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Oleh Pylypchuk, Oleh Strelko, Yulia Berdnychenko
Published: 11 December 2020
History of science and technology, Volume 10; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2020-10-2-160-162

Abstract:
Sneha Bakshi, Manager Rajdeo Singh
Published: 11 December 2020
History of science and technology, Volume 10; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2020-10-2-163-184

Abstract:
This paper reports the mineralogical composition of western India's 16-17th century Mughal plasters of Quila-I-Ark, Aurangabad to prepare compatible repair mortar and document ancient Indian lime technology. Analytical studies were undertaken for aggregate grain size distribution, thin section analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and chemical composition of the plasters by x-ray fluorescence (XRF analysis). The analysis revealed the inclusion of large size basaltic aggregate grains mostly sourced from the water channel of nearby Harsullake. Some of the plaster works show prominent inclusion of small size grains pointing different periods of construction. Creamy white zeolites were found specifically added in the mortar mix to maintain a certain level of humidity during the dry season. The zeolite is highly porous and breaks easily both in dry and wet conditions. The calcite rich limestone with traces of magnesium was sourced as raw material for the plasters. Based on mineralogical composition and binder/aggregate ratio, three phases of historical constructions were documented. FTIR and thin section analysis showed the mixing of some proteinaceous adhesive juice in the lime for improvement in rheological and waterproof properties. The high quantity of large size aggregate grains ensured better carbonation of lime and the source of aggregates remained the same for all phases of historical constructions. The cementation index (C.I.) and hydraulicity index (H.I.) vary between 0.10 to 0.96 and 0.20 to 3.43, respectively showing the plaster is aerial lime with traces of magnesium. The plaster is feebly hydraulic as the hydraulic component calculated varies between 0.88 to 6.10 percent in different samples. A moderate strength plaster with a lime/silica ratio close to 0.33 was prepared for most phases of construction except a few isolated locations. The analytical data will now help to prepare compatible mortar with identical additives for a major repair.
Published: 11 December 2020
History of science and technology, Volume 10, pp 315-338; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2020-10-2-315-338

Abstract:
Physics, biology, chemistry, for example, do not already only study programs in many universities but are at the forefront of the development of science, and that is science itself. The development of the basic foundation becomes the mother of science, such as mathematics, as a suspicion of the birth of new sciences. The interests related to the life and welfare of humans always invites the possibility of the birth of science in concepts, but mathematics confirms it. In certain cases, as an application, or it gives birth to answers in technology form, which is distorted according to the social demands of society. Every science has its methodology, which is based on the logic that helps to reason. A natural model is an approach to generating methods, as well as the principles that develop in artificial intelligence based on mathematics. This principle not only changes the way of perceiving data, but it also establishes new definitions of data, and changes statistics, optimization, and other fields. Each science also has implications for other sciences but also has applications that are also related to other sciences. Every science supports technology to improve social welfare. Historically, century by century, many new scientific fields were born, and it has evidence from the publication of scientific works to books as scientific standards. Then, the teaching curricula supported its initial dissemination and its development through research with evidence of scientific publications either through papers in proceedings of scientific meetings or articles in the journals. A study program about science in the related faculty is mandatory, and it is as the spearhead in further scientific and technological development. So everything starts and ends at one point, namely the birth of new science, as the birth of data science. This paper describes the birth of science by involving historical traces. The reflection of scientific development is starting from the foundation to become a scientific field, namely data science. It also illustrates the roadmap of a scientific indirectly.
Ángel Calvo
Published: 11 December 2020
History of science and technology, Volume 10, pp 185-216; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2020-10-2-185-216

Abstract:
This article deals with the opening of telecommunications to competition and its determinants in Spain, a country seriously committed to the monopoly. It is framed in the general scenario of an accelerated technological change driven by new materials, components and transmission systems, a sharp regulatory change and an extension of the value chain with new products and services, in particular data, mobile telephony and cable. Such properties fit perfectly with the time axis chosen which comprises the two last decades of the 20th century and coincide with a phase in which the protagonist company is facing the challenge not only of liberalisation but also of a profound change in the parameters of the market. The study focuses on Telefónica's response to new regulatory and market requirements. Methodologically, it revolves around the multidisciplinary nature, which integrates the approach of the history of technology understood as a system (Thomas P. Hugues and Melvin Kranzberg) and the economic and business history (Nathan Rosenberg). The text is structured in four sections that examine the persistence of the monopoly of Telefonica and liberalisation, the axes of Telefónica's transformation through global and strategic plans and the broadening of the value chain, focussed on the cable market. Some preliminary historical and technical issues and key elements in the evolution of the sector are addressed. The text attends to the relations between the market structure inherited from the monopoly and the process, from which the advantages of Telefónica with the rest of the companies emanate. The research rests mainly on primary sources of the company studied, twice as valuable because they are difficult to access by researchers and perfectly determined to grasp the company's strategy, as well as on reports from major international institutions and secondary literature. The conclusion deals with the methodological consideration of the close link between supply and demand-related factors.
Liubov Soloviova, Svitlana Hurinchuk, Yuliia Berdnychenko, Oleh Strelko
Published: 11 December 2020
History of science and technology, Volume 10, pp 368-382; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2020-10-2-368-382

Abstract:
The name of Vsevolod Timonov, an outstanding scientist-engineer, teacher, public figure, and popularizer of science, doctor of technical sciences, Honored worker of science and technology of the RSFSR, professor, is well known to a wide range of domestic and foreign scientists and technicians. Nowadays, the creative worky of the extraordinary personality of the scientist is particularly interesting to researchers for its inexhaustibility and versatility. In his activity, V. Ye. Timonov showed the features of a talented researcher, experimenter, organizer of science, an innovator in solving important theoretical and applied problems of hydraulic engineering. The article covers his early life and activities. This period of life of V. Ye. Timonov allows us to understand and reflect the conditions of the formation of the scientists’ worldview, the factors that influenced the formation of his creative personality, and to analyze the main directions of his activity. And let us note that his 60 years of scientific, pedagogical, and social activity is characterized by exceptional versatility and depth. The outstanding scientist boundlessly devoted to science until the last day, V. Ye. Timonov is the author of more than 700 scientific papers. Among his works are a number of textbooks, manuals, and monographs, which have received wide recognition of scientists of our country and foreign researchers. Several finely written books showcase his multifaceted talent as a memoirist. For more than 50 years V. Ye. Timonov was engaged in pedagogical work at high school. His lectures (at institutes, universities, and in the general public) have always been a huge success. He brought up a whole galaxy of scientists. Vsevolod Yevhenovych devoted a lot of effort and time to the promotion of science, active, purposeful struggle with anti-scientific concepts in hydrobiology, hydrography, hydraulic engineering. Timonov's scientific and organizational activity was also fruitful. A man of great and versatile culture, an eager admirer, and a deep connoisseur of poetry and literature, V. Ye. Timonov himself was a gifted promoter of scientific knowledge.
Ihor Dvorkin, Artem Kharchenko, Svitlana Telukha
Published: 11 December 2020
History of science and technology, Volume 10, pp 266-280; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2020-10-2-266-280

Abstract:
The article examines the history of establishment of the Kharkiv Practical Technological Institute in the broad context of modernization processes. The history of the Practical Technological Institute in Kharkiv is considered in the context of socio-economic changes in the South of the Russian Empire, primarily in the "Ukrainian provinces", in the last third of XIX – early XX centuries. The methodological basis of the article is the modernization approach. Changes that took place in the Russian Empire in the last third of the XIX – early XX century are considered as a modernization movement. Modernization is understood as a complex number of transformations that society is undergoing on the path of development from traditional agricultural to urban and industrial. We proceed from the fact that modern society of that time was aware of the speed of industrial production, the need for qualified engineering personnel. The training of such personnel required the opening of local higher education institutions. The processes of industrialization, migration and urbanization, due to the modernization theory, were the main components of social development in the XIX century. The approach chosen by the authors allowed to analyze the formation of higher technical institutions in the Russian Empire, on the example of the Kharkiv Practical Institute of Technology, within these changes. The approach within the new imperial history enabled us to take into account the socio-political subtext of the situation and the decisions that contributed to the establishment of technical universities in the south of the empire. An important aspect of our article is the European context. We investigated the general tendencies of opening similar to Kharkiv educational institutions. We can see certain commonalities, which allows us to explore the problem more deeply. We came to the conclusion that, the emergence of a higher technical educational institution ‒ Kharkiv Practical Technological Institute, in Kharkiv was due to the demand of local elites, which was met by the highest bureaucracy of St. Petersburg, as well as the situation in the city itself. This compromise did not cancel the rivalry, both at the highest bureaucratic level – the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of National Education, and at the regional level, in particular Kharkiv university elite and the inspirers of the idea of a separate technical institution.
Maryam Seyidbeyli
Published: 11 December 2020
History of science and technology, Volume 10, pp 353-367; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2020-10-2-353-367

Abstract:
At the beginning of the VII century in the political life of the Near and Middle East, fundamental changes have taken place. The Arabs conquered a colossal territory, which included the lands of Iran, North Africa, North-West India, the Asian provinces of Byzantium, most of the former Roman Empire. In the conquered cities of the caliphate, observatories, madaris, libraries were built. At the end of VII century, the first scientific center, an academy, the House of Wisdom, was founded in Baghdad, in which scholars who spoke different languages were assembled. Here the translation and commentary activity were very developed, the main works of ancient thought, such as the writings of Aristotle, Ptolemy were published in the 9th century in the Arabic-speaking world. For two centuries from 750 to 950 years, the works of ancient authors on philosophy, mathematics, medicine, alchemy, and astronomy were translated into Arabic, which indicates the high scientific potential of that time in the East. At the same time, in the XII century, Ibn Rushd composed 38 commentaries on the works of Aristotle, the “Republic” of Plato, the treatise “On the Mind” of Alexander of Aphrodisias, which subsequently had an important influence on the work of Nasir al-Din al-Tusi. Thus, this period in the history of Eastern scientific thought is marked by high intellectual potential. To this day, historians of medieval Arabic literature face a sufficient number of difficulties, since the vast majority of manuscripts remain inaccessible to them. The works of many renowned Arab authors of the middle Ages are more than 1000 years old, so it seems obvious that the manuscripts of the vast majority of authors have not survived to this day. The researchers of the history of Azerbaijan and neighboring countries in the middle Ages, with all the variety of available sources on which they rely, still attract little factual material related to the Arabic-language works of the historical and scientific genre. Undoubtedly, a comprehensive study of the entire complex of information of Nasir al-Din al-Tusi on the history of science in Azerbaijan is of great importance.
Hryhorii Luparenko
Published: 11 December 2020
History of science and technology, Volume 10, pp 250-265; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2020-10-2-250-265

Abstract:
Based on the source and comparative analysis of the history of creation, design, and production of the Kyiv Motorcycle Works’ motorcycles, the value of the MT10-36 motorcycle as the landmark of science and technology has been determined. It has been shown that the development of a new engine and MT10-36 motorcycle was, first of all, the initiative of the plant’s engineers. Ovcharenko M. completed the development of a 650 cubic capacity boxer engine. The design of new units and a vehicle outpaced the technological capabilities of the plant. This led to a delay in introducing new technology into production. The involvement of the Foundry Department of the Kyiv Polytechnic Institute under the leadership of K. Vashchenko made it possible to improve the production technology of the motorcycle engine. The reliability of the engine has increased. The design of the engine of the Kyiv Motorcycle Works was in line with the tendencies of the world motorcycle industry. On the basis of a comparative analysis of the MT10-36 motorcycle design and the Ural motorcycle of the Irbit plant (Russian Federation), the strengths and weaknesses of the vehicle design have been determined. Selected episodes of sales of the Kyiv Motorcycle Plant’s motorcycles within the country and abroad have been highlighted. It has been highlighted that the motorcycle was operated in conditions that did not reveal its speed and transport capabilities. The motorcycle’s design outpaced the pace of development of transport infrastructure (highways). The basic principles of museification of motor vehicles have been considered. It has been noted that one of the valuable qualities of the landmark of technology is the reflection of the peculiarities of the use of the object and its change after leaving the plants’ shop. Some aspects of the principles of technique restoration as a material historical source with the optimal preservation of the landmark and the information reflected in it have been considered. It has been concluded that the MT10-36 motorcycle meets the criteria of the landmark of science and technology in the broad sense of this concept. The motorcycle embodies the original technical solutions of native engineers, reflects the level of development of domestic technology and illustrates the practice of operating motorcycle technology.
, Valentyna Kuryliak, Oleg Podoliak
Published: 11 December 2020
History of science and technology, Volume 10, pp 217-249; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2020-10-2-217-249

Abstract:
In the article there are presented the stages of improvement of the process of continuous casting. It is revealed, that at the each stage of technological improvement of the process of continuous casting, the damage parameters of billets were reduced. Improvement of the process of continuous casting leads to the improvement of the mechanical properties of the billets and the performance of continuous casting machines. The first stage is shown as the process of transition of the number of experimental developments into quality, during which the casting of billets passed from an unstable process to a stable one. The second stage is characterized by the creation of new improved continuous casting processes. So, besides the existing machines of the vertical type, radial, curvilinear and horizontal casting machines were invented. By the end of the twentieth century, this technological process reached the limit of the possibilities for increasing the quality of performs, and the productivity of continuous casting machines. It is shown that the third stage is intended for continuous casting of copper alloys and is based on the influence of the frequency of the movement of the billets and the reverse movement of the perform during overcoming the static friction force. It was determined that for the frequency of movement of billets made of copper alloys, which are in the range of 2.5...7.5 min-1, the direction of its movement during overcoming the static friction affects the mechanical properties of the billet. The fourth stage - causes an increase in the mechanical properties of the billet due to the use of inertia forces in the alternating movement of the billet. It was revealed that at the fourth stage the mechanical properties of the billets increased most effectively, and the linear performance increased from 0.4...0.8 to 2.5...4.0 m/min, and in some cases to 5.0...7.0 m/min.
, Giancarlo Barraco, Paolo Zampetti
Published: 11 December 2020
History of science and technology, Volume 10, pp 281-292; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2020-10-2-281-292

Abstract:
Objectives: the name of Jan Evangelista Purkyně (Purkinje in German), born in Bohemia in 1787 and died in Prague in 1869, is mainly associated with discoveries in histology and specialist fields of Medicine like embriology, histological techniques, ophthalmology, cardiology and neurophysiology. This short article presents a brief account of his life, commemorates his achievements in biology and medicine but also in in the politics and literature of his Country (he was elected to the Diet of Bohemia but also he composed poems and important translations from German, French and Italian languages into Czech) and examines in depth his contribution to Dentistry. Materials and Methods: Purkyně’s major contributions to Dentistry, which focused on embryology and dental histology, endodontics and periodontology, are traced to two dissertations in Latin which were discussed by his pupils (Meyer Fraenkel and Isaac Raschkow), at Breslau University in 1835: we present a brief summary of each, with the major innovative findings highlighted. Results: the two dissertations contain remarkable, though often overlooked, contributions to Dentistry. Among these we can indicate the individuation of: the dental cement (substantia ostoidea), the acquired dental pellicle, the nature of optical illusion of Hunter-Schreger lines, the “enamel pulp” from which the enamel would evolve, the sub-odontoblastic nervous plexus which is the cause of tooth sensitivity, the predentine, the organic nature of the process of enamel formation, the dentine and enamel formation in opposing directions, the presence of alveolus membrane (id est: the periodontium). Conclusions: after reviewing the main innovations these two dissertations made to Dentistry, Purkyně’s personal share in both is very clear. Both the two his pupils acknowledged their debt to Purkyně and also famous contemporary Purkinje scientists such as Alexander Nasmyth, Sir Richard Owen, Sir James Paget had no doubt he is had generated the ideas expressed in the two little treatises.
Vira Okorokova, Olha Likhachova
Published: 11 December 2020
History of science and technology, Volume 10, pp 339-352; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2020-10-2-339-352

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the study of the formation of technical science in Ukraine in the second half of the XIXth century. The source of data for the research was found in the articles of the "Journal of the Ministry of Public Education" that was published in the 60‒70s of the XIXth century. This historical source explains the chronological boundaries of the research mentioned. The authors draw attention to the formation of technical science as to a complex process that developed from the historical and cultural transformations in the field of scientific research of Ukrainian society back in the days. Paradigmatic shifts in Western European science that penetrated the scientific circles of the Ukrainian social environment contributed to the intensification of scientific and technological progress. It is noted that the latter had a great influence on education which, as shown in the article, became one of the components in the forming process in the field of science and technology.In particular, we are talking about the active work of scientific and technical intelligentsia, which became the driving force in this process, which was expressed in the creation of a theoretical and methodological basis for scientific activities. Based on a wide range of methods derived from the historical research, the progress factors in this scientific field as well as the growth of scientific schools of leading mathematicians, physicists, and other representatives of technical science were discovered. On the basis of the biographical method of analysis the creative way of heads of known scientific schools (V. Ya. Buniakovskyi, I. O. Vyshnehradskyi, M. V. Ostrohradskyi, F. N. Shvedov and others) in line with the trends of the then Ukrainian scientific and technical industry.The research points out the importance and invaluable contribution made by scientists for further motivation and actualization of the research in subsequent years. It is emphasized that the emergence of scientific schools and modernization of the technical education system have become the main components in the formation of the scientific and technical elite. It was made through an active scientific activity that contributed to the formation of technical science at the theoretical and methodological levels.
Published: 11 December 2020
History of science and technology, Volume 10, pp 304-314; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2020-10-2-304-314

Abstract:
The article, on the basis of a fundamental study of literature and its thorough analysis, highlights the importance of measurements in the cultural aspect of the development of the country and types of art. The analysis of literary sources is carried out, which confirms the influence of the formation of measurement standards on the development of the main types of art. The relevance of the topic is to show the connection between the development of technical thought and the formation of art forms, which has become one of the foundations of the general development of the culture of the state. I. Babenko, M. Bieliaiev, D. Mendelieiev, E. Kamentseva, B. Rybakov and others made a great contribution to the formation and development of measurement standards that influenced the cultural development of the state. In their fundamental works one can find information on the influence of measurement on formation and development of architecture, arts and crafts. But these materials do not give a complete picture of the conceptual significance of the influence of technical thought on art and the cultural development of the state. The purpose of the article is to show the influence of the technical thought development, namely the metrological foundations, on the development of the arts. The centuries-old history of metrology is useful for the development of society, although its origin and development are covered only in scattered sources. One of the fundamental studies of the origin of measures was the works of I. Babenko “Metrology”, M. Bieliaiev “On ancient and modern Russian measures of extension and weight”, and B. Rybakov in his writings presented fathoms as geometric lines of the calculation table of architects (Babylon). The history of measurements is highlighted in the literature and is mainly devoted to the processes on the formation of metrological concepts among the Skifiia, Sarmatiia, the Zarubinets and Cherniakhiv cultures, the Northern Prychornomoria, of Kyivska Rus, Moskoviia and other. Neither in the ancient world, nor in the Middle Ages there was a metrological service, but there is information about the implementation of standards and storage of measures, as well as about the verification of measuring instruments. Accurate measurements and calculations allowed the architect to achieve harmony in the creation of architectural monuments.
Published: 11 December 2020
History of science and technology, Volume 10, pp 293-303; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2020-10-2-293-303

Abstract:
In the article, the author, based on the methodological principles of historicism, objectivity, systematics, explored the specific achievements of Kharkiv University scientists, who worked in the first half of the XIX century, in the formation and development of science History of State and Law. Their scientific works, in accordance with the main trend in the genesis of this science at that time, were centered around the law of Kyiv Rus and, in particular, the content of the Rus’ka Pravda (Russian Truth). This area of their activity is studied insufficiently in the scientific literature, both domestic and foreign. This is due to the fact that the main contribution to the development of these issues was made in the second half of the XIX century – then a significant number of works on this topic was published, which provided an opportunity for their systematic analysis. The activity of scientists of this university in the first half of the XIX century concerns the period of formation of historical and legal science. Hence the main shortcomings of their work: a certain fragmentation in the coverage of problems, a narrow historiographical base, the hypothetical nature of some theses. Professor Uspenskyi was the first who started working on the history of law at Kharkiv University and considered the question of “the antiquity of Russian laws and their dignity”. At that time, scholars of many universities in the empire had to prove the authenticity of the Rus’ka Pravda and those laws that was not yet generally accepted. O. Kunitsyn, a professor of Kharkiv University, also expressed some doubts in this, although he cannot be attributed entirely to the supporters of the “skeptical school” in Russian historiography. O. Paliumbetskyi made the most significant contribution to the development of historical and legal science at that time at Kharkiv University. He conducted one of the first comparative studies of Old German and Old Rus law, convincingly showed their differences, some influence of German law on Russian, which he considered insignificant. Quite thorough and one of the best was his study of treaties between Rus and Byzantium in the X century. Based on the provisions of these agreements, the scientist made a successful attempt to determine the essence of some of Old Rus laws, in particular on revenge, compensation to the victim and court evidence. Most of his arguments were tested over time and are not disputed by modern scientists. Scientists-lawyers of Kharkiv University in that period did not form a separate scientific school, as happened at the University of Kyiv due to the activities of M. Ivanishev, but they worked in line with the then prevailing paradigms in Russian historiography, and made a certain contribution to the formation of historical and legal science. Therefore, their scientific activity deserves further study.
Elena Tverytnykova, Maryna Gutnyk, Halyna Salata
Published: 11 December 2020
History of science and technology, Volume 10, pp 383-399; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2020-10-2-383-399

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The purpose of the study is to conduct a comprehensive historical and scientific analysis of the life and scientific and organizational activities of professors of the Kharkiv Technological Institute Oleksii Khinkulov and Pavlo Dedusenko, using the study of scientific literature and involved archival materials. On the basis of the involvement of unknown and little-known archival documents, a historical reconstruction of the creative activity of scientists was conducted; in particular, the little-known period of their life in 1940–1946 was studied in detail. A comprehensive analysis of the scientific activities of Oleksii Khinkulov was carried out, his contribution to the formation of the electrical industry was determined. His role in the development of scientific research in the field of radio engineering in Ukraine was emphasized. He headed one of the largest radio engineering club in Ukraine. The social activities of Oleksii Khinkulov were investigated, it was found that for a long time he worked as deputy chairman, and then as chairman of the All-Ukrainian Association of Engineers, which united the teams of research departments of technical institutions of Ukraine. The scientific and organizational activities of Professor Oleksii Khinkulov certainly contributed to the development of electrical engineering science and education both in Kharkov and in Ukraine. He was one of the organizers and promoters of the radio engineering direction in Ukraine, participated in the work of public organizations and electrical congresses. His colleague at KhTI, Professor of chemistry Pavlo Dedusenko, is undoubtedly an outstanding person. As an active member of various charities, he worked hard for the public. These are both scientific societies and various social projects. A supporter of Ukrainian nationalism, he strove for the Independence of Ukraine, the development of Ukrainian culture. Repressed in 1945, the scientist died in the concentration camp in 1946. In 1991, due to the lack of evidence confirming the guilt of Pavlo Dedusenko, the professor was rehabilitated.
Published: 5 June 2020
History of science and technology, Volume 10, pp 88-99; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2020-10-1(16)-88-99

Abstract:
The article reviews the factors of the scientific views’ formation of Mykola Pavlovych Petrov – formidable Russian scientist and engineer in relation to his administrative efforts of development of the native scientific and technical community XIX–XX. The special focus was made on the biographical component, especially his study in Petersburg institutions. The crucial impact on the scientific destiny of M. P. Petrov was made by his studying in the Engineer Academy. In that time the intellectual basement for the future activities was formed. As a matter of fact, later M.P. Petrov became the formidable engineer and scientist. M. P. Petrov was the student of the formidable mathematician, academician of the Petersburg Academy of Science Mykhailo Vasylovych Ostrohradskyi (1801–1862). M. P. Petrov gained a lot of useful skills and knowledge from his teacher. Among those the following: high mathematical culture, abstract thinking, knowledge of the theoretical and practical problems in various areas of science, especially the ones that were related to railway transport. Work as the lecturer in the Technological Institute, communication with I. A. Vyshniehradskyi, A. P. Borodin and other scientists and specialists played a role of some kind of push for M. P. Petrov to study applied disciplines, mainly related to the friction of lubricated materials. Among the teachers of M. P. Petrov in the Academy was Herman Yehorovych Pauker (1822–1889). M. P. Petrov always recalled him as the wonderful engineer and teacher, who was the creator of the school for the engineers-teachers. The main goal of the school was the harmonious connection between engineer work and science. In the Academy M. P. Petrov met the lecturer of mechanics of the Institute of the communication paths engineer corps Stanislav Valerianovych Kerbedz. During the studying in the Academy M. P. Petrov was formed as the future scientist and specialist, who had the character which helped him to communicate easily with people. He had humane views and always acted alone and fairly. These features of his character in conjunction with his great mind helped him to achieve all his goals while solving the complicated engineer and administrative tasks. Aspiration to knowledge, original and brave thinking were among the main features of M. P. Petrovs nature.
Mykola Ruban
Published: 5 June 2020
History of science and technology, Volume 10, pp 72-87; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2020-10-1(16)-72-87

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In the article an attempt to investigate in a chronological order the historical circumstances of the formation and development of the mainline electric locomotives engineering at the Luhansk diesel locomotives engeneering plant (1957–2014) has been made. The circumstances of the activity of the electric locomotives workshop of the Luhansk plant (1957–1967), within which the production of crew parts and units of the legendary locomotives VL8 and VL10 for Novocherkask and Tbilisi factories have been analyzed. In the late 1980s, due to the absence of a solid convertible currency for the import of traction rolling stock from Czechoslovakia in the wake of the economic crisis of the USSR, the Luhansk plant received orders for the development and production of self-propelled electric locomotives. However, with the proclamation of the Independence of Ukraine, due to the lobbying of the new government, promising projects of Luhansk electric locomotives were rejected, and the Dnipro electric locomotives engineering plant was defined the basic enterprise for the creation of mainline electric locomotives for the Ukrainian railways. Due to the unstable economic situation in the country and the lack of targeted financing, the Dnipro plant was unable to start mass production of a number of types of locomotives, HC «Luhanskteplovoz» together with the Novocherkask plant began production of freight electric locomotives on the technological basis of Russian locomotives. Further development and prospects of serial electric locomotives engineering at the Luhansk plant were interrupted by the aggravation of the military-political situation in the region. However, it is clear that the historical experience of becoming a domestic scientific-production base of the mainline electrical production needs its proper understanding in the context of current tendencies of import of traction rolling stock with an attempt to localize its production in Ukraine.
Published: 5 June 2020
History of science and technology, Volume 10, pp 110-126; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2020-10-1(16)-110-126

Abstract:
This paper reviews the studies on human genetics, carried out by Russian women in the 1920s and 1930s. Its main objective is to determine the contribution of women scientists to the development of different fields of human genetics. Particular attention is given to reconstructing women geneticists’ research work, reviewing the content of their publications, and analysing the theoretical and methodological approaches they employed to tackle different scientific problems. The biographies of the pioneers in Russian “anthropogenetics” (knowledge of human heredity), R. I. Serebrovskaya, G. V. Soboleva, and N. N. Malkova, were restored on the basis of archival sources. The first women geneticists received their higher education at the Higher Women’s Courses, as, in the Russian Empire, it was prohibited for women to study at the universities. These women came into genetics from traditional biological sciences or medicine at the time when human genetics as a discipline began to emerge in Russia in the 1920s. The first works in the field of anthropogenetics, conducted by these women on their own, began to appear in 1923. By the mid ‒ 1920s, women geneticists began to use genealogical and twin methods for studying human heredity extensively. The number of women’s publications peaked in the late 1920s. Studies in the field of population genetics and medical genetics gained popularity and new biochemical and cytological methods of analysis were added to the repertoire of analytical techniques. In the 1930s, with the beginning of attacks on eugenics, studies in human genetics were rapidly wound down to be completely arrested by the 1940s. The results of the studies carried out by the Russian women anthropogeneticists in the 1920s ‒ 1930s included demonstrating hereditary nature of premature graying (R. I. Serebrovskaya), hemorrhagic diathesis and inguinal hernia (N. N. Malkova), deaf-mutism and stutter (G. V. Soboleva); determining the incidence of different genes in the populations; organizing large-scale twin studies to elucidate the role of heredity and environment in the manifestation of psychological traits; and introducing new methods for hereditary disease diagnostics and the effective practices for teaching preschool and school age children.
Published: 5 June 2020
History of science and technology, Volume 10, pp 138-150; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2020-10-1(16)-138-150

Abstract:
This article involves a critical examination of XIXth century military interventions, as the basic cause of the international contagion. Challenges arising and choices made in a critical reading of the International Sanitary Conferences (ISC) proceedings, reveal case histories and early statistical techniques at use with epidemiological purposes. These episodes in the history of the diseases suggest that relevant military information was circulated among health professionals through the ISCs. Although the evolution of the epidemic process during the latter half of the XIXth century made the Conferences fail to cure the diseases that the Western medicine own expansion engendered. By discussing the ways that prophylactic measures and international interventions were used by medical scientists and diplomats alike, from the detailed records of troop mortality to such ubiquitous terms as "contagion" and "quarantine", the article seriously reflect on what happened when action taken by military forces was a mass phenomenon. As evidenced from the study of the proceedings when comparing different populations, in the pathologies associated with the mass-transport era the rationale of interaction outlined the challenges involved in the train transport of troops. Also, the existence of an environmental risk factor can answer the question on the action taken by military forces as a mass phenomenon with huge impacts on hospitals, harbors and prisons. Materials intended for these international epidemics studies and commissions were prepared by experimented military and civil medical doctors who believed that evidence and common sense proved epidemic diseases capable of being prevented, treated, and controlled by a military approach. This essay demonstrates that Army forces' capability to take control over their host governing apparatus, emphasizes the importance of their aim to follow and accompany the control of the disease in the imperialist competition for land. It grows out of its specific historical context, which due to its origin could become uniform and international, but constituted the principal obstacle on the road to an international health office.
Published: 5 June 2020
History of science and technology, Volume 10, pp 100-109; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2020-10-1(16)-100-109

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the study of dedicated contribution of academician Mariia Vasylivna Pavlova (Gortynskaya) in the development of Paleozoology Science. It is noted that her research was carried out in several directions including studying the causes of extinction of animals in the past geological epochs, investigating the remains of fossil elephants, rhinos, tapirs, notartiodactyls and artiodactyls, describing the remains of mammals in Tiraspol gravel. M. V. Pavlova described hipparions and horses, found mainly in the southern regions of Ukraine and the Crimea. By this new material she proved that horses had originated from American protogippus. The idea of a single trunk development of horses both the Old and New World caused objections, especially in America, as in Europe, there were no finds of ancient forms of horse series – anchitheriinae and protogippus. M. V. Pavlova consistently sought them in Eurasia, and in 1903 she discovered the remains of the bones of the limbs of these ancient horses. Analysis of the scientific heritage of Academician M. V. Pavlova, an outstanding national paleoscientist, a specialist in evolutionary theory, an organizer of Paleozoology science and a teacher, makes it possible to understand the processes of development of national biological science. She takes one of the places of honor in the world of paleontological science. Her name is associated with the development of Paleozoology science of late XIX – the first third of the twentieth century and the scientific outlook on the development of various Paleozoology concepts, laws and ideas. It suggests the urgency and necessity of this research. Its relevance is also caused by significant civil and scientific value of a person M. V. Pavlova in Paleozoology science, the lack of special comprehensive study of her life, scientific, organizational and administrative activities in the history of science, the need to create the most objective biography of M. V. Pavlova, the analysis of creative works and the importance of the introduction of solid scientific use of new sources and facts. Scientific activities of Pavlova as the scientific leader and founder of scientific school and her contribution in Paleozoology science has been marginally disclosed yet.
Published: 5 June 2020
History of science and technology, Volume 10, pp 50-61; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2020-10-1(16)-50-61

Abstract:
The activity of the mining industry in the South of the Russian Empire, of which Ukraine was part at that time, is analyzed. It is noted that the rapid development of industry in the Russian Empire after the abolition of serfdom in 1861 opened up opportunities for investors to raise capital. Information is given about why Kharkiv became the center of investment life of mine owners, namely its good geographical location. Data on the number of inhabitants of the city and the number of trading institutions are provided. The stages in the formation of the mining industry of the South of the Russian Empire as a driving force for economic development in Ukraine are highlighted.The causes of weak coal sales from the Donbas and the development of the factory industry of Ukraine in the 1860s are analyzed. It is shown how these issues were resolved. In particular, mining congresses were organized to discuss and resolve these issues.It is shown how the decisions of mining congresses influenced the development of the country's economy at the end of the nineteenth century. Examples of issues discussed at these congresses are given. In particular, the congresses discussed – workers, higher and secondary specialized education, mining credit, insurance, the ratio of the mining industry to zemstvos and land taxation of enterprises of the mining industry, taxes, land relations, postal, telegraph and telephone traffic, passenger traffic in the Southern Russia area, duties, ports, marinas, navigable rivers and canals, shipbuilding and merchant shipping, export of mineral fuel abroad, construction of new railways, etc. It should be noted that the central issue discussed at almost all mining congresses was the question of tariffs, and this was not a coincidence, since it directly concerned the markets for industrialists without whom production could not be developed, and with it the intensification of the industrial revolution. Therefore, this problem, in one form or another, has arisen constantly.Information is provided on the number of such congresses, as well as on the creation of a permanent body, the Council of Miners of the South of the Russian Empire. It analyzes the so-called “coal crisis” and the role of major mining companies in the collusion. The monopolization of the market is considered. Emphasis is placed on the customs policy of the tsarist government. Speculation on temporary fuel difficulties is illustrated. It is noted that at the end of the 1890s, there were especially high rates of development of the Donbas coal industry. Special tariffs for the export of Donetsk coal abroad were introduced. Thus, in the last quarter of the 19th century, the mining and monopolization of the mining industry of the south of the Russian Empire were enlarged and monopolized.
Oksana Hrytsiuta
Published: 5 June 2020
History of science and technology, Volume 10, pp 127-137; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2020-10-1(16)-127-137

Abstract:
In the history of Ukrainian archeology there are many names of outstanding researchers who have devoted their lives to the study of our antiquity. Among them – Yulian Kulakovskyi, a well-known domestic historian and archeologist. For many years of his life he devoted to the scientific and pedagogical activity at the Kyiv University of St. Vladimir, where he had worked at the Faculty of History and Philology. After moving to Kyiv, Yu. A. Kulakovskyi began interesting in the late Ancient Christian archeology of the Crimea. In 1883 Yu. A. Kulakovskyi had joined the Nestor Chronicler Historical Society. Since that time, his life and career have been closely linked to this scientific union. For many years he represented the Nestor Chronicler Society at the All-Russian Archaeological Congresses. In 1905, for his extraordinary merits, Yu. A. Kulakovskyi was admitted to the Honorary Members of the Society, and from 1907 to 1911 performed the duties of its President. Kulakovskyi's presidency was one of the most productive periods of the Society's activity, meetings and public lectures were held during which scientific reports were read. The fascination of Yu. A. Kulakovskyi with archeology began after his move to Kyiv. For many years he was an active participant in archaeological research in the outskirts of Kerch, near Mithridat mountain. The results of these studies have been dedicated to a series of reports published on the pages of “Readings in the Nestor Chronicler Historical Society”. It is possible to consider that he initiated the direction of research in the field of Late Antique archeology of the Crimea in the Society. For the first time in the history of Bosporan archeology, the researcher not only conducted excavations of the most valuable early Christian funeral sites, but he also explored much of the necropolis, discovered unique burial sites, some of them are known for their wall paintings. Thanks to the efforts of the scientist it was possible to solve important questions of the borders of the ancient necropolis, chronology and cultural identity of the ancient population of Crimea. The researches of Yu. A. Kulakovskyi made it possible to begin systematic excavations of the ancient Panticapeus, which allowed to preserve the unique archaeological materials, which later became the subject of careful study of modern scientists.
Published: 5 June 2020
History of science and technology, Volume 10, pp 10-33; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2020-10-1(16)-10-33

Abstract:
The literature on the history of electricity production have studied the evolution of electricity in both developed and developing countries and its impact on their economies. Some have laid foundations upon which other works are carried out. A close examination of historiography and multidisciplinary research on electricity production in Ghana shows that more efforts are required to improve the electric power landscape in Ghana. From the colonial era, the increasing demand for electricity has been the biggest challenge plaguing the energy sector. Respective governments have made significant strides in ensuring reliable and universal access to electricity throughout Ghana, yet such efforts have been accompanied by different levels of challenges. The study uses a qualitative and exploratory research approach to trace the activities that helped, in many other ways to the creation of a sustainable electric power provision to household and industry in Ghana, particularly in two of Ghana’s cities; Accra and Kumasi, within the period 1900 to the1960s. The work focused mainly on archival sources in its quest to arrive at how indigenous Ghanaians provided power for industrial activities and for household purposes. Results from the study show that local and cottage industries relied predominantly on wood, fuel, and biomass for their operations even before the introduction of the more sophisticated means of power generation. Also, the study revealed that in finding solutions to the challenges of electricity production, policymakers have focused more on current issues with little or no effort to trace the historical foundation of electricity production. This notwithstanding, the little efforts that have been made examined the history of energy production, with a limited focus on the immediate post-independence era.
Oleh Pylypchuk, Oleh Strelko, Yulia Berdnychenko
Published: 5 June 2020
History of science and technology, Volume 10, pp 7-9; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2020-10-1(16)-7-9

Abstract:
This issue of the journal “History of Science and Technology” has been prepared in difficult conditions. In difficult conditions for authors… In difficult conditions for reviewers ... In difficult conditions for the editorial board… In difficult conditions for the whole world in general!!! This issue contains ten articles. The first of these articles came in late 2019, when the world did not know yet these terrible words: Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19); severe acute respiratory syndrome Corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)… COVID-19 was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and has since spread worldwide, resulting in an ongoing pandemic. As on May 29, 2020, when these lines were written, more than 5 800 000 cases were recorded in 188 countries, killing more than 359 000 people. We hope that humanity will invent a vaccine as soon as possible, and these horrific death statistics will first stop growing and then stop altogether. For this, many events and activities are important, as history shows. Including the history of the development of science and technology, that is the subject area of our publication. In many sources on the history of electric power production the evolution of electric power production was studied both in developed and developing countries and its impact on economy. The growing demand for electric power became the most problem that stood before the power sector of Ghana. This issue begins with an article examining activities that in many ways helped to create a sustainable electricity supply for households and industries in Ghana, especially in the cities of Accra and Kumasi, between 1900 and 1960. Scientific-technical borrowings are one of those types of scientific support for the work of industrial sectors, whose role in the conditions of exiting the crisis to acquiring the particular importance. Since the mid-1920s, they have become the main way of scientific support for the organization of the development of Ukrainian electric machine-building industry in the context of large-scale electrification of the country. That was due to the need for a quick withdrawal of this industry from the previous crisis in the absence in the Ukrainian SSR of its own scientific support system for the electric machine engineering. An example of this measure, which was considered in the study, was an attempt to achieve the fastest possible increase in productivity of the Kharkiv Electromechanical Plant at minimal financial cost. The next article analyzes the activities of the mining industry in the south of the Russian Empire, of which Ukraine was a part of that time. An analysis of the so-called “coal crisis” and the role of large miners in collusion has been made. Market monopolization has been considered. Emphasis is made on the customs policy of the tsarist government, speculation on temporary fuel difficulties. The study shows that in the last quarter of the nineteenth century there was a consolidation and monopolization of the mining industry in the south of the Russian Empire. In the 21st century, every reputable journal also has an online version, which makes the dissemination of scientific information almost instantaneous. We are so accustomed to the conveniences of the information age that it is difficult for us to imagine the difficulties that scientists faced a little over 150 years ago. The genesis of science launched the process of forming branch of scientific communities and demanded stable ways of communication for productive and effective development of the branch. Scientific journals have become an ideal means of disseminating information, and a scientific article has been transformed from an ordinary letter into a modern form and has taken on an ideal form. The importance of international communication between scientists, on the example of consideration of the activities of Valerian Mykolaiovych Lihin, is discussed in the following study. He became the first Russian-speaking member of one of the oldest Mathematical Societies in Europe - the French. V. Lihin broke the tradition of “isolated” science when discoveries in the Russian Empire (and later in the USSR) were made separately from the rest of the world. In the next article an attempt to investigate in a chronological order the historical circumstances on the formation and development of the mainline electric locomotives engineering at the Luhansk diesel locomotives engineering plant (1957–2014) has been made. Historical and biographical research is continued by the article, which considers the factors shaping the scientific worldview of Mykola Pavlovych Petrov - an outstanding scientist and engineer against the background of his initiative and organizational efforts to develop the domestic scientific and technical space of the late nineteenth - early twentieth The article devoted to highlighting the contribution of academician Mariia Vasylivna Pavlova (Gortynska) in the development of palaeozoology science at the end of the XIX – the first third of the XX centuries continues the cycle of historical and biographical researches. We hope that our readers will be interested in scientific work, examining the research of Russian women in the field of human genetics in 1920-1930. The main task of the article was to determine the contribution of women scientists to the development of different fields of human genetics. Particular attention was given to reconstructing women’s geneticists’ research work, reviewing the content of their publications, and analyzing the theoretical and methodological approaches they employed in solving various scientific problems. In the history of Ukrainian archeology, there are many names of outstanding researchers who have devoted their lives to the study of our antiquity. Among them is Yulian Kulakovskyi, a well-known domestic historian and archeologist. In 1883 Yu. A. Kulakovskyi joined the...
Olha Oliinyk
Published: 5 June 2020
History of science and technology, Volume 10, pp 62-71; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2020-10-1(16)-62-71

Abstract:
In the 21st century, we live in the stage of human history when any information is as accessible as possible. The modern scientific world is based on an extensive network of journals. Thanks to them, we have the opportunity to get acquainted with the latest research results. In the 21st century, every reputable journal also has an online version, which makes the dissemination of scientific information almost instantaneous. We are so accustomed to the conveniences of the information age that it is difficult for us to imagine the difficulties that scientists faced a little over 150 years ago. In the second half of the nineteenth century, almost most of the sciences known to mankind were formed. The genesis of science launched the process of forming branch scientific communities and demanded stable ways of communication for productive and effective development of the branch. Scientific journals have become an ideal means of disseminating information, and a scientific article has been transformed from an ordinary letter into a modern form and has taken on an ideal form. Given all the above, it is important to consider the experience of V. Lihin in publishing articles in scientific journals abroad. Valerian Mykolaiovych was the first scientist from Odessa to join a new type of scientific communication. He became the first Russian-speaking member of one of the oldest Mathematical Societies in Europe - the French. The young mathematician conquered with his erudition, attention to detail, thorough approach and comprehensive analysis of research issues. During his life, V. Lihin wrote more than 30 scientific papers, a third of which were presented in scientific journals abroad. These were complete author's translations or articles based on part of the study. Not infrequently, on the pages of magazines, you could see scientific discussions, in which our compatriot also took an active part. In Odessa, the fate of Valerian Mykolaiovych changed quite radically several times: he was a professor and dean of the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics of Novorossiysk University; an adviser of the mayor, and later the mayor; became a trustee of the Warsaw Educational District. And in Europe, his authority as a scientist was highly valued. He showed that science has no state borders, that it can develop harmoniously - imitating the results of research from all over the world. V. Lihin broke the tradition of "isolated" science when discoveries in the Russian Empire (and later in the USSR) were made separately from the rest of the world. Scientists, who speak the language of science - speak the language of peace and development. And so, in 2020, the language of medical science has united the world despite its borders, nations and religions.
Ihor Annienkov
Published: 5 June 2020
History of science and technology, Volume 10, pp 34-49; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2020-10-1(16)-34-49

Abstract:
Scientific-technical borrowings are one of those types of scientific support for the work of industrial sectors, whose role in the conditions of exiting the crisis to acquiring the particular importance. Since the mid-1920s, they have become the main how of scientific support for the organization of the development of Ukrainian electric machine-building industry in the context of large-scale electrification of the country. That was due to the need for a quick withdrawal of this industry from the previous crisis in the absence in the Ukrainian SSR of its own scientific support system for the electric machine engineering. The first form of scientific-technical borrowings for the republican segment of the Soviet Union profile industry was the agreement between the State Electrotechnical Trust and the German electrotechnical company Allgemeine Elektricitäts Gesellschaft on scientific-technical cooperation. The main objective of this act was to achieve at the lowest possible financial cost the fastest possible increase in productivity of the Kharkiv Electromechanical Plant. To do this, it was supposed using the American technologies for the production of electrical machines but implemented them on German technological equipment. Allgemeine Elektricitäts Gesellschaft was the company that already made such it at the beginning of the twentieth century using the technologies of the General Electric Company. Moreover, in the pre-Soviet period, it made an attempt to hold a similar act at the Kharkiv Electromechanical Plant, which it owned in this time; however it ended in failure due to the revolutionary upheavals that began in Ukraine. Thus, the agreement concluded with the German company was a continuation of the same actions, what itself had begun, but, already in new historical realities. That is, the Allgemeine Elektricitäts Gesellschaft actions were copied by the Soviet government, however, adapted to the Soviet way of organizing industrial production. Despite the fundamental difference between the latter and the working conditions of the Allgemeine Elektricitäts Gesellschaft in Germany, the concentration of the parties precisely on the scientific and technical component of the project made it possible to achieve the expected result in full. However, at the same time, Ukrainian electric machine builders focused specifically on the speed of duplication of scientific-technical knowledge missed the opportunity to study the methodology for obtaining them. This became the reason that these scientific-technical borrowings did not become the proper basis for the formation of the scientific component of the scientific-technical potential of the domestic electric machine-building industry.
Published: 10 December 2019
History of science and technology, Volume 9, pp 225-232; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2019-9-2(15)-225-232

Abstract:
The research of the scientific heritage of the Kyiv Law Society, which worked at the Kyiv University of St. Vladimir in the second half of the XIX and early XX centuries, is of current relevance within the framework of civil society development in Ukraine. The variety of its scientific directions speaks of the tireless desire of the members of the Society to improve the national legislation, to solve a number of legal problems and to promote the development of legal science in the Ukrainian lands. This article investigates the problems in the field of railway transport to have been actively discussed at the meetings of the Kyiv Law Society. The main steps in the creation of a unified railway legislation in the Russian Empire in the second half of the XX century, which was mandatory for all railways in the country, are outlined. The role of the Commission for the Study of Railways in Russia of E. T. Baranov, which was created to study the state of railways in the country, has been considered. It is shown that the Commission consisted of leading scientists and public figures of the country – A. F. Koni, S. Yu. Vitte, А.А. Vendrykh, М.М. Annienkov and others. It has been stated that the main purpose of the Commission's activity was to collect the necessary materials from foreign and domestic railway and judicial practice, which could be studied as much as possible with the participation of representatives of science, trade, military affairs and industry, with the purpose of creating the General Statute of Railways of the Russian Empire, which became the first codified source of law precisely in the railway business. It has been shown how the KLS took part in this process. The speeches of individual scientists such as O. F. Kistiakivskyi, D. I. Pikhno, M. Ye. Krainskyi, A. H. Dolzhanskyi, O. F. Kvachevskyi who spoke on the problems of railway jurisprudence, put forward their proposals, discussed the possibilities of appropriate changes in the development of the railway industry and held discussions at the meetings of the Society have been analyzed. In addition, the history on the creation of the General Statute of Railways, its content and significance for the railway business in the Russian Empire, which became the first step in the formation of a unified legal field on the entire network of national railways, have been revealed.
Yuliia Berdnychenko, Olha Petrykovets
Published: 10 December 2019
History of science and technology, Volume 9, pp 139-146; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2019-9-2(15)-139-146

Abstract:
An in-depth and comprehensive study of internal combustion engines creation, the prominent figures’ contribution to the formation and development of domestic and world science, remains a crucial task of historical studies at their present stage. The steam engine did not completely solve the energy problem, the humanity was facing. Small workshops and enterprises in the 19th century, which made up a significant part of the industrial sector, were not always able to use it. The small steam engine had a low efficiency. Besides, using such an engine meant high costs and troubles. Small industry required an engine that would take up minimum space and could be turned on and off at any time without much preparation. The article is devoted to highlighting and dividing the development of gas, kerosene, gasoline and diesel engines into stages. The idea of such an engine was first proposed in the early 19th century. The prerequisites for the emergence of each engine type have been considered. The important role of Philippe Lebon as the founder of gas engine design has been shown. Several inventors from different countries worked on the idea of creating engines using various types of fuel. Among them is the Belgian engineer Jean Étienne Lenoir, who suggested starting the engine with an electric spark. The engineer Augustus Otto’s role in the development and construction of the first gas engine, which was more economical than a steam engine, has been shown. Thus, all the theoretical and constructive background for inventing a new type of internal combustion engine was there, the designer of which was Rudolf Diesel. He created and patented an internal combustion engine – “diesel”, which today remains one of the most economical heat engines.
Iryna Hrushytska
Published: 10 December 2019
History of science and technology, Volume 9, pp 147-159; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2019-9-2(15)-147-159

Abstract:
In 2020, the scientific community will celebrate the 90th birthday of Vitaly Grigorevsky – the Ukrainian astronomer, a specialist in satellite astronomy, a representative of a scientific school of an outstanding Ukrainian scientist, corresponding member of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, a director of the Odessa Astronomical Observatory – a professor Vladimir Platonovich Tsesevich. In the article on the basis of complex use of biographical method and methods of bibliographic and source analysis the basic milestones of life and scientific activity of Vitaly Grigorevsky are investigated. The Kherson, Odessa before-Chisinau, Chisinau and Odessa after-Chisinau periods of the scientist's life and work at the Odessa and Chisinau State University, Odessa Technological Institute named after M. V. Lomonosov. The basic directions of scientific researches of the scientist are defined: physical processes in semi-regular variable stars, photometric researches of artificial satellites of the Earth, research of geometry and motion of artificial satellites of the Earth and small planets, optimization of technological processes by mathematical methods with use of electronic computing methods. The contribution of Vitaly Grigorevsky to the formation and development of a new direction of scientific research in the 1960s - photometric observations of artificial satellites of the Earth is shown. The international aspect of Vitaly Grigorevsky's scientific and organizational activity and his work in the Commission on Multilateral Scientific Cooperation between the Academies of Sciences of Socialist Countries are covered. The activity of Vitaliy Grigorevsky as the initiator and coordinator of cooperative research in the field of photometric observations of artificial satellites of the Earth under the SPIN program was noted. The SPIN program included the stations of the People's Republic of Bulgaria, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, the Hungarian People's Republic, the German Democratic Republic, the Polish People's Republic, the Soviet Union and the United Arab Republic (Egypt). The little-known facts about the scientist's biography are covered.
Oleksandr Isaienko, Svitlana Isaienko
Published: 10 December 2019
History of science and technology, Volume 9, pp 175-185; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2019-9-2(15)-175-185

Abstract:
History of science and technologies as a branch of scientific knowledge is aimed at studying the most significant ideas of prominent scientists and practitioners and their influence on the world science development and the technologies’ advancing. In the opinion of the authors of the article, one of such figures of the early twentieth century is Academician I. H. Aleksandrov. Historical and scientific analysis of life and activity of I. H. Aleksandrov as a scientific theoretician, engineer, a science organizer is of high topicality due to the scale and versatility of his scientific contribution. Scientific creative work of I. H. Aleksandrov can be divided into five main directions of development of science and technologies: hydraulic engineering, hydropower, geographic zoning, railway transport and irrigation. In the context of the development of hydraulic engineering and hydropower, I. H. Aleksandrov had world-class achievements that glorified national science. But till recent years I. H. Aleksandrov is mostly recognized as the designer and one of the constructors of the Dnipro hydroelectric power station near Zaporizhzhia (1927-1932) (he prepared a project and directed the construction of the largest hydroelectric power station in Europe at that time) or as a creator and developer of the methodology for economic zoning of the Soviet Union. Other achievements and ideas of Academician I. H. Aleksandrov are rarely mentioned in the scientific papers and researches. The article concludes that the breadth of scientific and technical interests of I. H. Aleksandrov was the result both of his individual abilities and of the thorough theoretical and practical training received by a young engineer I. H. Aleksandrov from the highly qualified teaching staff of the Moscow Higher Technical School and the Moscow Engineering School of the Office of the Ways of Communications. I. H. Aleksandrov’s gigantic working capability played an important role in his life as well. Great number of sources showed that occupying different positions, I. H. Aleksandrov participated in solving complex technical issues of contemporary epoch, and his scientific interests had always been in the context of the tasks of the engineering and science of his time. I. H. Aleksandrov initiated scientific discussions on the construction of ports and canals, in his work he contributed in every way to the development of home industry in general, and to hydraulic engineering in particular. The authors assert that the modern view on the scientific heritage of I. H. Aleksandrov in the context of the development of hydraulic engineering, hydropower and rail transport unambiguously acknowledges that in a concentrated-generalized form ideas, theories and concepts, put forward and scientifically grounded by Academician I. H. Aleksandrov almost a hundred years ago, even today contribute to the development of scientific and technological process.
Published: 10 December 2019
History of science and technology, Volume 9, pp 186-196; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2019-9-2(15)-186-196

Abstract:
This publication presents the emergence of the new sciences that are most important for today’s world: communication science, cybernetics, the theory of information, and the theory of the noosphere in the 1940s – 1950s. The purpose of this article is to analyze the total scientific achievements in Eurasia at the time of the Second World War. This was a bright phenomenon in the formation of new revolutionary theories. Works of Chicago-based and Frankfurt-based schools of thought, the theoretical concepts of T. Adorno, M. Horkheimer, H. Lasswell, P. Lazarsfeld, аnd other researchers laid the foundations of the communication science and contributed to the breakthrough in a number of the key subject areas. A system approach to and a comparative analysis of the causes and subsequent consequences of the achievements at that time for today’s world served as a methodological basis for a comprehensive consideration of large-scale studies of the past. The scientific novelty of this historic study consists in the interdependence and complementarity of the theoretical and practical achievements in the 1940s and rethinking of their importance in the structure of concepts in the 20th century. Industrial and military goals associated with the automatic management and communication processes required fundamentally new approaches and achievements. When World War II broke out, N. Wiener worked on these problems aiming at creating a computer, which pushed him to the idea that the principles of managing biotic and abiotic systems are the same and to the cybernetic concept development. In the mid-1940s, J. von Neumann built the first digital computer. In 1945-1947, A. Turing worked, as an inventor of “a universal machine”, on the “electronic brain” project and was the first to develop a number of programs for it. In 1942, C. Shannon published his work dedicated to the theory of information permitting a constellation of researchers to lay the foundations of the theory of communication. V. Vernadsky’s noosphere concept proposed in 1944 was particularly important. At present, the ideas of that period are gaining new importance as a basis for the single planetary management system.
Svitlana Hurinchuk
Published: 10 December 2019
History of science and technology, Volume 9, pp 160-174; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2019-9-2(15)-160-174

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the consideration of the features on the development of railways and railway engineering in the second half of the ХІХ th century. It is well known that railway transport in European countries emerged in the eighteenth century, and the nineteenth century was a period of rapid development of raiway systems, railway technology and the creation of operation technologies. The author of the article shows that the development of railway transport engineering in the Russian Empire began in the 30s of the XIX century and went on at a rapid pace. It is clear that foreign technology was used at first, and foreign technology thought was significantly influenced by technology. As the whole policy of the tsarist government was aimed at reducing the country’s dependence on potential opponents, the idea of forming a Corps of national transport engineers was greatly supported. Among its graduates were such well-known engineers as P. P. Melnykov, M. I. Lypyn, V. P. Sobolevskyi, M. A. Beleliubskyi, D. I. Zhuravskyi and others who managed to create a national scientific school in the field of railway transport. Almost all problems were solved independently without the help of foreign specialists. Among them, according to the author, the most significant were “Track bed structure”, “The development of signalling systems, centralization and block signal system” and “The development of rolling stock”. Based on the analysis of a large number of sources, the author concludes, that in the second half of the nineteenth century the development of industry in the Russian Empire went through capitalist reforms. Expansion of domestic and foreign markets, active domestic and foreign trade led to the need to develop means of communication. The railways proved to be the most powerful and economically effective. They connected different regions, places of production and consumption, facilitating, speeding up and reducing the cost of delivery of raw materials and goods. In the 60-80’s of the XIX century there was a significant increase of the railway network. The construction was mainly carried out at the expense of private joint stock companies. During that period, foreign specialists who were not interested in the qualitative development of the Russian railway network played a major role in the construction and management of the railway tracks. With the increasing demand for this new type of transportation, there was a need for technical modernization of the entire industry.
Published: 10 December 2019
History of science and technology, Volume 9, pp 211-224; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2019-9-2(15)-211-224

Abstract:
The article reveals the importance of the Naturalists Society at Kharkiv University in the development of scientific research and the popularization of scientific knowledge in Ukraine. Social, economic, political processes that occur today in Ukraine actualize historical memory and direct historical science to comprehend the scientific processes that took place in Ukraine in ancient times. The reconstruction of scientific Ukraine in the second half of the 19th and early 20th centuries would be incomplete without an indication of the role and importance of the Naturalists Society at Kharkiv University. The author proves that the activity of the Society was versatile, large-scale, imbued with high scientific ideas and democratic tendencies. It is stated that the effectiveness of this activity was ensured by the active work of the most prominent figures of science, culture, education, namely: V. M. Arnoldi, P. I. Biletskyi, O. A. Hrosheim, O. V. Hurov, V. Ya. Danylevskyi, A. M. Krasnov, I. F. Levakovskyi, O. V. Nahornyi, O. M. Nikolskyi, Ya. V. Roll, M. M. Somov, P. P. Sushkin, V. I. Taliev, L. S. Tsenkovskyi, O. V. Chernaуa, V. O. Yaroshevskyi. In particular, the role of scientists in deployment of a wide range of floristic, faunistic, geological and geographical researches as in the territory of provinces of the Kharkov educational district, and it is far beyond its limits is shown. It is emphasized that thanks to the fruitful activity of members of society considerable scientific results which promoted the development of many branches of domestic natural sciences were received. It was a company with an effective organizational structure and program of activities; it achieved outstanding results both in applied research and in the popularization of science. The Society was one of the channels for ensuring the interconnection of science and society. It acted as a certain social institute, which envisaged conducting active communication activity both within the Society and beyond. Besides, training of future generations of scientists was carried out at a high level, which testified to another feature of the Society as a social institute and a phenomenon in the system of science. The author provides little-known information about the Society, specifies evaluations and conclusions, which relate to separate parts of the scientific and popularizing activity of the Society
Published: 10 December 2019
History of science and technology, Volume 9, pp 197-210; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2019-9-2(15)-197-210

Abstract:
The objective of the research is to reveal the main areas of research of Academician M. V. Pavlova in scientific works "Essay on the history of fossil ungulates" in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, to show the contribution of these works to the world of palaeozoological science. The scientific novelty is that the life path and academic heritage of academician M. V. Pavlova was investigated in complex in the context of the development of Palaeozoology for the first time in Ukrainian historiography, and her scientific biography was reconstructed; the history of domestic palaeozoology is presented through the prism of M. V. Pavlova work and her scientific school; the published and handwritten works of the scientist were analyzed, which enabled to deepen the knowledge about the history of the national palaeozoological science and its influence on the development of world science. She demonstrated the importance of fossil mammal research for stratigraphic constructions. The founder of paleontology, as a scholarly discipline, is considered a prominent George Cuvier. Also, Paleontology and its section of Palaeozoology were created, such world-renowned scholars as Albert Godry, Otniel Marsh, Edward Cop, Volodymyr Kovalevsky, Melchior Neumire, Louis Dollo, Henry Osbourne, and others. To this galaxy of scientists-paleozoologist belongs also our compatriot, academician M. V. Pavlova (1854-1938). It was established that Maria Vasylivna Pavlova (in the girlhood M. V. Gortynskaya) is an entire era in the development of Palaeozoology. She is an outstanding specialist in the study of fossil mammals, the organizer and promoter of Palaeozoology Science. Maria Vasylivna is a world-class paleozoologist, a well-known specialist in scientific circles who was personally familiar with many prominent paleo scientists, for example, Albert Godri, who was her teacher at the Sorbonne, and with Henry Osborne she studied together at the same university, supported the connections with him all her life. The first woman-paleontologist, woman-professor, female academician in the Russian Empire, thanks to whom the domestic paleontology was allocated to independent biological science and which, with its research, laid the foundation for the development of paleontology (palaeozoology) in Ukraine. Works on the history of a large number of groups of fossil ungulates ended one of the cycles of M. V. Pavlova works, that showed the monophyletic development of most of the ungulates, the number of Tertiary and Quaternary faunas in the territory of the Russian Empire and in general in Ukraine.
Nataliia Ustiak
Published: 18 June 2019
History of science and technology, Volume 9, pp 50-63; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2019-9-1(14)-50-63

Abstract:
The urgent task of modern historical science is the comprehensive study of the personalities of prominent scientists and engineers who made a significant contribution to the formation of science and technology. The article is devoted to the analysis of the activity of professor M. V. Vynokurov in the field of the creation of freight wagons. In the history of science and technology. M. V. Vynokurov pointed out that it had been decided to produce new wagons using light-alloy steel, which greatly reduced the weight of the dead load. Such a solution was based on the technical experience of the US wagon industry. Particular attention was paid to the unification of the parts and assemblies subjected to the process of wear and damage to the most, were replaced with the current and periodic repairs of the wagon. This important measure has significantly reduced the cost of manufacturing and was important for the organization of repair because it simplified the ability to replace worn parts with spare ones. M. V. Vynokurov is known as a prominent specialist in the field of rolling stock, he devoted his life to the development of carriages and rolling stock. In preparing this article, chronological, typological, comparative methods of historical knowledge, classification and systematization of historical sources and bibliographic material were used that allowed to systematize and critically evaluate the sources used in relation to the question of the stages of the creation of freight wagons. The role of professor M. V. Vynokurov in this process is shown, covering the 1930-1950 years, the most productive years of a scientist and engineer. It was established that due to the personal contribution of M. V. Vynokurov in the unification of parts for different types of freight wagons, there was a reduction in operating costs of railways. This was achieved due to the massive production of various types of freight wagons. Study of the development of freight wagons through the biography of the scientist-engineer M. V. Vynokurov, which is an integral part of the complex of knowledge, implies the application of a systematic approach as a methodological means of scientific knowledge.
Published: 18 June 2019
History of science and technology, Volume 9, pp 89-98; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2019-9-1(14)-89-98

Abstract:
One of the most important tasks of the modern history of Biology is the study of natural museums work at universities, their influence on the development of world science and their importance in the process of training the relevant specialists. One of the tasks is to study the role of the personalities of prominent scholars who have made a significant contribution to the formation and development of natural science. The article is devoted to the analysis of the formation, development, and work of the university natural museums of Ukraine, the creation of collections, systematization of the collected material, equipment of specialized premises and buildings. On the basis of the analyzed sources, the work of university natural museums, the state of collections, their quantity, filling, and cost are highlighted. The names of scholars of museums, patrons who donated collections and people who sold their own collections to natural museums are given. The article reveals a rather long history of universities in Ukraine. The oldest of them, Lviv University, was created in 1661 on the basis of the Jesuit College. A number of universities appear in the nineteenth century. In 1805 Kharkiv University was opened, and then in 1834 Kyiv University. Later, in 1865, the Novorosiysk University was founded in Odesa on the basis of the Rishelie Lyceum; in 1875 the Chernivtsi University was opened on the basis of the seminary. Together with universities, natural museums are created, which were becoming centers of knowledge and research. Universities opened geological, mineralogical, zoological, botanical, paleontological museums with appropriate collections. During the writing of the article, the materials from reports on the state and work of Kharkiv, Novorosiysk, Kyiv and Lviv universities were used. The functions of museums at universities are considered. This is, first of all, the identification and selection of materials for collections, the study, systematization, organization of the registration and storage of museum collections and as a result the exhibition. The role of the use of museum collections for the training and education of future specialists is also considered. Not the last role is assigned to university museums as popularizers of a positive image of an educational institution, and hence prospective recruitment of a new generation of students. It can be said with certainty that the natural museums of Ukrainian universities of the 19th and early 20th centuries were advanced and in no way inferior to the university museums of Europe concerning the organization, collection, systematization and conducting of scientific research.
Liubov Soloviova
Published: 18 June 2019
History of science and technology, Volume 9, pp 33-49; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2019-9-1(14)-33-49

Abstract:
Oleh Pylypchuk, Oleh Strelko
Published: 18 June 2019
History of science and technology, Volume 9, pp 19-32; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2019-9-1(14)-19-32

Abstract:
The expanded and comprehensive study of the way of life of the personalities of prominent figures who have made a significant contribution to the formation and development of homeland and world science remains a topical task of historical science at the present stage of its development. The article is devoted to the coverage and periodization of stages of life and activities in the field of railroad construction of the Russian Empire, of its second Minister of Railway Transport Volodymyr O. Bobrynskyi. The preconditions of V. O. Bobrynskyi’s career growth have been considered. The article shows how the study at St. Petersburg University influenced the formation of V. O. Bobrynskyi’s personality. The stages of the military career of V. O. Bobrynskyi during the Crimean War of 1854-1856 have been investigated. Analysis of V. O. Bobrynskyi’s activity in different public positions until he was appointed as the Minister of Railway Transport, allowed to assess his contribution to state building and the development of the Russian Empire in various fields. It has been established that Volodymyr Bobrynskyi, acting as the Minister of Railway Transport of the Russian Empire, became the initiator of the construction of 27 railway lines, and as the creator of the network of railways, including the Ukrainian segment. His activities during the administration of the ministry were aimed at strategic directions for the development of railways, in particular: to establish links between the railways that were still divided; to ensure continuation of lines that were not adjacent to the general railway network; to connect internal provinces with seaports (with Mykolaiv and Mariupol); to develop the railways in the interests of the coal and mining industry, as well as the Vologda and Vyatka-Dvina lines. In addition, on the initiative of the Minister, it was envisaged to include two strategic railway lines - from Prague to Warsaw and from Lukov to Ivanogorod. Analysis of reforms of V. O. Bobrynskyi in the management of the railways showed that he successfully pursued a policy of removing from the state administration all the lines already built, and those that were still being built on the expense of the public purse. At the end of the ministerial activity of V. O. Bobrynskyi in September 1871, the length of the railways in the Russian Empire grew almost twice and exceeded 13 thousand miles and almost all of them belonged to private railway companies. The article shows the role of V. O. Bobrynskyi in solving the problem of constru-ction of narrow-gauge railways. And although his occupying the post of Minister of Railway Transport was short-lived, some two years, V. O. Bobrynskyi should be referred to the constellation of those ministers who successfully built railway transport and its facilities.
Iryna Hrushytska
Published: 18 June 2019
History of science and technology, Volume 9, pp 77-88; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2019-9-1(14)-77-88

Abstract:
The article using the methods of bibliographic and source study analysis and systems approach highlights the state and main trends in the development of meteor astronomy in Odessa during the time of independent Ukraine. At the beginning of the 21st century, continuous meteor patrol was restored at the Odessa Astronomical Observatory, which was intensively conducted at the Observatory during Soviet times. It was based on the use of the television and telescopic method, which was used in the CIS for the first time. The advantages of using the television telescopic method in comparison with the photographic and radar methods for solving the fundamental problems of meteor astronomy are noted. The text gives valuable information on the features of continuous meteor patrols at the observation station Kryzhanovka and the work of the expeditionary automatic meteor patrol on Snake Island (Odessa region, Ukraine). The methods of conducting telescopic television observations and processing observational material developed by Odessa researchers are considered. The main directions of meteoric studies conducted in the Odessa Astronomical Observatory using television meteor patrol materials were determined. Studying the physics of meteoric phenomena, obtaining exact coordinates of individual meteor radiant, spectral observations of meteors, studying double and multiple meteors, studying the structure and density of meteoric dust particles, solving interaction problems meteor showers with the Earth’s atmosphere, statistics of meteor phenomena in the Earth’s atmosphere are the main directions of meteoric studies of Odessa Astronomical Observatory. The scientific potential of Yu. M. Gorbanev in the field of meteor astronomy of, the leader of the meteoric group, O. V. Holubaieva, the head of the meteor's television patrol at the Kryzhanovka observation station in 2003-2011, as well as participation in the meteor research S. H. Kimakovskyi, I. I. Kimakovskyi, S. V. Podlesniak, I. A. Stognieieva, L. A. Saresta, A. F. Prinzykov, V. A. Shestopalov, etc are noted. Conclusions are drawn about the importance of conducting meteoric research for the development of fundamental and applied science.
Oleksandr Isaienko, Svitlana Isaienko
Published: 18 June 2019
History of science and technology, Volume 9, pp 5-18; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2019-9-1(14)-5-18

Abstract:
One of the most important tasks of the modern history of science and technologies is the study of the activities of leading scientists and practitioners of the past, the influence of their ideas on the development of world science and the process of training specialists in the relevant sectors of the national economy. In the opinion of the authors of the article, one of such figures of the early twentieth century is Academician I. H. Aleksandrov. Historical and scientific analysis of life and activity of I. H. Aleksandrov as a scientist, engineer, organizer of science is of high topicality due to the scale and versatility of his scientific contribution. In the context of the development of hydro-engineering and hydropower, the development of transport communications, I. H. Aleksandrov had world-class achievements that glorified national science. Scientific creative work of I. H. Aleksandrov can be divided into five main directions of development of science and technologies: hydro-engineering, hydropower, geographic zoning, railway transport and irrigation. The construction of the Dnipro hydroelectric power station near Zaporizhzhia (1927-1932) (he prepared a project and directed the construction of the largest hydroelectric power station in Europe at that time), the development of the general plan for the electrification of the USSR (compiled projects of electrification of Central Asia and Eastern Siberia), participation in the construction plan Baikal-Amur railway line, development of the methodology of economic zoning of the Soviet Union and the theory of railway “super-mainlines” can be ascribed to the academician. The article concludes that the highly qualified teaching staff of the Moscow Higher Technical School and the Moscow Engineering School of the Office of the Ways of Communications contributed to the thorough theoretical training of a young engineer I. H. Aleksandrov. On the basis of a significant number of sources it was found that occupying different positions, I. H. Aleksandrov participated in solving complex technical issues of contemporary epoch, and scientific research was carried out by I. H. Aleksandrov in the context of the tasks of the engineering science of his time. I. H. Aleksandrov initiated scientific discussions on the construction of ports and canals, in his work he contributed in every way to the development of home industry and the introduction of progressive forms of transport, in particular railway. The authors assert that the modern view on the scientific heritage of I. H. Aleksandrov in the context of the development of hydro-engineering, hydropower and rail transport unambiguously acknowledges that in a concentrated-generalized form ideas, theories and concepts, put forward and scientifically grounded by academician I. H. Aleksandrov, today contribute to the development of scientific and technological process.
Olha Oliinyk
Published: 18 June 2019
History of science and technology, Volume 9, pp 109-119; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2019-9-1(14)-109-119

Abstract:
The article deals with the facts of the life and work of the prominent Odessa scientist, doctor of mechanics, professor of the Novorossiisk University Valerian Lihin (1846-1900). At the present stage of development of the history of science and technology, a comprehensive analysis of the scientific work of V. Lihin, presented in the field of mechanics and mathematics, while work in other directions remained beyond the curiosity of historians. The role of Lihin in the organization of the scientific school of theoretical and applied kinematics is shown. As a teacher, Valerian Mykolayovych formed a new approach to teaching applied mechanics, constantly emphasizing the important influence of this science on the development of technical progress and the industrial complex of the economy. And his activities in the number of scientific, technical and charitable societies are almost unknown. Thus, Valerian Lihin was a member and held management positions in the three most famous scientific and technical societies of Odessa. Their influence on the socio-economic development of the city and region is analyzed. The basic directions of activity of Lihin in the structure of the Association are established and their expediency from the point of view of historical retrospective is considered. Particular attention is paid to the Odessa branch of the Russian Technical Society, which Lihin has been managing for 15 years. This time has become a period of intensive and extensive development, and its activity has actively contributed to the development of the city and the economic prosperity of the region. Equally important, in our opinion, is the research and organizational work of Valerian Lihin in the Society of Naturalists, which contributed to the dissemination of the results of his research work in broad circles. Also the work of a scientist within the Society of Horticulture is noted, where he demonstrated his talent as an organizer of the educational process. The gardening school, created on the initiative of Lihin, contributed to the transformation of Odessa into a flowered garden among the steppe. The article highlights his role in the organization and development of special technical education in the South of Ukraine. It was this talent that contributed to his rapid career growth.
Published: 18 June 2019
History of science and technology, Volume 9, pp 99-108; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2019-9-1(14)-99-108

Abstract:
The article discusses and analyzes the role assessment and communication significance in state control systems in works and prominent representatives’ statements of political thought from antiquity to the beginning of the twentieth century in accordance with the understanding of this phenomenon essence in the considered historical epochs. It is shown that from the history of political thought, although some well-founded concepts of the relationship between the authorities and the population of the thinkers of ancient China, India, and antiquity are known, they require more detailed and systematic understanding. The influence of the managerial and communicative ideas of Confucius, Plato and Aristotle on the subsequent works of Caesar, Cicero, the thinkers of the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and the Enlightenment are consistently discussed. A comparative analysis of individual views on the relationship between the state of public administration and communication of theologians and scientists of the XIII-XVIII centuries was conducted: F. Aquinas, F. Petrarch, L. Bruni, N. Machiavelli, M. Luther, T. More, T. Campanella, J. Boden, G. Grotius, J. Locke, T. Hobbes. Particular attention is paid to the ideas of S. Montesquieu, I. Kant, and G.-V.-F. Hegel as the founders of the scientific discourse around the problems of war and peace, the effectiveness of government and relations with the subjects of this management, with the people. In particular, the developments of the Chicago school in the United States and the Institute for Social Research in Germany, which laid the theoretical foundation for the beginning of the formation of information and communication theories that created the basis of the modern stage of communication development in the late twentieth century - early twenty-first century. Research and analysis in the work of the first historical ideas and theoretical concepts of the role, communication place and importance in public administration systems, advanced for 2500 years by a galaxy of eminent thinkers of the past, allows to rethink the sources of conceptual ideas of communicology put forward in the 20th century and approach the objective assessment of the perspective the role of the communication component of the humanity civilizational development in the twenty-first century.
Viacheslav Bandus
Published: 18 June 2019
History of science and technology, Volume 9, pp 64-76; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2019-9-1(14)-64-76

Abstract:
The article describes the activities of the famous Ukrainian researcher, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor of the Odessa Polytechnic Institute Victor Opanasovich Dobrovolsky on the preparation of seven editions of the textbook «Parts of Machines». At the present stage of development of the history of science and technology, a comprehensive analysis of the scientific activities of V. O. Dobrovolsky, in the field of general engineering is extremely limited, and coverage of its role in the organization and development of higher technical education in Ukraine is practically absent. The scientist was one of the first who responded to the lack of a full-fledged manual on the discipline «Parts of Machines» for higher education and devoted most of his work at the Odessa Polytechnic Institute to solving this issue. The evolution of the textbook, from the publication of scientists in 1926 the first edition «Lecture notes» to the last, the seventh, personal edition of the «Parts of Machines» 1954 has been analyzed. The main directions and priorities that were identifying by the researcher in each of the publications for the preparation of students and technician have been defined. The place of personal scientific achievements, developments, inventions of V. O. Dobrovolsky and his colleagues and students in the preparation of materials of the textbook, conformity of the given information to the courses' programs and all sorts of recommendations from the Ministry of Education and a wide stake of scientists with whom Viktor Opanasovich collaborated have been considered. The correspondence of textbooks to modern achievements of science and technology and the scientist's constant attention to new home and foreign developments and inventions have been described. The common features and differences in the structure of textbook, causes of reductions, additions, and the emergence of new sections, in accordance with the tasks, which were faced V. O. Dobrovolsky in different periods of its activities have been established. The great popularity and widespread use of the textbook by the majority of higher technical institutions throughout the USSR which was a consequence of the general availability and in-depth processing of the stated theoretical and practical material, its relevance and compliance with the challenges of time have been noted
Published: 18 June 2019
History of science and technology, Volume 9, pp 120-129; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2019-9-1(14)-120-129

Abstract:
The article highlights the contribution of scientists of the Kyiv Law Society to solving the problems of juveniles, their legal personality, as well as the ability to act as an orator or respondent in the civil process. In the essay we made an attempt to determine The legal significance of the concept of legal personality, which consists of such components as: legal capacity, legal competence and delictual capacity under the current Ukrainian legislation. The analysis on legal sources operating on Ukrainian territories in the second half of the nineteenth century was carried out. It showed that all people aged from 14 to 21 were considered to be juveniles, and in turn were divided into two categories by age. In addition, it has been shown that the rights of representatives of different social classes were different, and various additional rules on custody and guardianship which enriched one and limited the rights of others. were constantly issued. This led to the fact that in the early '70s of the XIX century there were about fifteen types of guardianships. It has been noted that the given situation has led to the corresponding difficulties in the regulation of legal relationships, in particular, due to the lack of systematic rules on custodianship and guardianship. It has been shown how the members of the Kyiv Law society raised this issue and tried to initiate its solution at the legislative level. In particular, it has been shown that there wasn’t a general opinion on the matter in the second half of the XIX century. First of all, due to the inconsistency of legal norms in various legal acts. The speeches of the Society members, in which they told about the peculiarities of the current practice on the given issue at that time have been highlighted. From these it has been concluded that the most common was the thought that gave a juvenile a certain independence in the right to sue and answer in court with the permission of the trustee. It has been noted how the inflexibility of the social and legal system hampered the development of civil law, primarily because of the conservative views of the aristocracy regarding the granting of rights and freedoms to other classes of citizens in the country. It has been traced how the development of certain issues of civil law in the activities of Ukrainian scientists led to an increase in the limits of the juvenile legal personality and the current full civil capacity of juveniles in the civil process.
Yu. A. Berdnychenko, H. I. Kyrychenko
Published: 17 December 2018
History of science and technology, Volume 8, pp 284-296; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2018-8-2(13)-284-296

Abstract:
An up-to-date task of modern historical science is a comprehensive study of prominent personalities having made a significant contribution to the formation and development of world science. The article is devoted to the analysis and systematized generalization of a set of scientific facts that objectively characterize various aspects of the activities of outstanding railroad engineer Liudwih Mavrykiiovych Levi in the consultative congresses of the rolling stock department engineers. In the history of science and technology, L.M Levi is known as a prominent locomotive designer, who almost all his life devoted to the development and improvement of locomotives. While preparing this paper chronological, typological, comparative methods of historical knowledge, as well as the classification and systematization of historical sources and bibliographic material which allowed to systematize and critically evaluate the used sources have been applied. Using these methods we highlighted the main point in the current state of studying the topic and the results of other researchers, characterized previous works on this problem and clearly singled out issues not having been sufficiently studied yet. The sources analysis made it possible to give an objective appraisal of the contribution made by L. Levi during his participation in the consultative congress of rolling stock and traction engineers. His role in solving the problems on implementing the “Compound system” on steam engines has been shown. Further development and improvement of which became possible only with the introduction of steam. There was an increase in traction force of locomotives and rolling stock of freight trains. It was found that thanks to the personal contribution of L. M. Levi to the unification of parts for different types of rolling stock, water supply and signaling devices, there was a reduction in the operating costs of railways. This was achieved thanks to the mass production of spare parts, as well as individual locomotives and wagons with the help of specially adapted workshops. The study of transport science through the biography of a scientist, is an integral part of a complex of diverse knowledge, involves the use of a systematic approach as a methodological means of scientific knowledge. It opens up the possibility to combine the structure and content of empirical tools from one point of view with theoretical ideas and requires the consideration of controversial views on the inheritance of national railway scientists and L.M. Levi in particular.
Published: 17 December 2018
History of science and technology, Volume 8, pp 462-474; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2018-8-2(13)-462-474

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the review, analysis and systematization of the generalization of materials that characterize the development of algebraic research and teaching of algebra at the beginning of the life of the University of St. Vladimir in Kyiv. Particular attention was paid to the research of the members of the Kyiv Physical and Mathematical Society, as the most active faculty of natural sciences scientists of the time in Kyiv. Historical, systematic and biographical methods were used to prepare the work, which allowed to systematize, classify and evaluate the sources used, compare the evaluation of the results of the members of the Kyiv Physical and Mathematical Society with various authors, highlight the main directions and state of coverage of the topic, as well as the results of other historians of science, review previous work on this issue and clearly identify issues that have not been resolved. The analysis of the sources allowed the author to give an objective assessment of the contribution of members of the society to the development of algebra and methods of teaching it. It was shown that despite the lack of trained specialists and other problems, the level of teaching of this discipline was quite high. Various researches of Kyiv mathematicians are analyzed. It was shown that algebra was one of the most popular directions of the mathematicians of the Kyiv university, although not the most effective one. On the basis of comparison of the characteristics of various researchers who studied the work of the Kyiv Physical and Mathematical Society, his role in creating a system of higher mathematical education in the territory of Ukraine is shown. It was established that due to the personal contribution of the members of the society, the foundations for the future Kyiv algebraic school were laid. Detailed works on the algebra of the time printed in Kyiv are considered in detail. It was shown that the society itself became the center around which the most active scholars and teachers met, in which the directions of research of the Kyiv mathematicians were formed. It should also be noted that the company's activities contributed to the birth of the Kyiv Mathematical School.
L. M. Soloviova
Published: 17 December 2018
History of science and technology, Volume 8, pp 389-405; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2018-8-2(13)-389-405

Abstract:
The article highlights the social, scientific, organizational and practical activities of Vsevolod Yevhenovych Timonov – a well-known railway engineer, hydraulic engineer, railway worker and constructor of ports and water routes. The knowledge and experience acquired by national scientists in the United States on the construction of canals and international forums were later successfully used in practical work in tsarist Russia V.Ie. Timonov and V.Ie. Lokhvytskyi participated in the reconstruction of a number of waterways of the country directly by the implementation while dredging works. The experience of foreign countries, primarily the United States, influenced the views of local hydraulic engineers. Massive remedial works, for example, on the Mississippi River, made it possible to increase its depth. That is why V.Ie. Timonov, who was well acquainted with such experience, became a strong supporter of the use of dredging technology on navigable rivers and theoretically proved the possibility and feasibility of using dredgers to provide the necessary depth for navigation. Thus, the foreign experience was directed by local engineers to the practical course of their activities. V.Ie. Timonov had an impeccable record. The diverse activities of the scientist testify the recognition of his authority in the scientific and administrative circles of the Ministry of Communications. Wherever he applied his knowledge and qualifications of an engineer, these were the most important areas of state policy in the field of water transport and hydraulic engineering. V.Ie. Timonov is the founder of the original direction in the construction industry, one of the founders of the doctrine of ports, the founder of the theory of the structure of hydraulic structures, the developer of the doctrine of port infrastructure and improvement of navigability of the great years, the historian of science and technology. Vsevolod Yevhenovych took one of the honorary places in the world of hydraulic engineering, water and partly rail transport. Established on the basis of his numerous and original works, as well as the works of his students, the patterns in the problems developed by him, made a significant contribution to the further development of hydraulic engineering, not only in our country, but also in the world. In the light of his original beliefs, he analyzed the previously accumulated scientific material and showed it in a new and correct coverage. His works, his ideas, theories and views revealed before the hydraulic engineering unprecedented opportunities previously available.
O. V. Romenska
Published: 17 December 2018
History of science and technology, Volume 8, pp 376-388; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2018-8-2(13)-376-388

Abstract:
In the article the author considers peculiarities of structural arrangements of lighthouses in Ukraine since times of the first lighthouse to appear on the territory of Ukraine till present, traces when and how they have been improved and which innovations have been implemented. During the research the author used methods of historicism, chronological sequence of giving the material. The author considers scientist-engineers’ key achievements in building lighthouses in different periods. Special emphasis is laid on key historical events that lead to the development or decay of lighthouses designing. The author describes first lighthouses built by Cossacks, determines major conditions for lighthouses creation and functioning. Short description of all types of lighthouse structures, namely lighthouses made of stone, metal, wood and so on, is given in the article. First metal and ferroconcrete structures of lighthouses are considered in detail. Dr. Pots' tubular pile, one of the highest in Europe unique hyperboloid Stanislav-Adzhigolskiy lighthouses, designed by famous engineer V. Shukhov, Dzharilgach lattice lighthouse designed by G. Eiffel followers, and first in Ukraine ferroconcrete Ozharskiy lighthouse, designed by engineers K. Piatnytskyi and Baryshnikov, known also as designers of first funiculars in Ukraine are among them. These lighthouses became vivid examples of Ukrainian engineering and some of them are protected by the state. Key problems, designing engineers with while looking for the best structural shapes of lighthouses, as well as building materials for them are determined in the article. Great attention was paid to not only strength and stability of the structure under adverse weather conditions, but also to cost-efficiency, accessibility for delivery and mounting and durability of the structure. In addition to that, the author touches upon current problems and perspectives of lighthouses creation in Ukraine, taking into account achievements and miscounts of the past. At the current stage of lighthouses construction, important role has introduction of laser beacons to create laser lighthouses as well as equipping lighthouses with modern monitoring and controlling navigational equipment. Importance of issues related to operational readiness of navigational equipment and introduction of systems used for monitoring navigational situation as well as means of traffic handling are highlighted in the article.
O. Ya. Pylypchuk, O. H. Strelko
Published: 17 December 2018
History of science and technology, Volume 8, pp 353-367; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2018-8-2(13)-353-367

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the activity of Serhii Yuliyovych Witte (Vitte) (1849-1915) – an outstanding statesperson and reformer. The authors make an analysis and evaluation of the activity of S.Yu. Witte focused on the development of rail transport in the Russian Empire in general and of his activity on the post of Minister of Ways of Communication, in particular. The carried studies allowed the authors to systematize and critically assess the sources describing the impact of S.Yu. Witte for the development of rail transport in the Russian Empire, as well as to depict the stages of life and professional activity of S.Yu. Witte in this direction. The authors prove that the main achievements of S.Yu. Witte to develop rail transport in the Russian Empire should be considered the following: the purchase of private railways and the concentration of the main railways network in the hands of the state; the construction of new railways on public funds; the transformation of the railway industry into a stable, profitable one; the settlement and further development of customs and tariff systems; the beginning of the construction of the Great Siberian Route. The article traces the main achievements of S.Yu. Witte as the Minister of Ways Communication of the Russian Empire. In the article it is shown that as a result of the step-by-step introducing of railway control and financial reform, which lasted for a decade, S.Yu. Witte managed to create an effective system of control over the public and private sectors of railways. The scope of the influence of S.Yu. Witte for the economic and political development of the Russian Empire is determined. The literary sources analysis suggests that S.Yu. Witte's policy was subordinated to the sole goal of: the industrialization of the state, the successful development of the economy of the Russian Empire, without affecting the political system, without changing anything in the state administration of the country. The analysis allowed the authors to state that it was S.Yu. Witte who attained coordinated and clear actions of the two most important departments of the Russian Empire – the Ministry of Ways of Communication and the Ministry of Finance – since they were the most interested in the construction of rail transport. Only through the coordination of the activities of these governmental structures, attained by S.Yu. Witte, it became possible to overcome the unprofitability of rail transport, which ultimately helped to stabilize the financial situation of the Russian Empire in general.
G. P. Tomashina
Published: 17 December 2018
History of science and technology, Volume 8, pp 545-559; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2018-8-2(13)-545-559

Abstract:
In the process of researches, it was established that one of the main premises for the becoming of an agricultural experimental business in the northern part of Kherson province was solving the issue of improving use of lands caused by uncontrolled destruction of virgin lands and non-observance of crop rotations, which affected black soil fertility. Among the main tasks of the Adzhamska Experimental Station, which began its activity in 1912, was the search for the best methods of field culture in the conditions of the northern part of the Kherson province. The solution of these problems was carried out by studying the effect of black and cropped fallow on the formation of productivity of grain crops and fodder crops and justifying the optimal time for sowing, seeding rates and applying different doses of organic and mineral fertilizers. It has been established that the distinctive features of activity of the Adzhamska Experimental Station from similar research institutions of Ukraine were: a highly specialized areas of ​​researches; a small number of scientific departments and workers; the location of the zone of the northern Steppe of Ukraine on the verge of several large provinces (Kherson, Kiyv, Katerynoslavsk, Poltava, Podilsk), which in the first third of the XX century caused frequent changes in administrative subordination. The scientific work of the Ajamskaya Experimental station was based on the study of the influence on winter, spring and fodder crops of various predecessors, methods and terms of sowing, cropping systems, varietal assortment of agricultural crops. Beside, researches were carried out on the application of organic and mineral fertilizers, were studied the number of little known and infrequent plants , and testing of agricultural machinery and equipment, in particular those produced by the Yelisavetgrad Plant of Elvorti brothers. The main conclusions of the department of field crop cultivation, which were made on the results of the experiments in 1912-1931 became the statement that black fallow was the best way to increase the yield of winter grain crops, despite the fact that the depth of the fallow was not essential for sowing of winter crops, and organic fertilizer was a powerful mean of increasing the yield of agricultural crops. The dissemination and popularization of the research results by the application department of the Adzhamska Experimental Station was one of the first steps towards the transfer of agriculture in the region to scientific support.
, V. A. Shenderovsky
Published: 17 December 2018
History of science and technology, Volume 8, pp 527-535; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2018-8-2(13)-527-535

Abstract:
The paper contains a sketch of thinker and publicist Roman Bzheskyi’s life and creative path whose creative contribution was not explored properly. He was a bright representative and notable figure in the history of European scientific thought. However, his name is known only within a narrow circle of experts. Roman Bzheskyi was one of those scholars and public-political figures in the twentieth century whose activity in Soviet times was hushed up, and the study of life and creative heritage has been tabooed for a long time. Mikhnovskyi 's ideology, whom he worked with at the Foreign Affairs Ministry, substantially influenced Bzheskyi’s political views. Their correspondence has been stored in the archives of Warsaw. R. Bzheskyi’s ideology was strengthened particularly by the influence of D. Dontsov's "Nationalism" philosophy that he considered to be the philosophical basis of natural sciences and psychology. The creative work of the scientist consists of criticism and analysis of Ukrainian politicians and artists, whose activities had a significant impact on all spheres of life of Ukrainian society. Perhaps the criticism of Russia has the most important place in R. Bzheskyi’s researches. Besides the matters of Russian state policy, its economic and political control, Bzheskyi in one of the papers concerns the Russian state’s formation. Roman Bzheskyi understood that the Soviet Union peoples’ denationalization was the most important Russian problem at that time. He emphasized that the Kremlin authorities mixed Ukrainian and Moscow history for a long time, so that Ukrainians felt themselves "the sons of a province" and were deprived of their own world outlook and self-identity. Russian language, literature, music and culture as a whole are created by many powerful contributions from outside. In addition, the painful R. Bzheskyi’s topic was not only the political but also the cultural life of Ukraine. He reacted keenly to the world’s underestimating Ukrainian poets, writers, and playwriters. R. Bzheskyi closely connected the analysis and criticism of the works by Ukrainian thinkers, writers or politicians with the cultural and spiritual realm that was the backbone of Ukrainianry. After all, to preserve the past of the Nation for the next generations, we must know the history well.
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