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Results in Journal Borneo Journal of Pharmacy: 112

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, Rahmayanti Fitriah, Nadia Wahyu Artati, Wika Tiarawati, Muhammad Zaini
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 238-247; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v4i3.2118

Abstract:
The high intensity of antibiotics relatively uses causes various problems for health, especially bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Lack of public knowledge about the rationale of antibiotics is a factor that can trigger bacterial resistance to antibiotics. This study aims to assess the public's knowledge and attitudes towards antibiotic use in rural areas Cempaka, Banjarbaru, South Kalimantan. This was a descriptive cross-sectional survey method in which closed-ended questionnaires were distributed to 380 rural residents in the village of Cempaka proportional stratified random sampling technique. Data analysis used univariate and bivariate with the Chi-Square statistical test method. In conclusion, the rural residents demonstrated moderate knowledge (83.2%) and a positive attitude towards antibiotic use (97.4%). There is no significant association between both knowledge level and of antibiotics on the attitude towards antibiotic use.
Eris Septiana, Nurul Maulida Rizka, Yadi Yadi, Partomuan Simanjuntak
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 202-209; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v4i3.2154

Abstract:
Traditionally and scientifically, research has shown that Orthosiphon aristatus and Oryza sativa L. var. glutinosa have antidiabetic activity. The combination of two medicinal plants can increase their biological activity. This study aimed to determine the antidiabetic activity of O. aristatus and O. sativa L. var. glutinosa on single and combined extracts. Phytochemical screening of the single extract was done qualitatively. The α-glucosidase inhibitory method was used as an antidiabetic activity. The results showed that every extract contained alkaloids, steroids/triterpenoids, flavonoids, tannins, quinones, and coumarins. A single extract of O. sativa L. var glutinosa, O. aristatus, and their combinations (1:1, 1:2, and 2:1) had an α-glucosidase enzyme inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 67.82, 80.93, 73.81, 88.72, and 61.51 µg/ml, respectively. The combination shows that the ratio of 1:1 was nearly additive, 1:2 was slight to moderate antagonism, and 2:1 was moderate to slight synergism. The combination of 96% ethanol extract of O. sativa L. var. glutinosa and O. aristatus in a ratio of 2:1 was the most effective in increasing its inhibitory activity.
Hasyrul Hamzah, Khalish Arsy Al Khairy Siregar, Ari Nurwijayanto, ,
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 184-191; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v4i3.2418

Abstract:
Inappropriate administration of antibiotics can cause resistance to bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the strong biofilm-forming bacteria that cause antibiotic resistance. Calincing (Oxalis corniculata L.) leaves have excellent antibacterial activity, but their antibiofilm activity against S. aureus has not been reported until now. Currently, the discovery of new antibiofilm against S. aureus biofilms is significant to prevent the impact of infections caused by biofilms. This study was intended to determine the effectiveness of the ethanol extract of O. corniculata leaves in inhibiting and eradicating S. aureus biofilm formation. Planktonic testing, inhibition, and biofilm eradication activity were carried out using the microtiter broth method. Antibiofilm activity of O. corniculata leaves against S. aureus biofilm was analyzed by calculating the minimum concentration of biofilm inhibitor (MBIC50) and minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC50). Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) with a 95% confidence level. Oxalis corniculata leaves showed inhibitory activity on the formation of the tested S. aureus biofilm. The ethanol extract of 1% O. corniculata leaves gave 76.23±0.01% antibacterial activity of S. aureus and 71.32±0.01% of mid-phase antibiofilm activity, and 69.33±0.01% maturation phase. The results also prove that the ethanolic extract of O. corniculata leaves can eradicate S. aureus biofilm formation. Therefore, the ethanol extract of O. corniculata leaves can be developed as a new antibiofilm against S. aureus.
Nisa Febrinasari, Hudan Taufiq, Futikha Hudaningrum
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 231-237; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v4i3.1985

Abstract:
Learning process evaluation of Interprofessional Education (IPE) was crucial to determine the implementation process’s success. The evaluation can be done by researching student attitudes in IPE activities. Research on students' attitudes in medical education and pharmacy study programs is expected to be a guideline for the IPE curriculum drafting team at the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Islam Sultan Agung, Semarang, to develop future IPE learning activities. The study design was observational analytic with a cross-sectional method involving all medical and pharmacy students of the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Islam Sultan Agung who had participated in a Small Group Discussion with TB management and met the inclusion criteria. Data collection was carried out in August 2020 using an online google form questionnaire. Data obtained through the Scale of Attitudes Toward Psychic-Pharmacist Collaboration questionnaire contains 16 questions tested for validity and reliability. Questions were answered using a 4-point Likert Scale. The statistical test analysis results on the total score of the collaboration attitude scale using the Mann Whitney Test was a p-value of 0.000. The median total score of medical and pharmacy students was 47.00 and 56.00, respectively. The p-value indicates a significant difference between the total scores of medical and pharmacy students. Based on the analysis results, the study shows significant differences in collaboration attitudes. Medical education students fall into the "moderate" category and pharmacy students in the "high" category. The pharmacy students have a more positive collaboration attitude than medical education students toward future collaborative relationships.
, Anna Loudovikou, , , Konstantinos Kalachanis
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 226-230; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v4i3.2360

Abstract:
Clinical pharmacy involves pharmacists in direct patient care concerning optimizing medicines and promoting health awareness and disease prevention. The whereabouts of the field can be traced to Scribonius Largus, a renowned physician and pharmacist in ancient Rome. Although Largus served as an imperial physician, he has also been an exemplary pharmacist authoring a comprehensive pharmacognosy textbook and dedicated a big part of his life to improving pharmacotherapy and advancing ethics in the field. Revisiting his contributions provides valuable lessons for contemporary clinical pharmacists.
, Ratna Purwaningsih, Muindar Muindar, Eka Putri Juniarti Igirisa, Muhammad Luthfi Amirullah
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 178-183; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v4i3.1838

Abstract:
The detection of Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 using real-time PCR on powdered traditional medicinal products was carried out in the microbiology and molecular biology testing laboratory of the Food and Drug Administration in Gorontalo. This research aims to provide a reference for alternative testing methods in testing the products of traditional powder preparations on the market. The sample consisted of 10 traditional powder preparations spiked with positive control of S. typhimurium ATCC 14028 phase 2. The method used in the study was real-time PCR analysis using the SYBR® Green method, while DNA isolation using the direct PCR method. Data analysis was performed by analyzing the sample's melting temperature (Tm) curve and comparing it with positive control. The results showed that S. typhimurium ATCC 14028 was detected in samples at an average Tm value of 84.18°C, with ranges of 84.0-84.5°C. For positive control, the Tm value was at 85.2°C, while for the negative control, the Tm value was not detected. Based on these data, it can be concluded that S. typhimurium ATCC 14028 in traditional medicine products powder preparations can be detected using real-time PCR.
Noor Cahaya, Sandra Putri Wijaya, Khoerul Anwar
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 210-218; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v4i3.1959

Abstract:
Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder that requires antipsychotics therapy. Antipsychotics cause many side effects, including orthostatic hypotension. The study aimed to describe the incidence of orthostatic hypotensive side effects experiences by schizophrenia patients at the Sambang Lihum Mental Health Hospital, South Kalimantan. This research was observational description research with data sampling by medical records. This research was conducted to 300 medical records of patients period January-December 2018 which received antipsychotics medication and data analyzed by univariate analysis. The results showed the number of patients who experienced orthostatic hypotension was 98 patients (32.67%) and no experienced were 202 patients (67.33%). Incidence of orthostatic hypotension in haloperidol 54.35% (N=46); trifluoperazine 100% (N=1); clozapine 84.62% (N=13); olanzapine 100% (N=1); haloperidol-chlorpromazine 27.27% (N=11); haloperidol-haloperidol 42.86% (N=7); clozapine-risperidone 16.67% (N=6); haloperidol-clozapine 15.05% (N=93); haloperidol-olanzapine 50% (N=2); haloperidol-risperidone 31.82% (N=22); trifluoperazine-olanzapine 100% (N=1); trifluoperazine-clozapine 22.22% (N=9); trifluoperazine-risperidone 5.56% (N=18); chlorpromazine-haloperidol-haloperidol 33.3% (N=3); chlorpromazine-haloperidol-trifluoperazine 100% (N=3); haloperidol-trifluoperazine-chlorpromazine 100% (N=1); chlorpromazine-haloperidol-clozapine 42.86% (N=7); chlorpromazine-trifluoperazine-clozapine 100% (N=1); chlorpromazine-trifluoperazine-olanzapine 100% (N=1); chlorpromazine-trifluoperazine-risperidone 50% (N=2); trifluoperazine-haloperidol-risperidone 100% (N=4); haloperidol-trifluoperazine-risperidone 100% (N=1); trifluoperazine-haloperidol-clozapine 40% (N=5); haloperidol-haloperidol-clozapine 80% (N=5); clozapine-risperidone-trifluoperazine 100% (N=4); risperidone-clozapine-haloperidol 20% (N=10). The conclusion from this study was the percentage of orthostatic hypotension on schizophrenia patients at the Sambang Lihum Mental Health Hospital was 32.67% (N=98).
Chief Editor Of Borneo J Pharm
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v4i3.2719

Abstract:
Assalamu’alaikum Wr. Wb. Alhamdulillahirabbil ‘alamin. The next edition of Borneo Journal of Pharmacy (Borneo J Pharm), has been published in August 2021. Starting from this volume, Borneo J Pharm increases the frequency of publishing four times a year. This change aims to improve the circulation of the best articles published by Borneo J Pharm. This edition contains ten articles consisting of Pharmacology-Toxicology, Microbiology Pharmacy, Natural Product Development, Clinical-Community Pharmacy, and Management Pharmacy. This edition includes writings from four countries including Greece, Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, and Sudan. The authors come from several institutions, including STIKES Cendekia Utama Kudus, Universitas Sari Mulia, National Agency of Drug and Food Control of Republic of Indonesia, National Agency of Drug and Food Control of Republic of Indonesia in Gorontalo, Universitas Muhammadiyah Kalimantan Timur, Balai Taman Nasional Gunung Merapi, Universitas Sembilanbelas November Kolaka, Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Farmasi Riau, Omdurman Islamic University, University of Khartoum, King Saud University, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Universitas Pancasila, Universitas Lambung Mangkurat, Universitas Jenderal Achmad Yani, Ibrahim Adjie Health Center, University of Crete, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, New York College, Universitas Islam Sultan Agung, Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Kesehatan Borneo Lestari, and Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta. The editorial board would like to thank all editors and reviewers, and contributors of the scientific articles who have provided the repertoire in this issue. We hope that all parties, especially the contributors, could re-participate for publication in the next edition in November 2021. Wassalamu’alaikum Wr. Wb.
Vina Septiani, Pudjiastuti Kartidjo, Alfi Nurul Islamiyah, Abdul Aziz Msw, Iis Rukmawati
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 219-225; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v4i3.1971

Abstract:
Many factors can increase the risk of hypertension, one of which is diabetes mellitus. The study aims to provide an overview of Drug-Related Problems (DRPs) in patients with hypertension comorbid type 2 diabetes mellitus at Primary Health Care Center Batununggal District Bandung. This research was an observational study with retrospective data collection and descriptive analysis. Data were taken from patient prescriptions January-December 2019 period. The sample inclusion criteria are patients aged 30-75 years, patients diagnosed with hypertension comorbid type 2 diabetes mellitus, and patients treated in January-December 2019. The number of samples that met the inclusion criteria was 268 patients, of which 69 patients (25.75%) are male, and 199 patients (74.25%) are female. 164 patients (61.2%) are aged 60-75 years old. It is found that 1 case (0.37%) has the drug-related problem of drug overdose and as many as 34 cases (12.69%) have potential drug interactions.
, , , Arwa Y Mohamed, Mohammed S Al-Dosari
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 192-201; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v4i3.1955

Abstract:
This study aimed to investigate the anticancer activity of Haplophyllum tuberculatum(Forsk.) aerial parts ethanol extract and fractions and reveal the potential anticancer targets, binding modes, pharmacokinetics, and toxicity properties of its phytoconstituents. MTT assay was used to investigate the anticancer activity. TargetNet, ChemProt version 2.0, and CLC-Pred web servers were used for virtual screening, and Cresset Flare software was used for molecular docking with the 26 predicted targets. Moreover, pkCSM, swiss ADME, and eMolTox web servers were used to predict pharmacokinetics and safety. Ethanolic extracts of H. tuberculatum on HepG2 and HeLa cell lines showed promising activities with IC50 values 54.12 and 48.1 µg/mL, respectively. Further, ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest cytotoxicity on HepG2 and HeLa cell lines with IC50 values 41.7 and 52.31 µg/mL. Of 70 compounds screened virtually, polygamain, justicidin A, justicidin B, haplotubine, kusunokinin, and flindersine were predicted as safe anticancer drugs candidates. They showed the highest binding scores with targets involved in cell growth, proliferation, survival, migration, tumor suppression, induction of apoptosis, metastasis, and drug resistance. Our findings revealed the potency of H. tuberculatum as a source of anticancer candidates that further studies should support.
Dian Arsanti Palupi, Tri Wahyuni Prasetyowati, Dwi Murtiningsih, Dede Mahdiyah
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 171-177; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v4i3.1916

Abstract:
Asthma is a chronic inflammation of the respiratory tract. This study aimed to prove Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves extract's effect on reducing the eosinophil count and mast cells in asthmatic mice. Twenty BALB/c mice that met the inclusion criteria were divided into four groups of standard control (K1), negative control (K2), dexamethasone (K3), and M. oleifera leaves extract (K4). On days 0 and 7, intraperitoneal ovalbumin (OVA) was sensitized. On days 14, 16, and 18, mice were re-sensitized by inhalation using 1% OVA in sterile 0.9% NaCl. On days 18 to 25, K1 and K2 groups were given Na-CMC, the K3 group was given dexamethasone 1.3 µg/day, and the K4 group was given M. oleifera leaves extract 3.9 mg/day. On the 25th day, the mice were terminated to analyze the eosinophil count and stable bronchiolar mast cells. In conclusion, M. oleifera leaves extract was proven to decrease the eosinophil count with a p-value <0.05 and could stabilize bronchiolar mast cells with a p-value <0.05.
Sani Ega Priani, Desti Puspa Rahayu, Indra Topik Maulana
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 128-134; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v4i2.1942

Abstract:
Cod liver oil (CLO) has long been used as medicine or as a functional food. The CLO is a potential source of vitamin D, vitamin A, and omega fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid/EPA and docosahexaenoic acid/DHA). Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) can enhance dissolution, absorption, and bioavailability of hydrophilic and lipophilic substances for oral administration. The objective of this study was to develop a SNEDDS of CLO with good physical characteristics and stability. The optimization formula was carried out using various ratios of oil, surfactant, and cosurfactant. The physical properties of SNEDDS were determined by transmittance percentage, dispersibility, robustness, thermodynamics stability (heating-cooling cycle, centrifugation, and freeze-thaw cycle), and globule size distribution. The optimum formula of CLO-SNEDDS was obtained at a ratio of surfactant and cosurfactant 2 : 1 and a comparison of oil and surfactant mixtures 1 : 6. The CLO-SNEDDS meets the requirement of percent transmittance (97.90±0.85), dispersibility (grade A), and stability based on robustness and thermodynamic stability tests. Diluted SNEDDS has an average globule size of 125 nm with a polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.515. CLO-SNEDDS preparation has good physical characteristics and stability.
Chief Editor Of Borneo J Pharm
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v4i2.2289

Abstract:
Assalamu’alaikum Wr. Wb. Alhamdulillahirabbil ‘alamin. The next edition of the Borneo Journal of Pharmacy (Borneo J Pharm), has been published in May 2021. Starting from this volume, Borneo J Pharm increases the frequency of publishing four times a year. This change aims to improve the circulation of the best articles published by Borneo J Pharm. This edition contains ten articles consisting of Pharmacology-Toxicology, Pharmaceutical, Microbiology Pharmacy, and Clinical-Community Pharmacy. This edition includes writings from seven countries including Indonesia, India, Pakistan, Iran, Nepal, Uganda, and Nigeria. The authors come from several institutions, including Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Kesehatan Borneo Lestari, Bandung Institute of Technology, Universitas Lambung Mangkurat, Universitas Muhammadiyah Banjarmasin, Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Kesehatan ISFI Banjarmasin, Shri Gopichand College of Pharmacy, Government College University Faisalabad, Islamic Azad University, Sardar Patel College of Pharmacy, Universal College of Medical Sciences, NKBR College of Pharmacy and Research Centre, Universitas Islam Bandung, Oxford College of Pharmacy, ATMS Group of Institutions, Institut Sains dan Teknologi Nasional, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Kampala International University, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology Aliero, University Institute of Pharma Sciences Chandigarh University, and Laureate Institute of Pharmacy. The editorial board would like to thank all editors and reviewers, and contributors of the scientific articles who have provided the repertoire in this issue. We hope that all parties, especially the contributors of the articles, could re-participate for publication in the next edition in August 2021. Wassalamu’alaikum Wr. Wb.
Aditya Maulana Perdana Putra, Ratih Pratiwi Sari, Siska Musiam
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 84-90; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v4i2.1703

Abstract:
Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease with signs of increased blood glucose levels. Type 2 diabetes is common diabetes in adults. Bawang dayak is one of the plants believed to have the efficacy of curing various types of diseases. The purpose of this study was to find out the comparison of hypoglycemic effects between combinations of bawang dayak extract and acarbose with single acarbose. This study was an experimental study using 32 white mice divided into two groups. Group one was given a combination of bawang dayak at a dose of 100 mg/kg BW and acarbose at a dose of 40 mg/100 g BW, while group two was given acarbose at a dose of 40 mg/100 g BW. Treatment is administered after the test animal is induced with dexamethasone at a 1 mg/kg BW dose dissolved in NaCl 0.9% subcutaneously for 12 days. Measurement of glucose levels was carried out using a glucometer. Data retrieval was carried out every three days for 15 days after previously fulfilled for +10 hours. Blood glucose level data were analyzed with the General Linear Model test. The combination of bawang dayak-acarbose onion extract had a greater decrease in blood glucose levels than single acarbose. Average reduction in blood glucose levels for D+3; D+6; D+9; D+12; and D+15 was 187.31; 168.56; 140.81; 119.81; and 102.56 mg/dl, respectively. The General Linear Model test results showed a p <0.05 value that significantly impacted blood glucose levels between groups.
Priyanka Singh, Amit Kumar Shrivastava, , Manish Dhar Dwivedi
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 99-109; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v4i2.1854

Abstract:
This study aimed to improve the dissolution rate of aceclofenac and release the drug in a controlled manner over a period of 24 hours. Matrix tablets were prepared by direct compression method, using hydrophilic polymers (HPMC/guar gum). Matrix tablets were prepared by wet granulation method using different hydrophilic polymers (HPMC/guar gum). Tablets were evaluated for in vitro drug release profile in phosphate buffer with pH 6.8 (without enzymes). The thickness and hardness of prepared tablets were 3.23 ± 0.035 to 3.28 ± 0.008 mm and 3.26 ± 0.115 to 3.60 ± 0.200 kg/cm2, respectively. The friability was within the acceptable limits of pharmacopoeial specifications (0.31 to 0.71%), which indicates the good mechanical strength of the tablets. Drug release was retarded with an increase in polymer concentration due to the gelling property of polymers. The in vitro drug release from the proposed system was best explained by Higuchi’s model, indicating that drug release from tablets displayed a diffusion-controlled mechanism. The results clearly indicate that guar gum could be a potential hydrophilic carrier in developing oral controlled drug delivery systems. Based on the study results, formulations F8 was selected as the best formulation.
Abraham Bwalhuma Muhindo, , , , Emmanuel Eilu, Joe Mutebi, , Richard Onyuthi Apecu
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 145-156; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v4i2.1948

Abstract:
Surgical site infections (SSIs) are challenging to treat and often associated with much higher extended stays, morbidity, and mortality, higher treatment costs, especially when the causative agent is multidrug resistance (MDR). This study was designed to determine the prevalence of nosocomial infections and susceptibility profiles of bacteria isolated from Cesarean section (C-section) and surgical patients from Kasese District Hospitals in Western Uganda. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from January to September 2016 involving 303 patients with SSIs in obstetrics & gynecology; and general surgery wards in three health facilities. Clinical-demographic characteristics of patients were obtained using structured questionnaires before surgery. Bacterial analysis of the air and floor of the theatre room was done using the standard culture method. Of the 303 patients enrolled with SSIs (median age 34 years), 71.6% were female, and 28.4% were males. Only 14.5% developed SSIs, with predominant isolates being Staphylococcus aureus 33.33% and Escherichia coli 24%. The majority of recruited participants underwent a C-section of 58% and the least amputations of 0.3%. Duration of operation or surgery, p-value 0.002 (95% CI 1.599-7.667) was significantly associated with SSIs. Gram-negative bacteria were found resistant (50-100%) to ampicillin, gentamycin, and ciprofloxacin, the commonly used post-operative drugs of choice. Hospital-acquired infections were common with emerging antibiotic-resistant strains isolated in most SSIs at Kasese hospitals. The development of resistance to commonly used antibiotics such as ampicillin, gentamycin, and ciprofloxacin than previously reported calls for laboratory-guided SSIs therapy and strengthening infection control policies.
Gaurav Joshi, , Nishant Goutam, Alka Sharma
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 157-170; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v4i2.1978

Abstract:
Drug-related problems (DRPs) had often been a concern in the system that needed to be detected, avoided, and addressed as soon as possible. The need for a clinical pharmacist becomes even more important. He is the one who can not only share the load but also be an important part of the system by providing required advice. They fill out the patient's pharmacotherapy reporting form and notify the medical team's head off any drug-related issues. General practitioners register severe adverse drug reactions (ADRs) yearly. As a result of all of this, a clinical pharmacist working in and around the healthcare system is expected to advance the pharmacy industry. Its therapy and drugs can improve one's health quality of life by curing, preventing, or diagnosing a disease, sign, or symptom. The sideshows, on the other hand, do much harm. Because of the services they offer, clinical pharmacy has grown in popularity. To determine the overall effect and benefits of the emergency department (ED) clinical pharmacist, a systematic review of clinical practice and patient outcomes will be needed. A clinical pharmacist's anatomy, toxicology, pharmacology, and medicinal chemistry expertise significantly improves a patient's therapy enforcement. It is now important to examine the failure points of healthcare systems as well as the individuals involved.
Saurabh Nimesh, , Shikhka Dhama, , Muhammad Akram, Neda Esmaeili Nejad Hasaroeih
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 91-98; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v4i2.1950

Abstract:
The systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), commonly known as Lupus, is a rare and complex multisystem autoimmune disease where one’s immune system is overactive, and the body attacks its organ systems. SLE is a historically old disease described already in antiquity; it is an example of a chronic disease with physical, psychological, financial, and social implications for individuals diagnosed. It has inspired medical and basic biological scientists that focus on molecular biology, basic immunology, immunopathology, clinical science, genetics, and epidemiology. The syndrome is real in its existence-although hidden behind obstacles, cumbersome for patients and clinicians, and rebellious for scientists. There is currently no cure for SLE. The goal of treatment is to ease symptoms. This article will review information on the general approach to SLE therapy, focusing on currently approved therapies and novel approaches that might be used in the future.
, , Sangam Singh, Nitin Kumar
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 117-127; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v4i2.1915

Abstract:
This study aims to develop a liposomal drug delivery system of isotretinoin, an acne drug-using spray drying, as a cost-effective and time-effective technique. The liposomal formulation was prepared by using spray drying; three different strategies were adopted: suspension spray drying (SSD), thin-film hydration and spray drying (TFHSD), and emulsion spray drying (ESD). Isotretinoin was 99% bound with lipid, so lipids hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine (HSPC), distearoyl phosphatidylglycerol (DSPG), and cholesterol were selected for the formulation development. The HSPC, DSPG, cholesterol, and isotretinoin were taken in the ratio 4 : 1 : 0.16 : 3.1 mmol. In vitro drug release studies, microscopy, drug content, and related substance characterizations were done to formulate each strategy of spray drying prepared dry liposomes of isotretinoin. Results were compared with the USP monograph of isotretinoin. It was revealed that isotretinoin's liposomal formulation using ESD was having drug release according to the USP limits. Drug content was also according to the USP requirement; no free drug crystals were found in microscopy, multivesicular vesicles were found in shape, a particle size of up 60 µ was found. The ESD technique was a successful, time-effective, and cost-effective technique for preparing a liposomal drug delivery system for isotretinoin.
Fitrianti Darusman, , Gina Fuji Nurfarida
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 110-116; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v4i2.1826

Abstract:
Glimepiride is often combined with metformin HCl as an oral antidiabetic in type II diabetes mellitus, which provides a complementary and synergistic effect with multiple targets for insulin secretion. Glimepiride includes class II of BCS, which solubility practically insoluble in water but high permeability, which will impact the drug's small bioavailability. In contrast, metformin HCl includes class III of BCS, which has a high solubility in water, but low permeability is absorbed approximately 50-60% in the digestive tract given orally. The co-crystallization method can be used to improve the glimepiride solubility properties and the permeability properties of metformin HCl by interrupting glimepiride with metformin HCl physically. This study aims to identify the physical interactions between glimepiride and metformin HCL using a thermal analysis of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and then confirmed by a computational approach. Identifying the physical interactions between glimepiride and metformin HCL was carried out by plotting the melting points generated from the endothermic peaks of the DSC thermogram at various compositions versus the mole ratios of the two were further confirmed by the computational approach using PatchDock. The results of the phase diagram analysis of the binary system between glimepiride and metformin HCl show a congruent pattern, which indicates the formation of co-crystal or molecular compounds at a 1 : 1 mole ratio at 228°C. Computational approach results showed that the interaction between glimepiride and metformin HCl did not form new compounds but heterosinton formation that was stable in molecular dynamics simulations.
Dita Ayulia Dwi Sandi, Eka Fitri Susiani, , Pratiwi Wikaningtyas
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 78-83; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v4i2.1782

Abstract:
Sunscreen is a cosmetic substance that has the ability to reflect or absorb sunlight actively. It can prevent skin irritation due to UV rays. One of the natural ingredients with a sunscreen effect is the Edible-nest swiftlet's (Aerodramus fuciphagus) nest (ESN). This study aimed to determine the value of the sun protective factor (SPF) of the ESN water extract. The ESN water extract solution with variation concentration, this is 2000, 2500, 5000, 6000, and 7000 ppm, were measured by spectrophotometric UV-Vis at wavelength 290-375 nm with 5 nm intervals to determine the value of SPF, percentage of erythema transmission (%Te), and percentage of pigmentation transmission (%Tp) of ESN water extract. The result showed that the ESN water extract's SPF values at the concentration 2000, 2500, 5000, 6000, and 7000 ppm were 7.80; 9.68; 18.75; 20.58; and 22.24. The value of %Te of each concentration were 15.60±0.19; 10.03±0.42; 1.24±0.04; 0.81±0.01 and 0.56±0.01. While the value of %Tp of each concentration was showed the sunblock category. In conclusion, the ESN water extract from Central Kalimantan at the concentration of 6000 ppm has potential in ultraviolet protection against the skin in the ultra category with sunblock category mechanism. Further, it can be developed into sunscreen cosmetics from natural ingredients.
Vilya Syafriana, Amelia Febriani, Suyatno Suyatno, Nurfitri Nurfitri, Fathin Hamida
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 135-144; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v4i2.1870

Abstract:
Sempur (Dillenia suffruticosa) leaves are known as a traditional medicine for the people of Bangka-Belitung Island. The local people empirically utilize the boiled water of D. suffruticosa leaves as anti-diarrhea. However, the antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract of D. suffruticosa leaves has not been reported. This study aims to determine the antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract of D. suffruticosa leaves against several microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus as Gram-positive bacteria, Escherichia coli as Gram-negative bacteria, and Candida albicans as fungi. Extraction was carried out by maceration method with 70% ethanol, then screened for phytochemical constituents. The antimicrobial test was carried out by the disc diffusion method using Nutrient Agar (NA) for bacteria, and Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) for fungi. The results of phytochemical screening showed that the ethanol extract of D. suffruticosa leaves contained alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, and saponins. The antimicrobial test showed that the extract of D. suffruticosa leaves could inhibit the growth of S. aureus at concentrations of 10%, 20%, and 40% were 8.35±0.05; 9.34±0.32; and 10.52±0.22, respectively. The ethanol extract of D. suffruticosa leaves could inhibit the growth of S. aureus, whereas E. coli and C. albicans did not show any activity.
Chief Editor Of Borneo J Pharm
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v4i1.2144

Abstract:
Alhamdulillahirabbil ‘Alamin. The next edition of the Borneo Journal of Pharmacy (Borneo J Pharm), has been published in February 2021. Starting from this edition, Borneo J Pharm increases the frequency of publishing four times a year. This change aims to improve the circulation of the best articles published by Borneo J Pharm. Also, starting from this edition, Borneo J Pharm applying the publish-as-you-go issue to present the title of the article that has been received as early as possible in order to increase the chances of readability and quotation of articles in Borneo J Pharm. This edition includes writings from four countries including Indonesia, India, Malaysia, and Nigeria. The authors come from several institutions, including Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang, Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Sarawak, Politeknik Bina Husada Kendari, Universitas Halu Oleo, Akademi Farmasi Surabaya, Universitas Hang Tuah, Universitas Mandala Waluya, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Universitas Abdurrab, Federal University of Technology Minna, Humera Khan College of Pharmacy, University of Abuja, and Universitas Ahmad Dahlan. Editorial boards are fully aware that there is still room for improvement in this edition, hence with all humility willing to accept constructive suggestions and feedback for improvements to the publication for the next editions. The editorial board would like to thank all editors and reviewers, and contributors of the scientific articles who have provided the repertoire in this issue. We hope that all parties, especially the contributors of the articles, could re-participate for publication in the next edition in May 2021.
Dyah Rahmasari, Aulia Juwanti, Ima Pratiwi, Novia Zulfa Diana, Raditya Weka Nugraheni, Dita Nurlita Rakhma
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 22-28; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v4i1.1675

Abstract:
Melanin is a pigment contains in human skin which role as a UV-absorbing agent. One of the exogenous melanins can be obtained from squid (Loligo sp.) ink. Squid ink melanin has potent free radical protection activities. This study aimed to determine the physicochemical, stability, antioxidant, and UV protection activities of squid ink powder lotions. Squid ink powders were obtained from the drying process using HCl 0.5M and stored in the climatic chamber. Antioxidant activity was conducted quantitatively using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil) scavenging method. The best result of the DPPH scavenging activity was 29.12±0.023%, shown from formula III. UV protection activity was conducted by observing erythema scores in animal skin, which exposure to UV. This preparation inhibits the effect of UV exposure. Squid ink powder lotions are potential as a sunscreen product.
La Ode Muhammad Andi Zulbayu, , Rumiyati Rumiyati
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 29-35; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v4i1.1665

Abstract:
The grapefruit (Citrus maxima L.) is a plant known by the public as a fruit consumed with various properties. This plant's use is well known, such as antioxidants, enhancing immunity, anti-aging, and antibacterial properties. This study aimed to identify and analyze the chemical compounds contained in C. maxima rind. The extract was obtained by the maceration method using ethanol and ethyl acetate as solvents. The fractionation process was carried out by Column Chromatography. Observation of thin-layer chromatography profiles with UV lamps 254 and 366 nm. Analysis of chemical compound components using GC-MS and data interpretation based on the Wiley 7.0 data library. The interpretation results of the EF1 fraction are β-copaen-4-α-ol; pentadecanoic acid; hexadecanoic acid; tetradecanoic acid; dotriacontane; osthol; 2H-1-benzopyran-2-one, 7-methoxy-8-(3-methyl-2-oxobutyl); furfural; 6-(2,3-Dihydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-7-methoxycoumarin; and 6-(iodomethyl)-5-methyl-4-oxahexanolide. The chemical compounds identified in EAF2 are 1-octadecanol; decane; tetracosane; hexacosane; and 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid (2-ethylhexyl) ester. It can be concluded that these compounds have biological and pharmacological activities.
Asiska Permata Dewi, Dini Mardhiyani
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 43-50; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v4i1.1589

Abstract:
Ketapang (Terminalia catappa L.) is traditionally used by the community to treat infections of the skin caused by bacteria or fungi. In this study, T. catappa leaves extract was added to the liquid soap formula as an antibacterial. The purpose of this study was to determine the secondary metabolite compounds contained in T. catappa leaves extract, physical evaluation of the preparation, and antibacterial activity of liquid soap. Liquid soap formula is made with various concentrations of T. catappa leaves extract F0 (0%), F1 (1%), F2 (2%), and F3 (3%). The resulting soap was evaluated for organoleptic, pH, high foam, homogeneity, irritation, and its activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Escherichia coli using the disc diffusion method. The results showed that the T. catappa leaves extract contained flavonoids, tannins, saponins, and triterpenoids. The liquid soap formula F0 is clear, while F1, F2, and F3 have the characteristics of brown-dark brown, homogeneous, pH between 4.6-5.2, foam stability between 67-72%, which is not significantly different and stable after five minutes of testing, and it does not irritate the skin. Terminalia catappa leaves extracts liquid soap has antibacterial activity at a concentration of 1%, 2%, and 3%, with the largest inhibition zone diameter produced by S. aureus.
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 57-67; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v4i1.1575

Abstract:
Diabetes mellitus (DM) has developed as a major public health problem in the world. It is estimated that around 50% of diabetics have not been diagnosed in Indonesia, and only two-thirds of those diagnosed are undergoing treatment. This condition must be prevented. The purpose of this study is to determine the validity and reliability of the Indonesian version of FINDRISC as an instrument for predicting type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study was an observational study with a cross-sectional design on 60 research subjects who are indigenous people of Yogyakarta who live in Yogyakarta, which can be proven by Identity Cards by the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Validity is tested by the validity of criteria by type while using the area under the receiver-operating curve (ROC-AUC), while reliability is tested by internal consistency using Cronbach's Alpha (α). The results showed that as many as 14 people, or 23.33% experienced uncontrolled fasting blood sugar and 15 people had a risk score of FINDRISC more than 10. Based on the ROC AUC analysis, the value of 0.935 (95% CI 0.865 1.00) with a cut-off point of 10 with the value of Sn = 85%, Sp = 95%, PPV = 85%, NPV = 95%, +LR = 5.66, and -LR = 0.15. Based on the reliability test, the Cronbach's value of 0.727 is obtained. The FINDRISC questionnaire is categorized as valid and reliable so that it can be a screening tool for understanding.
, Selfyana Austin Tee, Karmilah Karmilah, , , Agung Wibawa Mahatva Yodha
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 6-15; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v4i1.1686

Abstract:
Meistera chinensis is one of the new generations of the Zingiberaceae family. Zingiberaceae have a large number of species and still need research to reveal their chemical content. Meistera chinensis, a local plant that is widespread in Konawe Regency, Southeast Sulawesi. Empirically, M. chinensis is used as a flavor enhancer in food, aches, and increases body immunity. There are no reports of chemical content or its biological activity. In this study, the fruit was tested for phytochemicals, antioxidants using the ABTS test, total phenolic, total flavonoid content, and toxicity test with BSLT. Meistera chinensis was extracted with ethanol and fractionated by ethyl acetate solvent use vacuum liquid chromatography. Phytochemical screening was carried out qualitatively by using the calorimetric method. The fraction toxicity was monitored by a lethal test for brine shrimp (BSLT). These fractions for the ABTS method obtained fractions 1-8 (F1-F8) and ascorbic acid were used as controls. The results showed radical scavenging activities fraction of M. chinensis fruit was a very strong activity with IC50 of 42.7±3.53 mg/L (F8). The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were 30.72±1.07 mgGAE/g and 8.02±0.48 mgQE/g, respectively. The phytochemical evaluation contains terpenoids, saponins, phenolics, steroids, alkaloids, and flavonoids. The BSLT toxicity test was found to be very toxic with IC50 of 5.20±0.72 mg/L. These findings indicate that the fruit of M. chinensis acts as an antioxidant and toxicity agent.
Ninda Sari Wahyuningtyas, , Satibi Satibi
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 68-77; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v4i1.1579

Abstract:
The number of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Indonesia increases every year. Control of the development of T2DM can be done by screening using Finnish Diabetic Risk Score (FINDRISC)-Indonesian. FINDRISC is a valid tool for estimating the risk of T2DM within the next 10 years. This condition can have a major impact on the estimated life span and quality of life in the future. The purpose of this research is to determine the relationship between FINDRISC-Indonesian and respondent characteristics with HRQoL from EuroQol-5 Dimension-5 Level (EQ-5D-5L) in Yogyakarta. We conducted a cross-sectional study consisting of 125 respondents who met the inclusion criteria. The risk of developing T2DM was assessed using a validated and widely used FINDRISC (range 0-26 points), and quality of life was measured by the EQ-5D-5L instrument. Overall data were analyzed using the Pearson correlation test and Independent t-test. The results showed the domain of pain was the domain that reported most respondents' most problems (28.8%). The respondent's utility value was 0.958 ± 0.69, and the VAS value was 79.4 ± 0.7. There was a significant difference in utility value based on age characteristics (p = 0.013). There is a relationship between age and utility value (p = 0.006) and FINDRISC score with utility value (p = 0.003). This study's conclusion was high FINDRISC affects the quality of life, and older age has a low quality of life.
, Wahyu Margi Sidoretno, Nur Aisah
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 36-42; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v4i1.1578

Abstract:
Turmeric (Curcuma domestica) has nutritious compounds called curcuminoids, which can be used as antioxidants. As an antioxidant, C. domestica extract can be used to ward off free radicals that damage collagen and elastin, a protein that keeps skin moist. This study aimed to determine the antioxidant activity of serum combined with the addition of collagen using the DPPH method. The DPPH was made at a concentration of 80 μg/mL, and the absorption was read at a wavelength of 520 nm using a microplate rider. The study was conducted by making six formulations, namely F0, F1, F2, F3, F4, and F5 obtained the results of serum made from C. domestica extract that can inhibit free radicals and meet the physical evaluation test requirements of serum. Furthermore, the formula is made using only one active ingredient and only collagen to determine the antioxidant activity influenced by the extract or collagen. The results obtained indicate that collagen has a supporting role in adding antioxidant activity apart from the extract used. The highest % inhibition value at F5 with 90.526% can be said to ward off free radicals.
, , Chijioke Madu, Johnson Adejoh
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 51-56; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v4i1.1817

Abstract:
Herbal teas are nutrient, antioxidant, and hydration rich brews made from herbs and spices and taken for various purposes. The objective of this study was to formulate tea from clove (Syzygium aromaticum), leaves of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), guava (Psidium guajava), and moringa (Moringa oleifera), as well as compared with Chinese and yellow Lipton Tea. The samples were analyzed for comparative sensory analysis using the 7 points hedonic scale. The sensory evaluation result demonstrated that the color of the clove tea sample (5.87) was most acceptable by participants, while the lemongrass tea (4.46) sample was least acceptable amongst all the tea samples. The clove remained the most accepted tea for aroma (6.07), taste (5.92), texture (5.76), general appearance (5.74), and general acceptability (5.93), in 7 points hedonic scale. However, all tea samples were had significant acceptable scores above average (p
Hilya Nur Imtihani, Fitria Abbas Thalib, Silfiana Nisa Permatasari
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 16-21; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v4i1.1557

Abstract:
Whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) on the market are processed or sold only to take part in the meat. The head, shell, and tail are thrown away without any prior processing. Underutilized waste causes environmental problems. An alternative to overcome this environmental disturbance phenomenon is to utilize shrimp shells containing chitin and subsequently transformed into chitosan that can be applied in various fields. Chitosan has poor solubility in water but high permeability, so to improve bioavailability is by making solid dispersions. Chitosan solid dispersion made by the solvent evaporation technique used PVP K-30 as the carriers. The result of chitosan solid dispersion was then molded into tablets by the direct compression method. Hence the tablets were evaluated by weight and size uniformity, hardness, friability, and disintegration time. The formulation divided into three groups, that is F1 (chitosan : PVP K-30 = 1 : 1 solid dispersion), F2 (chitosan : PVP K-30 = 1 : 3 solid dispersion), and F3 (pure chitosan). All the formulas by weight and size uniformity and disintegration time fulfill the requirements. F3 hardness is 4,275 kg is the best from F1 and F2. By statistic analytical from weight uniformity, hardness and disintegration time give significant difference with sig.
Muhammad Priyadi, , Amaliyah Dina Anggraeni,
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v4i1.1443

Abstract:
Durio kutejensis has known potential as herbal medicine in Kalimantan. Many things can be explored from D. kutejensis related pharmacological activity in every part of the plant included root bark. This study investigated the phytochemical content with a qualitative test and tested cytotoxic activities of D. kutejensis root bark on MCF-7 cell lines. Cytotoxic activity tested on MCF-7 cells with MTT assay method. The result showed that D. kutejensis root bark contains flavonoid, tannin, terpenoid, phenol, and saponin. IC50 value for ethanol extracts of root bark, n-hexane fractions, ethyl acetate fractions, and doxorubicin on MCF-7 cells are 761.29; 280.5; 207.08; and 0.25 μg/mL, respectively. In conclusion, D. kutejensis root bark has some secondary metabolites but no cytotoxic activity on MCF-7 cells. Further research on other compounds to be investigated and test to other pharmacological activity.
, La Ode Muhammad Fitrawan, Yusniati Dwi Pemudi, Ruslin Ruslin, Sunandar Ihsan, Ruslan Ruslan,
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 3, pp 270-277; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v3i4.1611

Abstract:
The quality of outpatient services can be measured by the SERVQUAL model that considers five dimensions: tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy. This study aimed to look at the effect of service quality on outpatient satisfaction at the Poasia community health center's pharmacy. The subjects in this study were 33 outpatients. The analysis technique used is gap analysis to compare patients' expectations and reality, normality test data based on questionnaire patient satisfaction tested for validation. This study's results indicate the average value of the gap in the Poasia community health center's pharmacy, amounting to -0.44. From the value of the gap, the lowest gap value in the pharmacy center of Poasia is the place of service and the provision of inadequate drug information of -0.88. Based on the paired t-test where a significant value >0.05, Ho is rejected, and Ha accepted, which means a significant difference between the quality of service and patients' satisfaction in the Pharmacy of Puskesmas Poasia Kendari City. This study concludes that there is a significant gap between expectations and reality at the Poasia community health center's pharmacy.
I Gusti Ngurah Agung Windra Wartana Putra, Putu Eka Arimbawa, Ni Putu Rahayu Artini
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 3, pp 257-261; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v3i4.1644

Abstract:
Sunlight is the source of life and energy. Besides that, sunlight also creates skin challenges such as sunburn, pigmentation, wrinkles, dermatitis, aging, and skin cancer. Natural sunscreen protection is a popular and preferred way among various regions of the world to reduce sunlight's harmful effect. This study aimed to determine the potential of frangipani (Plumeria alba) leaves extract in some concentrations as ultraviolet protection. Plumeria alba extract contained secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, phenolics, and alkaloids that function as impeding ultraviolet radiation. This study used an experimental method consisting of four treatments and six replications. This study shows that the extract with concentration 2500; 5000; 7500; and 10000 ppm consecutively have SPF value of 6.24; 12.00; 18.45; and 22.64. It can be concluded the P. alba leaves extract potential as ultraviolet protection.
Selvira Anandia Intan Maulidya, Doni Anshar Nuari, Shendi Suryana, Sumia Almarifah
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 3, pp 243-248; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v3i4.1552

Abstract:
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of nosocomial infections throughout the world and can be life-threatening as well. This study aimed to determine the antibacterial activity of Bandotan (Ageratum conyzoides L) leaves ethanolic extract against MRSA's growth. Ageratum conyzoides leaves were extracted by ethanol and screened for their phytochemical constituent. Ethanolic extracts of A. conyzoides leaves were evaluated for their potential antibacterial activity using disc diffusion assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value was determined using the agar dilution method. Phytochemical screening shows that the extracts contain alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and steroids or triterpenoids. Ageratum conyzoides leaves extract shows a 25.1 mm inhibitory zone at 12.5% extract concentration with MIC value equivalents to 4.46 x 10-6 g of gentamicin. This study concludes that A. conyzoides leaves ethanolic extracts have potential antibacterial activity against MRSA.
, Widya Handayani
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 3, pp 262-269; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v3i4.1660

Abstract:
The irrational and incompliance use of antibiotics has been correlated to bacterial resistance. Several methods evaluated patients' compliance with oral antibiotics have been conducted. However, a standard questionnaire for evaluating oral antibiotics compliance in Indonesian has not been developed yet. This study was conducted to record the content validity of the developed questionnaire called 20-KAO to assess compliance with oral antibiotics. The validity content test was conducted through six experts review using the Item Content Validity Index (I-CVI) and Scale-Content Validity Index (S-CVI). The experts were also requested to provide recommendations for each item, whether revisions or deletion. After the review process, the number of questions remains unchanged. A total of 19 out of 20 items had an I-CVI of 1.00, and S-CVI was calculated at 0.98. Therefore, 20 items of the 20-KAO questionnaire have excellent content validity. However, future construct validity and reliability test to analyze the responses of targeted respondents and the questionnaire's consistency are needed.
Ambika Nand Jha,
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 3, pp 199-208; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v3i4.1569

Abstract:
Cannabinoid receptors, located throughout the body, are part of the endocannabinoid system. Cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors are G protein-coupled receptors present from the early stages of gestation, which is involved in various physiological processes, including appetite, pain-sensation, mood, and memory. Due to the lipophilic nature of cannabinoids, it was initially thought that these compounds exert several biological effects by disrupting the cell membrane nonspecifically. Recent biochemical and behavioral findings have demonstrated that blockade of CB1 receptors engenders antidepressant-like neurochemical changes (increases in extracellular levels of monoamines in cortical but not subcortical brain regions) and behavioral effects consistent with antidepressant/antistress activity. We aim to define various roles of cannabinoid receptors in modulating signaling pathways and association with several pathophysiological conditions.
, Dina Noor Kamali, , Normaidah Normaidah, Agung Sriyono
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 3, pp 209-215; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v3i4.1541

Abstract:
Mundar (Garcinia forbesii King.) is a plant from South Kalimantan. This plant has chemical contents that have potential as medicine. The purpose of this study is to provide a pharmacognostic picture of a specific, nonspecific and determine the antioxidant activity of G. forbesii leaves. Specific parameters include organoleptic, microscopic testing, thin-layer chromatography profiles, and phytochemical screening. Nonspecific parameters include total ash content, acid insoluble ash content, drying loss, water-soluble extract content, and ethanol-soluble extract content. Antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH method based on IC50 values. Specific parameter test results are green powder, characteristic odor, and sour taste. Microscopic tests showed stomata, upper epidermis, lower epidermis, cell walls, xylem, phloem, palisade tissue, spongy tissue, and cuticles. Garcinia forbesii leaves contain alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, tannins, and steroids. The TLC profile showed good separation of polar eluents, and yellow spots appeared after spraying DPPH reagents. The non-specific parameter test is the total ash content of 6.52�0.1%; acid insoluble ash content 1.06�0.08%; drying shrinkage 6.43�0.38%; water-soluble extracts 34.3�0.3%; and ethanol-soluble extracts 23.47�0.35%. Ethanol extract of G. forbesii leaves has antioxidant activity with IC50 of 65.7 ppm. Pharmacognostic study fulfills the requirements, and G. forbesii leaves extract has strong antioxidant activity.
Chief Editor Of Borneo J Pharm
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v3i4.1855

Abstract:
Alhamdulillahirabbil �Alamin. The next edition of Borneo Journal of Pharmacy (Borneo J Pharm), has been published in November 2020. Starting from this edition, Borneo J Pharm increases the frequency of publishing four times a year. This change aims to improve the circulation of the best articles published by Borneo J Pharm. Also, starting from this edition, Borneo J Pharm applying the publish-as-you-go issue to present the title of the article that has been received as early as possible in order to increase the chances of readability and quotation of articles in Borneo J Pharm. This edition contains ten articles consisting of Pharmacology-Toxicology, Pharmacognosy-Phytochemistry, Analytical Pharmacy-Medicinal Chemistry, Microbiology Pharmacy, Natural Product Development, Clinical-Community Pharmacy, and Management Pharmacy. This edition includes writings from four countries including Indonesia, India, Malaysia, and Sudan. The authors come from several institutions, including Indubhai Patel College of Pharmacy and Research Center, SAL Institute of Pharmacy, Universitas Lambung Mangkurat, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kebun Raya Banua Kalimantan Selatan, Universitas Kristen Krida Wacana, University of Gezira, International Islamic University Malaysia, Universitas Mandala Waluya, Universitas Islam Bandung, Universitas Halu Oleo, Universitas Garut, Universitas Bali Internasional, and Akademi Farmasi Surabaya. The editorial board would like to thank all editors and reviewers, and contributors of the scientific articles who have provided the repertoire in this issue. We hope that all parties, especially the contributors of the articles, could re-participate for publication in the next edition in February 2021.
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 3, pp 235-242; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v3i4.1634

Abstract:
The COVID-19 pandemic has become a serious problem today, with its prevalence increasing every day. The SARS-CoV-2 main protease (MPro) is a promising therapeutic target to inhibit replicating and spreading the virus that causes COVID-19. The compounds contained in the Etlingera elatior plant has the potential. This study aimed to examine the compounds' activity in E. elatior against SARS-CoV-2 MPro using in silico methods. A total of seven compounds contained in E. elatior were obtained from the Knapsack database. The compounds were then docked into the SARS-CoV-2 MPro receptor's active site with the PDB ID 6LU7. Afterward, the biological activities were predicted by the PASS prediction webserver. The molecular docking results showed that ergosterol peroxide and sitostenone had the best binding energy with -10.40 kcal/mol and -9.17 kcal/mol, respectively. The in silico PASS prediction showed it has potential as antiviral therapy. It concluded ergosterol peroxide and sitostenone has the potential as SARS-CoV-2 MPro inhibitor candidate.
Samah Am Abdelrahman, Atif Aa Yassin, , Nabil Hh Bashir
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 3, pp 227-234; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v3i4.1592

Abstract:
This study was conducted to determine the gossypol content in Bt cottonseed (Seeni-1) oil by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with an Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) element. The wavelengths used were selected by spiking refined, bleached deodorized palm oil (RBDPO) to gossypol concentrations of 0-5% and noting the regions of maximal absorbance. Absorbance values of the wavelength regions 3700-2400 & 1900-750 cm-1 and a partial least squares (PLS) method were used to derive calibration models for Hamid cottonseed oil, Seeni-1 cottonseed oil, and gossypol-spiked RBDPO. The coefficients of determination (R2) for the calibration models were computed for the FTIR spectroscopy results against those found by using the wet chemical method AOCS method Ba 8�78. The R2 was 0.8916, 0.9581, and 0.9374 for Hamid cottonseed oil, Seeni-1 cottonseed oil, and gossypol-spiked RBDPO, respectively. The standard error (SE) of the calibration was 0.053, 0.078, and 0.062, respectively. The calibration models were validated using the cross-validation technique within the same set of oil samples. The results of FTIR spectroscopy as a useful technique determining gossypol content in crude cottonseed oil showed that there is a significant difference (p
Yamin Yamin, Ruslin Ruslin, Sabarudin Sabarudin, Nurramadhani A Sida, Henny Kasmawati, La Ode Muhammad Diman
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 3, pp 249-256; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v3i4.1500

Abstract:
Lansium domesticum Coor. is a fruit species from the Meliaceae family, which is a tropical plant native to Southeast Asia. Local citizens call it langsat, longkong, or duku and have used it as traditional medicine. The seeds of L. domesticum are used as a fever medicine, its bark is used to treat scorpion sting, and its leaves are used to repel mosquitoes. Because of its various uses, it is necessary to explore the antiradical potential of L. domesticum seeds. This study aims to determine the antiradical potential of L. domesticum seeds extract and fractions by using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and to discover compounds that act as antiradical. Lansium domesticum seed powder was macerated with methanol, and then the extract was concentrated using a rotary evaporator and fractionated by n-hexane and ethyl acetate. The antiradical assay was conducted on extract and fractions by using DPPH radicals. Phenolic and flavonoid contents from extract and fractions were also tested. The ethyl acetate fraction obtained strong antiradical potential with an IC50 value of 8.938 � 0.031 �g/mL. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of ethyl acetate fraction were higher with values ??of 58.25 � 0.501 mgGAE/g sample and 75.123 � 0.175 mgQE/g sample, respectively. Correlation of phenolic and flavonoid contents, which inhibited radicals had R2 values ??of 0.9182 and 0.7658. Ethyl acetate fraction of L. domesticum seeds had very strong antiradical activity. Further isolation is expected to be conducted to discover which compounds are the most responsible as antiradical.
Hendrik Kurniawan, Ermenilda Sonia Dacamis, , Priscilla Sari Dianauli Lumban Tobing, Ali Hanapiah, Adit Widodo Santoso
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 3, pp 216-226; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v3i4.1583

Abstract:
Ipomoea reptans Poir or kangkung is a popular leafy vegetable, a favorite to people in Asian countries. However, limited information is available on their bioactivities. In the present study, the antioxidant, antidiabetic, and anti-obesity potential of I. reptans leaves were investigated. Different fractions (ethanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane) of I. reptans leaves were evaluated for their scavenging activity on DPPH radicals, whereas their reducing potential was investigated by cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CuPRAC), total antioxidant, and reducing power assays. The antidiabetic potential was investigated by their inhibition effect on a-glucosidase. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of I. reptans leaves were solvent dependent. Ethyl acetate contained the highest phenolic content, followed by ethanol and hexane fractions. However, for flavonoid content, the order was ethanol > ethyl acetate > hexane. All fractions showed DPPH scavenging activity in a concentration-dependent manner, with activities weaker than standards ascorbic acid and BHT, in the order of ethanol > ethyl acetate > hexane. All fractions showed reducing capacity, but only hexane and ethanol fractions of I. reptans leaves showed inhibition on a-glucosidase, with hexane showed more potent inhibition compared to acarbose. The study also found that fractions of I. reptans inhibit lipase and trypsin, enzymes related to lipid metabolism. Findings in this study offer a prospect for I. reptans leaves as a functional food source for antioxidant, antidiabetic, and anti-obesity purposes.
, Irina Konovalova
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 3, pp 162-169; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v3i3.1524

Abstract:
This research presents the results of the morphological-anatomical study of grass organs above ground (leaves, stems, and flowers) from Sideritis taurica Steph. ex Willd. from the Lamiaceae family. The range of distribution of this species covers Eastern Europe, including Crimea, Caucasus. This plant is commonly found as an ornamental plant and grows in the southern and central regions of Russia. The purpose of this study is the anatomical and morphological study of the vegetative organs of S. taurica and the formation of diagnostic signs for reliable plant identification. The research material used was S. taurica herbicide samples collected in Crimea on the slopes of Mount Ay-Petri. Plant material is fixed in the glycerin : water system in a ratio of 1 : 1. Cross-section of stems and leaves is carried out using blades. The study was conducted with the morphological-anatomical method. The results obtained indicate the anatomical structure of the lamina, stem, and flower of the plant that has been studied. Anomocytic types of stomatal devices, unicellular and multicellular trichomes, located on the upper and lower sides of the leaf, as well as on the corolla stem and epidermis, have been discovered. The study carried out is part of the S. taurica complex pharmacognostic study.
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v3i3.1648

Abstract:
Alhamdulillahirabbil �Alamin. The next edition of Borneo Journal of Pharmacy (Borneo J Pharm), has been published in August 2020. Starting from this edition, Borneo J Pharm increases the frequency of publishing four times a year. This change aims to improve the circulation of the best articles published by Borneo J Pharm. Also, starting from this edition, Borneo J Pharm applying the publish-as-you-go issue to present the title of the article that has been received as early as possible in order to increase the chances of readability and quotation of articles in Borneo J Pharm. This edition contains six articles consisting of Pharmacology-Toxicology, Pharmacognosy-Phytochemistry, Microbiology Pharmacy, Natural Product Development, and Clinical-Community Pharmacy. This edition includes writings from five countries including Indonesia, India, Libya, Nigeria, and the Russian Federation. The authors come from several institutions, including Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Kesehatan Senior Medan, University of Tripoli, National Centre for Diabetes and Endocrinology of Libya, Pyatigorsk Medical and Pharmaceutical Institute, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology of Aliero, Federal Medical Centre of Birnin-Kebbi, Shri Gopichand College of Pharmacy, Meerut Institute of Engineering and Technology, NKBR College of Pharmacy and Research Centre, Universitas 17 Agustus 1945 Jakarta, and Universitas Esa Unggul. The editorial board would like to thank all editors and reviewers, and contributors of the scientific articles who have provided the repertoire in this issue. We hope that all parties, especially the contributors of the articles, could re-participate for the publication in the next edition in November 2020.
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 3, pp 152-161; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v3i3.1394

Abstract:
The main ingredient in the daily salad dish is the leaves of Lactuca sativa, while the stems are usually discarded and not eaten. This study was conducted to compare the stems and leaves of two selected L. sativa varieties (L. sativa var. longifolia L. and L. sativa var. capitata L.) related to the preliminary phytochemical investigation, nutrient content, DPPH assay, and in vitro anticoagulant activity by determination of prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). The findings revealed almost the same phytoconstituents in the leaves and stems of each variety, such as terpenoids, flavonoids, coumarins, and others. Exceptionally, tannins have only been detected in the leaves. Compared to the stems, the leaves of both varieties showed statistically significantly higher levels of raw protein and raw fat. For the DPPH assay, the leaves of both varieties have a statistically significantly higher antioxidant activity than the stems. The leaves and stem extract of the two selected varieties showed a significant prolongation of PT (P
Julaeha Julaeha, Ery Fudjiati,
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 3, pp 190-198; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v3i3.1359

Abstract:
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major chronic disease that affects a large number of people worldwide. Hypertension is a common disease comorbidity among T2DM patients, and often those patients received polypharmacy and complex treatment in long term duration. This condition may lead to an increased risk of drug therapy problems (DTPs). This study aimed to assess and determine potential drug therapy problems in type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension comorbidity. Retrospective cross-sectional design was conducted in a hospital setting, especially data sources from the prescription of ambulatory T2DM patients with hypertension. A total of 190 patients were studied. More than half of the participants were female (53.68%). The majority age range of participants was 50-59 years (46.84%). Almost all antidiabetic agents were prescribed as polypharmacy (73.16%). Metformin was the most antidiabetic agent prescribed as monotherapy and combination therapy (63.16%). Almost all antihypertensive agents were prescribed as polypharmacy (63.26%). Amlodipine was the most antihypertensive agent prescribed as monotherapy and combination therapy (34.74%). Among the study participants, 56.84% have at least one of DTPs. Adverse drug reaction was the most frequent (47.22%), followed by ineffective drug therapy (29.63%). Since the potential of DTPs in T2DM patients with hypertension comorbidity is relatively high, early identifying, resolving, and preventing drug therapy problems by the pharmacist is needed to achieve goals of treatment.
Syahrina Syahrina, Vivi Asfianti, ,
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 3, pp 146-151; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v3i3.1365

Abstract:
Uric acid is the final product of purine metabolism that will be excreted through urine, feces, and sweat. Excessive production of uric acid can cause hyperuricemia, known as gout. The skin of shallots (Allium cepa L.) is one of the household wastes that are very rarely used by the community. Ethanol extract of shallot skin (EESS) was tested for phytochemical screening and anti-hyperuricemia activity using potassium oxonate. Mice were divided into five groups (Allopurinol, Na-CMC, EESS 200 mg/kg BW, 300 mg/kg BW, and 400 mg/kg BW) and uric acid levels were observed at 2-hour intervals for six hours. Phytochemical screening shows that EESS has potential compounds in the treatment of gout. Tests to reduce uric acid levels showed that EESS has better potential than allopurinol at concentrations of 300 mg/kg BW and 400 mg/kg BW after six hours of induction in reducing uric acid levels.
, Vrish Dhwaj Ashwlayan, Rubi Rani,
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 3, pp 179-189; https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v3i3.1415

Abstract:
Kidney and urinary stone disease (Nephrolithiasis and urolithiasis) are the condition where urinary stones or calculi are formed in the urinary tract. The problem of urinary stones is very ancient; these stones are found in all parts of the urinary tract, kidney, ureters, and the urinary bladder and may vary considerably in size. It is a common disease estimated to occur in approximately 12% of the population, with a recurrence rate of 70-81% in males and 47-60% in females. The treatment of kidney and urinary stone diseases such as a western (allopathy) medicine and surgery is now in trends. However, most people preferred plant-based (herbal) therapy because of the overuse of allopathic drugs, which results in a higher incidence rate of adverse or severe side effects. Therefore, people every year turn to herbal therapy because they believe plant-based medicine is free from undesirable side effects, although herbal medicines are generally considered to be safe and effective. In the present article, an attempt has been made to emphasize an herbal therapy is better than allopathic therapy for the management of the kidney and urinary stone disease.
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