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Results in Journal Veterinary Science Research: 25

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Tran Thi Quynh Lan, Vu Manh Khiem, Nguyen Van Tin
Veterinary Science Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/vsr.v3i1.2623

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to investigate the extraction method for R. tomentosa and C. zeylanicum leaves and the evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of crude extracts. The results of the study showed that the active ingredients of crude extracts were clearly separated by Thin-layer chromatography and the presence of rhodomyrtone in R. tomentosa crude extract and cinnamaldehyde in C. zeylanicum crude extract. R. tomentosa crude extract was antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus with 13.1 mm of inhibition zone, but is not effective against Salmonella Typhimurium. C. zeylanicum leaf extract did not show antibacterial activity on both S. aureus and S. Typhimurium. At a dilution of 1/2 of the R. tomentosa crude extract can completely inhibit S. aureus growth. This study also indicated the presence of antioxidant compounds such as flavonoids, tannins, phenols and terpenoids in C. zeylanicum and R. tomentosa crude extracts. The results showed that R. tomentosa and C. zeylanicum crude extracts should be used as a biotherapy alternative to antibiotic therapy. However, further study would be needed to investigate the antibacterial activity of crude extracts in vivo.
Ribrio Ivan Tavares Pereira Batista, Dárcio Ítalo Alves Teixeira, Vicente José De Figueirêdo Freitas, Luciana Magalhães Melo, Joanna Maria Gonçalves Souza-Fabjan
Veterinary Science Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/vsr.v3i1.2877

Abstract:
Characterization of genetically modified organisms through determination of zygosity and transgene integration concerning both copy number and genome site is important for breeding a transgenic line and the use of these organisms in the purpose for which it was obtained. Southern blot, fluorescence in situ hybridization or mating are demanding and time-consuming techniques traditionally used in the characterization of transgenic organisms and, with the exception of mating, give ambiguous results. With the emergence of the real-time quantitative PCR technology, different applications have been described for the analysis of transgenic organisms by determination of several parameters to transgenic analysis. However, the accuracy in quantitation by this method can be influenced in all steps of analysis. This review focuses on the aspects that influence pre-analytical steps (DNA extraction and DNA quantification methods), quantification strategies and data analysis in quantification of copy number and zygosity in transgenic animals.
Julio A. Arenas, Jeff M. Perez
Veterinary Science Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/vsr.v3i1.2633

Abstract:
In animal research systematic reviews and meta-analysis have been playing an important role improving the quality of evidence that professionals use worldwide. However, it is claimed that it is in its initial stage of development. In veterinary medicine the heterogeneity in the evaluation of variables of exposure and response makes it difficult to gather the data results for a meta-analysis and evidence-based rapid reviews and other types of reviews can accelerate the way how we obtain this information and a problem-solving approach can be developed in the veterinary medicine field.
Abdullah Küçükyağlioğlu, Uğur Uslu
Veterinary Science Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/vsr.v3i1.2634

Abstract:
Ticks are common in the world. Diseases caused by ticks and fleas bring significant economic losses to the livestock industry. With the pathogens they carry, Blood-fed ticks infect humans and domestic animals. This study was conducted between January 01 and August 30, 2018, in the Konya province of Turkey, to determine the prevalence and species of ticks in cattle. 272 pieces of cattle were examined in terms of tick infestations. These cattle were selected from herds of 16 different cattle breeders in 5 different regions of Konya. Ticks were collected by the simple random sampling method. Tick infestation was detected in 70 (25.7%) pieces of cattle that were examined during the study.Tick infestation was followed in 68 (29.3%) pieces female cattle and 2 (5%) pieces male cattle. During the study conducted, the following results had been determined; according to age, 12 (14.5%) of ticks were juvenile, 58 (30.7%) of them were adults, according to the body condition, 26 (23.4%) of them were good, 35 (26.1%) of them were average and 9 (33.3%) of them were week.It is found that cattle in the study area were infested in the tick species Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus 65/272 (23.9%) and R. bursa 5/272 (%1.8). 332 female and 304 male total of 636 ticks were collected from the cattle. Genders were determined under a stereomicroscope. The high tick infestation shows that fight against tick is a hard process, and planning is a must to reduce the tick burden in cattle. Besides, this study will enable us to make suggestions to the relevant sectors in terms of parasitic struggle in eliminating the health and economic problems caused by ticks in the Konya province by determining the prevalence and species.
Jyotsnarani Biswal, Kennady Vijayalakshmy, Habibar Rahman
Veterinary Science Research, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30564/vsr.v2i2.2624

Abstract:
Seasonal climatic variations is one of the most important environmental issues at present, the devastating impact of which is visualized on the ecology, ecosystem, and species survival. The livestock sector, which has been the source of animal protein for ever-increasing human masses, is subjected to the increased environmental temperature and higher frequency of extreme events. The impact of a high degree of heat stress is found to have a direct bearing on the milk production, growth, feed intake, reproductive efficiency, and disease incidence of the animals. The environmental temperature above the thermo-neutral zone of the animals has not only been adversely affecting the productivity and survival in the intensive livestock production systems, but the impact is equally seen in the extensive systems. Besides reduced milk production and change in composition, the impact of heat stress on dairy animals, in general, can be seen from the reduction of sperm quantity and quality in case of male and a marked decline in fertility and embryo quality in the case of females. The paper analyses varied aspects of climate change impacts on production, productivity, reproduction, and health of livestock, with a special focus on dairy animals.
Mahmoud Rahdar, Leila Arab, Ali Reza Samarbaf- Zadeh
Veterinary Science Research, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30564/vsr.v2i2.2673

Abstract:
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate, intracellular parasite, with worldwide distribution. The main source of infection for humans is livestock and meat-producer animals. The relationships between Toxoplasma genotype and biological characteristics of the parasite have already been identified. According to the pathogenicity of the parasite in laboratory animals, Toxoplasma is divided into three genotypes included type I, II and III. Understanding the genotype of the parasite, could help us to predict clinical features and severity of disease. The aim of this study was to identify genotypes of T. gondii in cattle and sheep meat and meat products in Ahvaz city southwest of Iran.One hundred and ninety samples of tongue, heart and muscles of sheep and cattle and meat products, including sausages and burgers, were collected from slaughterhouses and stores. To identify Toxoplasma gondii, DNA were extracted from samples and B1 gene were amplified by specific primers. To determine the genotype of T.gondii, PCR-RFLP was done on positive samples using by amplifying GRA6 gene and endonuclease Msel enzyme. Data analysis showed that the strain of the parasite in all positive samples belonged to genotype I.In this study the predominant Toxoplasma genotype was type I which can cause severe clinical symptoms in immunocompromised patients. Further research is needed to determine the genotype of the parasite in humans and other animals.
Michael Ivan Lindinger
Veterinary Science Research, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30564/vsr.v2i2.2380

Abstract:
Racehorses in training are in situations of repeated stress that may have effects on hydration and health, including airway health. The main hypothesis of this descriptive study was that daily consumption of a structured water (SW) product for 4 weeks will result in improved hydration, reduced markers of upper airway health concerns and increased heart rate variability. Two groups of Thoroughbred racehorses matched for physiological, training and racing attributes were studied for 4 weeks. One group (n = 17) received 10 L (~15%) of their daily water as SW (followed by ad libitum filtered deep well water) and the control group (n = 15) only filtered deep well water. Duplicate (two separate days) blood samples and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) measures were obtained at baseline, 2 and 4 weeks. Hydration was assessed using BIA. The upper airway was assessed by nasopharyngeal endoscopy at baseline within 60 minutes of breezing (weekly near-race gallop pace). On weekly breeze days heart rate was recorded at rest, during exercise and recovery and data were analysed for heart rate variability. Compared to controls, horses drinking SW showed: (a) increased hydration by 2 weeks that was sustained to 4 weeks; (b) upper airway health (less mucous and less trace bleeding) post-breezing; and (c) increased heart rate variability (more restorative autonomic response) at rest. There were no performance benefits, no adverse events occurred, and blood hematological and biochemistry parameters were normal throughout. It is concluded that drinking 10 L daily of SW increased hydration and may have conferred some wellness benefits.
Dielson Da Silva Vieira, Tânia Maria Sarmento Da Silva, Timothy A. Hackett, Mariana De Barros, Weslen Fabrício Pires Teixeira, Juliana Campos Pereira Diniz, Pedro Henrique Gorni, Sanely Lourenço Da Costa, Maria Aparecida Scatamburlo Moreira, Mateus Matiuzzi Da Costa, et al.
Veterinary Science Research, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30564/vsr.v2i2.2528

Abstract:
Antibiotic resistance represents a widespread problem in milk production. The identification of compounds for a topically applied ointment used in mastitis therapy remains elusive. Compounds from the genus Hymenaea can be administered in cases of multi-drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection for ruminant species, but the protective properties are not well known. Wi this research the aim is verify the protective effects of H. martiana against S. aureus infection in bovine mammary epithelial cell line (MAC-T) and to obtain an antioxidant profile evaluation in vitro. The MAC-T cells were challenged with S. aureus after being exposed to the extract of the H. martiana in the protective assay. For the verification of the viability of the MAC-T cells, the MTT assay was performed, and was used dilutions of the plant extract, starting at 2.5%. The extract of H. martiana was evaluated for antioxidant aspect in different diluition by FRAP, ORAC and DPPH. A variety of flavonoids (quercetin, luteolin, etc.) have been identified as the main components by using mass spectrometry, reinforcing our in vitro findings that flavonoids, especially quercetin, have a medicinal profile capable of killing mastitis-causing bacteria. An excellent antioxidant pattern was observed in the 2.5% solution; however, membrane integrity in MAC-T cells was compromised. Those findings suggest low dilutions of H. martiana extract has a desirable protective effect from S. aureus pathogenesis. Our in vitro studies can be gleaned upon for further in vivo studies.
Maria Azam, Muhammad Aamir Naseer, Kiran Mumtaz, Iqra Muzammil, Khazeena Atta, Rais Ahmed, Amjad Islam Aqib
Veterinary Science Research, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30564/vsr.v2i2.2638

Abstract:
Quality milk production in modern dairy systems is facing many challenges. Salient in them is mastitis which is responsible for decline in milk production, altered milk composition and compromised udder health. The malaise consists of multiple bacterial etiologies which can be broadly classified into contagious pathogens and environmental pathogens S. aureus is being isolated invariably in all epidemiological studies, followed by E. coli. Pathogenic virulence in mastitis is often accounted due to microbial ability of producing wide array of virulence factors that enhances pathogenicity and sustainment potential in the epithelial linings of udder. Mastitis affects quality parameters of milk i.e. constitutional as well as mineral profile due to local damage and inflammatory mediators. It decreases the lactose secretion because of oxidative stress generated due to the formation of free radicals in the milk. In mastitic milk, IgG2 becomes the predominant antibody which is thought to be the main opsonin supporting neutrophil phagocytosis in the bovine mammary gland. Therefore, it plays a significant role in the battle against mastitis pathogens. Mastitis infected cow shows a notable elevated level of the sodium and chlorine and demoted level of calcium, potassium and inorganic phosphorus. In micro minerals, mastitis affects are pretty much same as in most macro minerals i.e. lower down their concentration in milk secretion. Consistent preventive strategy alongside strict surveillance and biosecurity is recommended for combating this challenge.
Michael Ivan Lindinger
Veterinary Science Research, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30564/vsr.v2i1.1619

Abstract:
In some species of growing mammals glutamine is an essential amino acid that, if inadequate in the diet, is needed for normal growth and development. It is thus sometimes considered to be a conditionally essential amino acid in some species. A review of studies that have measured L-glutamine concentrations ([glutamine]) in horses demonstrates that plasma [glutamine] has routinely been reported to be much lower (~330 µmol/L) than in other mammals (> 600 µmol/L). Plasma [glutamine] represents the balance between intestinal transport into the blood after hepatic first pass, tissue synthesis and cellular extraction. The hypothesis is proposed that sustained low plasma [glutamine] represents a chronic state of sub-optimal glutamine intake and glutamine synthesis that does not meet the requirements for optimum health. While this may be without serious consequence in feral and sedentary horses, there is evidence that provision of supplemental dietary glutamine ameliorates a number of health consequences, particularly in horses with elevated metabolic demands. The present review provides evidence that glutamine is very important (and perhaps essential) for intestinal epithelial cells in mammals including horses, that horses with low plasma [glutamine] represents a sub-optimal state of well-being, and that horses supplemented with glutamine exhibit physiological and health benefits.
Jennifer L MacNicol, Michael Ivan Lindinger, Anna Kate Shoveller, John P Cant, Wendy Pearson
Veterinary Science Research, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30564/vsr.v2i1.1559

Abstract:
We evaluated the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory potential of daily oral supplementation with a proprietary powdered Cucumis melo pulp (CMP) on exercise-induced markers of articular and muscular oxidative stress and inflammation in 12 horses. Horses performed a high-intensity exercise test immediately prior to, and then following, 3 weeks of daily supplementation of 1 g powdered CMP (CMP; n=8). Controls (Co; n=8) underwent the same exercise and sampling regime but were not supplemented. Blood and synovial fluid (SF) samples were taken 24 h prior to exercise (BL), and at 1 and 24 h following exercise. Plasma and SF were analysed for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), total antioxidant status (TAS), nitrite and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. SF was analysed for glycosaminoglycans (GAG), and plasma was analysed for thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Comparisons were made using repeated measures with the initial exercise test as a covariate. There was an increase in SF SOD activity in the CMP group. Compared to Co at 1 h, CMP reduced nitrite and GAG in SF, as well as maintained plasma TAS and lymphocyte levels. At 24 h, plasma PGE2 and creatine kinase were lower in horses receiving CMP. Three weeks of supplementation with CMP reduced markers of articular and skeletal muscle oxidative stress and inflammation in response to high-intensity exercise in horses. Nutritive antioxidants may provide a useful adjunct to the daily nutrition plan of horses undergoing regular exercise training and competition.
Ziyang Fu, Haikun Liu, Hong Cao, Yongqiang Wang
Veterinary Science Research, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30564/vsr.v2i1.1929

Abstract:
Mastitis is a common disease responsible for the biggest economic loss in the dairy industry. Antibiotic therapy does not provide long-term protection. And residue is a major concern in food safety. Vaccination is an alternative control method with great potential for bovine mastitis. Our study focus on evaluating vaccine efficacy regarding reducing the incidence of clinical and subclinical mastitis. Meta-analysis was used to pool data extracted from previous studies. 26 records from 13 studies were examined. A fixed effect model was constructed assigning incidence as the measurement of the outcome. Risk ratio (RR) was the parameter that measured the incidence differences between treated group and control group. Studies and records were categorised based on vaccine antigens. In vaccine against Staphylococcus aureus, RR was 0.76; 95% CI (0.65,0.89), while in vaccine against Escherichia coli RR was 0.96; 95% CI (0.86,1.08).
Muhammad Aamir Naseer, Amjad Islam Aqib, Muhammad Shoaib, Iqra Muzammil, , Iqra Gulzar
Veterinary Science Research, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30564/vsr.v2i1.1902

Abstract:
Staphylococcus aureus is an important zoonotic pathogen that is responsible for a variety of infectious diseases in humans and animals. The present study was designed to check the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of MSSA from three different animal origins (bovine, caprine and pet). A total of n= 450 samples (150 each source) were collected from bovine, caprine and pets. Collected samples were subjected to S. aurues identification by microbiological examination and confirmed S. aurues isolates were put to oxacillin disk diffusion test to declare them MSSA. The MSSA confirmed isolates were subjected to various antibiotics for susceptibility profiling using Kirby Baur Disk Diffusion test. The present study found higher prevalence of MSSA from caprine origin (goat 83.33%) as compared to pet (cat 69.33%; dog 65.33%) and bovine origin (buffalo 26.66%; cattle 31.66%). The in-vitro findings of current study revealed oxytetracycline and gentamicin presented 100% efficacy against MSSA of all origins while the vancomycin presented >35%, >40% and > 65% resistance against MSSA isolated from bovine, caprine and pet origin respectively. However, ciprofloxacin was equally effective (50%) against MSSA from buffalo and cattle while >80% efficacy was noted against MSSA from cat and dogs. Linezolid and amoxicillin+ clavulanic acid were 77.78% and 66.67% sensitive to MSSA isolates from caprine milk. The present study found higher prevalence of MSSA from bovine, caprine and pet isolates with diversified pattern of susceptibility of different antibiotics from all sources.
Abdoljamal Azar, Saeed Salari, Sedigheh Sargolzaei
Veterinary Science Research, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30564/vsr.v2i1.2052

Abstract:
Background: Withania somnifera (WS) is proposed as one of the alternatives instead of the antibiotic. This study is aimed to evaluate the inhibitory potency of enzymatic extract of the fruits of the WS. Methods: As an invitro experimental study, the growth rate of Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhimurium, and Escherichia coli inoculated in different concentrations (25%, 12.5%, 6.25% and 3.125%) of the extract were assessed. A microtitre plate method was conducted. ANOVA was applied to identify statistical differences with p-value <0.05). Compared to the microorganism control, effective concentration of the extract inhibiting the growth of E. coli was 12.5%, and 6.25%, while it was 12.5%, and 6.25% for Sh. dysenteriae (p<0.05). A dose-dependent response of E. coli was observed. The antibacterial activity of the extract tested was found mainly against E. coli and Sh. dysenteriae. The most resistant microorganism compared to E. coli and Sh. dysenteriae was S. typhimurium (p<0.05). 25% of the concentration of the extract showed the different inhibitory effect among three tested bacteria (p<0.05). Conclusions: The extract was labeled as an antibacterial agent against the representative of three foodborne bacteria, Invitro. The common effective concentrations of the extract (12.5, and 6.25%) is recommended for further research, as food additive, to remedy digestive ailments related to E. coli, S. typhimurium and Sh. dysenteriae
Hafiz Muhammad Rizwan, Muhammad Sohail Sajid, Haider Abbas, Muhammad Fiaz Qamar, Qaiser Akram
Veterinary Science Research, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.30564/vsr.v1i2.1347

Abstract:
The cases and deaths due to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) [49] virus commonly known as Congo virus (fatality rate 15%) have been reported throughout Pakistan from the last five years especially during religious occasion, Eid-ul-Azha. The annual increase in death rates due to CCHF demonstrate the importance of awareness of Congo fever at academia as well as public level. The symptoms of Congo fever which appear one to nine days after tick bite, include sudden high fever, muscle aches, abdominal pain, headache, dizziness, sore eyes, jaundice, mood swings, confusion, aggression, and sensitivity to light. The other signs include sore throat, joint pain, vomiting, diarrhea, hemorrhages, and bleeding from skin and large intestine. The Infection has been reported in many species of wild as well as domestic animals including hares, cattle, sheep, goats, dogs, mice and hedgehogs. At least 31 species of Hyalomma, Boophilus, Rhipicephalus, Dermacentor (Ixodidae: hard ticks) act as vector of CCHF in which transovarial, transstadial and venereal transmission occurs. The virus attacks the immune system of the host and influences the immune cells. The Congo fever virus can be isolated from blood, plasma and many body tissues (kidneys, liver, spleen, lungs, brain and bone marrow). Mice inoculation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) can be used for detection of the infection. Furthermore, IgM and IgG antibodies against CCHFV can also be detected and quantified. Education of general public, tick control with acaricides, use of anti-CCHFV immunoglobulin, usage of approved repellents to prevent tick bites, wearing neutral-coloured garments, application of a permethrin spray to the clothing, avoiding tall grasses and shrubs, applying sunscreen, avoiding direct contact with the blood or tissues of animals are the factors for successful prevention of the infection.
Tran Thi Quynh Lan, Doan Thi Da Linh, Le Ho Truc Phuong
Veterinary Science Research, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.30564/vsr.v1i2.1357

Abstract:
Salmonella and E.coli possess different surface protein structures that can induce protective immune responses. Identification of these proteins capacitates development of diverse applications in prevention and diagnosis that contribute to effectively control disease-causing enterobacteria pathogens such as Salmonella and E.coli. A simple procedure for obtaining protein complexes of Salmonella serotypes and E.coli is performed in this study. A sonication process with heat treatment of whole bacteria induced the release of protein complexes. Concentration of the protein extract was quantified using protein quantification Kits-Rapid, and protein complex profile was obtained by SDS-PAGE (Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) and silver staining. The concentrations of protein ranged from 29.45 to 45.35 µg/mL in the Salmonella protein extracts, and from 25.35 to 36.72 µg/mL in the E.coli protein extracts. Six major groups of proteins from E. coli (YfiO, NipB, OmpF, YfgL, Talc, YaeT) and four major groups of proteins from Salmonella (Flagellin, OmpA, Porin, SEF21) were preliminarily determined by a simple procedure of extraction based on the molecular weight.
Clésio Dos Santos Costa, Tallita Da Ponte Ribeiro, Roberto Cláudio Fernandes Franco Pompeu, Fernando Lisboa Guedes, Marco Aurélio Delmondes Bomfim, , Luciana Freitas Guedes, Delano De Sousa Oliveira, Marcos Cláudio Pinheiro Rogério
Veterinary Science Research, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.30564/vsr.v1i2.1356

Abstract:
Objective of this study was to evaluate the ingestive behavior, feed efficiency, and nutritional and physiological parameters of sheep that were fed diets based on byproducts from the processing of cashew. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement with four levels of inclusion (6 %, 11 %, 16 %, and 21 % of cashew byproduct) and two forms of processing—with chemical treatment (CT) and without chemical treatment (NCT). The interaction levels of inclusion of the byproduct of cashew versus chemical treatments was not (P>0.05) for the dry matter intake, consumption of organic matter. No effect was observed (P>0.05) for the intake of dry matter in function of the type of chemical treatment used in the byproduct of cashew. There was no effect of interaction (P0.05). The inclusion of the byproduct of cashew did not influence the behavioral parameters, intake and digestibility of the diets of sheep, being recommended to use up to the level of 21%.
Blanca Paola Boria-Gamboa, , David Itzcoatl Martínez-Herrera
Veterinary Science Research, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.30564/vsr.v1i2.1280

Abstract:
Background: Lyme disease is a relatively new and zoonotic canine pathology mostly unknown by people involved in the management and care of dogs. Objective: to assess the knowledge about Lyme disease by veterinarians and veterinary students in Veracruz, Mexico. Methodology: three questionnaires were designed and applied to 290 individuals (40 small animal veterinarians, 50 in other professional practice and 200 veterinary students). Results and discussion: in general, the three groups were unaware about the disease, although there is a high interest in learning about this problem. Graduates from seven universities included in this study stated that Lyme disease was not part of the veterinary curriculum in their schools. Five clinical cases suggestive of Lyme disease occurring in dogs in the area were detected at the time of this research. Conclusion: although the presence of the agent causing Lyme disease has not been demonstrated in the studied area due to the lack of laboratory support and the apparent absence of the vector, it cannot be ruled out; furthermore, it is important that veterinary practitioners and student alike be aware of the potential presence of Lyme disease, paying particular attention to differential diagnosis when resembling clinical signs are observed.
Feng Fei
Veterinary Science Research, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.30564/vsr.v1i2.1429

Abstract:
Objective: This paper focuses on the multiple detection RT-PCR technology of H5, H7, AND H9 subtype avian influenza viruses and Newcastle disease virus, and points out the specific detection methods and detection procedures of avian influenza and Newcastle disease virus. Methods: The genes of Newcastle disease virus carrying out the HA gene sequence of H5, H7 and H9 subtype AIV in GenBank were used to establish a strategy for simultaneous detection of three subtypes of avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus. Results: The results showed that the program can detect and distinguish H5, H7 and H9 subtype avian influenza viruses and Newcastle disease virus at one time. Conclusion: Multiple RT-PCR detection method has high detection sensitivity and can detect and determine different subtypes of avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus quickly and accurately, therefore, it has a crucial role in the detection and control of avian influenza H5, H7 and H9 subtypes and Newcastle disease.
Nguyen Manh Ho, Bui Ngoc Xuan Ha, Le Thi Kim Tuyen, Le Thi Anh Thu, Le Thanh Hien, Quach Tuyet Anh
Veterinary Science Research, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.30564/vsr.v1i2.1190

Abstract:
The study was to determine the appropriate dose and administration route of Ornitin Triple vaccine in cross-breed coloured broilers in Vietnam by evaluating the antibody titer against Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) and local reactions at injection sites on chickens after vaccination. The study was divided into 2 trials. Both trials were designed with 3 vaccine dose groups: 0.0ml (control group), 0.25ml and 0.5ml and 2 different administration routes: subcutaneous at neck (SC) and intramuscular at breast (IM) injection. The result showed that, no statistically significant difference was found between antibody titer of two administration routes as well as 2 vaccine doses until 13-week-old. Local reactions at the injection sites of IM route was less severe than SC at neck and in higher dose would produce a more severe swelling reaction. Daily weight gain was found to have a slight decrease in the vaccinated groups within 2 weeks after vaccination, however, no statistically significant difference was found in later stage (P > 0.05). In conclusion, Ornitin Triple can be used to vaccinate by IM with the dose of 0.25ml for coloured broilers at early age (3-week-old), or 0.5ml for older birds and should be careful for some reactions at the injection sites.
Anouck Haverbeke, Stefania Uccheddu, Heidi Arnouts, Adinda Sannen
Veterinary Science Research, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.30564/vsr.v1i1.1147

Abstract:
The influence of essential oils (EOs) on emotions has been widely described among humans and animals. Several studies have investigated the effects and the actions of EOs on behaviour, mood and perception. In this study, shelter dogs (n=23) were exposed to olfactory stimulation through diffusion of 9 anxiolytic essential oils in one blend (olfactory enrichment) for 8 weeks in order to check long-term effects on behaviour. First, dog’s postures have been evaluated in both groups before and after exposure. Secondly, in order to collect the preliminary results on the distance necessary to obtain an effect of EOs, dogs were divided in 2 groups according to the distance from the diffuser. Our results indicate that olfactory enrichment with this blend of EOs is related to less time spent by dogs in high posture. More research is needed to investigate a potential gradual effect of distance and concentration of EOs on dog’s welfare.
Michael Ivan Lindinger
Veterinary Science Research, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.30564/vsr.v1i1.1158

Abstract:
EFSA released the 89-page Scientific Opinion “Evaluation of the health risks related to the presence of cyanogenic glycosides in foods other than raw apricot kernels”. This opinion, and the ensuring media coverage, has left uncertainty in the minds of consumers, feed and supplement manufacturers and flaxseed producers of how much ground flaxseed can safely be consumed without crossing the threshold of cyanide toxicity. This editorial updates the science and tries to bring clarity to the question “how much flaxseed can I safely feed my dog, cat, horse on a daily basis?” and “how much can I safely eat?” The great majority of ground flaxseed products have a cyanogenic glycoside content of less than 200 mg / kg seed. For people, consuming 30 grams of such flaxseed the average peak blood cyanide concentration will be about 5 µmole / L, much less than the toxic threshold value of 20 to 40 µmole / L favoured by EFSA. Thus, as much as 120 grams of crushed / ground flaxseed can be consumed by a 70 kg adult person before a toxic threshold of 40 µmole / L is reached (up to 1.7 grams ground flaxseed / kg body weight). The toxic threshold of cyanide for dogs is 2 to 4-fold greater than for humans, and unknown for cats and horses. The daily serving amounts for dogs and cats are about 0.23 grams / kg body mass per day, which will result in blood cyanide well below the toxic threshold. The highest recommended daily serving amount for horses is 454 grams per day, or 0.8 to 2 grams per kg / body mass depending on mass of the horse. This amount for horses should not be exceeded.
Jhon Ruiz, Gloria P Ramírez, Ana M Múnera, Carlos Arroyave, Laura Castaño, Pablo López
Veterinary Science Research, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.30564/vsr.v1i1.1067

Abstract:
The objetive of this study was to compare a single dose of secnidazole versus multiple doses of fenbendazole for the treatment of dogs with asymptomatic Giardia infection. Materials and methods: Twenty-four asymptomatic dogs with a positive test result for Giardia spp were randomized in two equal groups to receive a single dose of secnidazole at 30 mg/kg PO, or fenbendazole at 50 mg/ kg PO q24h for 3 days. Hematological parameters were evaluated before and 8 days after treatment, and feces were re-examined at days 8, 15, and 30 post-treatment by fecal flotation and antigen test. Results: The number of positive dogs in the fenbendazole group was: 1 (day 8) and 3 (days 15 and 30). In the secnidazole group, the number of positive cases were: 4 (day 8), 3 (day 15), and 1 (day 30). Conclusion: Treatment with secnidazole or fenbendazole, were effective between 75% and 92% to eliminate the excretion of Giardia cysts in canines together with hygienic measures to control, like disinfection with quaternary ammonium of patients and their environment. Further studies that include more animals and multiple fecal exams on consecutive days would be necessary to confirm its efficacy in dogs.
Yang Song, Jing Zhao, Huiming Yang, Yawen Bu, Guozhong Zhang
Veterinary Science Research, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.30564/vsr.v1i1.879

Abstract:
Background: Genotypes VI and VII of (APMV-1) have different host range and pathogenicity in pigeons and chickens. However, the molecular determinants of these differences are still unclear. Methods: Here, we aligned the DNA sequences of 56 genotype VI and 33 genotype VII APMV-1 strains. Sequence alignment results revealed that there are 17 amino acids sites differed between APMV-1 strains of these two genotypes. We then constructed a plasmid based on the full-length genome of rSG10 APMV-1 strain, which belongs to genotype VII but was mutated with these 17 VI-genotype-specific amino acids, and rescued as rSG10-17 strain. The restriction digestion and ligation and overlapping PCR methods were used in the construction of plasmids with amino acids mutation. This virus was evaluated for its virulence and growth characteristics. Results and conclusion: The results indicated that the virulence and the growth characteristics have no obvious difference between the rSG10-17 virus and its parental strain rSG10. The simultaneous mutation of 17 genotype-specific amino acids did not affect the virulence of APMV-1 in chickens. Further analysis of these amino acids is required by taking into consideration of the functions of encoded proteins.
Michael Ivan Lindinger
Veterinary Science Research, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.30564/vsr.v1i1.1057

Abstract:
Many of the nutrients beneficial for intestinal health are present in normal foods, but their normal daily intake may be too low to exert optimum effects on intestinal barrier function and immune status. Evidence from laboratory and farm production animals strongly supports dietary supplementation with additional nutrients and nutraceuticals, however research in horses remains scarce and inconclusive. Careful consideration of the outcome desired for horses in care, together with the types of nutraceuticals available, is needed to develop effective strategies for maintenance of healthy intestinal barrier function and for treatment of various leaky gut syndromes in horses. This review presents these issues in the context of what is known about the effects of nutraceutical-type nutrients on the mammalian (including equine) g.i. tract and intestinal microbiome with the aim of providing suggestions for the equine situation.
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