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Qiuyu. Deng, Shuying. Yi, Wanlu. She
Published: 4 September 2022
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v4n4p15

Abstract:
The development of the Internet does not necessarily promote the harmonious development of gender in society. The focus and gaze of the Internet media on women’s bodies constructs the image of “being seen” on the Internet, which is a derogatory and distorted image of women. In the unequal relationship of “seeing and being seen”, the female body is an important carrier. The silence chosen by online audiences has further led to the online media’s eagerness to portray “being seen” women. News media and film and literature have not done enough to reflect and represent women in a fair, balanced, and consistent manner, and the number, perspective, and content of their works are not commensurate with the actual role women play in social production. This paper focuses on several images of women constructed by the news media and film and literature, analyzes their underlying causes and their impact on women, and tries to suggest possibilities for changing this phenomenon.
Archieford Kurauone Mtetwa
Published: 4 September 2022
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v4n4p1

Abstract:
Since 1500, Christianity is the major and official religion in Zimbabwe while African Traditional Religion remains the popular religion among Zimbabweans. Such a scenario is comparable to the ancient Israelite religion; Yahweism (monotheism) being the official religion while Polytheism being the popular religion amongst the Israelites. Christianity as a religion did not bring with it land to Zimbabwe. This study will explore the position of Christianity in relation to land and land politics in Zimbabwe. Christianity is a foreign religious ideology to Zimbabwe. The advent of Christianity does not mean that Zimbabweans were short of religion. African Traditional Religion (ATR) is the indigenous religion to Africans including Zimbabweans. Christianity is of great interest in this study because it is embraced by the majority of Zimbabweans (Ruzivo, 2008, p. 28). The arrival of Christianity dates back to the 14th century. It was introduced to Zimbabwe by the missionaries. The article highlights and chronicles the less emphasized issue of religion and land politics in Zimbabwe. In this case, the religion in question is Christianity and land politics or politics of land in Zimbabwe.
Archieford Kurauone Mtetwa
Published: 23 June 2022
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v4n3p90

Abstract:
The family is the most important basic social institution in any state since time immemorial. It is from this institution that clans, tribes and nations were born. It was the center of the means of production. Africa in general and Zimbabwe in particular, the family system tallies with the religious or the ideological system or vice versa. African Indigenous Religion (AIR) is a religious ideology anchored on communalism and it is anti-individualism in the same way the African family system operates. Through the historical cultural materialist approach this paper argues that the “empire” (imperial states) disrupted, dismembered and destroyed the pristine African family institution through its pervasive tool; “the cross” and its willing agents. The cross (church/temple or Christianity) and its agents criminalised the communal family for the individualistic idealistic family. Individualism is not an African value, it is a foreign model and as such foreign models will not work to the expectations of Africans. Among other causes, the cross, through cultural hegemony gave birth to the small house in Zimbabwe. The church is an anti-structure institution to the Zimbabwean communal kinship system. It is the argument of this paper that the cross was developed and deployed to criminalise, shame and stigmatize the African family or kinship values (among them polygamy) resulting in nefarious clandestine legitimation of an illegitimate Western construct small house. A family is ideologically unique and as such the conception of a family with regard to the religion of the empire is individualistic as its Christian religious ideology is. The papergoes behind the present through solely focusing on the historical cultural and material conditions that led to the genesis, growth and development of the ‘small house’ in Zimbabwe as an offspring of the church. This chapter concludes by arguing that the small house is a genetically modified institution of the church.
Pratibha J Mishra
Published: 23 June 2022
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v4n3p80

Abstract:
The purpose of field work is ... to clarify technical instruction. Just as the botanist goes into the fields to study plants and flowers to supplement his text book knowledge, and just as the geologist turns from a study of books to the study of rocks, so the social worker goes from the classroom to the appropriate field work activity, using the field work as a means of clarifying and adding point to the classroom instruction (Manshardt, 1985, p. 3).Field instruction, a crucial component of social work education, is recognised as an educational process to facilitate integrative and experiential learning. Though the pattern and organisation of social work practicum have some universality, the micro-based practice model adopted in the Indian context has led to inappropriately designed field education programmes producing students unsuited to meet the developmental need of the Indian society. Efforts made to restructure field instruction to prepare students for macro-based practice roles have been too slow to find their way into the educational programme of most of the schools of social work in India. Major problems such as scarcity of field placements, non-availability of qualified agency-based field instructors, inadequate linkage between classroom teaching and field realities, and poor faculty position still prevail. Crucial areas for change in field instruction are examined and alternative strategies are suggested in the light of the emerging socioeconomic concerns of the country and recent trends in the profession.
Weichao Wang
Published: 23 June 2022
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v4n3p71

Abstract:
Currently, in the implementation stage of China’s rural revitalization strategy, the cultivation and construction of characteristic villages is of great significance. On the basis of reviewing the relevant research on characteristic villages, this study deeply analyzes the problem that ethnic cultures have not played a sufficient role in the construction of characteristic villages in Guangxi, while proposing two key points in the construction of characteristic villages in Guangxi, i.e., the activation of ethnic cultures of characteristic villages in Guangxi, and the aggregation of cultural dissemination talents, so as to collaboratively promote the construction of characteristic villages in Guangxi.
Liu Siyi, Qian Zhang, Julie Jie Wen, Clem Tisdell
Published: 23 June 2022
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v4n3p61

Abstract:
Based on the theory of relationship quality, the research constructed the impact mechanism model of pro-environmental behaviours by applying tourist’s perceived value as the antecedent variable, while relationship quality (satisfaction and loyalty) was treated as the mediators, and place attachment as a moderator. Surveys were conducted at the Daweishan National Forest Park in Hunan Province, China, with 674 valid questionnaires collected. The empirical results provided evidence that the direct effect of perceived value of tourists on tourists’ pro-environmental behaviours is significantly positive, and the indirect effect of relationship quality (satisfaction and loyalty) between perceived value of tourists. Recommendations and strategies for further research and implementing tourist stratification management are suggested.
Svetlana Daly, Katrina J. Phillips, Clare M. McCann
Published: 23 June 2022
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v4n3p39

Abstract:
Soft skills are a collection of abilities instrumental to one being a successful professional. Soft skills are knowing why, what, when, and where to perform specific technical, hard skills. Traditionally, universities and other professional training providers have focused on teaching hard skills, relying on graduates to learn necessary soft skills on the job or through personal experiences. With more professional training requiring tertiary education and less work experience, a skills gap has developed between labour markets and professional training providers. A scoping review was conducted to answer two research questions: How are soft skills conceptualised and taught to health and education professionals? How are soft skills assessed for health and education professionals? The PAGER framework was utilised to present and synthesise the scoping review results. Eight themes emerged from the patterning analysis and data synthesis: Lack of definitions of soft skills; What soft skills are taught; Methods of teaching soft skills; Curriculum: Embedded vs. stand-alone courses; Use of digital tools; Assessment of soft skills; Variation of assessment tools; Limited regard for cultural competency, diversity, equality, and inclusion. These themes are discussed in relation to advances, gaps, evidence for practice, and research recommendations.
Ibtesam AbdulAziz Bajri
Published: 23 June 2022
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v4n3p1

Abstract:
The purpose of this research is to examine the speech act of welcoming unexpected guests in the Hijaz and Al-Janoub communities in Saudi Arabia. Discourse Completion Task (DCT) is adopted to gather the required data, where all the questions are open-ended questions. The study investigates how gender of the host/guest affects the welcoming speech act of an unexpected guest and what the strategies contribute to welcoming an unexpected guest in Hijaz and Al-Janoub areas. It also focuses on the significant impact of religious values among Saudis. Selected coding schemes of Ebrahimi, Pirbabaei and Mehrabad (2015), Al-Zubaidi (2012), Setin (2018), and Allami (2012) are utilized for the data analysis of this study. The results show that both of the above communities, whether males or females, accept unexpected guests. It has been revealed that language, gender, and religion have a great impact on the results of this study. The majority of the female participants opt out of communicative patterns that show rejection to welcoming strange or relative male in some situations where they are visited by a strange male or relative from the opposite sex while they are alone at home.
Yijing Xia
Published: 24 March 2022
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v4n2p79

Abstract:
As one of the most fundamental production elements of the digital economy, data has become a critical factor in determining enterprises’ competitiveness. Consequently, it is highly problematic that data monopolies frequently form in the market. Recognizing the issue, principle fourteen in “Anti-trust Guidelines on Platform Economy (Draft for Comments)” establishes a methodology for regulating data access restrictions. In addition, it reflects on the viral and debatable data monopoly problem by clearly stating that data can be perceived as an “essential facility”. In the study, it is argued that the “Essential Facilities Doctrine” has a high practical significance for regulating vertical monopoly in the traditional economy; however, it should be applied with caution under certain restrictions when dealing with data monopoly.
Yakup Durmaz, Cetin Celik
Published: 24 March 2022
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v4n2p72

Abstract:
Today, new inventions are constantly emerging. These inventions affect almost all areas of our lives and change our lifestyle, mentality and perspective on events. The Internet, and with its digitalization, is one of the important inventions that brought about such changes. Thanks to digitalization, companies have had the opportunity to market their products or services more quickly. Thanks to digitalization, customers and/or consumers can more easily have detailed information about the products that can meet their needs, taking into account criteria such as the price, quality, features and quality of the products they are looking for. In this study, the most used channels in digital marketing, which are the top roof of online marketing activities: digital platforms, mobile applications, social media sites and search engines are emphasized.
Terry Hyland
Published: 24 March 2022
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v4n2p56

Abstract:
Contemporary approaches to explaining the connections and reconciling perceived differences between spiritual and scientific interpretations of reality have tended to accept mainstream interpretations of physics, cosmology and biology. The resultant putative combinations of ideas-seeking to equate materialist with non-materialist worldviews-display anomalous, artificial and deeply problematic features. Instead of accepting the validity of scientific materialism-expressed in accounts offered, for instance, by Thich Nhat Hanh, the Dalai Lama, and, in a more secular context, Deepak Chopra and Fritjof Capra-the central thesis of this paper is that it is more plausible to question the foundations of materialism and argue for an idealist interpretation of both science, reality and spirituality as suggested in recent work by Bernardo Kastrup, Steve Taylor and Donald Hoffman. After exploring the central claims of these new interpretations of idealism-and their principal critiques of scientific materialism-arguments that such perspectives offer a richer, more cogent and more parsimonious method of linking Eastern and Western worldviews than the flawed materialist perspectives will be explained and justified.
Shengkun Sun
Published: 24 March 2022
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v4n2p49

Abstract:
Under China’s high-pressure counter-terrorism situation, the characteristics of “East Turkistan” terrorist organizations’ looseness, risk liquidity and behavioral uncertainty are becoming more and more obvious, challenging the established counter-terrorism model. To adapt to the new situation and new risks, we must not only rely on military means to suppress East Turkistan terrorism, but also strengthen the social governance of East Turkistan terrorism and dismantle its social base and extremist ideology, so as to break away from the “more counter-terrorism” approach. The more we fight against terrorism, the more we can cut off the root of the development of East Turkistan terrorism.
King Jawol Agnes B. Greene, I. A. Adetunde
Published: 24 March 2022
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v4n2p19

Abstract:
This paper presents the numerical analysis of the effectiveness of Government Policy on Gender Based Violence in Harper City, Maryland County. Data used were collected from the case study area and was analysed. The study revealed that there is a great effect on the Government Policy on Gender based violence in the case study of this article.
Gopal Chandra Saha, Shameem A., Mahadi M. Faisal
Published: 24 March 2022
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v4n2p1

Abstract:
Electronic-Relationship Marketing (E-RM)is an emerging marketing strategy in the banking sector of Bangladesh. For the last few years, RM and E-RM have attracted both customers and bankers as it is considered as a new ‘strategic weapon’ for maintaining proper relationships with the client. In the study, quantitative as well as qualitative data was gathered by taking personal interviews among 600 respondents, and the response rate was 100%. Empirical tests using factor analysis and tests of hypothesis using SEM were applied. An extensive analysis of the data enabled the researcher to formulate an E-RM model for the banking industry in Bangladesh to conceptualize the customer-banker relationship. It contributes to the existing body of banking and marketing literature by introducing ten factors: commitment, conflict management, responsiveness, ease of use, customization, service expense, security, communication, bonding, and trust. Most of the variables except three showed a significant and positive relationship between E-RM dimensions and customer satisfaction. The impact of customer loyalty on customer retention is also positive. The study suggests some recommendations in order to increase the effectiveness between E-RM dimensions and customer satisfaction. Finally, the thesis ends by setting out an agenda for future research.
Suixin. Zhang
Published: 27 December 2021
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v4n1p39

Abstract:
This article will reveal the discussion of identity conflict between past and present Chinese art practice abroad through reflection on the Art works- Trace, and through Homi Bhabha’s theory of identity hybridization. It seeks to explore the significance of the individual and its connection to the globalized art theme.
Heba Gouda Ahmed Awad, Laila Abd Al- Maged Ibrahim
Published: 27 December 2021
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v4n1p49

Abstract:
The study of the journalist’s relation with political authority in Egypt from 1960 to 2011 seeks to reveal, describe, analyze and interpret the journalist’s relation with political authority in Egypt during this period and to reach a model that explains the factors affecting the journalist’s relation with political authority. This is by exposing the political, legislative, social and cultural factors affecting the journalist’s relationship with political authority during the period of study. And to reveal the personal characteristics of successive political leaders during the period of study, and their role in shaping the relationship between the journalist and the political authority in Egypt. In addition to revealing the social development, personal characteristics and professional gradations of a sample of prominent journalists during the course of the study, and the role these factors played in shaping the relationship between the journalist and the political authority in Egypt. The study found that the media in general, and the press in particular, play a role in political life, whether by expressing interest groups and opinion leaders, or by relying political systems on them to reach out to the public and promote their policies at home and abroad alike. Media has also proved to be the link between the public on the one hand and political decision makers on the other. The results also confirmed that the media helps the political systems to create public opinion in favor of their policies or to mobilize public opinion against those opposing their policies, which in both cases is a dangerous and vital role. The study also revealed that the mass media can influence the minds and emotions of the public and change their attitudes and behavior in a way that serves their policies and achieves the interests and goals of the political authority. The results of the study also confirmed that the legislation and laws prevailing in each country determine the form of the relationship between the press and the political authority. The results of the study also showed that the forms of relations between journalists and politicians vary, sometimes they are confused, and sometimes stable.
Ning Ding
Published: 27 December 2021
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v4n1p25

Abstract:
This paper is written to analyze the underlying reason for the barriers, misunderstandings, or conflicts that might happen in the context of international communication: that is culture and cultural differences. Around the core of this paper, the definition, categories, and characteristics of culture have been explored, and then an example of cultural differences has been given. In the case, two different cultures between American and Chinese were compared. This kind of analysis is aiming to deal with some of the potential problems in international communication.
Cong-Yi Jin, Wang Zhao
Published: 27 December 2021
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v4n1p10

Abstract:
With the development of urbanization and urban industrial relocation, the remaining special railway lines are increasingly deserted and block the organic integration of urban space. As a material element of urban industrial culture, the abandoned railway line carries a profound industrial history and diverse cultural features. As a materialized industrial heritage, it also provides more feasible ways for the expansion of urban public space, ecological environment governance, and the renewal of industrial abandoned land. Through the analysis of domestic and foreign urban abandoned railway industrial landscape protection and redevelopment related cases, summarizes the landscape protection strategy: protect the original site form, reduce the later artificial intervention traces, reflect the beauty of existing industry, reshape the cultural landscape, reengineering industrial period historical scene, with dynamic railway line and its urban vitality, promote the industrial abandoned site function self innovation. Finally, according to the Zhengzhou Railway Industrial Park project as an example, through the analysis of its site transformation, style protection and functional renewal design strategies, to explore the reasonable application of the above key points, which is of guiding significance for the industrial cultural protection of the abandoned urban railways and the construction of landscape parks in China.
Chien-Wei Kung
Published: 27 December 2021
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v4n1p1

Abstract:
It is now common for social media to regulate rumors. They claim that the purpose of this action is to safeguard social interests. However, some cases have proved that the regulation of rumor has exceeded the necessary limit, but also showed the partiality of the regulation object and the irrationality of the “rumor” standard. Although freedom of speech has boundaries, the regulation of social media is much stricter than it, which hurts social media to play its role as a public sphere. We can’t ask individuals to take too much responsibility for rumor spreading. At the same time, we can’t easily take harsh regulatory measures such as deplatforming and even legal sanctions against individuals, because this will lead to the lack of legitimacy of the regulatory behavior of social media and the aftereffect of injustice.
Parviz Firudin Oqlu Kazimi
Published: 2 October 2021
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v3n4p48

Abstract:
Articles about the “concept” and “danger” of “Turanism” in political and publicistic works are often published in the international media, and this is so convincing that it has an impact on some scientific literature. In fact, on the contrary, materials obtained from scientific literature should be a source of political science and journalistic materials. In this context, we see that attempts to find a “brand” in historical research are still ongoing.We try to reveal the general picture, taking contradictions on this topic from the sources of the works of Nizami Ganjavi and Firdosi, as well as on the basis of existing historical documents. Has there ever been a state called Turan in history? If not, what was the source and purpose of this legend? If there was no Turan, how did Iran exist? Who won the war between Iran and Turan? If Firdosi knew this story, then why does Nizami write in his works the complete opposite of this story?As you can see, in addition to collecting tips from the works of Nizami and Firdosi to answer many questions, one can distinguish place names and ethnonyms from ancient mythology and Zoroastrianism and determine the true “threat” by creating a general picture, defining the history and geography of events.This article attempts to answer some questions by comparing a number of historical, literary events and positions.
Yangdon , S. Daker, U. Dorji, T. Gyeltshen, K. Wangmo
Published: 2 October 2021
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v3n4p36

Abstract:
Reading is an essential skill for everybody especially for the students of Samtse College of Education who are future teachers. They need to read to enhance their communication skills, upgrade their knowledge and skills and be role models in reading for their students. However, we have found that the reading for pleasure habit among the students is poor. Students generally use social media during their leisure time instead of reading which is a concern both for their lecturers and the institution. An action research study was carried out to improve students’ reading for pleasure habit. Data for the study were gathered using a survey and interview. A total of 325 students completed the survey and 57 students participated in the interview. The data were collected twice; before (baseline) and after the intervention. Comparison of means was used to analyse the quantitative data and the qualitative data were analysed thematically. Following the analysis of the baseline data, three intervention strategies were employed; Our Time To Enjoy Reading (OTTER), Self-indulgence Reading, and Raffle Draw. These strategies were implemented in all the 16 classes for a period of 8 weeks. The comparison of the analysis of the pre-and post-data showed that the interventions have been effective in promoting the reading for pleasure habit of the students.
Blessing Simura
Published: 2 October 2021
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v3n4p23

Abstract:
The Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) introduced Zimbabwe into the realm of China during the liberation struggle as it sourced military support. In line with the Chinese dominance in ZANU, the Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army (ZANLA) guerrilla warfare followed the Maoist doctrine. However, at independence, Zimbabwe joined the British Commonwealth and became a part of the western orbit. Although the country continued to have some form of political and economic linkages with China, the relations were cosmetic. It was at the fall of the cordial relations with the West at the end of the 1990s that Zimbabwe refocused on China. Zimbabwe hinged its survival on Chinese support as it turned full circle to the East. This paper analyses the long historical relations between Zimbabwe and China. It argues that political transformations returned back Zimbabwe to China’s hegemony. The paper is based on qualitative research methods and information was gathered primarily through the use of archival data.
Nikola Niksa Eterovic
Published: 2 October 2021
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v3n4p14

Abstract:
The Apothecary of Poetry is an interdisciplinary project by author Nikola Niksa Eteorvic that came to life in 2013. The first APOTHECARY OF POETRY that treats patients with verse. In this text, the reader will get acquainted with some possibilities and aspects of the Apothecary of Poetry and its working process. How to use poetry, both already existing poetry and poetry created with the users of AP, is an important aspect of this text. The philosophy of verse, substance—selfhood and action, are reflected in the work of the Apothecary of Poetry in various ways. Poetry is medicinal, poetry is a medicine that you come to get at the Apothecary of Poetry. Poetry is the closest reflection of our existence.
David R. Nelson, George Pacheco Jr.
Published: 2 October 2021
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v3n4p1

Abstract:
Humor is a resource for discourse dealing with the taboo. Through the use of humor, comedians can practice uninhibited use of free public speech because audiences expect to laugh in these situations. This inherent expectation creates an environment where expression, objective opinions, and otherwise offensive ideas can be shared in a public space without fear of persecution or repercussion. As such, humor message creators are free to push social boundaries to create a discourse necessary to address what would be offensive. This freedom is important to this work because of how comedians approach the use of stereotypical ethnic humor. The culmination of audience expectation and openness creates an environment readily available for analysis of ethnic humor messages by researchers. Using the lens of Invitational Rhetoric, we uncover rhetorical messages embedded in the humor that work to challenge negative stereotypes about identity.
Zoe O. Wyatt
Published: 21 June 2021
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v3n3p80

Abstract:
The majority of trauma and resilience research in Cambodia has focussed on survivors of the Khmer Rouge. This qualitative study set out to discover what protective factors promote resilience in young trauma survivors who are at least one generation removed. A Grounded Theory approach offered a guiding resilience framework that shaped 40 interviews: 26 participants comprised of Cambodian young people (ages 18-30) who had experienced significant early childhood trauma and 14 key informants from the Cambodian Child Protection non-governmental organization sector. Data from the young people was collected through the use of three instruments: semi-structured interviews, a narrative timeline of events and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. These instruments were used to explore factors relating to recovery, resilience and wellbeing among the Cambodian young people. Key informant interviews were conducted to help understand how the Child Protection sector assists recovery from trauma in Cambodia. Analysis of the participants’ oral narratives sought to uncover, understand and explain the phenomena of resilience and factors contributing to their recovery, in a post-Khmer Rouge contemporary Cambodian context. According to the young people, key factors contributing to their recovery included emotional regulation, faith and spirituality, opportunities for education and employment, social connectedness and meaning making.
Hilde Berit Moen
Published: 21 June 2021
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v3n3p58

Abstract:
This article explores episodes characterized by overwhelming emotions in Eating Disorders (ED). In ED, emotions and symptoms are connected. The mentalizing perspective understands eating disordered symptoms as a form of regulation of painful emotions and as indicative of a reduced ability to attend to mental states in oneself and others (impaired mentalizing). However, the interpersonal and emotional processes associated with impaired mentalizing are insufficiently attended to in research. Based on interviews with eating disordered patients, this article analyses stories of everyday episodes portrayed as emotionally overwhelming. The results of this analysis establish that a wide array of emotions or emotional experiences are activated, the most prominent being inadequacy, anger, discomfort, fear, and sadness. Episodes are typically “multi-emotional”, characterized by a variety of emotional constellations. The findings do not indicate that eating disordered patients generally have difficulty identifying emotions. Eating disordered symptoms are therefore discussed as a form of defense. The episodes described typically instigate the activation of eating disordered symptoms. Furthermore, the episodes are predominantly social, with other people present, whether physically or in mind. In conclusion, the article discusses the implications of the findings to the understanding of eating disorders and treatment.
Matthew S. Mingus, Emily (Li) Cheng, Daria Blinova
Published: 21 June 2021
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v3n3p39

Abstract:
Many U.S. states changed election policies leading up to the November 3, 2020, general election to reduce the potential spread of COVID-19, and policy changes at the state level resulted in uneven access to voting options outside the polling site on the day of the election. This preliminary research examines the extent of in-person voting and other methods for voting as percentages of the overall population, separated by state, to determine if such policy changes helped reduce the spread of COVID-19. The data is correlated with the increase in the SARS-CoV-2 virus the week leading into the election compared to two weeks after the election. Political party in control of the state executive, urbanization, and the relative size of state government are also considered. While numerous court cases regarding the fairness of electoral methods were launched during the 2020 election cycle, the focus of this article is whether the percent of the population who voted in person on the day of the election may have differentially increased the spread of COVID-19 within the 50 U.S. states as well as the extent that the public service managed the election process in a safe manner by mitigating the risk of COVID-19.
Amy Shumin Chen
Published: 21 June 2021
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v3n3p21

Abstract:
In the last decades, creativity has been advocated as a key learning process in the engineering domain to advance college students’ abilities in technology and science. Creative education becomes a mantra which is enhanced by educators, politicians, employees, teachers, professors, and students. Creativity competency is viewed as a crucial solution to face the challenges of industrial promotion, human capital investments, and future societal strategies and overcome the social, economic, and educational problems. College students’ competency on creativity represent a series of attributes, behaviors, knowledge, and abilities required for successful learning performance in the engineering domain. This paper discusses on the results of an empirical study on college students’ competences in the engineering domain and their self-evaluation on their perception of creativity and creativity performance. Universities are strongly expected to provide learning opportunities that foster and nurture creativity for students, hence creative education in engineering is an ongoing critical mission for both educational institutes and learners. The research was conducted through a testing questionnaire by theoretical literature review and focus group interviews with experts in engineering and education fields. The samples are tested by the instrument and there were 307 valid samples for analysis. The statistical method includes means, , and the structural equation model. The curriculum experience is the strongest correlation value (r=.55) to affect creativity achievements. The learning styles have an obvious influence on school environments (r=.44), and school environments are shown the same value (r=.45) to curriculum experience. The self-evaluation by students demonstrates that school environmental improvement remains a key agenda for universities to be aware of in developing creative plans and managements for students. The engineering domain is specialized though its professions in the logics of learning along side of maker spirits, and this study leads us to have a clear observation among the various factors which influenced the educational plan or projects for college students. The conclusion provides suggestions for future empirical study and educational plans.
A. Sofian, B. Pratama, Besar , F.C.P. Pratomo, Mark P. Capaldi
Published: 21 June 2021
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v3n3p12

Abstract:
Children’s Online Privacy Protection is a form of protection for all information attached to a child such as: a name, address, photo, video, and other related information pointing to the children. In Indonesia, the regulation of a child’s personal data does not create adequate protection. In reality, many children’s personal data are spread on social media and other various platforms that children access and as a result, the child’s personal data can be accessed and used for marketing purposes and/or other exploitation. As a legal subject, a child cannot protect themselves not only from various purposes of online business models designed by online platforms, but also from other people that may have bad intentions. In a global context, standardization becomes a necessity as both a measuring instrument and guidance for other countries to follow. The problem is, some of the measurements need to be adjusted with national law to comply with the set of local standards. Some of the first countries that have already regulated children’s privacy are found within the European Union (EU), UK and U.S. This research describes the scope of child protection standards and match them with Indonesian positive law. The research method of this research use doctrinal legal research to collect and to analyze legal material regarding two main concepts, namely: child protection regulation and information regulation. As a result, it is found that there is no legal mechanism that guarantees the protection of children’s personal data in Indonesia. It is suggested that Indonesian parliament and the President immediately revise the Child Protection Act and /or Electronic Transaction and Information Act.
Chidiebere C. Ogbonna, Lokawua Margaret, Mwaniki Roseann
Published: 21 June 2021
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v3n3p1

Abstract:
The study examined the impact of child marriage on the education attainment and welfare of girls in Northern Uganda. Two indigenous communities, Tepeth and Matheniko were used as case study. The study employed case study design, while qualitative approach (face-to-face interview) was used in data collection. 25 key informants participated in the study that includes 15 female and 10 male. The study was guided by the Radical Feminist Theory. The theory, argues that patriarchy is the primary cause of women oppression because partriachy gives men advantage over women in the society and puts men in an advantage position to determine the future of women. The study findings reveal that two main factors: poverty and cultural practice of cementing alliances are responsible for child marriage in Northern Uganda. In addition, the study found that child marriage breaches different aspects of human/ children’s rights, such as the right to education, healthcare, and protection from physical and sexual abuse among others. The study concluded that child marriage is a practice that has long lasting negative impact on the welfare of the affected individuals and by extension the development of the communities where it is practiced. Consequently, the study made recommendations on possible solutions and strategies to eradicate the practice.
Katrina Milaney, Msc Lisa Zaretsky, Carrie Mcmanus, Becky Van Tassel
Published: 27 February 2021
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v3n2p65

Abstract:
Individuals who work with Domestic Violence (DV) survivors are often exposed to traumatic events that can leave them feeling overwhelmed, distressed, and susceptible to experiences of trauma themselves. The purpose of this exploratory study was to understand the health and wellbeing of staff in the DV sector to build capacity around providing safe and supportive working environments. A focus group was conducted with 40 members of a local domestic violence collective while surveys were completed by 61 professionals within the DV sector. Thematic analysis of focus group discussions and descriptive analysis of survey data highlighted primary barriers to supportive and safe organizational cultures including the work environment, leadership, and supervision. Specifically, supervisors and organizational culture play a significant role in contributing to employee health and wellness. Results suggest the need for increased importance on the role that senior/executive staff must take in protecting their staff from trauma-related harms, including focusing on trauma-informed supervision, structure, self-care, education and training, agency policies and the safety of the work environment. Future research could explore the impact of prioritizing the role of senior and executive staff in creating a safe working environment while informing new policies and strategies for mitigating staff burnout.
Pearl E. Sullivan, Cassandra E. DiRienzo
Published: 27 February 2021
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v3n2p48

Abstract:
Scholars have repeatedly shown that female politicians focus more on common good issues such as health care and education than their male counterparts. When men hold the majority of positions of political power these issues may not be raised for debate within government even if women are present. Using a cross-country dataset, this research examines the impact of women in government on public spending on primary education. Specifically, it explores whether it is enough for women to be represented in government, or if they must have a position of power to effect policy outcomes. The analysis results indicate that both women’s simple representation and power representation are significantly positively correlated with increases in federal spending on primary education; however, when women hold positions of political power there is a greater impact on funding than when they simply hold a seat in the legislature.
, Cándido González Pérez, Ana Gabriela González Anaya
Published: 27 February 2021
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v3n2p36

Abstract:
In this work we present the case of a company born from an individual dream that has made its way to success from one of the most unsuspected activities: recycling. Against all odds, in our globalized world that prioritizes the generation of economic wealth to the detriment of natural resources, an ingenious initiative emerged that has turned bad into an economically enviable business. In the most diverse daily uses of factories, agriculture and even homes, the recycling of hazardous materials is generated. Against all logic and with a persistence worthy of recognition, an artisan company was founded in a rural population that has transcended regions and above all archaic thoughts that privilege profits over everything else. With the passage of time, the artisan work was transformed to become an industrial company that generates great resources with the paradox that it has become a business to avoid environmental pollution when the latter is the result of excessive economic growth.
Markella-Elpida Tsichla
Published: 27 February 2021
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v3n2p26

Abstract:
The Greek Revolution of 1821 was one of the most important issues in Europe of the early 19th century on a political and military level. The outbreak of the Greek Revolution was not supported by the Great Powers of the time, since as a liberation struggle it violated the terms of the Holy Alliance (1815), however it managed to prevail thanks to the support of the people of Europe as they regarded this an effort of a small nation to claim its freedom and oppose to slavery and authoritarianism. After all, we are in the time of Romanticism and this kind of struggle enjoyed the support of intellectuals, collectives, and different groups of citizens. Philhellenism was on the rise, and painters like Delacroix made a huge impact with works that made a strong impression on Europe. After the success of the Revolution, many foreign artists came to Greece, some on their own initiative as travelers and others carrying out their King’s orders. Some of them were painters (both amateur and professional) that painted live portraits of the leading figures of the Revolution, leaving behind a remarkable oeuvre when seen from a historical, factual, and artistic point of view. And since at that point in Greece there could be no room for domestic artistic creation, the work of these artists is considered particularly important in terms of portraiture, history, facts, and artistic value. The most important out of the painters that were in Greece at that critical time are the Bavarians Karl Krazeisen and Peter von Hess, who painted portraits of Greek fighters and these portraits have since become the blueprints that other artists, painters, and sculptors based their work on resulting in the perpetuation of the historical memory.It is worth mentioning that in the 200 years of independence these works remain of enduring value when paying tribute and respect to the first martyrs of the Greek Struggle.
Stephanie F. Rose, Samantha A. Christian, Anita Sego, Denise Demers
Published: 27 February 2021
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v3n2p16

Abstract:
Very little evidence addresses college students’ perceptions of mental health and supportive services available to assist them with being academically successful since the COVID-19 pandemic began. This is also true for comparing community college students and university students. This study examines the concepts of how COVID-19 has impacted overall student-perceptions of their mental health. Data on perceptions was collected from both community college and university students. A total of 932 students completed a survey regarding their views of mental health, academic success and supportive services Relationships between perceived mental health and supportive services rendered significant findings. Perceived differences between perceived mental health and supportive services were also significantly significant in the data. Recommendations for future research is also explored.
Johan Lundberg
Published: 27 February 2021
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v3n2p1

Abstract:
Aeschylos’ tragedy The Suppliantsis in this article related to an opposition between clan and state—and more specifically with the development in ancient Greece from barbarism to civilization, from a lawless, uncultivated and disorganised world, to a clan-based social order and from there to a state-based organisation, which in many ways would set the pattern for the development in Europe for centuries to come.In the play, fifty sisters are fleeing from Egypt to Argos, persecuted by their fifty male cousins. The women seek protection and therefore refer to their shared origins with the population of Argos.The fact that Danaus has fifty daughters but no son, implies that if the daughters marry their cousins the legacy will stay within the clan. What the daughters’ uncle Aegyptus and his sons demand is that Danaus and his daughters should act in accordance with the regulatory framework of the clan system. This stipulates that in cases where fathers in patrilineal systems only have daughters, these daughters must marry endogamically (that is inwards) instead of exogamic ally (outwardly, and in the corresponding way for sons in matrilineal systems).The article shows how Argos, governed by King Pelasgus, is depicted in the play in contrast to the claustrophobic catatonia of incestuous relations, the latter illustrated by an imagery that stems from archaic Greek mythology. The claustrophobic feeling that links the family and kin in The Suppliants, through events such as incestuous marriages and family-related cannibalism, gives a picture of the individual’s room for manoeuvre being strictly regulated—in fact almost non-existent—in the extended family. It is such a claustrophobic world that the women in The Suppliants (like Orestes in Oresteia) are fleeing from.Instead they seek out a city state based on fundamentally different ideas than the family, kinship and clan-related organisation principles of the Egyptians. The Greek city state thereby appears to aim to liberate the archaic human from a claustrophobic captivity.
Mdr Evans
Published: 1 December 2020
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v3n1p64

Abstract:
How does the general public feel about people suffering from lifestyle related conditions, and what do they see as a socially just division health costs for these conditions? Using data from random, nationwide surveys of Australians, 1989-2001 (n=8031) my structural equation model with multiple-item measurement and corrections for attenuation due to random measurement error predicts respondents’ ideal division of medical payment responsibility. The only significant sociodemographic influence is education, which inclines people towards governmental financial responsibility. Cultural and social-psychological factors have large effects. A net time trend favors individual responsibility. Blaming sufferers is strongly associated with favoring individual responsibility. By contrast, people who sympathize with the sufferers tend to favor government payments. Political party preference also matters: Partisans of the main conservative party tend to support individual responsibility. There are clear implications for the current COVID-19 epidemic, especially with regards to “social distancing” behavior.
Johan Lundberg
Published: 1 December 2020
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v3n1p47

Abstract:
The Henry James novel The American (1877) is analyzed on the basis of a conflict between the twoforms of liberty, which Isaiah Berlin in the end of the 1950s designated as negative and positive. Theconcept of negative freedom is in this interpretation of the novel connected to a contrast between thestate and the clan. With starting point in Francis Fukuyama’s The Origins of Political Order (2011),and Mark S Weiner in The Rule of the Clan (2013), modern rule of law is in the analysis of the novelregarded as something radically different from clan society.Based on an understanding of the modern state as a guarantee for individual autonomy and liberty, inBerlin’s negative meaning, James depicts in The American, the problems of maintaining liberty, in thenegative sense, in a community organised around the clan.In the novel, the American protagonist Christopher Newman with his lack of prejudices represent forhis French fiancée Claire de Cintréa possible way to freedom. What Newman does, is to offer Claire theopportunity to move from the French aristocracy to the economically strong Americanbourgeoisie—from a kind of feudalism to capitalism. The proposed move coincides with thedevelopmental curve of the novel, which with respect to Claire runs from clan to state.In striking contrast to Newman’s optimized sort of freedom, where neither any internalized norms norany economic limitations prohibit the protagonist from acting in the way that he desires, Claire is thedaughter of a family that represents the old world, with all its limitations and restrictions on negativeliberty. In a highly concrete manner she is prohibited from acting as she wants. This is emphasized inthe question of who to marry.The analysis connects Claire’s family to the ultramontanists and legitimists circles of 19th centuryParisian aristocracy. The terms refer to the ultra-conservative and fiercely anti-liberal movements that,after the French revolution, turned against the modern state power that allegedly forced on the French Catholics secular values.Legitimism and ultramontanism are in the novel intimately connected to maintaining an organisationaround the clan. In contrast to the clan, rule of law, democracy and individual freedom is seen asconsequences of the framework of the modern, liberal state.
Carina Henriksen
Published: 1 December 2020
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v3n1p33

Abstract:
The responsibility and solution for bodily self-harm has been tied to the individual, while society andthe social context have remained exempt from accountability. This article portrays the challenges thatyouth who injure their own bodies experience in today’s society. Society has changed, and along withsuch changes come certain implications for today’s youth. Changes in the family situation for youthwho harm their own bodies lead to loneliness and a reduction in social capital. Bodily self-harmers areinfluenced by societal discourses on what is expected of youth today, and such discourses areinternalized. Injury of one’s own body is considered a deviant act and, thus, self-harmers feel they donot fit in today’s society. They experience increased pressure in relation to both education and physicalappearance. This analysis is based on the digital stories of seven youths who injure or have injuredtheir own bodies.
Julie Jie Wen
Published: 1 December 2020
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v3n1p24

Abstract:
Volunteering has been part of the growing social and economic phenomenon because of the belief that it delivers positive effects for the stakeholders involved. This paper undertakes analysis of the impacts of the Sunflower (xiangrikuei) volunteering program. The research attempts to understand the views of the volunteers, organisers, and destination representatives from interviews, focus groups and observation. The research confirms that while volunteers and organisers do benefit from the experience, the impacts of volunteering on the destinations present a complex mixture of results. While destinations do express their benefits from working with volunteers who bring different skills and influences, they are concerned that volunteers working for a short period of time do not bring enough positive changes but rather disturb the normal local arrangement. Communication may be challenging, and conflicts may arise between volunteers and some local people. The research provides insights for improving the benefits for destinations related to volunteering.
Katrina Milaney, Mph Meena Sangha, Msw Phyllis K.F. Luk, Priyadarshini Kharat, Msc. Lisa Zaretsky
Published: 1 December 2020
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v3n1p9

Abstract:
Background: The experiences of domestic violence survivors are unique, varied, and complex, and services for those seeking support must be responsive to these diverse needs. Methods: To understand equity, diversity, and inclusivity within domestic violence service provision, surveys were completed by 70 professionals belonging to a local domestic violence collective. Results: Using an intersectional lens, thematic analysis of survey data revealed a gap in the literature specific to equity in service delivery and limited understanding and provision of equitable, diverse, and inclusive services. Barriers to inclusive service delivery included a lack of cultural considerations and cultural competency while proposed solutions to barriers identified the need for ongoing cultural competence education and training, expanded partnerships, and refined agency policies and procedures. Conclusion: Future studies should explore the impact of implementing sector and system level changes on those who provide and receive DV services while examining the role of cultural humility, safety, and ethical space within the DV environment.
Xingrui Chen
Published: 1 December 2020
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v3n1p1

Abstract:
The outbreak of COVID-19 in 2020 has caused significant environmental and economic loss across the globe. The government’s promotion of non-pharmaceutical treatment such as social distancing, hand washing, and mask-wearing can be equally important in disease control compared to the conventional use of pharmaceutical treatment. Risk perception is often used as an important mechanism to understand an individual's compliance with these protective measures. The present article examines the application of previous knowledge about public risk perception, decision making, and behavioral change to the current global pandemic and evaluates the most effective way of governmental messaging. The article analyzes empirical research conducted during COVID-19 across the globe where risk perception is found to be a strong determinant of people’s adoption of public health behavior. Demographic factors can significantly alter people’s understanding of risk due to the variation of individualistic view and prosociality of each nation. Cognitive biases can also affect people’s efficacy beliefs and confidence levels in government which can shape their risk perception to a great extent as well. Combining studies on both SARS and COVID-19, we are able to employ past knowledge to draw conclusions on risk communication and governmental promotion of protective measures during the current global pandemic.
Published: 2 September 2020
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 2, pp 132-153; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v2n4p132

Abstract:
Background. Considerable research has documented the effects of race and Socioeconomic Status (SES) on reward-seeking behaviors; however, less is known about the multiplicative effects of race and family SES on brain response to reward anticipation. Minorities’ Diminished Returns (MDRs) suggest that family SES would show weaker effects on brain development of children in non-White families than in White families. Objective. To test race by SES variation in Nucleus Accumbens (NAcc) response to reward anticipation (NAcc-RA) among American children. Methods. For this cross-sectional analysis, data came from the Adolescents Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study which included 6,419,9-10 year old children. The independent variable was parental education. The moderator was race. The primary outcome was the right NAcc-RA. Age, sex, ethnicity, household income, and family structure were the covariates. We used mixed-effect regression models that adjusted for the nested nature of the ABCD data. Results. While high parental education was associated with a higher amount of right NAcc-RA, this effect was stronger for White than non-White children. This finding was evident in the observed interactions between race and parental education on the right NAcc-RA. Discussion. For American children, NAcc-RA is not shaped by race or family SES, but by their intersection. As a result of the interaction between race and SES (diminished return of SES for non-Whites), middle-class racial minority children may remain susceptible to high-risk behaviors. Disparities in high-risk behaviors in children should not be reduced to economic disparities. Structural inequalities may reduce the return of SES resources for non-White families.
Nadia Al-Sakkaf
Published: 2 September 2020
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v2n4p102

Abstract:
Despite the existence of women’s empowerment strategies since the late nineties and qualified women in decision-making positions in charge of implementing them, these strategies failed to significantly improve women’s conditions and the situation of Yemeni women in the Republic of Yemen remains dismal. This article attempts to explain this failure through a mixed-method approach, surveying and interviewing Yemeni women leaders who were involved as authority figures or people of influence between 2006 and 2014 in said strategies. Findings from this research have strong policy implications on future development and gender equality policies in the country placing the experiences of women as policy makers, activists, advocates at the center of the analysis.
Sufyan Mohammed-Baksh, John Kilker Iii, Howard Fisher
Published: 2 September 2020
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v2n4p125

Abstract:
This white paper discusses the evolution of the satellite radio industry during its first decade. Since their inception, both Sirius & XM have gone through major developments as well as changes include the acquisition of Sirius by XM in March 2008. This paper is an important to the current literature in this field as it preserves the history of the origins and development of the satellite radio industry during its first and most important decade.
Saba Qadhi, Reem Khalid Abu-Shawish
Published: 2 September 2020
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v2n4p83

Abstract:
English language learning is more than acquiring language skills, as the universality of the Englishlanguage gives it an array of socio-cultural facets that need to be encompassed in English languageteaching to non-native speakers.This research explores the impact of personal exposure to western cultures on the professional abilities ofnovice female English language teachers in Qatar. Using a mixed approach of quantitative andqualitative data collection tools, findings from this research show that there is a statistically significantcorrelation using Pearson’s test between the teacher’s exposure to English language cultures and hercompetency as an EL Teacher. Furthermore, results show that when teachers are more confident withtheir grasp of the language especially because of familiarity, they are more able to focus on improvingtheir teaching methods and educational strategies. Feedback also emphasized the importance of suchexposure on improving accents and comprehension, which directly aided in the teachers’ abilities toimpart knowledge to their students.The impact of these results is significant with high implications on higher education policies andcurriculum design. The findings of this research provide valuable insight into the training of ELT innon-native contexts and recommends to policy makers to consider cultural emersion and exposure ofstudent teachers to EL cultures in order to improve their competencies.
Wenjing Hu, Fansheng Cao
Published: 2 September 2020
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v2n4p77

Abstract:
Along with the continuous progress of science and technology, in recent years, the improvement and optimization of the structure of the media and the rapid development of the network are promoting continuous changes in the media environment. New media has penetrated into people’s daily life and become an integral part of the whole social environment. As an indispensable component of the media industry, the host industry is facing challenges from many aspects in the new media environment, which requires the announcers and hosts to give full play to their subjective initiative, finding the “opportunity” in the “crisis”, keeping up with the pace of the times, embracing the emerging media, and grasping the needs of the audience, to produce high-quality content, so as to transform “crisis” into “opportunity”.
Jack A. Kirkland
Published: 2 September 2020
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v2n4p66

Abstract:
This article presents personal reflections on a vision to move the Blacks in America from a state of despair to one of prosperity. It is a bold attempt to present the experience of 50 years of activism, teaching, and writing on the subject. I have a clear vision of how the community, local government, and the university can join forces in a social and economic development project that would help poor Blacks form and own “tenant Organizations” and make them “Stockholders,” through carefully planned and executed cooperation. It is a real game changer in the lives of the American Blacks since the days of Black Wall Street.
Yufan Chen
Published: 2 September 2020
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v2n4p56

Abstract:
In late 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic started to spread around the world (Fauci, Lane, & Redfield, 2020). Along with the virus, misinformation about the pandemic started to spread as well. Rumors regarding the usefulness of masks, conspiracy theories regarding the legitimacy and origin of the virus, and the astonishing amount of fake news about the virus posted online every day are extremely hard to distinguish from factual news reports (Mian & Khan, 2020; Brennan, Simon, Howard, & Nielson, 2020). One example of this alarming phenomenon is the conspiracy theory that links the pandemic to 5G, which is in the early stages of being commercialized (Shafi et al., 2017). This conspiracy theory claims that 5G and the radiation it causes disrupted the natural magnetic field of the earth, and started this pandemic (Geary, 2020). Though it might look like an absurd concept, the “5G causes Corona” conspiracy theory has gained an extremely large following, and the effect of that is clear on and off the internet, as multiple 5G antennas have been vandalized all over the world by mobs claiming they are the means of spreading the coronavirus (Reichert, 2020). The fabrication and spreading of misinformation regarding 5G and its link to the coronavirus are largely connected with the multiple psychological mechanisms and manipulation of sources.
John Tropman
Published: 2 September 2020
Advances in Social Science and Culture, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.22158/assc.v2n4p39

Abstract:
Social good has been defined as “services or products that promote human well-being on a large scale.” While there seems to be agreement about the definitional “space” of social good, concepts of social action, social justice, and social impact require further attention.Producing social good does not require injustice: improvements can be made even when there is no injustice. Social good might be considered the first step in a triad containing social better (ment) and social best (good, better, best), with impactful results produced by social actors.There may be large cultural “umbrellas,” widely held value bundles, which define whole societies at points in time and over time. We discuss two: “the lonely crowd,” and “party ID.”We use a portfolio analysis to look at the elements of social good and social bad: social very good, social good, social neutrality, social bad, and social disaster, and then consider three examples of positive social impacts, and five examples of negative social impacts.We suggest a guide to social action to help us make better decisions aimed toward the A or B outcomes (Social Very Good and Social Good), using three steps: awareness of hidden bias, regular decision refurbishment, and using decision rules.The goal of this paper is to share ideas to help avoid social bad, and to help achieve social good. Ideally, social good considerations will become a regular part of the decision-making process.
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