, number of leaves/shoot and leaf area as well as leaf total chlorophyll and leaf nutrient composition compared to use RDN via mineral N fertilizer alone. No significant differences on these traits due to use RDN via 50% mineral plus 50 organic or bio, double form or 25% N plus 75 bio-form and triple born. All combined fertilization treatments significantly increased the yield and improved the cluster and berry traits compared to use RDN via mineral source only. It is evident from the foregoing results that double form 50% mineral plus 50% either organic or bio or triple form (25% N plus, 75 organic and bio.) improved the vegetative growth, yield and berry quality. In addition, it minimized the production costs and reduced environmental pollution.
A.M. Fahmy, Wafaa E. Grad, E.M. Mehareb
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 40-59; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.69758.1097

Abstract:
This study was conducted at El-Mattana Agricultural Research Station, Luxor Governorate, Egypt (latitude of 25.17° N and longitude of 32. 33°E) on three sugar crop cycles 2017/18 (plant cane crop), 2018/19 (the first ratoon) and 2019/20 (the second ratoon) to screen sugarcane genotypes for yield, quality and borer resistance, also estimates the relationship among agronomical and pathological traits based on principal components biplot analysis. Results revealed that significant differences among sugarcane genotypes in susceptibility to the lesser sugarcane borer, Chilo agamemnon infestation measured as bored stalk%, bored joints %, girdled stalks%, mean no. holes/joint, mean no. holes/bored joint and mean no. holes/stalk in the three studied seasons. In plant cane and first ratoon seasons the genotype L 62-96 exhibited the highest bored stalk %. While, in the second ratoon, the genotype G.T.54-9 was recorded the highest bored stalk %. Three genotypes (F. 150, M 57-35 and G. 2008-20) were the most tolerant in plant cane season recording the lowest bored stalk%. While, in the 1st ratoon season, EH88/5-27 and SP72-5181 genotypes were recording lowest bored stalk%. Meanwhile, in the 2nd ratoon season, SP 81-3250, F. 150, F 161 and G. 2007-61 genotypes were recording lowest bored stalk% respectively.
M.A.M. Osman
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 30-39; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.71236.1102

Abstract:
Using morphological and molecular methods, this research sought to distinguish, classify, and characterize the pathogen associated with pokkah boeng disease (knife-cut symptoms). During the 2021 growing season, the sugarcane breeding program at El-Mattana Agricultural Research Station, Luxor Governorate, Egypt, the knife-cut symptom was observed on stalks of sugarcane (variety G.2009-99). The causal pathogen was isolated from samples taken from infected stalks with knife-cut lesions. Pathogenicity studies affirmed that the pathogen isolate was pathogenic on cuttings of the commercial sugarcane variety G. T. 54-9. After 7 days from inoculation, disease signs were detected in cane stalks when opened longitudinally. Stalks of sugarcane in control treatments showed no signs of disease. The pathogen was re-isolated and determined to be similar to the causal fungus that triggered knife-cut symptoms in a normal infection in the field. Morphological characteristics of growth rates, colony features, and shapes of macroconidia, microconidia, conidiogenous cells, and chlamydospores were used to identify the isolate. The pathogen internal transcribed spacer (ITS) was sequenced using ITS1 and ITS4 primers to classify and differentiate it. After microscopic morphology and gene sequencing, the fungus isolate was identified as Fusarium verticillioides. The pathogen pure culture was preserved in the Assiut University Mycological Centre as AUMC 14795, and the ITS sequence was uploaded to GenBank as MW692089. More research is required to assess the prevalence of the pathogen, the resistance of various sugarcane varieties, and an effective method for managing the pathogen.
A.S.A. Hamad
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 58-71; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.68447.1092

Abstract:
This study was established during two consecutive seasons of 2019 and 2020 in a private mango orchard situated at KomOmbo, Aswan Governorate (24° 28' 45.1596" and 32° 56' 28.626") where the texture of soil is clay and water table depth not less than two meters. Fifteen mango seedling strains age of trees ranging from 25 to 30- years old. They were planted at 6x6 meters; regular horticultural practices were carried out as usual. The growth, nutritional status, yield and quality of fruits of fifteen mango seedling strains were evaluated under conditions of Aswan region based on relatively better yield and fruit quality. The following strains of mango seedlings have been cultivated successfully, thirteenth, twelfth, eleventh and tenth strain in descending order under Aswan conditions. Also, through the numerical evaluation of the productivity characteristics and the fruit quality of the strains under study, it became clear that the tenth, eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth strains showed superiority, so they must be cultivated and spread them through vegetative propagation and expand their cultivation.
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 52-57; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.65535.1086

Abstract:
The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a harmful pest of many plants. In Egypt, the presence of S. frugiperda in maize fields was reported in 2019. The aim of this study was to record the parasitoids of S. frugiperda in Egypt. The survey was conducted at Sohag and Qena governorates. Survey studies showed five parasitoids were recorded. In Sohag governorate, from the total samples of fall armyworm collected, four species of parasitoids emerged, three of them belonged to order hymenoptera and one belonged to diptera. Two of the hymenopteran parasitoids were found in samples collected from Shandaweel district, Dinarmus basalis (Rondani, 1877) family Pteromalidae and Cotesia ruficrus (Haliday) family Braconidae. While the third is Microplitis rufiventris (Kokujev) family Braconidae was emerged from samples collected fromEl-Osyrat district. However, the dipteranparasitoidis Exorista (Tachina) larvarum (Linnaeus), which emerged from samples collected from Shandaweel district. In Qena governorate, one parasitoid species emerged Chelonus intermedius (Thomson) which was found inAbu Tesht district. Up to my knowledge this is the first record of the mentioned parasitoids on S. frugiperda in Egypt.
A.M.K. Abdel Aal, F.H. Abdelaziz, F.F. Ahmed, A.Y. Mohamed, Sahar Abdel-Halim
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.60560.1078

Abstract:
The present investigation was carried out during 2017 and 2018 seasons. Barhee date palms grown under Aswan region conditions, produced via tissue culture received three sprays of four plant extracts namely oils of moringa, garlic and onion and extract of green tea each at 0.05 to 0.2%. The merit was elucidating the effect of these plant extracts on all growth aspects and palm nutritional status. Carrying out three sprays of moringa oil, garlic oil, onion oil and green tea extract each 0.05 to 0.2% had an announced promotion on all growth aspects and palm nutritional status relative to the control treatment. Using plant extracts of green tea extract, moringa oil, onion oil and garlic oil in ascending order was very effective in promoting growth and palm nutritional status. Meaningless stimulation on these characteristics were observed among the higher two concentrations of each plant extracts namely 0.1 and 0.2% for promoting some growth aspects and palm nutritional status of Barhee date palms, it is suggested to spray garlic oil at 0.1% three times (first week of March, just after fruit setting (middle of April) and one month later (middle of May).
I. Anane, Y. Zhang, F. Nie
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 112-128; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.61143.1080

Abstract:
Farmers in Ghana face difficulties in accessing microfinance credit, and as a result, there is low accessibility to microfinance credit. This study explores the effects of sources of microfinance capital on farmers’ access to credit. A total of 2734 individual household members were used in the final analysis to establish the relationship between the sources of microfinance capital and farmers’ access to microfinance credit. The participants include clients of selected microfinance institutions and non-client households. Logistic regression models were employed for data analyses. The study has shown that microfinance capital’s source significantly influences farmers’ access to credit. The analysis further revealed that land ownership, gender, and literacy strongly correlate with farmers’ access to credit. The study has also established that savings account, microfinance membership, and geographical location significantly influence the credit providers’ decision-making process to grant a loan to the customer. Our findings suggest that microfinance institutions have not been able to perform their business effectively because of capitalization. Sensitization programs are needed to enable microfinance institutions to configure innovative financing methods to improve capitalization. There is a need to improve the sources of funds and capital mobilization to maximize their financial performance and increase farmers’ access to credit. Education to farmers to understand credit providers’ requirements can also increase farmers’ access to microfinance credit.
A.M.K Abdel Aal, F.H. Abdelaziz, F.F. Ahmed, A.Y. Mohamed, Sahar A. Abdel-Halim
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 12-21; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.60564.1079

Abstract:
The present investigation was carried out during 2017 and 2018 seasons. Barhee date palms grown under Aswan region conditions and produced via tissue culture received three sprays of four plant extracts namely oils of moringa, garlic and onion and extract of green tea each at 0.05 to 0.2%. The merit was elucidating the effect of these plant extracts on fruiting setting, yield and fruit quality. Carrying out three sprays of moringa oil, garlic oil, onion oil and green tea extract each 0.05 to 0.2% had an announced promotion on fruiting setting, yield and fruit quality relative to the control treatment. Using plant extracts of green tea extract, moringa, onion oil and garlic oil in ascending order was very effective in promoting fruiting setting, yield and fruit quality. Meaningless stimulation on these characteristics were observed among the higher two concentrations of each plant extracts namely 0.1 and 0.2% for promoting on fruiting setting, yield and fruit quality of Barhee date palms, it is suggested to spray garlic oil at 0.1% three times (first week of March, just after fruit setting (middle of April) and one month later (middle of May).
M.S. Hassan, M.A.E. Raslan, G.M. Kalhy, M.A. Ali
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 37-51; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.65161.1084

Abstract:
Evaluation of lentil genotypes is important to choose selection criteria for improvement of seed yield. This investigation was conducted at El-Mataana, Agricultural Research Station, Luxor governorate, ARC, Egypt to assess the genotypic variability, correlation and path analysis of some lentil genotypes. Twenty-two genotypes of lentil including one as the check variety (Giza 9) were tested in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates for three years; 2017/2018, 2018/2019 and 2019/2020. For each season and over seasons, significant (p˂0.01) differences were observed among genotypes for all the studied traits; days to flowering, plant height, no of pods plant-1, 100-seed weight, seed yield plant-1 and harvest index. Also, the differences among years and years × genotypes interactions were significant (p˂0.01) for all the studied traits. The combined mean demonstrated that the genotypes X2012-S-291 and Flip 2003-37L produced the highest seed yield plant-1, no of pods plant-1, 100-seed weight and earliest compared to the check variety (Giza 9). These genotypes were promising and could be used as new lentil cultivars i.e. parents in breeding programmes to produce high-yielding varieties for Upper Egypt. Estimates of broad sense heritability were high for all traits under investigation except seed yield plant-1 was moderate.Seed yield plant-1 was correlated positively with all the studied traits except days to 50% flowering. Path analysis illustrated that 100-seed weight and number of pods plant-1 were the two important traits for seed yield improvement.
Hossam M. El-Sharnoby, Elham A. Badr, Fouz F. Abo Elenen
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.45788.1055

Abstract:
The current examination was done at North- Eltahrer, Alnubaria Albuhaira Governorate, during 2018/19 and 2019/20 seasons. The field analyze was led to consider the impact of foliar application with alga extricate (Spirulina platensis) and Nitrogen fertilization on creation and nature of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris var. MK4200) was planted in a sandy soil under sprinkler water system framework. A split – split plot design with three replicates was utilized in the two seasons. Nitrogen focus was masterminded in the primary plots, while Algae were allotted in the sub plot. the Results demonstrated that foliar utilization of alga extract using1.0 g/l or 2.0 g/l produced significantly higher values of photosynthetic pigments), vegetative growth traits of sugar beet plants (root diameter, root and foliage fresh weight), (root and top dry weight/plant) and yield and yield components (root and top weight (g/plant and kg/fed), Sugar yield and quality traits. Higher estimations of development ascribe, and yield and its segments were gotten with adding 120 N kg/fed. The interaction between alga concentrates and Nitrogen fertilization altogether influenced complete photosynthetic pigments, all development characters, yield and yield components. The blend of 2.0 g/L alga extracts alongside 120 N kg/fed. can be prescribed to get the most extreme root yield/fed. Sugar yield was essentially and emphatically corresponded with Sucrose% followed by juice purity% and Brix% as well. Negative relationship was identified between juice purity%, and brix%.
A.A. Abul-Soad, A.S. Abdallah, O.A. Khalil, Shiamaa M. Mahdi
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 113-122; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.68453.1093

Abstract:
Using floral buds could help to conserve the date palm biodiversity and finding a way to rapidly multiply the landraces with socioeconomic value. Siwa oasis in Egypt can be considered as biodiversity center of date palm. Several competitive date palms emerged from seeds, a variety at risk of distinction named "Ghazal" and top commercial variety 'Siwy' were selected based on fruit phenotype and evaluated. Upon flowering an immature spathe was technically excised from each parent tree and transferred to the laboratory for micropropagation. The in vitro plantlets of these endangered and superior genotypes were obtained within a single year. The steps carried out to achieve this target were described and discussed in the current study.
A. Abo-Elwafa, B.R. Bakheit, A.M. El-Taib, N.Y. Noby
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 129-139; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.59073.1073

Abstract:
The study aims to determine the genetic variability among eleven somaclones of sugarcane obtained via immature leaves of the Egyptian commercial variety GT-54 9 at Agronomy Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University. Significant differences were found among the somaclones and also their donor, revealing to abundance genetic differences among them. The highest values of GCV and PCV were estimated in agronomic traits for cane yield (18.11 and 18.53%) and in technological traits for sugar yield (17.65 and 17.76%) over two ratoon crops, respectively. The heritability in agronomic traits ranged from 50.39 (stalk diameter) to 98.46% (cane yield) and in technological traits varied from 73.02 (purity) to 98.78% (sugar yield) over the both ratoon crops. The obtained significant differences coupled with GCV, PCV and heritability estimates explained the differences among the studied somaclones (somaclonal variation). The average over the two ratoon crops revealed that somaclones no. 7 and 8 surpassed the donor in highly significant values for most agronomic traits i.e. stalk height (14.35 and 9.48%), stalk weight (9.52 and 15.24%), stalk number/fed (21.00 and 31.25%) and cane yield (32.16 and 52.02%), respectively. Also, the somaclone no. 4 surpassed the donor in highly significant values for all technological traits i.e. sugar yield (23.52), brix (3.13), sucrose% (6.28), purity% (2.99), pol% (6.36) and sugar recovery% (7.72%). The results concluded that the In-vitro cultures exhibited genetic variability among the obtained somaclones (somaclonal variation), which could be used to invent new superior somaclones and overcome the accomplishments of traditional cane breeding.
W.E. Grad, S.H. Kandil, E. Kenawy,
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 22-36; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.62483.1081

Abstract:
Recycling of ligno-cellulosic residues and economically viable crops production with improved water use efficiency is imperative to secure high-quality sustainable food production and implement the environmental sustainability. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate superabsorbent sugarcane bagasse polymer composite (SBP) on Stevia rebaudiana quality and production under deficit irrigation. The experiment was conducted at Sabahia Agricultural Research Station, Alexandria, Egypt during two seasons 2017/2018 and 2018/2019 under the greenhouse conditions. Three SBP treatments (0.0, 2.0 and 4.0 g/5 kg of soils) using three irrigation levels (100%, 70% and 50% of field capacity) were applied. Data revealed that the soil amendment with SBP enhanced and gave the highest values of stevia growth parameters, chlorophyll, total soluble carbohydrate and steviol glycoside (SVglys) under both irrigation systems in both seasons. The SBP at dosage 2 and 4% levels into the soil led to an increase of dry leaves yield by 1.5 and 1.32 fold, respectively compared to yield in untreated soil under 70% field capacity. Calculated SVglys and determined by IR was high in soil amendment with 2.0% SBP (15.60%) under 100% irrigation levels and nearly closed in 70% irrigation level (15.02%). SBP application under deficit irrigation conditions increased of amount WUE and showed improvement in peroxidase isozyme system that can be used as a biomarker for characterizing drought stress tolerance. Hence, it could be recommended that SBP can be used to enhance the stevia productivity and enabled the survival of stevia plant under deficit irrigation conditions.
, A. Abd-El-Saber
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 72-88; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.62738.1082

Abstract:
Nowadays, there is a call for the reduction of the environmental pollution resulted from over application of chemical fertilizers. Therefore, study has been done to investigate the possibility and efficiency of using bio-fertilizers. Two field experiments were carried out during the two successive summer growing seasons of 2016 and 2017 at El-Mattana, Agriculture Research Station (latitude of 25 o 17′ N and longitude 32 o 33′ E), Luxor Governorate, Egypt to evaluate the influence of two sesame varieties (Sohag 1 and Shandaweel-3) and eight different fertilizers treatments: 0, 50, 75, 100% of recommended nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK), bio-fertilizers, 50% NPK + bio, 75% NPK+ bio and 100% NPK + bio on sesame yield. Treatments were carried out as Split Plot Design with three replicates, varieties in the main plots and fertilization treatments in the sub plots. The results could be summarized as follows: Shandaweel-3 variety surpassed Sohag-1 variety in all studied characters. Except umber of capsules/plants, length of fruiting area, harvest index, oil yield, K uptake in seed and NK uptake in straw. The addition of 100% mineral recommended dose of NPK + Bio fertilizer resulted in a significant increment in sesame yield and its components in both seasons. The highest oil yield and content of N and P were obtained from Shandaweel-3 with fertilization at 75% NPK+ Bio-fertilization treatment. The results showed the importance of using bio-fertilizers to protect the soil and the environment from harmful chemical pollution. The highest values of protein %; NP-uptakes in straw yield were obtained with 75% mineral NPK+ Bio-fertilization in both seasons, and also gave high values of seed and straw yields (kg/fed) and harvest index %. The highest content of N and P (as %) were obtained from Shandaweel-3 with fertilization at 75% NPK+ Bio-fertilization treatment, which also gave the highest N and P uptake by same variety. The results showed the importance of using bio-fertilizers to protect the soil and the environment from harmful chemical pollution.
A.M.M. Mahmoud,
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 16-29; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.68858.1094

Abstract:
This study was carried out during the 2019 and 2020 seasons at the Agricultural Research Station of Al- Marashda to study the effect of three types of growing media and four levels of NPK fertilization on the growth characteristics and chemical composition of the seedlings of Inga edulis trees. The experiment comprised four NPK treatments; 0 (control), 1.5, 3, and 4.5g NPK/ pot. The applied growing media; sand, clay, and sand: clay (1:1 v/v). It was set in a split-plot design with four replicates; each contained four plastic pots. The main plot included the three growing media, the sub-plot included the four mineral fertilization treatments; to give 12 treatments. It’s obvious that planting of I. edulis seedlings in the sand: clay growing medium resulted in the highest values ​​of growth parameters. Regarding the effects of the used treatments on the leaf content of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, chlorophyll a & b, phenols, and flavonoids, it is clear that growing seedlings in the sand: clay mixture; with 4.5 g/ pot of NPK fertilization gives the highest values ​​of these components. It can be concluded that to obtain vigorous seedlings with a high content of nutrients, phenols, and flavonoids of Inga edulis, they should be grown in a mixture of sand and clay (1: 1 v/v) with monthly fertilizing by 4.5 g/ pot of NPK.
, Fatma El-Zahraa M. Gouda, M.M.A. Abd El-Rahman
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 89-100; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.65024.1083

Abstract:
Grapevine growth and fruiting are affected by covering and potassium fertilization. For two years field study, 2019 and 2020 seasons in a factorial experiment in randomized complete block design were conducted to study the effects of plastic covering and potassium fertilizer sources on Flame Seedless grapevines. Flame Seedless grown in Upper Egypt and harvested between 15th May to 10th June. In this time, market of table grape is suffering from over supply. Thus, prices decrease considerably in the market. On other contrary, harvesting early (before mid of May) leads to at least a 50% increase in the total income. In this experiment outdoor grown Flame Seedless grapevines were covered with UV+IR (Ultra violet + Infra-red) type of polyethylene film (PE) after dormex application at first week of January. Phenological phases like bud-burst, flowering, veraison and ripening as well as vegetative growth, yield quality were determined. Using potassin or feldspar plus potassin significantly increased the growth, and significantly improved the vine nutritional status as well as significantly yield components and improved berry quality. Plastic covering significantly enhanced the dates of all phonological phases, especially ripening that was earlier about 17 & 22 days in both studied seasons compared to uncovered ones. Plastic covering has a positive effect on growth aspects, yield and fruit quality. So, it could be concluded that Flame Seedless grape cultivar gave the highest and earliest yield with good berry quality when covering with plastic film and fertilized with feldspar plus potassin as natural sources of potassium.
O.A. Khalil, A.S.A. Hamad, R.A. Ibrahim
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 101-112; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.68416.1090

Abstract:
This study was conducted during 2017 and 2018 seasons on Barhee date palm cv. (Phoenix dactylifera L.) at the age of 18 years, grown in three regions of Upper Egypt i.e Matana, Luxor Governorate; Kom- Ombo and Toshka, Aswan Governorate to evaluate its vegetative properties as well as physical properties and determination chemical composition of fruits. The obtained results revealed that, there were significant differences between the vegetative characteristics of date palm Barhee cv. because of different weather conditions of locations conducted study. The palms grown in Matana region recorded the largest values of the palm girth, number of leaves, length of the leaf and leaflet, leaflet area, spines number and area, while the lowest values of these parameters were obtained the palms grown in Toshka region. There are significant differences between the yield components because of growing Barhee in the three regions of Upper Egypt. There were significant differences of both physical and chemical fruits properties harvested from different regions of study. Barhee in Kom-Omboregion recorded the largest values of fruit length, fruit shape index, fruit weight, specific gravity of fruit, weight and percentage of flesh in the two study seasons. The highest values of TSS percentages, total and reducing sugars, Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium content and lowest tannins content. The highest values of non-reducing sugars, the highest moisture content, and the lowest acidity were obtained in the case of Barhee in Toshka region. Generally, the productivity and quality of Barhee palm could be arranged discerningly as follows: Kom-Ombo, Matana and Toshka.
M.M. El-Akad, M.K. Rizkalla, R.A. Ibrahim
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 85-95; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.60349.1077

Abstract:
This experiment was carried out during two seasons of 2018 and 2019 on 25 years old grapevines of Ruby Seedless cultivar. Head training system was applied by leaving 36 buds per vine (18 fruiting spurs x 2 buds). Eight treatments of GA3 and jasmine oil as a single treatment or combined were evaluated. The experiment aimed to examine the effect of GA3 and jasmine oil on improving yield and berry quality of Ruby Seedless grape cultivar. The studied treatments increased the yield, cluster and berry weight. The best treatment in this term was spraying with GA3 at 20 ppm when berry size about 3 mm plus jasmine oil at 1.5 cm3/liter at the beginning of the veraison stage while the control vines gave the lowest values among all treatments. Jasmine oil as a single treatment was the best treatment in respect of TSS%, acidity, TSS/TA ratio and reducing sugars among all treatments. This study concluded that the beneficial effects of spraying jasmine oil at veraison stage as single or in combined with GA3 at 20 ppm when berry size about 3 mm to increase yield, berry and cluster weight and improving berry quality of Ruby Seedless grape cultivar The studied treatments increased the yield, cluster and berry weight. The best treatment in this term was spraying GA3 at 20 ppm when berry size about 3 mm plus jasmine oil 1.5 cm3 at the beginning of the veraison stage while the control vines gave the lowest values among all treatments. Jasmine oil as single treatment was the best treatment in respect of TSS%, acidity, TSS/TA ratio and reducing sugars among all treatments. This study concluded that the beneficial effects of spraying jasmine oil at veraison stage as single or in combined with GA3 at 20 ppm when berry size about 3 mm to increased yield, berry and cluster weight and improving berry quality of Ruby Seedless grape cultivar. Keywords: Grape, Ruby Seedless, Jasmine oil, Gibberellic acid
M.A. Ali, E.A. Abd El-Lattief, R. Khalaphallah,
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 72-84; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.60182.1075

Abstract:
A pot experiment was carried out at the Experimental Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, South Valley University, Qena, Egypt during the 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 seasons to study the effect of nitrogen fertilizer levels and types of irrigation water (W1; Tap water only, W2; manipulated wastewater with sandy filter, W3; manipulated wastewater with nano-titanium dioxide + sandy filter and W4; a mixture of treated wastewater with nano-titanium dioxide and sandy filter + tap water) on growth, yield and its attributes of barley cv. Giza 2000. A randomized complete block design (RCBD) using a split-plot arrangement with four replications was used. The main plot was four different levels of nitrogen fertilizer and the sub-plot were four different types of irrigation water. The seeds of above mentioned variety were used in the pot experiments. The highest mean values of plant height, number of tillers plant-1, spike length, number of grains spike-1, spike weight, biological yield plant-1 and grain yield plant-1 were obtained from high level of nitrogen (60 kg N fed-1). Also, the highest values of above traits were obtained from irrigation with treated wastewater with nano-titanium dioxide and sandy filter + tap water (W4). It could be concluded that under the conditions of the experiment, application of high levels of nitrogen (N60) under irrigation with treated wastewater with nano-titanium dioxide and sandy filter+ tap water (W4) is recommended.
H.M. Farrag, Abeer A. Bakr
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 53-71; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.57919.1070

Abstract:
This study was carried out during 2018 and 2019 seasons for examining humic acid and amino acids effects on the yield and fruit quality of Manfalouty pomegranate trees grown under Assiut region circumstances. The experiment was set up in a complete randomized block design with three replicates, one tree per each. Manfalouty pomegranate trees were treating with humic acid or amino acids three times. Spraying humic acid at (1, 2 and 3 %) or amino acids at (0.5, 1 and 1.5%) was very effective in stimulating all physical and chemical characteristics of the fruits relative to spray with water (control). Humic acid (3%) spraying gave the highest yield followed by amino acids (1.5%). On the other side, all treatments significantly decreased the fruit cracking percentage compared to control. The least fruit cracking was recorded due to amino acids at (0.5%) spraying. All treatments significantly increased fruit weight and fruit dimensions as well as arils percentage and juice contents compared to control. Moreover, humic acid at (1, 2 and 3 %) or amino acids at (0.5, 1 and 1.5%) significantly improved the fruit chemical constituents, compared to control. Spray via any concentration of humic acid or amino acids had no significant differences. It could be concluded that foliar application of either humic acid at 1% or amino acids at 0.5% three times during the fruit growth of manfalouty pomegranate, there application had necessary to get high yield and reduction fruit cracking percentage with best fruit quality.
R.A. Ibrahim, M.T. El-Mahdy, M.A.M. Taha, M.M. Shaaban
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 31-52; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.57832.1069

Abstract:
One of the major physiological disorders for pomegranate cultivation is the excessive of fruit cracking. lately, a pomegranate physiological syndrome called ‘aril paleness’ in which a part or all of the arils appear discoloration, affect the quality of fruit and such fruits are not desired for consumer. The present research designed to evaluate the effects of methyl jasmonate (MJ), humic acid (HA) and potassium (K) on reducing these disorders and improving fruit quality. Seven treatments including MJ (5 and 10 ppm), HA (50 and 100 ppm), Liquid K (1 and 2%) and control, were tested on pomegranate trees spraying three times, at the beginning of flowering (during April), after full bloom (end of June) and before harvesting (mid-September), during the two seasons of study. Different parameters including yield, fruit cracking and fruit quality were measured. The obtained results indicated that spraying HA at 100 ppm and MJ at 10 ppm are considered the best in their effects on the yield components, fruit quality and anthocyanin content, however for decreasing the fruit cracking, it could be recommended to spray the fruits with K at 1% or MJ 10 ppm compared to the rest of the treatments.
M.A. Abdelsatar, H.M.M. Elmasry, M.A. Attia
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 18-30; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.57254.1067

Abstract:
Improving yield and its components for some sesame genotypes using potassium fertilizer application under salt-affected soil was the desired goal of this study.So,for each site i.e. non-saline site, moderately-saline site and highly-saline site, the experiment was performed in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) using split-plot arrangement with three replications at the Investigational Farm of Tag-El-Ezz Agricultural Research Station, Dakahlia Governorate, Agricultural Research Center, Egypt during 2018 and 2019 successive summer seasons. Three levels of potassium fertilizer i.e. 0, 25 and 50 kg K2O fed-1 were assigned in the main plots and three sesame varieties i.e. Shandaweel 3, Giza 32 and Sohag 1 were arranged in the sub-plots. The mean effects of sites, potassium fertilizer levels, sesame varieties and their dual and triple interactions were highly significant for all the studied traits. Shandaweel 3 was more salt tolerant variety and it was relevant to grow under salt stress. The potassium rate of 50 Kg K2O fed-1 was found to be more efficient to mitigate salinity effect and increase yield and its components under salt stress. Therefore, Shandaweel 3 could be recommended under salinity stress with adding 50 kg K2O fed-1 to get high yield with high quality and nutrition value
O.A. Khodair, M.M.A. Abd El-Rahman
SVU-International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 10-17; https://doi.org/10.21608/svuijas.2021.54176.1064

Abstract:
This study was carried out during 2018 and 2019 seasons for examining humic acid and amino acids effects on the yield and fruit quality of Manfalouty pomegranate trees grown under Assiut region circumstances. The experiment was set up in a complete randomized block design with three replicates, one tree per each. Manfalouty pomegranate trees were treating with humic acid or amino acids three times. Spraying humic acid at (1, 2 and 3 %) or amino acids at (0.5, 1 and 1.5%) was very effective in stimulating all physical and chemical characteristics of the fruits relative to spray with water (control). Humic acid (3%) spraying gave the highest yield followed by amino acids (1.5%). On the other side, all treatments significantly decreased the fruit cracking percentage compared to control. The least fruit cracking was recorded due to amino acids at (0.5%) spraying. All treatments significantly increased fruit weight and fruit dimensions as well as arils percentage and juice contents compared to control. Moreover, humic acid at (1, 2 and 3 %) or amino acids at (0.5, 1 and 1.5%) significantly improved the fruit chemical constituents, compared to control. Spray via any concentration of humic acid or amino acids had no significant differences. It could be concluded that foliar application of either humic acid at 1% or amino acids at 0.5% three times during the fruit growth of manfalouty pomegranate, there application had necessary to get high yield and reduction fruit cracking percentage with best fruit quality.
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