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Kuldeep Srivastava, Ashish Nigam
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v3i1.1859

Abstract:
Observed rainfall is a very essential parameter for the analysis of rainfall, day to day weather forecast and its validation. The observed rainfall data is only available from five observatories of IMD; while no rainfall data is available at various important locations in and around Delhi-NCR. However, the 24-hour rainfall data observed by Doppler Weather Radar (DWR) for entire Delhi and surrounding region (up to 150 km) is readily available in a pictorial form. In this paper, efforts have been made to derive/estimate the rainfall at desired locations using DWR hydrological products. Firstly, the rainfall at desired locations has been estimated from the precipitation accumulation product (PAC) of the DWR using image processing in Python language. After this, a linear regression model using the least square method has been developed in R language. Estimated and observed rainfall data of year 2018 (July, August and September) was used to train the model. After this, the model was tested on rainfall data of year 2019 (July, August and September) and validated.With the use of linear regression model, the error in mean rainfall estimation reduced by 46.58% and the error in max rainfall estimation reduced by 84.53% for the year 2019. The error in mean rainfall estimation reduced by 81.36% and the error in max rainfall estimation reduced by 33.81% for the year 2018. Thus, the rainfall can be estimated with a fair degree of accuracy at desired locations within the range of the Doppler Weather Radar using the radar rainfall products and the developed linear regression model.
Kuldeep Srivastava
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v3i1.1926

Abstract:
Squally winds are the natural hazards and are often associated with the severe thunderstorms (TS), which mostly affects plains of North West India during pre monsoon season (March to May). Squally winds of the order more than 60 kmph are very devastating. Under influence of these strong squally winds trees, electricity poles, advertisement sign boards fall, sometimes human life is also lost. The main objective of this study is to find out the thumb rule based on Doppler Weather Radar (DWR) Data to Nowcast the squally winds over a region. To detect thumb rule, five cases of thunder storm accompanied with squally winds ranging from (55 kmph to 110 kmph) are taken in to consideration. These TS’s occurred over Delhi NCR (National Capital Region) during May – June 2018. Maximum reflectivity (Max Z) data of Delhi DWR, Cloud Top Temperature (CTT) data from INSAT and squally winds along with other weather parameters observed at Safdarjung and Palam observatories are utilized to find out the Thumb Rule.Based on the analysis, it is concluded that presence of a western disturbance (WD), presence of East-West trough from North-west Rajasthan upto East UP through south Haryana and very high temperature of the order of 40 degree Celsius over the nearby area are very conducive for occurrence of squally winds accompanied with thunderstorms. Thumb rule find out in this study is that, squally winds of the order of 55 kmph or more will effect a station if a thunderstorm (having Max Z echo with vertical extension of cell >7 km, reflectivity >45 dBz and at a distance of more than 100 km from the station) moving towards station is present in one to two hour before images of Doppler Weather Radar.
Sofia Flavia Borrego Alonso, Alian Molina
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v3i1.1910

Abstract:
High concentrations of environmental fungi in the archives repositories are dangerous for the documents preserved in those places and for the workers' health. The aims of this work were to evaluate the behavior of the fungal concentration and diversity in the indoor air of repositories of 3 archives located in Havana, Cuba, and to demonstrate the potential risk that these taxa represent for the documentary heritage preserved in these institutions. The indoor and outdoor environments were sampled with a biocollector. From the I/O ratios, it was evident that two of the studied archives were not contaminated, while one of them did show contamination despite having temperature and relative humidity values very similar to the other two. Aspergillus, Penicillium and Cladosporium were the predominant genera in the indoor environments. New finds for archival environments were the genera Harposporium and Scolecobasidium. The principal species classified ecologically as abundant were C. cladosporioides and P. citrinum. They are known as opportunistic pathogenic fungi. All the analyzed taxa excreted acids, the most of them degraded cellulose, starch and gelatin while about 48% excreted different pigments. But 33% of them showed the highest biodeteriogenic potential, evidencing that they are the most dangerous for the documentary collections.
Victor Tarasenko, Dmitry Beloplotov, Alexander Burachenko, Evgenii Baksht
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v3i1.1858

Abstract:
The conditions for the formation of spark channels with a bead structure in an inhomogeneous electric field at different polarities of voltage pulses are studied. Voltage pulses with an amplitude of up to 150 kV and a rise time of ≈1.5 µs were applied across a 45-mm point-to-plane gap. Under these conditions, spark channels consisting of bright and dim regions (bead structure) were observed. It is shown that when current is limited, an increase in the rise time and the gap length does not affect the formation of the bead structure. It was found that an increase in the amplitude of voltage pulses leads to an increase in the length of beads. The appearance of the bead structure is more likely at negative polarity of the pointed electrode. The formation of spark channels was studied with a four-channel ICCD camera. 
Luyuan Chen, Rong Cheng, Feimin Zhang, Kai Yang, Chenghai Wang
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v3i2.1999

Abstract:
The anomaly of the summer sea temperature is analyzed by a spatial-temporal synthetically rotated orthogonal function (REOF) at three different depths (0 m, 40 m, and 120 m) over the area 110°E~100°W and 30°S~60°N. The spatial-temporal distribution shows that the “signal” of annual anomaly is stronger in the sub-surface layer than the surface layer, and it is stronger in the eastern equatorial Pacific than in the western area. The spatial structure of the sea temperature anomaly at different layers is related to both the ocean current and the interaction of ocean and atmosphere. The temporal changing trend of the sub-surface sea temperature in different areas shows that the annual mean sea temperature increases and the annual variability evidently increases from the 1980s, and these keep the same trend with the increasing El Nino phenomenon very well.
David O. Edokpa, Precious N. Ede
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v3i2.2005

Abstract:
This study assessed the pattern of planetary layer lapse rate across the major climate belts of Nigeria. Six years’ data (2010-2015) for air temperature values between 1000 mbar and 850 mbar atmospheric pressure levels were acquired from Era-Interim Re-analysis data centre. The data was retrieved at 6-hourly synoptic hours: 0000H, 0600H, 1200H and 1800H at 0.125o grid resolution. Results showed that the lower tropospheric layers throughout the various climate belts has a positive lapse rate. Findings also revealed that the average annual lapse rate condition were: Tropical wet zone (Port Harcourt) -5.6 oC/km; Bi-modal Tropical continental zone (Enugu) 5.8 oC/km; Montane zone (Jos) -6.5 oC/km; Mono-modal Tropical continental zone (Kano) -6.6 oC/km; and Hot semi-arid zone (Maiduguri) -6.6 oC/km. This average values presents the lapse rates to be close to the Saturated Adiabatic Lapse Rate (SALR). Average diurnal results for the climate belts showed that lapse rate is higher during the afternoon and transition periods than the rest periods and increases from the coastal areas northward. The seasonal periods of highest lapse rates during the day time are from December – May (i.e. 5.8-9.5 oC/km) with slight decrease from June – November. The positive lapse rate of range -1.8 – -5.9 oC/km observed during the period of dawn across the entire region showed that infrared radiation was still being released and modified by less energetic mechanical turbulence that characterizes the surface layer across Nigeria. This also indicates that global warming is real and in substantial effect. The study findings imply that conditional instability prevailed over the entire region, therefore, the planetary layer environment will be of slow to moderate dispersive potential and will require forceful mechanism to lift emissions are introduced into it. It is recommended that industrial stacks are above 50 m to enhance the dispersion of emissions aloft.
Boris.M. Smirnov
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v2i4.1838

Abstract:
Atmospheric radiative fluxes are evaluated for the line-by-line model of spectral lines in considering the atmosphere as a weakly nonuniform plane layer and altitude profiles of its parameters are taken from the model of standard atmosphere. Concepts of molecular spectroscopy are combined with the local thermodynamic equilibrium for greenhouse gases and with information from HITRAN data base for parameters of radiative transitions. In addition, the energetic balance of the Earth allows one to determine the radiative flux from clouds. As a result, the algorithm is worked out for evaluation of the atmospheric radiative flux toward the Earth depending on its composition. We below concentrate on the change of atmospheric radiative fluxes as a result of doubling of the concentration of CO2 molecules. It is shown that the change of the global temperature in this case according to the above algorithm in 5-6 times exceeds that followed from climatological models which are based on old spectral data, rather than those from HITRAN data base. These codes ignore overlapping of spectral lines of atmospheric radiators.
Svetlana Vasilivna Budnik
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v2i4.1564

Abstract:
The direction of the trend of precipitation over time is an important characteristic for both theoretical and practical use. The presented study is devoted to the analysis of changes in the territory of the trend of precipitation over the year over time. At the present stage of climate change in the north-west of Ukraine, there is a general tendency to increase rainfall over the year. This trend is not the same across the territory and depends on the height and latitude of the area. The amount of precipitation varies both in space and in time, however, the distribution of the characteristics of the rains themselves (intensity, duration and others) continue to remain similar throughout the territory. The revealed features of changes in the amount of precipitation in space and time can be useful in studying the unevenness of wetting, forecasting floods, changes in erosion activity, etc.
Sourabh Singh Chandel, Era Upadhyay
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v2i4.1708

Abstract:
The states of India including Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and Himachal Pradesh follow combine harvesting method followed by burning of crop stubble to clear the fields for next crop. Crop stubble burning is the reason of annual increment in pollution concentrations which lead to massive winter pollution in the region. However, several initiatives for its proper management have been taken up by various departments and institutions of the states’ government but still air pollution level is increasing. Instead of burning the crop residue, it can be used in other ways, which are beneficial to humanity. Keeping in view the increasing problems associated with the crop stubble burning in the state of Punjab, we have taken some steps towards exploring alternative uses of straw instead of burning. This study is an attempt to outline alternative use like use of rice straw for generation of electricity through microbial fuel cell. With the help of this crop stubble, electricity can be produced, and it can be used as a sustainable source of energy in the remote areas. This study underscores the importance of rice straw as a potential source of biomass for recovering energy through MFCs. It is also focused on suggesting policies to the government so that air pollution can be minimized in affected areas.
M. A. Sarker
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v2i4.1709

Abstract:
Natural hazards like cyclones cause significant loss of life and damage to properties, ecosystems and marine structures and facilities. Numerical modelling of cyclones is carried out for deriving robust design conditions for coastal and marine structures and facilities. Cyclone modelling results are also used for emergency planning and decision-making to estimate potential loss of life, damage to properties and marine facilities and to develop rescue and mitigation measures and plan clean-up operations. Royal HaskoningDHV (RHDHV) has set up regional tidal hydrodynamic and wave transformation models covering the Arabian Sea to address the above issues. Cyclone Mekunu is relatively new (May 2018). A quick literature search by Royal HaskoningDHV has suggested that numerical modelling results of waves and surge on Cyclone Mekunu are hardly available in the public domain. Therefore, this paper has concentrated on this event to illustrate the use of numerical modelling to simulate waves and surge generated by cyclones. The MIKE21 model of DHI was used in the study. Sample results of waves and surge from the modelling study are presented in this paper for illustration purposes. Structural design considerations and cyclone risk reduction measures are also provided. The model could be used to simulate any cyclone generated anywhere within the Arabian Sea. The methodology described in this paper for modelling cyclone waves and surge in the Arabian Sea could also be applied to simulate cyclones at other sites around the world. The paper provides valuable information to the researchers and practitioners of the region on this relatively new event.
Ankita Nath, Reshmita Nath
Published: 30 December 2019
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v2i3.1182

Abstract:
The Greater Hinggan Forest was the world’s largest stand of evergreens, along the Black Dragon River (also known as Amur), which forms the border between Chinese Manchuria and Soviet Siberia. Black Dragon fire ranks as one of the worst environmental disasters of the 20th century and it burned about 18 million acres of conifer forest. In the 2nd week of May, 1987, we observe more than 10K rise in brightness temperature over a wide region in the China-Russia border. The weekly mean NDVI data shows the changes in greenness after the forest fire broke out. The NDVI value is positive with persistent greenness and vegetation in the Amur River valley, but from the 2nd week of May onwards the reddish patch appears to spread over the entire region, indicates the burned areas. In addition, we observe the impact of Black Dragon forest fire on tropospheric ozone concentration, aerosol index away from the location over North Pacific Ocean. A clear increase in atmospheric pollutants can be noticed after the forest fire event and the long range transports are confirmed with 72 hours NOAA HYSPLIT forward trajectory analysis.
Aditi Singh
Published: 30 December 2019
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v2i3.1421

Abstract:
Air pollution is an issue of great concern in any urban region due to its serious health implications. The capital of India, New Delhi continues to be in the list of most polluted cities since 2014. The air quality of any region depends on the ability of dispersion of air pollutants. The height or depth of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is one measure of dispersion of air pollutants. Ventilation coefficient is another crucial parameter in determining the air quality of any region. Both of these parameters are obtained over Delhi from the operational global numerical weather prediction (NWP) model of National Centre for Medium Range Weather forecasting (NCMRWF) known as NCMRWF Unified Model (NCUM). The height of ABL over Delhi, is also obtained from radiosonde observations using the parcel method. A good agreement is found between the observed and predicted values of ABL height. The maximum height of ABL is obtained during summer season and minimum is obtained in winter season. High values of air pollutants are found when the values of ABL height and ventilation coefficient are low.
Sara Chikhi, Mohamed El-Amine Slimani
Published: 30 December 2019
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v2i3.708

Abstract:
The sea states numerical modeling has been developed for years, it used for very varied fields such as the sizing of coastal work, the safety of navigation, the study of the stability of the beaches or the water leisure. The spectral third-generation ocean wind-wave model WAVEWATCH III (WW3) software was adopted and developed for simulating wave propagation in the Mediterranean basin. In this study, a more detailed study was carried out on the port of Algiers. Two different atmospheric models have been used to get the wind forcing: ALADIN (Area Limited Dynamic Adaptation Inter National Development) with an 8 km resolution. And AROME (Application to Operational Research at Meso-scale) with a 3 km resolution. The results obtained using both of the atmospheric models have been compared and analyzed.
Bezon Kumar, Arif Ibne Asad, Purnima Banik
Published: 30 December 2019
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v2i3.1542

Abstract:
This paper mainly investigates the perception and knowledge on climate change of the university students in Bangladesh. To carry out this study, primary data are collected from 370 students and uses several statistical methods. Perception and knowledge on the causes, effects and mitigation ways of climate change problems, and perceived duties to combat against climate change are analyzed with descriptive statistics. This paper finds that deforestation is the main cause of global warming and climate change and, the effects of climate change is very serious on people’s health. Majority portion of the students think that it is difficult to combat against climate change problem because it has already been too late to take action. Besides this study also finds that government is crucially responsible for combating against climate change problem. The study calls for government mainly besides industry and youths to aware people about the causes, effects, mitigation ways of climate change so that they can contribute to the sustainable development by mitigating climate change problem.
Yan Wang, Fuchao Li, Jin Zhao, Huaxin Chen, Peng Jiang, Xuexi Tang
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v2i2.930

Abstract:
The sediment samples were collected from Maluku Strait at a depth of 1250 m, which is influenced by Mindanao Current and Indonesian Throughflow. Based on 16S rRNA clone libraries, the community structure and vertical distribution of archaea and bacteria were studied in a columnar sediment of 2m in length. From the surface sediment, 16S sequences were derived from fourteen bacterial phyla (Gammaproteobacteria, Planctomycetes, Alphaproteobacteria, Deltproteobacteria were dominant), but were limited to two groups of archaea: Crenarchaeota (99%) and Euryarchaeota (1%). Besides, 90% of the archaea clones were ammonia oxidation-related which indicated that the ammonia-oxidizing archaea might make a significant contribution to the chemosynthesis in the surface sediment. Contrastively in the bottom sediment, six bacterial phylogenetic groups were obtained (Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes were absolutely dominant), however no archaea 16S rRNA was detected. The microbial diversity of surface sediment was much higher than the bottom and seven unique bacterial phyla were obtained from two sediment respectively. The geochemical elements analysis revealed that the content of C, TOC and S in the surface sediment was much higher than the bottom, but the content of P is contrary. The microbial communities might be in response to the geochemical substance transfer and deposit influenced by the ocean current and it deserves further study compared with the other sediment samples in this area.
Sabur F. Abdullaev, Irina. N. Sokolik
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v2i2.352

Abstract:
Dust storms are commonly occurring phenomena in Tajikistan. The known aridity of the region is a major factor in promoting numerous dust storms. They have many diverse impacts on the environment and the climate of the region. The classification of dust storms and synoptic conditions related to their formation in Central Asia are discussed in the content of their diverse impact. We address dust optical properties that are representative of the region. Dust storms significantly reduce visibly and pose a human health threads. They also cause a significant impact on the radiative regime. As a result, dust storms may cause a decrease in temperature during daytime of up to 16 о С and an increase in temperature during night time from up to 7 о С compared to a clear day.
Haitao Yan
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v2i2.543

Abstract:
In order to improve the standardization, specialization, intelligence and timeliness of the new generation weather radar fault repair, the technical threshold of radar fault repair is greatly reduced, so that the general operators can carry out radar fault repair work. In order to achieve this goal, this paper designs a new generation weather radar fault repair system, which aims to solve two problems: one is to solve the causes and locations of the new generation weather radar faults which can be quickly and accurately detected and diagnosed[1]; the other is to solve the problem that the grass-roots radar operational staff are inexperienced in maintenance and will not be repaired, and to provide visual through the maintenance system. Maintenance methods and steps with expert intelligence level [2], so that general radar operators can operate radar fault repair according to video steps, and have the technical level of maintenance experts, to achieve breakthroughs in technical difficulties of radar fault repair, to achieve both disease detection and treatment effect, to improve the efficiency of the use of new generation weather radar and to achieve modern technical equipment support. Chemistry plays an important role and significance.
Naru Xie, , Zhiqiang Gao
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v2i2.919

Abstract:
The East China coast is one major cyclogenesis region of extratropical cyclones (ETCs) in boreal winter. In this study, the climatological characteristics of winter ETCs passing over the coastal water of China are analyzed by using clustering and composite analysis. Automated cyclone detection and tracking algorithm are used to identify the ETCs, which are further classified into subgroups according to their trajectory features by using the probabilistic clustering algorithm. Six distinct types of straight moving or recurving trajectories with different climatological characteristics are identified in the clustering analysis. Accordingly, the composite analyses also present six distinct synoptic patterns corresponding to cyclogenesis as well as the impact of ETCs on terrestrial precipitation. The spatio-temporal characteristics of winter ETCs’ origination, movement, and impact are revealed by the clustering and composite analyses.
José San José, Rubén Montes
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v2i2.558

Abstract:
The seasonal changes in the energy balance after the substitution of a herbaceous savanna by a Brachiaria field located in the Orinoco lowlands were assessed over an entire year using the eddy covariance technique. Simultaneously, an herbaceous savanna was monitored as a control. This work provides evidence that the vegetation replacement lead to different patterns of energy and water balance. The seasonal trends of the latent heat flux (λE) to available energy (Ra) ratio tended to decrease as senescence increased due to seasonal influence of air humidity mole fraction deficit and soil water content on leaf area index (LAI) and surface conductance (gs). Therefore, the partitioning of the available energy depended on both climatological (i.e., solar radiation, volumetric soil water content and air humidity mole fraction deficit) and biological variables (i.e., conductance behavior and LAI) which were stress-induced. For the wet season, the seasonally averaged daily λE in the Brachiaria field (i.e., 0.8 ± 0.1 mm d-1) was 1.3-fold higher than that in the herbaceous savanna (i.e., 0.6 ± 0.1 mm d-1) (Mann-Whitney U-test). For the dry season, the value was 2.7 ± 0.6 and 2.2 ± 0.4 mm d-1, respectively, these means values were not significantly different. In the Brachiaria and herbaceous savanna stands, the annual evapotranspiration was 731 and 594 mm year-1, respectively, and the annual ratio of evapotranspiration to precipitation was 0.52 to 0.42 respectively. In Brachiaria field, the deep drainage was relatively lower (43% of total precipitation) than that in the herbaceous savanna stand (53%) leaving a similar amount of water to increase soil storage. The current shift in land cover decrease deep drainage and increased λE by water uptake from a pasture with high belowground phytomass and LAI.
Haitao Yan
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v2i1.443

Abstract:
:The wind speed and wind direction meter of meteorological station is installed on the wind meter pole 10 meters high from the observation site, which also causes some difficulties for the maintenance of the wind speed and wind direction meter in the later period. Based on this situation, an electric lifting worktable (referred to as the electric lifting worktable) is specially designed for the maintenance of wind meters in meteorological observation sites. It can lift the maintenance personnel and equipment and tools to a height convenient for work, and then grasp the wind meter pole through the mechanical arm. It can be operated by a single person, thus getting rid of the traditional dimension by climbing the wind meter pole or releasing the wind meter pole. The present situation of repairing has the characteristics of saving manpower and easy operation, which is conducive to improving work efficiency and reducing work intensity. It also greatly guarantees the safety of maintenance personnel, and has good practicability and extensive popularization value.
, Xinggang Zhang, Xiaochun Lu
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v2i1.343

Abstract:
The most significant part of the Wade Area Augmentation System (WAAS) integrity data consists of the User Differential Range Error (UDRE) and the Grid Ionospheric Vertical Error (GIVE). WAAS solutions are not completely appropriate to determine the GIVE term within the entire wade area coverage zone taking in account real irregular structure of the ionosphere. It leads to the larger confidence bounding terms and lower expected positioning availability in comparison to the reality under geomagnetic storm conditions and system outages. Thus a question arises: is the basic WAAS concept appropriate to provide the same efficiency of the integrity monitoring for both “global differential correction (i.e. clock, ephemeris etc)” and “local differential correction (i.e. ionoshrere, troposhpere and multipath)”? The aim of this paper is to compare official WAAS integrity monitoring reports and real positioning quality in US coverage zone (CONUS) and Canada area under geomagnetic storm conditions and system outages. In this research we are interested in comparison between real GPS positioning quality based on one-frequency C/A ranging mode and HAL (VAL) values which correspond to the LP, LPV and LPV200 requirements. Significant mismatch of the information between WAAS integrity data and real positioning quality was unfolded as a result of this comparison under geomagnetic storms and system outages on February, 2011 and June 22, 2015. Based on this result we think that in order to achieve high confidence of WAAS positioning availability alerts real ionospheric measurements within the wide area coverage zone must be involved instead of the WAAS GIVE values. The better way to realize this idea is to combine WAAS solutions to derive “global differential corrections” and LAAS solutions to derive “local differential corrections”.
Luca Aluigi
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v2i1.621

Abstract:
To The Editor,Journal of Atmospheric Science Research Sir/Madam, SUBJECT: Withdrawal of Article from your journal <High-Resolution Radiometer for Remote Sensing of Solar Flare Activity from Low Earth Orbit Satellites> 2. I/We wish to withdraw my/our Article which has been Submitted/Submitted and accepted at your end/ Submitted, Accepted and Published by you 3. The Details of my/our Article are as below:Article Title High-Resolution Radiometer for Remote Sensing of Solar Flare Activity from Low Earth Orbit Satellites Date of Submission 20/12/2018 Status of article (Under review/Accepted/Published) Published In case the Article is already published, the Issue & Volume of the Journal Vol 1, No 1 (2018) Reason(s) for Withdrawal of Article The material that I used has been created in collaboration with other authors, to whom I did not request permission. This was due not to malicious intentions, but due to my superficial behavior induced by the extreme hurry with which I had to prepare the article. Name of the Corresponding Author Luca Aluigi Name(s) of the Other Author(s) (If any)Signature(s) of the Author(s)affirming that he/they agree with the Corresponding Author in requesting the Withdrawal/Retraction of this Article12 4.  Disclaimer: I / I and my Co-Authors have carefully read the ‘Article Withdrawal and Retraction Policy (the Policy)’ of the Journal and agree to abide by the same. The Decision of the Editorial Board is final and shall be binding on me/us. The legality of the Decision will not be challenged anytime in any Court of Law. Submitted for the consideration of the Editor. Luca Aluigi  Date: 25/02/2019
Hirdan Katarina De Medeiros Costa, Natália De Assis Brasil Webe
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v2i1.419

Abstract:
The current paper aims to discuss the potential of sustainable energy management in a decentralized manner by integrating cleaner energy production initiatives using different energy sources as a tool for achieving sustainability. In order to have a robust analysis our methods choose a specific case study based on industrial consumption. In this case, our goal is to conduct a comparative analysis of the use of diesel oil and replacing it with piped natural gas in a cogeneration system at the municipal industrial sector, aimed at local development through cleaner production mechanisms. This paper conduct a survey of the potential for cogeneration in the industrial sector of the municipality of Novo Hamburgo. The results have shown advantages of reducing CO2, CH4, N2O emissions and particulate matter in diesel oil replacement project by natural gas, and the need to maintain the NOx emission rates. Finally, after theoretical studies for our case, we concluded that after the diesel oil replacement for natural gas, the results of emissions would be beneficial and with this choice, it would be achieved a sustainable cleaner energy production.
Samia Tabassum, Ayesha Siddika, Munira Sultana, Mashudur Rahaman, Muhammad Shahriar Bashar
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v2i1.469

Abstract:
Due to the availability, non-toxicity and cost-effectivity, natural dyes are becoming popular day by day. In this study, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using natural dyes containing anthocyanins extracted from pomegranate, blackberry and beet route. TiO2 film on FTO glass prepared by doctor blade method was employed as photoanode. The structural and morphological properties of photoanode was studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), respectively. The extracted dye absorption was evaluated by UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy. The fabricated cells have efficiency in the range of 0.015 – 0.042% which has been measured by sun simulator.
Somenath Dutta, Geena Sandhu, Sanjay G Narkhedkar, Sunitha Devi
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v2i1.266

Abstract:
The study discusses the energetic aspects of tropical cyclones formed over Arabian Sea (AS) and Bay of Bengal (BOB) during the period from 1991 till 2013 and aims at bringing out climatology of the energetics of tropical cyclones over Indian Seas. Total 88 cyclones that developed over the Indian Seas during the recent decade of 1991-2013 have been studied. These intense systems are categorized on the basis of their formation region and season of formation. It is seen that during the study period, the frequency of formation of cyclones over BOB is twice that over AS which is consistent with the climatology of the regions. Further, it is noticed that over both the regions, they are more frequently formed in the post monsoon period compared to pre monsoon. The trend analysis of the frequency of cyclones forming over both basins, season wise shows that the overall trend for both basins is of just decreasing type. However, for Arabian Sea; the decreasing trend is more apparent in the post monsoon season, whereas in the case of the Bay of Bengal the decreasing trend is more evident in the pre monsoon season. Various energy terms, their generation and conversion terms have been computed using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. Day to day quantitative analysis of these parameters is studied critically during various stages of the cyclones. The composites of these categorized systems are formed and studied. The formative, intensification and dissipation stages showed variations in their energy terms.
Nicolay Nikolayevich Zavalishin
Published: 29 December 2018
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v1i1.373

Abstract:
The assumption of M. Milankovich about the constancy of the Earth's albedo during the interglacial period was replaced with the alternative one. The model was developed where anomalies of the average annual temperature of the surface atmosphere were related with interannual changes in the planetary albedo and the thermal inertia of the hydrosphere. The surface temperature changes due to albedo actual and model changes were calculated. Possible external causes of albedo changes were considered.
Luca Aluigi
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v1i1.420

Abstract:
Solar flares, intense bursts of radiation, can disrupt the atmosphere and potentially affect communication, navigation and electrical systems. A newly developed miniaturised microwave radiometer used on a space-borne platform should offer astronomers unprecedented understanding of the largest explosive phenomena in our solar system. In this paper the activity and results of the EU funded research project FLARES are presented. Objective of FLARES has been the study, analysis and design of millimetre-wave (mm-wave) system-on-chip (SoC) radiometer for space-borne detection of solar flares. The proposed approach has contributed to reduce significantly the power consumption and weight with respect to the existing instruments for the observation and study of solar flares. In particular, the proposed SoC Dicke radiometer can achieve one order of magnitude improvement in terms of resolution, so allowing the detection of solar flares with relatively low intensity, i.e. about 100 times lower than those currently detected by the existing systems, owing to space-borne operations and the microchip-level miniaturization through silicon technology under space qualification.
Suman Paul
Published: 25 December 2018
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v1i1.206

Abstract:
On 6th December, 2016, an earthquake with M 6.5 occurred at the tectonic plate boundary, southwest of Sumatra, Indonesia (Latitude: 0.5897° S, Longitude: 101.3431° E). In this case, ionosphereic critical frequency of F2 layer (foF2) variations and meteorological parameters, viz., air temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure and wind speed variations were investigated so as to detect any anomalies. Data are obtained from different websites freely available for researchers. In the absence of real ionosonde foF2 data, IRI 2016 model data were used. For each parameter, anomaly window were defined when values fell beyond ± 6 °C, < 70 %, ± 4 mb and ± 3.5 km h-1 from the event day value and one third of total foF2 values broke the limits of the upper and lower bounds. Certain random anomalies in temperature, relative humidity, pressure, wind speed and foF2 frequencies were observed different days prior to occurrence of the quake but each parameter showed anomalies 12 days before the occurrence. Also, geomagnetic tranquility was justified through Kp and Dst indices. This study reveals that continuous monitoring of atmospheric meteorological parameters and regular ionospheric foF2 observations might help us to predict an earthquake about a week prior to the occurrence.
Somenath Dutta, Narkhedkar S. G., Sunitha Devi, Sudheesh Tm
Published: 25 December 2018
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v1i1.267

Abstract:
An attempt has been made to understand the dynamics behind anomalous cyclogenesis over Indian Ocean during 2013 cyclone seasons, from an atmospheric energetics point of view. Salient features of the results of this study are:Maximum intensification of all the intense cyclonic vortices was associated with an enhancement in both conversion from eddy available potential energy to eddy kinetic energy (AE to KE ) and zonal kinetic energy to eddy kinetic energy (KZ to KE).During intensification of the storms both AE and AZ have shown to be dissipated, suggesting the intensification of storms at the cost of AE and AZ . For all of these systems baroclinic eddy kinetic energy conversions [conversion from AE to KE ] dominates over barotropic eddy kinetic energy conversions [conversion from KZ to KE]. Anomalous cyclogenesis in 2013, at least partly may be attributed to a positive anomaly in Moist Static Energy (MSE) of the environment along with positive anomaly in baroclinic and barotropic eddy kinetic energy conversion during cyclone seasons over the region under study.Release of convective instability in the atmosphere may also be attributed, at least partly, for anomalous cyclogenesis in 2013.
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v1i1.347

Abstract:
Air quality models are tools capable to predict the physical and chemical processes that occur in atmosphere affecting the atmospheric composition, such as wind advection, turbulent diffusion, wet and dry deposition, chemical reactions, photolysis, anthropogenic and biogenic emission processes. These models need input data containing information about atmosphere (usually from a global atmospheric model), terrestrial data (usually for the models maintainer) and emissions (that comes from air quality pollution inventories). EmissV is a code written to create emissions input for these atmospheric models.
Jianjun Meng, Yuteng Xiao
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v1i1.171

Abstract:
We summarized the basic contents and the applicable conditions of typicalatmospheric sulfur cycle models, especially the classical atmospheric sulfur cycle model and the independent sulfur cycle model which is based on OsloCTM2 model.We introduced atmospheric sulfur cycle models which are coupled with some general circulation models such as ECHAM, LMDZ, CSIRO, MASINGAR, RCA2, NICAM and MIROC. Although there are many kinds of atmospheric sulfur cycle models, there are still some problems such as lack of relevant data support, comprehensive consideration of chemistry, radiation and dynamics, and interdisciplinary integrated research in the study of sulfur cycle models. To solve these problems, we proposed to optimize the quality of atmospheric sulfur emission and observation data, establish a shared database system, formulate relevant database usage regulations, strengthen the cooperation and resource sharing among subjects, and establish comprehensive high-resolution atmospheric sulfur cycle models.
Jinshan Song, Weiwei Chen
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v1i1.172

Abstract:
Outdoor air pollution and particulate matter in polluted air are a class ofcarcinogens, and in recent years, atmospheric particulate matter pollution in China has remained at a high level. By reviewing the current situation of atmospheric particulate matter pollution in China and the research on the mechanism of particulate carcinogenesis, analyze the evidence of carcinogenicity of particulate matter in experimental animals in China and the epidemiological clues of particulate carcinogenesis, to explain the relationship between atmospheric particulate matter and cancer, and to propose relevant research in China.
Xiaoyu Wu, Yutao Wang
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v1i1.168

Abstract:
At this stage, China s environmental protection work is in full swing, andthe path of sustainable development has become the direction of China s futuredevelopment. This requires economic development and environmental health as well as the health of the atmospheric environment. It is necessary to pay full attention to the detection of atmospheric environmental quality and provide a basis for the treatment of air pollution problems. This paper mainly analyzes the application of the determination method of volatile organic pollutants in the atmosphere, and mainly studies the application of GC/MS measurement methods. It is hoped that this theoretical study will help volatile organic pollutants in the atmosphere. The actual management work is carried out.
Quan Wang
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v1i1.169

Abstract:
The atmospheric turbulence is simulated in the laboratory using anatmospheric simulation pool, and the intensity of atmospheric turbulence can be adjusted by controlling the temperature difference between the upper and lower plates of the simulated pool. At the same time, the PM2.5 environment was simulated in the simulation pool, and the particle sensor was used to measure the concentration of PM2.5. Since atmospheric visibility is mainly affected by PM2.5, we obtained air quality data for a period of time in a certain area of Beijing, and numerically fit the relationship between the two, and obtained a regression model between the two. Theregression model was applied to the atmospheric simulation pool to calculate the visibility of the simulated atmosphere, and compared with the air quality of the Fengtai area published by the Meteorological Bureau, and the accuracy of thesimulation pool to the PM2.5 environmental simulation was tested. Based on the turbulence simulation, the simulation pool simulates the PM2.5 environment. The method is feasible and has sufficient theoretical basis. It provides a reliable indoor experimental platform for future research on laser atmospheric transmission.
Yulan Hu, Chunhong Fan
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v1i1.170

Abstract:
In the face of the current generation of atmospheric environmentalproblems, the air pollution control engineering experiment class should be combined with the teacher s scientific research project to design comprehensive and design experiments, so that students can understand the cutting-edge technology and apply what they have learned; and the atmospheric environmental problems that are urgently needed to be solved. Combine design innovation experiments to cultivate students sense of innovation and make them have certain innovation ability.
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