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Results in Journal Journal of Functional Food and Nutraceutical: 19

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Erminawati Wuryatmo, Anita Suri, Rifda Naufalin
Journal of Functional Food and Nutraceutical pp 117-128; https://doi.org/10.33555/jffn.v2i2.61

Abstract:
The use of synthetic preservatives is considered to have an adverse effect (carcinogenic) upon prolong consumption. Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) is a plant that has bioactive components to act as antioxidants and potential to use as a natural food preservative. Bioactive components can be non-polar, semi-polar and polar; therefore, to determine the dominant bioactive components, a solvent multi-step extraction carried out. This study aimed to determine the specific bioactive components of lemongrass (antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and total flavonoids) suitable of polarity in the leaves and stem of lemongrass extract obtained from solvent multi-step extraction with Microwave-Assisted Extraction. The solvent used is ethanol (polar), ethyl acetate (semi-polar) and n-hexane (non-polar). The result showed that the highest bioactive components obtained from the polar stem lemongrass with total phenolic content of 19.31 mg GAE/g, flavonoids of 3.31 mg GAE/g. This result related to antioxidant activity of the extract of 79.96 %. The high antioxidant activity showed that lemongrass has potential to be used as a natural food preservative, especially in high fat food products.
Nurheni Sri Palupi, Fatimah
Journal of Functional Food and Nutraceutical pp 99-116; https://doi.org/10.33555/jffn.v2i2.60

Abstract:
Hypertension or increased blood pressure is a degenerative disease with a high prevalence, as well as the biggest cause of premature death in the world. Meanwhile, coffee is a popular and most consumed beverage around the world. Coffee can harm some people with certain health problems including hypertension due to its caffeine content. Decaffeinated coffee is known to be an alternative for people with hypertension with reduced caffeine content up to 97%. However, studies on the role of decaffeinated coffee in reducing the risk of hypertension are still varied indicating that a systematic review is needed. Hence, this study summarizes the evidence related to the role of decaffeinated coffee in reducing the risk of hypertension by using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). The inclusion criteria for scientific journals were determined based on Participants, Intervention, Control, and Outcome (PICO). The search using boolean operation resulted in 13 research articles for data extraction. The result revealed that decaffeinated coffee could decrease or did not give any effect on blood pressure or another biological hypertension marker compared to regular coffee.
Phebe Hendra, Nona Rizki, Elin Safitri
Journal of Functional Food and Nutraceutical pp 75-79; https://doi.org/10.33555/jffn.v2i2.59

Abstract:
Banana has been widely cultivated. This study aimed to determine the antihyperglycemic activity of Uli banana leaves infusion. The antihyperglycemic activity was evaluated by oral glucose and sucrose tolerance test. A bolus of sugar was given after Uli banana leaves infusion and blood was sampled at 0, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes for glucose analyses. The trapezoidal rule was used to determine the area under the curve (AUC) blood glucose. Infusion of Uli banana leaves 3.3 g/kg showed a significant decrease AUC (p
William Halim Santoso, Momoko Ishida, Kosuke Nishi, Takuya Sugahara, Agus Budiawan Naro Putra
Journal of Functional Food and Nutraceutical pp 81-88; https://doi.org/10.33555/jffn.v2i2.62

Abstract:
Allergy rhinitis (AR), as reported by the World Allergy Organization (WAO), is one of the highest prevalence allergies affecting 10-30% of all adults and up to 40% of children. In Indonesia, current evidence showed that the prevalence of AR is increasing. Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. fruit (AF), or locally known as belimbing wuluh, has been scientifically proven to treat many diseases due to the abundant of polyphenol content which was shown to have the potential to treat allergies. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the anti-allergy potential of AF in vitro. The anti-allergy effect of Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. fruit water extract (AFWE) was examined using RBL-2H3 cells. At first, the cytotoxicity effect of AFWE was determined by WST-8 assay. The release of β-hexosaminidase by RBL-2H3 cells was also measured to evaluate degranulation suppression activity of AFWE. Lastly, calcium assay was employed to investigate the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca­2+]i). Results demonstrated that AFWE does not show any cytotoxicity at any given concentration. In addition, AFWE at 1.25 mg/mL showed sufficient inhibitory effect towards degranulation by RBL-2H3 cells. Moreover, the degranulation-suppressing activity of AFWE was resulted from the inhibition of calcium-dependent signaling pathways. Unfortunately, the properties of active substances from AFWE have not been investigated. To conclude, this study indicated that AFWE has potential as an alternative treatment for allergic diseases.
Nadya Denris Talitha Syarifah, Nuraeni Ekowati, Aris Mumpuni, Iwan Saskiawan
Journal of Functional Food and Nutraceutical pp 89-97; https://doi.org/10.33555/jffn.v2i2.57

Abstract:
Mushrooms which is mostly belong to the phylum Basidiomycota have been recognized as functional foods and a source for the nutraceuticals. Genus Mycena is one of mushrooms, which has been investigated for its secondary metabolites. Mycena pelianthina produces pelianthinarubins A, pelianthinarubins B, muscarin, and epimuscarin from alkaloid group. The purposes of this research were to determine the effects of composition of medium and incubation time on production of mycelial biomass of M. pelianthina in liquid medium and to know the group of secondary metabolite compounds produced. This research was done experimentally using a Factorial Completely Randomized Design consisted of 12 treatments and three replications. The first factor was medium type, which were Mushroom Complete Medium (MCM), Potato Dextrose Yeast Broth (PDYB), and Yeast Malt Extract Medium (YM). The second factor was the incubation time consisting of 15, 20, 25, and 30 days. The observed main parameters were the dry weight of mycelial biomass and the secondary metabolite groups. The dried weights of mycelia were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA), continued with Duncan test at a 95% confidence level. The best growth of M. pelianthina mycelium was produced on PDYB medium at incubation time of 20 days with an average mycelial dry weight of 0.92 g/100 mL. M. pelianthina contained secondary metabolite compound groups of alkaloids, terpenoids, and flavonoids.
Silvya Yusri, Celine Meidiana, Abdullah Muzi Marpaung,
Journal of Functional Food and Nutraceutical, Volume 2, pp 53-61; https://doi.org/10.33555/jffn.v2i1.35

Abstract:
Candlenut oil is a potential source of omega fatty acids that can be used as a food supplement or nutrient for food fortification. It contains high amount of omega fatty acids and also available in high quantity, especially in Indonesia. However, due to its off-odor and its thermalsensitivity which makes candlenut oil prone to oxidation, the application into food products still needs more improvement. Encapsulation is one of the techniques that is used to protect the candlenut oil from oxidation. This research aimed to find the best encapsulating agent to protect the omega content from candlenut oil against oxidation through freeze-drying method. Factors such as encapsulating agent (whey protein isolate, sodium caseinate, β-cyclodextrin, gum Arabic) and ratios of encapsulating agent to oil (3:2, 1:1 and 2:3) were investigated to find out the most appropriate microcapsule and conditions to ensure there will be no change of the candlenut oil characteristics. Moisture content, microencapsulation efficiency (ME), and peroxide value (PV) were analyzed as the product parameter. The highest encapsulation efficiency was obtained by using sodium caseinate (43.22 ± 0.9 %) with the ratio of encapsulating agent-oil was 3:2. The second stage of candlenut oil encapsulation was carried out to improve the efficiency of microcapsule, and the result showed that the efficiency of encapsulated oil with sodium caseinate as encapsulating agent was increased to 64.86%.
Indah Epriliati
Journal of Functional Food and Nutraceutical, Volume 2, pp 1-28; https://doi.org/10.33555/jffn.v2i1.34

Abstract:
Velvet bean (Mucuna sp.) has been proven containing many beneficial compounds that can be implemented in pharmaceutical and medicines but less noticed for functional foods even though traditionally it is consumed as daily foods or snacks. The indigenous food preparation such as velvet bean Tempe warrants scientific investigation to help society with better public health management. The objective of the review is to select the best method for functional food ingredient product development using velvet beans and provide hypothetical health-oriented food processing e.g. velvet bean flour as functional food ingredients with a focus on less water consumption during processing. Steaming is the selected method.
, Sih Yuwanti, Mohammad Bazar Ahmadi, Yuna Luki Afsari
Journal of Functional Food and Nutraceutical, Volume 2, pp 63-73; https://doi.org/10.33555/jffn.v2i1.40

Abstract:
Peptide with hydrophobic amino acids had been studied for their inhibitory activity against angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE-1) transformation into ACE-2 and prevention of hypertension. The active peptides may come from alcalase and flavourzyme hydrolysis of bean protein. This study aimed to measure ACE-1 inhibitory of protein hydrolysates from Vigna sp. bean (mung bean and cowpea) that grew in Indonesia, and its solubility. The bean protein (22.9 - 23.6 %) was extracted using isoelectric precipitation at pH 4-4.6. The extracts were hydrolyzed at pH 8 for alcalase and pH 7 for flavourzyme, followed with inactivation at 80-85 oC. ACE-1 inhibitory activity was calculated based on the amount of hippuric acid (HA) formed by the hydrolysis of Hippuryl-His-Leu (HHL), in spectrophotometry detection method (228 nm). Ultrachromatography evaluation showed that the protein hydrolysates of mungbean contained higher hydrophobic amino acids (382 mg/g protein) compared to those of cowpea (329 mg/g protein). Protein hydrolysates of both beans from alcalase hydrolysis have higher ACE-1 inhibitory activity rather than those from flavourzyme. Protein hydrolysate from Vigna spp bean protein hydrolysis by alcalase, contained small molecular weight peptides (3.9-4.63 kDa) and high ACE-1 inhibition ability (80-93 %), and therefore suggested as antihypertensive nutraceuticals. Highest solubility of protein hydrolysates resulted from alcalase hydrolysis of both beans were observed at pH 8, while those resulted from flavorzyme hydrolysis were at pH 7, respectively.
, Bernadeta Re Sari, Boy M Bachtiar
Journal of Functional Food and Nutraceutical, Volume 1, pp 55-65; https://doi.org/10.33555/jffn.v1i2.29

Abstract:
Streptococcus mutans were competing Streptococcus sanguinis in biofilm formation. As pioneer colonizer, S. sanguinis were able to control S. mutans growth. This study was aimed to explore the ability of sucrose and non-sucrose cajuputs candies (SCC and NSCC) in maintaining the antagonistic relationship between the indigenous oral flora when they grew as dual-species biofilms (S. sanguinis and S. mutans). The flavored candies (SCC and NSCC) contained cajuput and peppermint oils as the flavor which the volatile compounds had been identified. The unflavored candies were made similar to the flavored candy but excluding the flavor. The flavored candies, unflavored candies, and the control were exposed in vitro to the biofilms. The biofilms were examined for biofilm inhibition capacity, DNA amount, and the expression level of spxB mRNA. The biofilm inhibition by flavored candies were higher than the unflavored ones and were significantly different compared to the control. The flavored candies managed to decrease the total DNA amount in the biofilm, but unflavored samples did not. The qPCR assays showed that the exposure of candies did not alter the proportion of S. sanguinis DNA to S. mutans DNA in the biofilms. Meanwhile, spxB mRNA expression indicated the ability of S.sanguinis to control S. mutans growth.
, Adianto Jayaratana, Evita Herawati Legowo
Journal of Functional Food and Nutraceutical, Volume 1, pp 13-22; https://doi.org/10.33555/jffn.v1i2.28

Abstract:
Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD) resulted from refinery process of crude palm oil (CPO) contains some beneficial bioactive compounds such as squalene, which is one of the best natural emollients for pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. The need to overcome the problem with the abundant amount of PFAD as a waste has led to the attempts to extract squalene from PFAD in single and multiple stage processes. However, many impurities such as free fatty acids were still found to be present in the yielded squalene extract. Therefore, in this research an effort to optimize the pre-treatment process prior to the extraction was conducted by applying separation technique to reduce some of the free fatty acid, which did not react during saponification. From this experiment, three different pre-treatment scenarios in single stage extraction showed that the squalene content rose from 5.37 % to 9.32 % when centrifugation was applied. Adding another round of saponification to this method has increased the content even further to 23.94 %. Furthermore, the application of multiple stage extraction could increase the squalene content to 37.45 %. Keywords: Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD), Squalene, Liquid-liquid Extraction, Multiple stage extraction, Centrifugation process
Ini Patmawati
Journal of Functional Food and Nutraceutical, Volume 1, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.33555/jffn.v1i2.26

Abstract:
This research aims to provide chocolate for endurance athletes by utilizing the potential of highly nutritious local foods. The ingredients used are chocolate, moringa leaves (Moringa oleifera), and dates (Phoenix dactylifera). This research method uses a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with One Way Anova statistical analysis. Samples were analyzed by testing in a food laboratory. In this study, moringa powder was used for its calcium content and dates were used for its carbohydrates content with a low glycemic index. In 100 grams of developed chocolate contains 3.27 g of water, 1.83 g of ash, 30.4 g of fat, 5.32 g of protein, 59.1 g of carbohydrate, 0.38 g of crude fiber, 427.07 mg of calcium.
, Tutun Nugraha, Stephanie Christy
Journal of Functional Food and Nutraceutical, Volume 1, pp 23-30; https://doi.org/10.33555/jffn.v1i2.33

Abstract:
Hyaluronic acid have a high moisture preservation and biocompatibility characteristic, thus allowing various usage of this substance in pharmaceutical, medicinal, and skin care products. Present manufacturing process of hyaluronic acid requires extraction of animal cells or through other methods utilizing bacteria. The aim of this research is to investigate an alternative source of hyaluronic acid extraction using plant based which is aloe vera (A. Barbadensis). Three main parts of aloe vera (rind, mesophyll and gel) underwent several steps of extraction process and the result was compared to the sample of hyaluronic acid from goat brain. The evaluation including comparison of total carbohydrates, reducing sugars and degradation using heat treatment. The results of extraction were analyzed using UV-Spectrophotometer at 230 nm and compare to the extraction result of goat brain to ensure the presence of hyaluronic acid. It was found out that the rind part of aloe vera have the highest potential of high content of hyaluronic acid.
Journal of Functional Food and Nutraceutical, Volume 1, pp 31-53; https://doi.org/10.33555/jffn.v1i2.30

Abstract:
All part of the butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea) plant reported having a various positive effect on human health. The blue petal, in particular, shows a wide range of functional activity including as an antioxidant, antidiabetic, antiobesity, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antibiotic. The hydrophilic phase of butterfly pea flower extract contains flavonol glycosides, anthocyanins, flavones, flavonols, phenolic acids, and cyclotides. Meanwhile, the terpenoids, alkaloids, and fatty acids were found in the lipophilic phase of butterfly pea flower extract. The proven health benefits and the wide range of the type of bioactive compounds promote butterfly pea flower as the source of functional food and nutraceuticals. However, a series of intensive research, including the clinical trial, is still needed.
Journal Manager JFFN
Journal of Functional Food and Nutraceutical, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.33555/jffn.v1i1.18

Abstract:
Welcome to the inaugural issue of Journal of Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals (JFFN). It is my great privilege and pleasure to present the inaugural volume of this new peer-reviewed journal, a joint publishing journal of Perhimpunan Penggiat Pangan FungsionaI dan Nutraceutical Indonesia (P3FNI) or Indonesian Society of Funtional Foods and Nutraceuticals (ISFFN) and Research Center of Food and Health, Swiss Geman University (SGU). JFFN is a frontier publication devoted to strengthen the development of functional foods, from theoretical aspects to application-dependent studies and the validation of emerging technologies, which naturally complement each other, as well as any grass root issues for practitioners. JFFN aims to provide a highly readable and valuable contribution literature to emerging interest in functional foods science and technology in Indonesia Society. The journal is also dedicated to encourage early bird authors to experience publishing in an international journal by providing a friendly tutorial. This first issue comprises five manuscripts, connected by a unifying theme: “Functional Food and Nutraceutical for Community Health”. The presented articles can be categorized into the following groups: Basic research evaluating the functional activities Social studies on consumer trends on functional food It is our hope that the articles of this first issue will become a valuable resource for the readers of JFFN, and will stimulate further research into the vibrant world of functional foods. As the chairman of P3FNI, I would like to use this inauguration occasion to thank many people who supported the idea to create a new journal JFFN and provided the opportunity for the journal to be born, in particular Dr. Maria S. Gunawan-Putri. I also deeply appreciate the hearty support of SGU as we strive to make JFFN the most authoritative journal on the field of functional foods. Furthermore, as the editor in chief, I would like to extend my sincere thanks to all members of the editorial and the advisory boards, whose service, dedication, and commitment have made the creation of this journal possible. I would also like to acknowledge the highly appreciative effort to all of manuscript reviewers for providing valuable comments and suggestions to the authors. As we are working together, we aim to continue to strive for quality and excellence in published articles. It is without doubt that the success of our journal depends highly on the author contribution of articles. Through seamless collaboration with all of our authors, we aim to continue to strive for quality and excellence in publishing articles. It is our hope that JFFN could deliver valuable and interesting information to the nationwide and worldwide community of food science, and stimulate further exciting research in the diverse area of functional foods and nutraceuticals. I am certain that this first issue will be followed by many others, providing high quality reports on the most advanced developments in food science field. More information about JFFN guidelines for the preparation and submission of papers can be found at JFFN website: https://journal.sgu.ac.id/jffn/index.php/jffn/index . Finally, as a newly established journal I do realize that there are still a lot of aspects that have to be improved. Therefore, we are sincerely waiting for your mutual suggestions and criticism. July 2019, Hanny Wijaya Editor in Chief
, Della Rahmawati, Dylan Andika
Journal of Functional Food and Nutraceutical, Volume 1, pp 41-46; https://doi.org/10.33555/jffn.v1i1.20

Abstract:
Garlic plant has been known to have various beneficial properties beside as a condiment. However, the garlic peel is still considered as waste and the research of its functional properties are still very limited. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential phytochemical activities of garlic peel extract which might be utilized as natural food additive or even functional ingredient in the future. The experiment was divided to two phases. The first phase identifies and compares the phytochemical content and activities between aqueous and ethanolic extract. The presence of saponins was detected along with the absence of alkaloids on both aqueous and ethanolic extract. The aqueous extract possessed lower flavonoid content, higher phenolic content and stronger antioxidant activity compared to the ethanolic peel extract. Ethanolic extract did not exhibit any antimicrobial activity against S.cerevisiae, while aqueous extract showed the activity against S.cerevisiae. Moreover, both types of extract also did not show any α-glucosidase inhibition activity. In the second phase, optimization attempts for extraction method were done and it was found that the highest amount of antioxidant activity along with flavonoid and phenolic content could be obtained by changing the raw material-solvent ratio to 20 gr/1000ml.
Journal of Functional Food and Nutraceutical, Volume 1, pp 31-40; https://doi.org/10.33555/jffn.v1i1.11

Abstract:
Currently, functional foods trend are growing and developing in Indonesia. Consumer’s perceptions is one important factor to picture consumer knowledge and attitude in the future. The aim of this study is to determine the perception of millennial generation toward functional food in Indonesia. An online cross sectional survey was carried out among 1982 respondents (age between 18-38 years) and distributed via social media platform during two weeks on April 2018. The questionnaire measured demographic characteristics, awareness, knowledge, the priority to purchase, and future buying motivations on functional food. The result showed that 55% of respondents claimed that they had been aware of functional food. The knowledge of respondent regarding health component was still insufficient. The most important reasons for purchasing functional food were health benefit, availability, affordability, tasty, easy to consume, and clear label information. Most of millennial generation was interested in purchasing functional food in the future. In conclusion, this study provide the information how’s millennial generation perception regarding functional food in Indonesia and might be contribute to increase the development of functional food in Indonesia.
, Adolf J.N. Parhusip, Nuri A. Anugrahati, Wenny S.L. Sinaga, Veliana Angel
Journal of Functional Food and Nutraceutical, Volume 1, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.33555/jffn.v1i1.7

Abstract:
Melinjo (GnetumgnemonL.) is a typical Indonesian plant that has many benefits such as antimicrobial agent. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of red melinjo peel extract. In this study, extraction was conducted by maceration using ethyl acetate as solvent for 24 hours at room temperature. 4-16% red melinjo peel extract (w/v) could inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureusATCC 6538, Listeria monocytogenesATCC 7644 and SalmonellaTyphi ATCC 14028. However 4-16% red melinjo peel extract could not inhibit the growth of Candida albicansATCC 10231. In stability test, the selected extract had a stable inhibition at pH 4-7, heat treatment 65oC-95oC for 30 minutes, salt 1%-5%, and sugar 10%-50%. The selected extract produced the biggest inhibition diameter at low pH (pH 4) and produced the smallest inhibition diameter at neutral pH (pH 7). Heat treatment 65oC for 30 minutes produced the biggest inhibition diameter among tested bacteria and decreased with increasing heating temperature. Addition of 1-5% NaCl and 10-50% sucrose worked synergistically with the selected extract in inhibit the growth of the tested bacteria.
Cian-Song Huang, Qiao-Lin Li, Diana Lo, Yuh-Tai Wang,
Journal of Functional Food and Nutraceutical, Volume 1, pp 23-30; https://doi.org/10.33555/jffn.v1i1.14

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability and pathway of the pectic enzyme-treated (PET) pectin to inhibit the inflammation of macrophage RAW 264.7 induced by lipopolysaccharide. Results showed that PET-pectin produced from 1% substrate and 48 h reaction time had the highest antioxidative activity, thus these parameters were used to produce PET-pectin used in this study. PET-pectin showed no cell cytotoxicity to normal macrophage RAW 264.7 and reduce the nitrite secretion from LPS-induced RAW 264.7 by 20%. Finally, the expression of cytokines, including NO synthase (iNOS), nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) were analyzed by western blot. In the western blot method, it was found that iNOS, COX-2, NF-κB, TNF-α and other proteins that activated NO production had a downtrend. It was found that PET-pectin possess promising activity to mitigate the inflammatory response.
, Tina Nurkhoeriyati, Lira Felanesa, Andika Wahyu Utomo
Journal of Functional Food and Nutraceutical, Volume 1, pp 13-22; https://doi.org/10.33555/jffn.v1i1.5

Abstract:
Fruit juices are well known as healthy food. Consumers consume fruit juices not only to get refreshment, but also to get health benefits. The aims of this research are to identify health-related claims in juices and functional ingredients used to meet the regulation on claim requirement. The research was conducted by collecting RTD (ready to drink) juice in modern retail. All of the information on the label is recorded, identified, and classified based on regulation document, then processed and analyzed statistically. The result show, 70% of product samples provide claims on the label. Claim on vitamin C is the most favorite one. As much as 52% of claimed products contain vitamin C – related claim. After vitamin C, the next popular claims are regarding dietary fiber (11%) and vitamin A (10%). Interestingly, 63% of claimed products provide more than one nutrient claims. They combine two or more nutrients content as the claim, such as vitamin C and vitamin A, fiber and vitamin C, etc. There is 20% of RTD fruit juice enriched or fortified by functional ingredients, mostly in vitamin premix. It means, claims are not only given by addition of functional ingredients from the outside. RTD juice industries are still able to provide the claim, without fortification or enrichment, if they can maintain the nutrient content of raw material to meet requirement of regulation on claim.
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