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Lara Scaglia
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 13, pp 91-104; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2022.1.7

Abstract:
One way to address the question concerning the nature of reason consists in inquiring rational anxieties such as the tension between changeable and unchangeable. The yearning of the particular towards the universal, the iterative, interminable quest of the thinking is namely something which seems to be proper of many systems of classical German philosophy (but not only). In this paper I want to consider this problematic focusing on the figure of the unhappy consciousness which is perhaps the clearest expression of this tension and use it to approach Hegel’s account on speculative reason. After recalling – in the first section – the figures which precede the unhappy consciousness, I will address the question concerning the historicity and universality of the development of the consciousness, asking if it is the case that the unhappy consciousness belongs only to a particular historical age (and needs specific historical preconditions) or if it expresses a general feature of reason or of human experience. In the second and the third sections, namely, I will try to defend this second interpretation by showing that the unhappy consciousness not only is central in Hegel’s system and is re-echoed in several figures of the Phenomenology of the Spirit but it is also central in other philosophical systems. For instance, as I will show in the fourth section, Kant’s ethical thinking could be read under the light of the unhappy consciousness, whose unsatisfied yearning towards the universal is the expression and source of the speculative or metaphysical thinking.
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 13, pp 157-167; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2022.1.11

Abstract:
The review addresses the recent monograph Social and Institutional Dimensions of Axel Honneth’s Theory of Recognition by Marcin J. Byczyński (Łódź University Press, Jurisprudence Series, Vol. 17/2021, pp. 1–273). Jakub Kloc-Konkołowicz was the external reviewer of the doctoral dissertation which gave rise to the book. The essential contributions of this book are discussed against the background of former and pioneering recognition research from the Polish context, including this by Jakub Kloc-Konkołowicz and Marek Siemek. In addition, they are supplemented by Hegel’s three rights of freedom and further vital themes. This provides the following review with a contextual ‘surplus.’ Byczyński’s monograph considerably advances an important Warsaw-Poznań research strand and is notable for its originality among the books devoted to Honneth’s Theory of Recognition.
Rainer Adolphi, Lara Scaglia, Tom Rockmore,
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 13, pp 4-9; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2022.1.1

Abstract:
Preface by the Editors to the special thematic volume dedicated to the memory of Jakub Kloc-Konkołowicz.
Violetta L. Waibel
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 13, pp 41-56; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2022.1.4

Abstract:
Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit develops not only the idea of absolute knowledge but also the notion of an inner criterion [Maßstab] of the spirit. The inner criterion or norm of knowledge is what, in the end of the speculative process, appears as the form of absolute knowledge. Experience and inner criterion are responsible for the development of the consciousness that has to become itself. Becoming and absolute, temporality and timelessness are the substance that becomes and is subject. The actuality of this method of analysis of spirit will be shown and discussed in this essay.
Christoph Horn
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 13, pp 24-40; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2022.1.3

Abstract:
This article examines the foundations for the legitimacy of law from the perspective of Hegel’s philosophy. In a first step, Kant’s justification of law is discussed, as Hegel takes the Kantian model as a central point of (critical) reference. Then, in the Section 2, I discuss Hegel’s reasons for rejecting the main strategies of justification of the legal order: natural law, contractarianism and legal positivism. This is further followed by a discussion of the meaning and scope of Hegel’s contextualism, according to which there can be no practical normativity without a certain historical embedding. Finally, I describe a more traditional met-aphysical reading (supported among others by Kevin Thompson) that I consider to be the correct solution, contrasting it with Honneth’s theory of recognition and Bran-dom’s pragmatism.
Shaogang Yang
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 13, pp 164-154; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2022.1.10

Abstract:
Citizens’ moral identity is not only reflected on the individual level, but also in terms of belongingness, community, and even cosmopolitanism. It is the basic demand of a community with a shared future in morality. Moral identity is closely related to moral behavior, and the study of moral identity can predict one’s moral behavior. Community is the cultural basis of citizens’ moral identity. To study citizens’ moral identity in the community can also enable one to predict people’s moral behavior in that community. At present, the construction of a community with a shared future still lacks a species moral identity generally recognized by all cultures and countries. In order to achieve that goal, we must strengthen cultural inclusion, advocate and practice species moral identity of a community with a shared future. Species moral identity is based on the existence of humankind as a species with autonomous identity, so it is necessary to establish the mechanism of cultural respect and equal discussion, and to strengthen the construction of the species moral identity. Only in that way can we accomplish the mission of establishing species moral identity. In the following paper, I will advocate for these ideas with Kant’s and Marx’ thoughts.
Jure Zovko
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 13, pp 80-90; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2022.1.6

Abstract:
In the following article, I will explain Hegel’s definition of modernity from the point of view of his understanding of “Bildung,” since this is a fundamental and newly relevant theme of Hegel’s philosophy nowadays. “Bildung” can be transliterated as education, but may also be interpreted as a general formative or developmental process, or cultivation (culture, respectively). With the term “Bildung” Hegel also refers to the formative self-development of the mind, its coming to individual as well as collective flourishing. The objective spirit manifests itself in the culture of humans. However, education in the sense of “Bildung” does not take place primarily through the transmission of information, values, norms, etc. by the teacher, but through “experience” [Erfahrung], which signifies the conflicting process by which a spiritual being discovers its own identity or self, while at the same time striving for self-consciousness, which is in the process of self-discovery. Through education, the human mind develops its capacity for understanding, reflection and judgment, and thus overcomes its natural intellectual, spiritual, normative, aesthetic, etc., poverty.
Petra Lohmann
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 13, pp 57-79; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2022.1.5

Abstract:
The article discusses the connection between art and emotion in Fichte’s work and its contemporary reception by the architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel. For the latter, not only selected architectural theoretical studies but also Schinkel’s ideal architectural designs are consulted. Schinkel knew Fichte personally and held him in high esteem. This is evidenced by some of Schinkel’s verbatim references to various forms of the Wissenschaftslehre and its sub-disciplines, as well as his extremely precise transcripts of lectures around the Berlin versions of the Wissenschaftslehre (around 1800). Schinkel was not only interested in the political and religious implications of Fichte’s theory of a cultural history of humankind, but his engagement with Fichte is also characterized above all by the theory of consciousness. This aspect plays a central role in the article. In recourse to the aesthetic emotion of the mind, a main concern of Fichte’s philosophy is to be placed in the horizon of architecture, which manifests itself in these questions: how does one convey a realisation in such a way that the recipient reconstructs it almost independently and it becomes a practical value for him as a criterion for his orientation in life? And furthermore – related to the research discourse on Fichte, which has only recently taken note of his aesthetic position and in particular his comments on architecture – how can this model of cognition be applied in his work from an architect’s point of view? In the investigation part on Fichte for this, first the feeling is reconstructed within the framework of the scientific-systematic philosophy as the reason of consciousness, in order to show with it the instance of the question relevant for Schinkel about the pedagogical effectiveness of a life-practical cultivating architecture. In the examination section on Schinkel, it is shown how Schinkel, in the horizon of Fichte, undertakes a determination of the relationship between feeling and ratio, with which he, for his part, establishes architecture as an instrument of cultivation.
Guido Löhrer
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 13, pp 126-143; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2022.1.9

Abstract:
My considerations are typological in nature. A lie is a disingenuous assertion made to another person with the intent of deceiving the other person into believing both that the assertion is true and that the liar believes it to be true. This definition is morally neutral. It requires a further, moral judgment to determine whether a lie is a good or a bad thing, or whether, in specified circumstances, a lie is morally right or wrong. However, what if the truth is not only occasionally contaminated but lies are spread en masse in order to make the addressees question their ability to judge or to induce collective self-deception? Beginning with small-scale use of lies, related variants of dishonesty – especially large scale, propagandistic uses of lies – are conceptually characterized and evaluated. Lies can be systematically distinguished via their purposes.
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 13, pp 10-23; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2022.1.2

Abstract:
The article attempts to show that Hegel’s concept of “civil society” is characterized by a deep ambivalence about the value of the new market economy. On the one side, Hegel believed that the economic system represented by “civil society” succeeded like no other in simultaneously giving free reign to the desires of individual subjects and integrating them into a stable structural framework (I). On the other side, Hegel’s reflections are growingly overtaken by doubts as to whether, in light of its self-destructive tendencies, the market system can be as successful in guaranteeing individual freedom as he first envisaged it to be (II). In the course of this essay, it will ultimately become clear that Hegel’s attempt to redefine “civil society” reveals considerably more conceptual indecision and inner conflict than one might have suspected from the great system builder.
Yuliia Tereshchenko
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 13, pp 107-123; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2022.1.8

Abstract:
The research in this paper attempts to outline the connection between Hegel’s concept of action and the contemporary philosophy of action. Hegel’s concept of action has some features in common with the ideas of analytical philosophers, and might open unexpected integration of these different philosophical traditions, which would contribute to the development of both of them. A brief overview of ways to comprehend Hegel’s concept of action (from Taylor to Brandom) shows that the cause of ambiguous understandings of this concept lies in the complexity of Hegel’s approach. The following article highlights the tension between “deflationary” interpretations and the complexity of Hegel´s original approach. Further, by revisiting the Section “Teleology” in Hegel’s Science of Logic, the article illustrates how deflationary interpretations of human action can be improved, so that they are topical for both contemporary practical philosophy and the philosophy of action, beyond the unnecessary split between analytical vs. continental philosophy. Such concepts as “purpose” and “mediation” become crucial, as they have sociological and normative extensions in Hegel’s Philosophy of Right, as discussed in the last Section of this article.
Erzsébet Rózsa
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 12, pp 78-88; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2021.2.6

Abstract:
In this paper, it will be shown that Hegel’s philosophical thematisation of subjective freedom has given a fundamental contribution to the historical innovation of modernity, which regards not only human rights, but also norms and values. Besides, it played an important role concerning the cultural transformation, i.e., the process of the realization of the historical innovation oriented towards the ideals of modern freedom. To show this, the author will focus on some passages from Hegel’s Philosophy of Right of 1820, in which Hegel regarded subjective freedom as universally-normative and, at the same time, as socially and historically contextualized (situated, respectively). Hegel, namely, explicates modern freedom in its ideality and moral normativity, addressing its realization in particular forms of life. Marriage, for instance, as it will be shown towards the end of this contribution, exemplified as the right to particularity, is the normative basis of modern subjective freedom. Tensions and collisions will permanently challenge this type of freedom and also require permanent (and self-defeating) efforts invested in striving for a (too contextualized and situated) „reconciliation“ (in Hegel´s terms Versöhnung).
Rainer Adolphi
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 12, pp 61-77; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2021.2.5

Abstract:
The article discusses a central topic of contemporary understandings of society that seems to have no place in Hegel’s theory: the topic of “identity”, which seems to fall between the process of a “struggle for recognition” on the one hand, and, on the other, a consolidated recognition of subjects and their rights within the established social order. The article would like to propose a further reconstruction here. It discusses which considerations should be included so that the discourse on “identity” does not end in any substantialist or ethno-national, egocentric understandings, but, instead, could become possibly a part of Hegel’s theory. In today’s dynamics and unsettling changes, there are undeniable needs for “identity” (which are also easily addressed, even fuelled, by corresponding offers). These are, as one could learn from Hegel, surrogates of a still not or no longer successful sufficient recognition. In this, “identity” is to be understood as critical work on oneself as a product of becoming, on inheritances, achievements, challenges, divisions, discrepancies, guilt and failures.
Andreas Arndt
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 12, pp 112-123; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2021.2.8

Abstract:
In his Prolegomena to Historiosophy, published in 1838, August von Cieszkowski wrote that we are at the turning point in history, when facts turn into deeds. This raises the question of what is actually to be understood by the term “deed” [Tat] and why, the hour of the deed should have come precisely now. After focusing on Hegel’s concept of a history of freedom, I will present two models of understanding action and conclude by discussing their consequences. More specifically, I will undertake a search that will lead us – by way of a detour via Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit – to Fichte’s concept of the act of doing. That socio-political practice can be justified in this way, however, is denied by those who argue that society and politics in Hegel fall under the category of objective and not of absolute spirit. The alternative model of action that I will focus on, concerns action in relation to objects, or labour, a model that Hegel had already worked out in Jena, and that Marx will re-discover (rather than invent) and further develop.
Jacinto Rivera de Rosales
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 12, pp 10-25; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2021.2.2

Abstract:
In Kant’s writings, we can discover four key moments in the realization of moral freedom: i) The original possibility of being free, ii) The act described by Kant as radical evil, iii) The opposite act, that is, an inner conversion to good, and, finally, iv) The long process of the self-development of virtue extending to immortality. There are further issues such as the double concept of moral evil, and practical temporality. Moral freedom is originally located (and presupposed in Kant’s transcendental deduction) in the individual, her decisions, and the maxims or principles that guide her actions, even though a community (as both a „kingdom of ends” and social reality) provides the scope wherein all this takes place and its socially and historically-situated shapes. This paper tries to systematize these crucial stages of Kant’s moral philosophy with the focus on the concept of virtue.
Ivo Minkov
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 12, pp 89-111; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2021.2.7

Abstract:
The article interprets the methodological potential of Hegel’s speculative dialectics as a possible course of spiritual evolution of the Absolute subject. The intention is towards the method, first through the very construction of the “idea of freedom” from the point of view of Logic; second, through the constitutive function of freedom and the transition of the subjective spirit into the objective spirit; third, through the unfolding of mediation in the realms of the objective spirit. This essentially substantial methodologization dissolves the theoretical space of the idea of the mediating function of freedom as an ontological principle of ethical life. In line with the paradigm of such a course, the text considers a project of speculative ethics, a project within the framework of which the methodological and ontological sublation of spiritual evolution takes place.
Lara Scaglia
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 12, pp 26-45; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2021.2.3

Abstract:
In this paper I will focus on education as the core function of reason in Kant and Fichte. The notion of reason carries an intrinsic tendency to universality, which is difficult to be reconciled with its local (cultural, historical, anthropological) background and actualisation. I believe that the stress on the importance of learning, which can be seen in the works of both Kant and Fichte, might provide useful clues to approaching the relation between universality and particularity. I will start by focusing on Kant’s narration on the genealogy of human reason in the Conjectural Beginning of Human History, and then move on to the critical writings and selected lectures in order to focus on the role of human dignity and ethical education for the moral appraisal and the practice of virtue. Later, I will consider Fichte’s lectures on the Vocation of the Scholar, the Vocation of Man and The Characteristics of the Present Age, which are crucial to understanding the social, ethical and political role of the scholar. For Fichte, education is the best instrument to eradicate selfishness, regarded as a historical phenomenon which can lead a nation to ruin. I will then provide some conclusions concerning the two accounts and their implications.
Elena Paola Carola Alessiato
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 12, pp 46-60; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2021.2.4

Abstract:
Moving from Fichte’s assumption that “the essence of the I is its activity”, this paper tries to analyze the meaning and implications of the idea of “activity” [Tathandlung] in order to explicate the peculiarities of Fichte’s critical, transcendental, and moral idealism. Fichte’s idea of activity will be examined with reference to such basic concepts as collision [Anstoss], interaction [Wechselwirkung], inter-determination [Wechselbestimmung], and striving [Streben]. However, it is freedom which frames and connects the core components of Fichte’s thinking and sets up the goal of his philosophy of action. What freedom accounts for, can be identified both at the transcendental level, in the internal dynamic of infinity and finitude constituting the subjectivity of the I, and at the moral and social levels of Fichte’s thought, as the goal of the human action in history and in the society. In assuming the unitary character of Fichte’s philosophical system, concluding remarks are developed concerning the moral meaning of the act of striving for freedom and, conversely, the immorality of attitudes and feelings such as fear, resignation, and fatigue.
, Tom Rockmore, Lara Scaglia, Rainer Adolphi
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 12, pp 4-9; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2021.2.1

Abstract:
The volume brings together contributions in the spirit embodied by Marek J. Siemek († 2011) and Jakub Kloc-Konkołowicz († 2021), two Warsaw philosophers truly devoted to Classical German Philosophy. They were simultaneously in a relationship between thinker and adept, and thinker and thinker. They both taught philosophy, with a strong emphasis on classic German philosophy, at Warsaw University. Under the theme “Ethical Theory in Classic German Philosophy Then and Now,” students and companions continue their discussions with both of them.
Tom Rockmore
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 12, pp 124-137; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2021.2.9

Abstract:
We ignore the history of philosophy at our peril. Engels, who typically conflates Marx and Marxism, points to the relation of Marxism to the tradition while also denying it. In his little book on Feuerbach, Engels depicts Feuerbach as leading Marx away from Hegel, away from classical German philosophy, away from philosophy and towards materialism and science. This view suggests that Marx is at best negatively related to Classical German philosophy, including Hegel. Yet Engels elsewhere suggests that Marx belongs to the classical German philosophical tradition. In the preface to Socialism, Utopian and Scientific, Engels wrote: “We German socialists are proud that we trace our descent not only from Saint Simon, Fourier and Owen, but also from Kant, Fichte and Hegel” (Marx & Engels, Collected Works). In this paper I will focus on Marx’s relation to Fichte. This relation is rarely mentioned in the Marxist debate, but I will argue, it is crucial for the formulation of Marx’s position, and hence for assessing his contribution accurately. One of the results of this study will be to indicate that Marx, in reacting against Hegel, did not, as is often suggested, ‘leave’ philosophy, but in fact made a crucial philosophical contribution.
Roma Kriaučiūniene, Georg Lind
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 12, pp 6-14; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2021.1.2

Abstract:
The findings obtained by G. Lind using his original research instrument – the Moral Competence Test – suggest that universities lack the capacity to foster students’ moral competence development. The MCT has been translated into 39 languages, all of which have gone through the necessary validation procedure. The article reports on the MCT validation study for the 40th language, namely Lithuanian. The research sample consisted of 526 students of English/German/French languages, future foreign language teachers, in the 1 st to 4th years of study at two universities in Lithuania: the former Vilnius Pedagogical University and the Vilnius University. The majority of the respondents demonstrated low or medium level of moral competence. On the basis of this cross-sectional study (2019–2020), the MCT for Lithuanian has been successfully validated and certified. In the following article, we present and discuss all the validation criteria and revisit the theoretical background of MCT. We also argue for educating students in moral competence and evaluating the effects of moral competence promotion in academic contexts.
Roma Kriaučiūnienė
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 12, pp 4-5; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2021.1.1

Abstract:
It is a pleasure for me to introduce papers presented at the 14th InternationalSymposium „Moral Competence: Its Nature, Relevance, and Education” hosted by theInstitute of Foreign Languages of the Faculty of Philology at Vilnius University, Lithuania,on 23-24 July 2020, in collaboration with several academic institutions from abroad, suchas Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Poland. Due to the pandemic restrictions, asymposium was organized in an online mode. Six papers were revised and submitted tothis special issue as symposium proceedings, completed by two additional and relatedpapers. The contents offer a thorough insight into the concept of – and reasearch into – themoral competence defined by Georg Lind (Institute for Moral-Democratic Competence;formerly: University of Konstanz) and visualized by his Moral Competence Test (formerly:Moral Judgment Test) certified in 41 languages. In certain papers research findings andmethods based on further measuring instruments, as well as the alternative approaches tomoral judgment and decision making were applied and discussed (e.g., moral foundationsapproach).
Bogdan Popoveniuc
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 12, pp 39-58; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2021.1.4

Abstract:
The present study examines the relation between the moral intuitions proposed by the ‘Moral Foundations Theory’ according to J. Haidt and the moral orientations in relation with moral competence, as described by the ‘Dual-Aspect Model of Moral Behaviour’ according to G. Lind.It is an empirical exploration of the relation between the five foundational domains (and/or the corresponding two higher-order clusters) and the moral orientations, as this results from the theoretical assumptions of both theories, and the influence on and of the moral competence on these aforementioned relations. The shared affective and, at the same time, habitual characteristics of moral intuitions and moral orientations, although based on different theories (intuitionism, respectively, cognitivism) should converge in a dynamic relationship. The basic motivation is the need to overcome the affective-cognitive disjunction in the study of moral judgment, which is artificial. The human (moral) reasoning is always a situated and situating one, in a symbolic narrative universe, in which the cognitive-affective dichotomy forms a dynamic unity. This overstated dichotomy is only a methodological necessity, but unfortunately hypostasized in an explanatory mechanism that leads to the impermissible simplification of the phenomenon that it seeks to understand.The empirical results confirm the limits of both cognitive and intuitions paradigms and advocates for a more nuanced and dynamic approach in understanding the moral judgment within a more comprehensive conception on human personality. Finally, the implications for the contemporary psychology’ paradigm are discussed.
Georg Lind
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 12, pp 84-94; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2021.1.7

Abstract:
Often we have to decide on difficult problems and conflicts. For this, a certain level of moral competence is needed, in order to solve them as quickly and adequately as possible. Otherwise these problems and conflicts can overwhelm us, triggering a feeling of fear and panic, and making us react too slowly or inadequately, or both. Fear and panic can make us ignore problems and conflicts, attempt to “solve” them through brute force or deceit, or declare them to be beyond our responsibility and let an authority decide what to do. Often such makeshift solutions seem to work, but, more often, they have damaging effects. Therefore, society tries to curb criminal and anti-democratic activities through coercion, that is, through laws, law-enforcing institutions, and correction facilities – at high costs, and often with little efficacy. In this article I show that such coercion would not be needed if we gave all citizens an opportunity to develop their ability to solve conflicts and problems through thinking and discus-sion. Moral competence would immunize us against fear and panic, and thus also against immoral practices. Moral competence is not inborn in us, and it does not develop unless it is fostered through proper learning opportunities. Therefore, if we want to live together peace¬fully in a democratic society, we need to provide proper learning opportunities for everyone, not only of a few people. If the masses are infected by panic, a few rational people cannot stop this pandemic.
Georg Lind
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 12, pp 15-38; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2021.1.3

Abstract:
Researchers who need valid and objective data for evaluating their theories or the efficacy of educational methods and programs have to choose between two equally undesirable alternatives: either they can use “objective” methods which have a questionable validity, or they can turn to “subjective” assessment methods with better validity. In other words, while subjective approaches to the study of human traits may be, or really are, valid, they lack objectivity, that is, they may be biased toward the researcher’s theory. On the other hand, objective approaches to the study of psychological traits often lack psychological underpinning but are solely designed to fit a certain statistical model. Thus, we cannot know what these instruments really measure. Here I present a new approach to the study of human traits, which claims to be objective as well as psychologically valid, namely the concept Experimental Questionnaire (EQ). An EQ lets us make traits visible without relying on dubious statistical assumptions. Thus, it makes it possible for the researcher to test the psychological theory underlying its designs. The EQ methodology is not only an idea, but it has been applied for constructing the Moral Competence Test (MCT) and for testing the assumptions about the nature of moral competence which were used to design it. So far, all the studies have clearly confirmed their validity. This makes the MCT suitable for testing hypotheses regarding the relevance and teachability of moral competence, and, therefore, also for evaluating the efficacy and efficiency of educational methods of fostering this competence. Experimentally designed questionnaires can also be used in other fields of educational and psychological research in which testable theories about the nature of its objects have been developed.
Marina A. Klimenko
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 12, pp 59-72; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2021.1.5

Abstract:
Most all popular moral reasoning or moral judgment tests are based on presenting subjects with two or more hypothetical moral dilemmas and asking them to make judgments on the moral quality of arguments supporting and questioning a protagonist’s decision (e.g., the Moral Competence Test by G. Lind). Although these tests have been insightful by tapping some aspect of individuals’ moral-cognitive schemas, moral maturity, or moral development, they also have limitations. Hypothetical moral dilemmas may be too abstract and impersonal, thus failing to create enough emotional salience. Learning more about real-life personally recalled moral dilemmas may reveal more about the individual’s moral mind and experiences. Objective. The current study was conducted to learn more about the personally experienced moral dilemmas, and how they relate to subjects’ level of moral competence and gender. Method. Subjects were asked to recall the most challenging personal moral dilemma; subjects completed the MCT test to measure moral competence. Results. Among some of the findings was that for both, men and women, higher moral competence scores were positively correlated with recalling personal moral dilemmas where the choice had to be made between some altruistic (care for others) and selfish actions. For men, it was the risk of compromising one’s status, whereas for women it was the risk of personal safety.
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 12, pp 134-151; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2021.1.10

Abstract:
The main objective of this paper is to discuss people’s expectations towards social robots’ moral attitudes. Conclusions are based on the results of three selected empirical studies which used stories of robots (and humans) acting in hypothetical scenarios to assess the moral acceptance of their attitudes. The analysis indicates both the differences and similarities in expectations towards the robot and human attitudes. Decisions to remove someone’s autonomy are less acceptable from robots than from humans. In certain circumstances, the protection of a human’s life is considered more morally right than the protection of the robot’s being. Robots are also more strongly expected to make utilitarian choices than human agents. However, there are situations in which people make consequentialist moral judgements when evaluating both the human and the robot decisions. Both robots and humans receive a similar overall amount of blame. Furthermore, it can be concluded that robots should protect their existence and obey people, but in some situations, they should be able to hurt a human being. Differences in results can be partially explained by the character of experimental tasks. The present findings might be of considerable use in implementing morality into robots and also in the legal evaluation of their behaviours and attitudes.
Kamila Stastna
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 12, pp 95-103; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2021.1.8

Abstract:
The empirical research reported in this article is based on the Moral Foundations Theory proposed by J. Haidt. Objectives. The author examines the impact of moral foundations arguments on early adolescents’ moral judgments regarding violating moral rules and explores gender-related differences between moral foundations preferences. Method. The effect of moral foundations arguments was measured by a newly developed meta-ethical position test (MEPT). The MEPT consists of a pretest questionnaire, treatment by moral foundations arguments, and a posttest questionnaire. The sample contained 178 early adolescents from the Czech Republic (84 females and 94 males). The influence of the moral foundations arguments was analyzed by comparing the pretest with the posttest. Results. 91% of teenagers changed their moral judgment due to confrontations with the moral foundations arguments. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test found that the moral foundations arguments were significantly relevant, since the P-value was lower than 0.001. The Mann-Whitney U test revealed the importance of the gender aspect: P-value care equals 0.01 and liberty 0.01. Girls have a preference for care foundation (21% more than boys), while boys tended to liberty (27 % more than girls). It seems that moral foundations arguments strongly change early adolescents’ moral judgments and can be practically applied as a valuable platform for early adolescents’ moral development.
, , Georg Lind, Kay Hemmerling, Sunčana Kukolja Taradi
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 12, pp 104-133; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2021.1.9

Abstract:
Nowadays, healthcare and medical education is qualified by test scores and competitiveness. This article considers its quality in terms of improving the moral competence of future healthcare providers. Objectives. Examining the relevance of moral competence in medico-clinical decision-making despite the paradigm shift and discussing the up-to-date findings on healthcare students (Polish sample). Design and method. N=115 participants were surveyed with a standard Moral Competence Test to examine how their moral competence development was affected by the learning environment and further important factors. Results. The sample allowed the identification of a regress in moral competence during students’ pre-clinical curriculum, and progress during their clinical curriculum. A gender-related bias, a segmentation effect, and a pronunciation effect were noticed. Explanations. Scholarly literature usually reports a linear decrease of medical students’ C-scores resulting from, e.g., competitive trends in education. We identified such trends in terms of gender-specific competitive tactics. Religious and ethical affiliations were discussed to explain the unexpected gender bias and the related segmentation and pronunciation effects. The findings can be regarded as predictive for similar developments in educational institutions regardless of cultural contexts as the sample examined in this article represents medical education in a country facing a transition from a non-competitive to competitive tertiary education model, and between presecular and monocultural to secular and pluralist social ethics.
Aida Mofakhami
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 12, pp 73-83; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2021.1.6

Abstract:
Moral Competence, defined as the ability to solve conflicts on the basis of shared moral principles through cooperation rather than through violence, deceit and power, has received little attention among different psychological approaches; despite its importance in predicting many of our social interactions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of moral competence on online conformity behavior. 217 students from universities in Teheran were selected for a quasi-experimental study. First, participants’ moral competence was measured with the online Moral Competence Test (MCT) by G. Lind (1978/2019). Then the subjects participated in an online version of an Asch type experiment in which conformity was induced. The results showed a clear conformity behavior in the use of the internet. An average of 32.09% of participants conformed to each critical question. When compared to Asch`s line judgment task, the mean conformity in this experiment was lower, but still significant enough to indicate conformity behavior (36.8% compared with 7.4%), which might stem from the online situation, in which some other variables like the deindividuation effect might influence this difference. The results also indicated that there was a weak but negative correlation between moral competence and conformity behavior. The results confirm our hypothesis weakly; subjects with higher moral competence tended to show lower conformity. If the results could be replicated, it would imply that conformity is not a general and stable trait of people, as Asch assumed, but depends on people’s level of moral competence, which can be fostered through education.
Paolo Trianni, Sara Sgarlata
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 11, pp 54-65; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2020.2.5

Abstract:
The article intends to demonstrate that a theology of vegetarianism is possible, despite some contrary evidence present in the biblical texts. Like other theologies dealing with issues not directly voiced in the Bible, it becomes possible to interpret the biblical statements in a new way, on the bases of a specific methodology. As a result, an objective comprehension will go back inductively to Sacred Scripture. The article advocates for applying this new method as well as for introducing its ethical implications into the Christian tradition. An additional supportive argument in favour of establishing the new understanding can be found in the history of the Roman Church, besides the consolidated custom of carnivorous nutrition: there has been no shortage of positions in favour of vegetarian asceticism. This stance was also represented by Thomas Aquinas. By valorizing classic Christian authors in favour of vegetarianism (starting with Jerome), the inauguration of the theology of vegetarianism becomes legitimised. Such an inauguration would reorient Christian thought toward reconsidering cosmology, ecology and topical contemporary issues such as anthropocentrism and speciesism.
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 11, pp 31-37; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2020.2.3

Abstract:
Nutritional choices are affected by culture, tradition and above all by the narrative we adopt for human history. The article gives an overview of the (pseudo)scientific beliefs, psychological factors and ethical orientations that affect nutritional choices. Among the various food theories today, great importance is given, for example, to the so-called Paleolithic diet, which consists of proposing a dietary model based on blood groups, which are assumed to have developed throughout different periods of the natural evolution of Homo sapiens, which were characterized by peculiar alimentary regimes. Moreover, psychological determinant drivers affect food choices and could lead to pathological eating behaviors (e.g., anorexia, overeating, binge eating). Finally, the ethical aspects of nutrition are closely correlated to vegetarianism, which in turn embraces an anti-speciesist thinking and recognizes the need for humans not to inflict unnecessary suffering on animals. Vegetarianism, anti-speciesism and ecologism often represent different aspects of the same issue: a lifestyle that testifies the need for a change in traditional paradigms, in the interest of humankind and the future of life on our planet.
Alicja Dłużewicz
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 11, pp 66-69; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2020.2.6

Abstract:
Increasingly recognized threats from climate change and the progressive sixth mass extinction require not only searching for new technological solutions, but also changing the perception of the world and the beings living in it. There is an urgent need to include individual practices; practices that are an integral part of integrated policies to protect habitats, the climate, and the homo sapiens itself. Eric S. Nelson, in his latest book Daoism and Environmental Philosophy. Nourishing Life introduces the reader to the environmental approach known to Chinese communities for centuries. In a comprehensive and accurate manner, the author presents the Chinese approach to life and development, the understanding and interpretation of which has changed over the centuries, invariably emphasizing man’s belonging to the world of nature. This review introduces the author’s assumptions presented in the book, combining them with relatively new thoughts and paradigms appearing in the 20th and 21st centuries in Western Europe and the United States.
Cecilia Della Torre
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 11, pp 38-53; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2020.2.4

Abstract:
This paper will analyse the role played by technology in Peter Sloterdijk’s theory, where he seeks to redefine and reconstruct ethics, society and democracy. Indeed, the philosopher’s project is to build a new kind of society, which risks being antidemocratic and elitist: technopolitics. This lemma refers to Sloterdijk’s reconfiguration of the social structure through the elimination of the human rights paradigm in a technological and anti-egalitarian manner. In order to do this, Sloterdijk redesigns the environment as a dangerous place whose rules cannot be followed, and which must be reshaped through technology. Hence, the philosopher reduces ethics to technology, and reinterprets society on the basis of new techno-ethical premises which support a hierarchical and selective new polis.
Maria Vita Romeo, Sara Sgarlata
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 11, pp 4-8; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2020.2.1

Abstract:
Anthropocentrism and Speciesism in the Context of Environmental Studies. A Synoptic Introduction
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 11, pp 9-30; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2020.2.2

Abstract:
After the publication of Jaques Derrida’s book, L’animal que donc je suis, anti-speciesism has been looking for a theoretical foundation for its ethical content. In my opinion, the defect of all these philosophical perspectives is that they still reduce animals to objects of human philosophy. Here, I develop a new framework in which animals are considered as subjects of their own philosophy. In analogy to the concept of ethnophilosophy, the concept of speciophilosophy is here introduced (§ 1, §3). The different ways of thinking between humans and other animals are outlined, by explaining the difference between verbal reasoning and thinking through images (§ 2). Human philosophies are shown to be anthropocentric ideologies, related to carnivorism (§4, § 8). Subsequently, animal speciophilosophies are discussed (§6) and a dialogical symphilosophein (§ 5) among all living beings is proposed to be the extension of the so-called philosophy of dialogue. Finally, it is shown how this perspective was present in the original Christian ethics (§7, §9, § 10).
Anna Szklarska
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 11, pp 70-79; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2020.2.7

Abstract:
The paper reviews the recent book edited by Dorota Probucka, entitled The Ethical Condemnation of Hunting (in Polish: Etyczne potępienie myślistwa), Universitas Press, Kraków 2020, pp. 426. Probucka is one of the most prominent Polish experts in animal studies, especially in applied ethics and the field of animal rights (e.g., Probucka 2018a, 2018b, 2017). The discussed monograph encompasses the contributions of 19 authors representing 9 universities from Poland and abroad. Their core issue of consideration was the topical problem of hunting, examined from various perspectives: ethical and legal, psychological, social and cultural, both on the theoretical level and in relation to the practice of hunting. This review focuses on the core arguments against hunting and discusses them in detail.The Ethics in Progress journal had the honour of contributing to the media patronage of Dorota Probucka’s et al. edition.
Josephine Joteyko, Varia Kipiani, Ewa Nowak, Ilana Löwy
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 11, pp 80-87; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2020.2.8

Abstract:
This compilation is based on the original report on a clinical survey conducted in Brussels (1905-1906) by Josephine Joteyko and Varia Kipiani with 43 vegetarians. Having advanced expertise in physiology and experimentalism, Joteyko (with Lithuanian and Polish origins) and Kipiani (with Georgian origins) discussed their findings at the Congress of the Belgian Society for Vegetarianism in 1906. For both children and adults, females and males, regardless of age, the findings demonstrated vegetarian dietary habits to be beneficiary for human development, the subjects’ physical and mental health, welfare, and physical and intellectual efficiency. Surprisingly, Joteyko and Kipiani confirmed C. Darwin’s observation across various nutritional cultures that vegetarian food would increase the energetic balance of the human body. Additionally, their focus on the moteur humain shows affinities with Taylorism, the modernist utopias of labor, the enhancement of human faculties, the protection of workers and their rights from automation, and applied social science represented by Joteyko and Kipiani as multidisciplinary investigators. The compilation was made on: J. Joteyko & V. Kipiani, Enquête scientifique sur les Végétariens de Bruxelles, Conférence donnée à la Société végétarienne de Belgique, le 4 décembre 1906, pp. 1–77, with no further correction.
Long Shibang, Yang Shaogang, Chen Huiyi
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 11, pp 157-174; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2020.1.9

Abstract:
From the perspective of empirical research, this paper conducts a specificstudy on the core competencies of college counselors. 450 participants from 4universities participated the research. A questionnaire of college counselors’ corecompetencies from the aspects of the design of open questionnaire was designedand implemented, a predictive questionnaire was tested and analyzed, and aformal questionnaire was implemented. The results of the formal questionnaireshow that component one mainly concerns ideological awareness and values,component two mainly concerns professional ethics, moral accomplishment,quality, character and attitude, while component three refers to various abilities atwork, and component four involves professional and cultural knowledge. Throughanalysis and discussion, it is concluded that the key elements of college counselors’core competencies include values, moral quality, vocational ability and culturalknowledge, and a structural model of their core competencies is constructed.
Bruce Janz, Eka Kaznina, Kim Jihyun, Claudia Ammann, David Kohlberg, Cătălin Mamali
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 11, pp 20-60; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2020.1.2

Abstract:
The article is combined of six chapters authored by these who voiced their experiences with social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemics in various contexts, but mostly centered on psychological, sociological, and ethical aspects. Authors, mostly psychologists and philosophers, were invited to describe their perspectives on the sense and practice of social distancing in times of pandemics. Their reflections seek to demonstrate various perspectives related to subjects’ novel self-experience, social situatedness, and their dealing with conventions and habits altered through the pandemics. As “the owl of Minerva takes its flight only when the shades of night are gathering” (Hegel), there is no conclusion in this article. It rather encourages other authors to reflect on the nearly global, still lasting phenomenon.
Mateusz Kucz, Piotr Rosół
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 11, pp 61-76; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2020.1.3

Abstract:
This paper presents a critical evaluation of ethical and philosophical concerns about the effective altruism as an ethical position. Effective altruists claim that one of our important ethical obligations is to do the most good possible, with the biggest possible positive impact. This impact should be measured with rational tools and by evaluating the effectiveness of our actions. At first glance, this might seem as a consensus building position, a good starting point for building a community of people wanting to change the world for the better. In our paper, we present some difficulties which are connected with such a way of thinking about charity and an ethical obligation to donate. We discuss the problem of the commercialization of ethical values, understanding effectiveness, agreeing about goals, as well as the political consequences of effective altruism understood as an ethical position.
Pinar Burcu Guner
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 11, pp 133-156; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2020.1.8

Abstract:
The article aims to 1) focus on welfare opportunities near the conflictzone in Turkey. Providing a good life for children under every condition belongs tothe responsibilities of both, national and international communities. The CapabilityApproach Theory seems to promote such responsibilities at best. However, theTurkish example does not show effects as satisfactory as the German examplewith Turkish migrant children, which is discussed in this article and illustratedwith research findings provided by the author.
Ilana Löwy
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 11, pp 4-19; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2020.1.1

Abstract:
Ludwik Fleck is known today primarily as pioneer in the social study of scientific knowledge. However, during World War II he was a prisoner in Buchenwald, where he and other prisoners produced a typhus vaccine for the Nazis, and where he witnessed murderous experiments on human beings. After WW2, Fleck was accused by one of the prisoners who had participated in the vaccine production at Buchenwald of collaborating, either deliberately or due to lack of imagination, with the Nazi experiments. This article critically examines this accusation and its well-documented rebuttal by Fleck. It argues that while sometimes, especially when dealing with emotionally fraught issues, it may be difficult to establish what precisely took place at a given time and site, it is important to restore the original complexity and messiness of past events – in order to open spaces for understanding, reflexivity and compassion.
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 11, pp 77-84; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2020.1.4

Abstract:
This article is a case study of a question of possible doping and how our insights into our moral judgements about doping are subject to considerations of both moral, but more presciently, epistemic luck. The eternal ambiguity surrounding the prevalence of doping, and its impact on high-level sport make this question entirely relevant for our discussions about the ethics of performanceenhancement in sport.
Przemysław Zonik, Joanna Zonik
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 11, pp 99-119; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2020.1.6

Abstract:
In this article the assumptions of one of the versions of the commongood concept in terms of the dispersion of knowledge and uncertainty areanalyzed. The article also aims at showing the consequences in regard to moralattitudes in politics and economics which are drawn on the basis of the conceptsof this type. In the first part I expound the ontological assumptions which are thebasis for the analysis. In the second part the concept of common good in terms ofits own assumptions and in relation to the ontology developed in this article isdiscussed. In the third part I consider some general thoughts about the structureof the ethical tales and their reference.
Mariusz Szynkiewicz
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 11, pp 85-98; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2020.1.5

Abstract:
May you live in interesting times, the famous maxim quotes. Undoubtedly, at least in the historical context, periods of political, social, scientific, or economic riots – or at least commotion, ferment, crisis – have certainly earned such a title. So have the epochs which were subject to radical transformations distorting traditional relationships and institutions, existing patterns and rules. The abovementioned “interestingness” is thus a function of a radical change, challenge and variability, somewhat a derivative of erosion, and of all that we associate it with the notion of revolution or turn, be it political, social, economic, environmental, or scientific. The paper’s core aim is to examine the nowadays constantly revised, questioned, thus, shaking demarcation between science and pseudoscience in the light of new trends such as misinformation, denialism, internetisation and memoisation of scientific discourses.
Zhang Jing, Li Suting
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 11, pp 120-132; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2020.1.7

Abstract:
Moral education affinity has a very important influence on the smoothdevelopment of moral education activities and the improvement of educationaleffectiveness. From the perspective of psychology, the needs and emotions ofthe educatees are its motivational mechanism, the will of the educatees is itsmaintenance mechanism, psychological compatibility is its guarantee mechanism,and the learning psychology of the educatees is the reinforcement mechanism.The generation of moral education affinity is the process of educators’ activeinterpersonal attraction, the application of positive psychological effect, the changeof educatees’ attitude, and the psychological exchange and interaction betweeneducators and educatees. The main way to cultivate moral education affinity isto fully pay attention to the needs or changes of the educatees, make efforts tostimulate and strengthen the learning motivation, maintain the main status androle of the educatees, and enhance the appeal and affinity of the educationalprocess through the unity of knowledge and action.
Katarzyna Gan-Krzywoszyńska, Piotr Leśniewski
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 5, pp 246-256; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2014.2.16

Abstract:
The aim of the article is to present Reyes Mate’s project for a culture of memory. Western culture/tradition tends to erase and blur the traces of crimes (even genocides) in order to achieve/restore peace; however, at the same time, this leads to ignoring the victim’s suffering and, in consequence, helps the wrongdoer. Following Reyes Mate, we argue that a memory of past injustices must constitute an integral part of the present and is the only means to prevent the hermeneutic death of victims. Any project for justice must put victims at the center of reflection. Memory is the beginning of the process that leads to reconciliation, for it makes it possible to redress both the victim and society. Moreover, it enables us to reclaim both the victim and wrongdoer as members of society. A culture of memory would also be a response to the failure of knowledge. Cases of extreme violence elude and transcend cognition; they are not only unthought but also unthinkable. Therefore, memory is a consequence not of discovering but of revealing the past: it follows from the fact that unthought exists and the unthinkable happened, which proves that our knowledge is limited and that we are able [and eager] to “invisibilize” victims’ suffering and depriving injustices of meaning. This is why memory should be the starting point for reflection on a new philosophical program against lassitude and oblivion, as well as on idealistic/anti-realistic and Enlightenment ideas. Memory reveals hidden aspects/dimensions of our reality and becomes at the same time an epistemic imperative and fundamental philosophical category.
Bogumił Rudawski
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 5, pp 305-317; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2014.2.20

Abstract:
In diesem Beitrag wird nach der Bedeutung der Judenvernichtung in den Kategorien des Genozid für einen Historiker gefragt. Um die Komplexität dieser Problematik zu zeigen, werden drei Schwerpunkte erörtert. Ausgangspunkt ist die theoretische Auffassung des Begriffes Völkermord mit besonderer Rücksicht auf die Konzeption Raphael Lemkins. Dann wird ein Problem der Historisierung des Holocaust und Bedeutung dieses Prozesses für die Geschichtsschreibung und kollektives Gedächtnis besprochen. Am Ende wird die kurze Beschreibung das Schicksal des menschlichen Körpers im Konzentrationslager als Herausforderung für eine historische Interpretation dargestellt.
Lech Kaczmarczyk
ETHICS IN PROGRESS, Volume 4, pp 82-90; https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2013.1.6

Abstract:
Pre-school play is an important moment in a child’s development. Caretakers play an important role during play. This article presents a structure of educational competence called “constructive empathizing” or “invitingaccompanying competence”. A caretaker’s special task during child’s play is conversion between the third-person knowledge and a subjective, autotelic interaction. The caretaker’s constructive empathizing during a child’s play determines the child’s social and moral development, it helps the child to turn play into work, as a sign of higher spontaneous understanding of cultural norms standing behind cultural correctness actions. Finally, it is evidence of dynamic interaction between abstract-concrete thinking, with the child learning from the caretaker.
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