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Results in Journal Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner: 239

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Gunawan Sitanggang, Raden Iis Arifiantini, J Jakaria
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 147-152; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i4.2526

Abstract:
The objective of this study was to evaluate effect of genetic and non-genetic factors on semen characteristics including ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, total sperm number and sperm moetility of Bali cattle. Semen data were collected from the National Centre of Artificial Insemination at Singosari, Malang, East Java, Indonesia. A total of 3,847 ejaculates of 17 Bali bulls from 2014 to 2016 were collected and evaluated. Data were analyzed by restricted maximum likelihood (REML) method using mixed models which the bull was a random effect, while age of bull, season of collection, frequency of ejaculation and collection intervals were the fixed effects. Results showed that age significantly affected all semen characteristics (P<0.01). Season affected only on sperm motility (P<0.01). Effect of frequency of ejaculation and collection intervals was significant on all studied variables (P<0.01), except sperm motility. Repeatability of ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, total sperm number and sperm motility was 0.43; 0.35; 0.32 and 0.31, respectively. It is concluded that age, frequency of ejaculation and collection intervals were the most factors affected semen characteristics of Bali cattle. Repeatability estimations of semen characteristics were moderate to high.
Agus Hadi Prayitno, T H Rahman
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 191-195; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i4.2514

Abstract:
This study aimed to determine the effect of edamame flour filler substitution on the chemical quality of culled duck meatballs. The research material consisted of culled duck meat, tapioca flour, edamame flour, albumen, garlic, onion, salt, pepper, monosodium glutamate, sodium tripolyphosphate, and ice. The edamame flour filler substitution treatments were P0 (0%), P1 (5%), P2 (10%), P3 (15%), and P4 (20%) from total filler. Each treatment consisted of five replications. The parameters which tested were moisture, protein, fat, fiber, and ash contents. Data on chemical quality results were analyzed by analysis of variance using completely randomized design and if there was significantly different (P<0.01), then it’ll be further tested by the Duncan's New Multiple Range Test. Results showed that the substitution of edamame flour filler starting from the level of 5% was significantly affected water content, protein, fat, fiber, and ash of culled duck meatballs. Edamame flour can be used as a filler substitution up to 20% level by giving a good effect on increasing the meatball protein content, but also having a negative impact with increasing the fat content of culled duck meatballs.
Lailatul Rohmah, Sri Darwati, Niken Ulupi, Isyana Khaerunnisa, Cece Sumantri
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 173-181; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i4.2525

Abstract:
The prolactin gene (PRL) is a gene that controls the incubation and egg production in laying chickens. The nature of incubation will reduce egg production and disrupt the reproductive system in local chickens. The purpose of this study was to identify the polymorphism of prolactin genes in IPB-D1 chickens using the direct sequencing method. The polymorphism of the exon 5 prolactin gene was carried out on 46 samples of IPB-D1 chicken DNA which was a collection of the Division of Animal Genetics and Breeding, Faculty of Animal Science IPB. DNA sequences as a reference for designing exon 5 primers were obtained from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) with the GenBank access code: AF288765.2. DNA extraction was carried out using the phenol-chloroform technique. DNA amplification resulted in a PCR product with a size of 557 bp. In this study, the genotype frequency, allele frequency, heterozygosity value and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were calculated. The results of the study found 5 SNPs in exon 5, namely g.7823A>G, g.7835A>G, g.7886T>A, g.8052T>C, and g.8069T>C. All SNPs are polymorphic and in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium except g.8052T>C. The g.7823A>G, g.7835A>G, g.8052T>C SNPs are synonymous mutations that do not change amino acids, while the g.7886T>A and g.8069T>C SNPs are non-synonymous that change amino acids. Both g.7886T>A and g.8069T>C SNPs are potential as a marker assisted selection for the characteristics of egg production in IPB-D1 chickens.
, M Rodiallah, T Astuti, Elfawati Elfawati
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 162-172; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i4.2541

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to determine reproductive efficiency, population dynamics, natural increase and estimated output of the Kuantan cattle in the Kuansing Regency, Province of Riau. A total of 311 Kuantan cattle and 99 Kuantan cattle farmers were used in this study through a survey study. Respondent samples were taken from seven districts. Data sampling using purposive sampling with survey methods. Data collection was carried out by interviewing farmers and observing and was analyzed descriptively. Parameters measured were reproductive efficiency, natural increase, estimated output and population dynamics of Kuantan cattle. Results showed that the reproductive efficiency of Kuantan cattle was 1.04%, natural increase 5.14%, the balance of male and female 1: 5, the value of male NRR 50% and female NRR 100.56%, total cattle out 18.69% and total incoming cattle 18.69%, output value 48.88% and estimated population dynamics 2.85%. In conclusion, Kuantan cattle reproduction has not been efficient with the natural increase of the Kuantan cattle was very low, and the replacement stock availability for male and female cattle has not been fulfilled. It is recommended not to release Kuantan cattle in the next 5 years to maintain population balance.
Cahya Setya Utama, Zuprizal Zuprizal, Chusnul Hanim, Wihandoyo Wihandoyo
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 196-205; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i4.2499

Abstract:
This research was aimed to assess the effectiveness of processed wheat pollard -based rations to increase the productivity of Kampung chickens raised until 8 weeks old. The research was carried out in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments consisted of wheat pollard based ration (WP), wheat pollard based ration plus probiotic mixed culture (WPPro), wheat Pollard as prebiotic mixed (WPPre) , wheat pollard as synbiotic mixed culture ration 40% (WPS40), wheat pollard as synbiotic mixed culture ration 60% (WPS60) . The parameters observed were feed consumption, final body weight, feed conversion ratio (FCR), weight gain, nitrogen retention, income over feed and chick cost (IOFCC) and profiles of intestinal villus. Results showed a significant effect of the treatments on the final body weight, weight gain, nitrogen retention, IOFCC and profiles of small intestinal villus (duodenum, jejenum, ileum). It was concluded that the inclusion of 40% wheat pollard synbiotic mixed culture (WPS 40) in the ration was able to increase the productivity of kampung chickens reared until 8 weeks old.
Masume Ghorbani Vahed, Ramazan Khanbabaee, Mehrdad Shariati, Mohammad Amin Edalatmanesh
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 153-161; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i4.2555

Abstract:
This research was conducted in order to determine the effects of omega-3 on oocyte in vitro maturation and the level of expression of tribbles (TRIB1, TRIB2 and TRIB3 genes) in cumulus cells. Eight-ten weeks old NMRI mice were super-ovulated using 7.5 IU pregnant mare’s serum gonadotropin (PMSG, Intraperitoneal) and they were killed after 44 hours and their ovaries were removed. The oocytes were used for in vitro maturation and the cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were released. Cumulus cells and oocytes were assigned into control, ethanol-treated and groups exposed to 10 and 100 μg/ml of omega-3. The cells were prepared to assess the maturation stage in order to evaluate the gene expression level. The data were statistically analyzed. Exposing oocytes to low dose (10 μg/ml) and high dose (100 μg/ml) of omega-3 resulted in a reduced rate of GV-stage oocytes, decreased MI-oocytes and increased MII-oocytes. The enhanced maturity of COCs was also detected in response to a high dose of omega-3 (100 μg/ml). Exposure of cumulus cells to omega-3 (10 and 100 μg/ml) induced TRIB2 and inhibited TRIB3 gene expression level; however, TRIB1 gene expression level increased and decreased in response to low (10 μg/ml) and high (100 μg/ml) concentrations of omega-3, respectively. The addition of omega-3 to the environment of oocytes or cumulus cells affected the maturation of oocytes and cumulus cells, which was followed by the differential expression of TRIB genes, suggesting that there was a role of fatty acid metabolism in the differentiation and maturation of cumulus cells.
Santiananda Arta Asmarasari, Cece Sumantri, A Gunawan, E Taufik, Anneke Anggraeni
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 99-111; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i3.2502

Abstract:
Protein content in milk is an important indicator of milk. Accordingly, genetic improvement to produce Holstein Friesian (HF) dairy cattle is important. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variant of milk protein genes and its effect on milk component traits of Holstein Friesian (HF). A total of 100 HF were used in this study. The HF cattle used have physiological status in the lactation period 1 up to 3 and lactation change of 1 up to 12 months. Genotype variants of milk protein genes were identified using Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction method. Analysis of milk component was carried out covering the component of protein, fat, lactose, and solid non-fat (SNF) by using a milk quality measuring device (Lactoscan). Genotyping of cattle blood samples consisted of DNA extraction, genes amplification using the RT-PCR method. The result showed that protein milk was significantly affected (p<0.05) by the genetic variants of CSN1S1-192 and CSN2-67 genes. Fat milk was significantly affected (p<0.05) by the genetic variants of CSN1S1-192 and CSN3 genes. Meanwhile, solid non-fat milk was significantly affected (p<0.05) by the genetic variants of CSN-BMC9215, CSN-BMC6334, CSN1S1-14618, CSN2_67, and CSN3 genes. Lactose milk was significantly affected (p<0.05) by the genetic variants of CSN-BMC9215 and CSN2-67 genes. It was concluded that genetic variants of the milk protein genes have an association with the component of cow's milk (protein, fat, solid non-fat, and lactose).
Omar Mardenli, Mahdi Saleh Mohammad, Ahmad Yaser Alolo
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 131-138; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i3.2517

Abstract:
The participatory relationship among the follicle size, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and cysteamine (antioxidant agent) contribute to the production of embryos characterized by abundance and good quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of FSH, cysteamine and follicle size on in vitro embryo production of Awassi sheep oocytes. Follicles sizes were determined into two groups: small follicles (1-2 mm) and large follicles (> 2 mm). Oocytes were matured across two increasingly shared levels of FSH and cysteamine: A (40 ng/ml + 50 μM) and B (60 ng/ml + 100 μM). Results of the bilateral interaction showed significant differences across the follicle size (large follicles group) and the maturation treatment (B medium) in the rates of fertilization (highest value: 67.51%; p= 0.02), cleavage (highest value: 65.41%; p= 0.01), 2-16 cell stage (lowest value: 2.29%; p= 0.0001), blastocyst stage (highest value: 44.82%; p= 0.04), down to morula stage arrest (lowest value: 55.17%; p= 0.04) and Type I embryos (highest value: 52.87%; p= 0.03). Likewise, matured oocytes of small follicles group (B medium) attained the highest rate of morula stage (56.60%; p= 0.03). No significant differences were observed in Type II and Type III embryos. In order to obtain high yields of good quality embryos, it is advised to add FSH and cysteamine with levels of 60 ng/ml and 100 μM respectively to maturation medium of ovine oocytes obtained from follicles with a diameter > 2 mm.
Fitra Aji Pamungkas, Bagus Priyo Purwanto, Wasmen Manalu, Ahmad Yani, Riasari Gail Sianturi
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 120-130; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i3.2522

Abstract:
Infrared thermography (IRT) is an alternative solution that can be applied to replace invasive methods currently used in the monitoring of goats' physiological and hematological parameters. This study was done to compare and correlate the physiological and hematological conditions of young Sapera dairy goats and their correlations with results obtained by IRT. Four young Sapera dairy goats (weight of 26-28 kg) were kept in the individual rearing cage. Skin surface temperature (TS), rectal temperature (TR), body temperature (TB), heartbeat (HR), respiration rate (RR), and IRT at eyes, mouth, nose, legs, left body, right body, vagina, and vulva were monitored from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m. in 2 h intervals. Blood samplings were done at the beginning and the end of the obsevation time. Results showed that IRTs at several body parts were positively correlated with physiological parameters, except for heartbeat. Negatively correlation was observed in hematological parameters. The highest correlation (r = +0.85) was observed in the correlation between the results of the left rear leg IRT on TB. It was concluded that IRT can be applied to examine goats’ physiological conditions especially body temperature.
Andi Saenab, Komang G Wiryawan, Y Retnani, Elizabeth Wina
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 139-146; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i3.2475

Abstract:
The study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a combination of biofat with biochar or biosmoke (bioindustrial products of cashew nut shells) at the best level as feed additive in reducing methane production and improving in vitro rumen fermentation. This experiment had two series of combination and each used a randomized block design with 6 treatments and 4 replications. A series of biofat (BF) and biochar (BC) combination were added each to substrate as followed BFBC1 = 0: 100%; BFBC2 = 25:75%; BFBC3 = 50:50%; BFBC4 = 75:25%; BFBC5 = 100: 0%. While, a series of biofat (BF) and biosmoke (BS) combination as followed BFBS1 = 0: 100%; BFBS2 = 25:75%; BFBS3 = 50:50%; BFBS4 = 75:25%; BFBS5 = 100: 0%. Both series used a control treatment which contained only substrate. The in vitro experiment was repeated 4 times and each treatment was done in duplicates. The measured variables were: total gas and CH4 productions, dry matter, organic matter, NDF degradability, NH3 and partial VFA concentrations. The results showed that the combination of biofat and biochar levels resulted in a significant decrease (P
Siti Darodjah Rasad, Nurcholidah Solihati, Kikin Winangun, Annisa Yusrina, Fahmy Avicenna
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 112-119; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i3.2494

Abstract:
The research was conducted to evaluate the effect of incubation time on viability, plasma membrane integrity, abnormality, and DNA integrity of sexed Pasundan’s bulls sperm. The sperm sexing used 5% and 10% concentrations of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA). A completely randomized design with three treatments and six replications was used in this study. The data were analyzed using variance analysis followed by Duncan’s multiple distance test. Parameter evaluated were sperm longevity, plasma membrane integrity (PMI), abnormality, and DNA integrity of sexed Pasundan bulls sperm. Results showed that incubation time gave significant effect (P<0.05) on the longevity of sperm, but not on the PMI of Pasundan bulls sexed sperm. The incubation time of 45 minutes gave the highest value of longevity sperm on the upper layer (4.33 days) and the lower layer (4.17 days). Furthermore, the abnormality of sperm X in the upper layer was 4.00%-4.20% and the lower layer was 4.10%- 4.40%. Meanwhile, the DNA integrity of an upper layer was 98.16%-98.66%, and the lower layer was 97.83%-98.58%. It is concluded that 45 minutes of incubation time significantly affected the longevity of sperm, but not plasma membrane integrity, abnormality, and DNA integrity of Pasundan bulls sexed sperm.
, Ms Mohammad, Ha Hassooni
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 60-67; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i2.2459

Abstract:
The use of cryoprotectants in vitrification would reduce the critical damages to the embryos, thus increase the survival rates. This research was conducted in the laboratory of reproductive biotechnology at the faculty of Agriculture of Aleppo University. The study aimed to evaluate the viability and survivability of early Syrian Awassi embryos under the influence of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and ethylene glycol (EG) following vitrification. Embryos were vitrified in three solutions of cryoprotectants (A: DMSO (3 ml), B: EG (3 ml), and C which was composed of a combination of DMSO (1.5 ml) and EG (1.5 ml)). After thawing, embryos that had been vitrified in C solution achieved the highest rates of cleavage (P< 0.01) comparing with A and B solutions for 2-16 cell stage (50.00% Vs 30.77% and 36.36%), morula (9.00% Vs 44.44% and 40.00%) and blastocyst stage embryos (92.86% Vs 58.33% and 50.00%) respectively. Down to the hatching blastocyst stage, 2-16 cell stage vitrified embryos in C solution achieved an encouraging rate comparing with A and B solutions (39.20% Vs23.08% and 22.73% respectively). The rates of arrested embryos decreased significantly (P< 0.05) after thawing across the three solutions especially the morula and blastocyst stage (0.00 and 3.70% respectively) (C solution). No significant differences were observed in the three types of embryos across all stages and solutions despite the large range among these rates. Given the apparent benefit of the participatory effect of cytoprotectants, it is advised to use a mixture of DMSO and EG (1:1) in vitrification of ovine embryos.
Forough Masoumi, , Mokhtar Mokhtari
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 91-98; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i2.2467

Abstract:
As an organophosphorus, Diazinon (DZN) impairs liver tissue function by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase and causing oxidative stress. In this study, the effects of Silybum marianum aqueous extract (SMAE) and L-carnitine (LC) on the stereological and histopathological changes of the liver in DZN-treated male rats were investigated. The rats in this study were placed into 9 groups of 8 each containing control, placebo, and a combination of DZN, SMAE, and LC. The animals received SMAE and chemicals orally for 30 days. At last, the liver tissue of all animals was removed. Then, tissue sections from the liver were provided to study the stereological markers including liver volume and weight, hepatocytes’ volume, central venous volume, sinusoidal volume, connective tissue volume, inflammation rate, and a number of the hepatocytes’ nuclei. Also, the sample tissues were evaluated histopathologically. Treatment with DZN significantly reduced the liver volume and weight, hepatocyte volume, central venous volume, sinusoidal volume, and hepatocyte nucleus number compared to placebo and control but it significantly increased the inflammation and volume of liver’s connective tissue. However, co-administration of SMAE and LC with DZN improved liver volume and weight, hepatocyte volume, central venous volume, sinusoidal volume, connective tissue volume, and hepatocyte nucleus number alone compared to the DZN treatment. Liver inflammation was also significantly decreased compared to the DZN treatment but comparing to the placebo and control groups, it increased significantly. Simultaneous administration of SMAE and LC has protective effects on liver tissue and can reduce DZN-induced liver injury in rats.
Peni Wahyu Prihandini, A Primasari, M Luthfi, J Efendy, D Pamungkas
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 39-47; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i2.2496

Abstract:
Information on the genetic diversity of native and local cattle in Indonesia is vital for the development of breeding and conservation strategies. This study was aimed to assess the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of the Indonesian native (Bali) and local [(Donggala, Madura, Sragen, Galekan, Rambon, dan Peranakan Ongole Grade x Bali (POBA)] cattle populations. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples (n= 75). Partial sequences of mtDNA cyt b, 464 bp, were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction technique (forward primer: L14735 and reverse primer: H15149). Thirty-four reference sequences of Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and Bos javanicus were included in the phylogenetic analyses. A total of 55 polymorphic sites and 13 haplotypes were observed in the whole breeds. No variable sites of mtDNA cyt b were observed in Galekan (kept in BCRS) and Rambon cattle. Overall haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity were 0.515 ± 0.070 and 0.0184 ± 0.0045, respectively. The highest (0.092) and the lowest (0.000) genetic distances were between Bali and Donggala cattle populations and among Galekan (kept in BCRS), Rambon, and POBA cattle populations, respectively. Both mtDNA network and phylogenetic analyses revealed two major maternal lineages (A and B) of the studied population. Most of the sampled individuals (69.33%, present in haplotype H8-H19) were linked to lineage B, which belonged to the same cluster with Bos javanicus. Overall, most of the Indonesian native and local cattle populations had a considerable genetic diversity and shared a common maternal origin with Bos javanicus.
, Tiurma Pasaribu, Tresnawati Purwadaria, Tuti Haryati, Elizabeth Wina, Tri Wardhani
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 81-90; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i2.2501

Abstract:
Antibiotics (AGP) have been used as feed additives to promote growth and feed efficiency in poultry production. However, many countries include Indonesia now ban the use of AGP and attempts are made to replace the antibiotic to maintain good performances of broilers. Plant bioactives is one of the alternatives that could replace the AGP. An experiment was conducted in an attempt to replace the AGP in broiler feed with a mixture of some plant bioactives (liquid smoke of cashew nutshell, Phyllanthus niruri, and clove leaves). Eight (8) dietary treatments were formulated to have similar nutrients consist of negative control (NC), positive control (NC+AGP), diets supplemented with liquid plant bioactives in 3 levels and diets supplemented with powder plant bioactives in 3 levels. Each diet was fed to 6 replications of 10 birds each from 1 to 35 days old. The performances and the immune response of the broilers due to the treatments were observed. Results showed that the powder plant bioactives could not improve the performance of broilers. None of the feed additives (AGP or plant bioactives) affect the immune systems of the broilers. However, liquid plant bioactives in low dose improved the performance of broilers better than the AGP and therefore is suitable to replace the antibiotic as feed additives in broiler diet.
, A H Yanti, T R Setyawati
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 68-73; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i2.2026

Abstract:
The use of liquid semen for artificial insemination program of Etawah crossbreed goat (PE) is an alternative to replace frozen semen which is constrained by limited and expensive facilities. Production of liquid semen is faster than frozen semen, but the viability of liquid semen which preserved with a standard extender such as tris egg yolk is very short. The purpose of this study was to determine the viability of PE goat semen in egg yolk tris substituted with energy sources such as glucose, galactose, and mannose and to determine the most efficient energy source for semen preservation. This research was conducted from August to September 2018 at the Artificial Insemination Center in Lembang, West Java. This study was designed in a randomized block design (RBD) consist of three experimental groups divided into five groups. Fresh semen of PE goats were preserved using extender which energy source has been modified. Results showed that using glucose in PE goat semen extender produced the best motility among other groups (64.29 ± 9.2%). The highest viability was found in extender with fructose substitution (86.76 ± 2.3%). The longest viability of liquid semen was found in the extender with glucose substitution. It lasted for six days.
, Sps Budhi, Z Bachruddin
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 74-80; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i2.2066

Abstract:
Methane is one of the gases produced by ruminants during feed fermentation in the rumen. This experiment was aimed to investigate the production of monacolin K in rice bran fermented by Monascus purpureus mold and the influence of the supplementation of fermented rice bran using Monascus purpureus mold on elephant grass basal diet on fermentation products and methane production in an in vitro gas production method. The study consisted of two experiments. The first experiment analysis of monacolin K production in fermented rice bran using Monascus purpureus. Fermentation is done by the addition of Monascus purpureus at levels 0, 4, 8, and 12% (v/w) of substrate (rice bran) with 3 replications. Monacolin K in the substrate was analyzed using HPLC. The second experiment was the evaluation of supplementation of fermented rice bran to elephant grass basal diet using in vitro gas production. The treatment diet evaluated were Pennisetum purpureum (control), Pennisetum purpureum:rice bran (1:1 ratio), and Pennisetum purpureum:rice bran fermented. Each treatment was replicated 3 times. Results from the first experiment shows that rice bran with the highest monacolin K content was in rice bran fermented at 12% by Monascus purpureus. Result from the second experiment showed that supplementation of fermented rice bran to Pennisetum purpureum basal diet did not affect rumen ammonia concentration, VFA, protein microbial production, and dry matter and organic matter digestibility. However, methane production (CH4) was reduced (P<0.05) by 50%, and the protozoal population was decreased (P<0.05) by 80%. It is concluded that supplementation of fermented rice brands containing monacolin K was able to reduce methane production and the protozoa population without affecting feed fermentation.
, F Saputra, A Hafid, Abl Ishak
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 48-59; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i2.2498

Abstract:
Information on non-genetic and genetic factors is required in the selection program. Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production (IRIAP) has been conducting a selection of the growth traits of Sapera goat (50% Saanen, 50% PE). This research was aimed to study non-genetic and genetic effects on growth traits from birth to the age of 120 days old of the 2nd generation (G2) of Sapera goat. Data on body weight and measurement were collected from kids at birth (105 head.) to the age of 120 days old (51 head). The 30 days interval growth data were calculated by linear interpolation. Non-genetic effects were analyzed by General Linear Model for unbalanced data by considering sex, type of birth, the month of kidding, and year of kidding as fixed variables. The genetic component was analyzed by a mixed linear model by considering sire as a random variable. Heritability was estimated by the paternal half-sib method. Non-genetic factors mostly had no significant effect (P> 0.05) on body weight and measurement. The 90 days old and 120 days old males had higher weights than females (P<0.05). Birth type and year of kidding had significant effects (P<0.05) on body weight and some measurements at certain ages. No significant months of kidding effect on the growth traits (P>0.05). Heritability values of body weight (h2 = 0.11-0.19) and body sizes (h2 = 0.03-0.24) were relatively low. Except high heritability values for birth weight and for body weight at 30 days old (h2 = 0.59 and 0.29), and for hip girth at 30 days old and at 60 days old (h2 = 0.13-0.54). The growth traits of G2 Sapera kids were affected by sex and year of kidding and slightly influenced by genetic (sires) factors.
Marziyeh Naimi, , Sirous Naeimi, Mohammad Amin Edalatmanesh
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 11-18; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i1.2161

Abstract:
Acrylamide (AA) is a toxic and carcinogenic compound produced in cooking process. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) gene expression level and ovarian histopathological changes in AA-treated rats. Thirty-six female adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups including control, positive control (+VE Con), negative control (-VE Con), experimental 1 (Exp1), experimental 2 (Exp2) and experimental 3 (Exp3). Twenty eight days after the treatment, ERK gene expression level was measured by real-time PCR method and ovarian histopathological changes were evaluated. The ERK gene expression level was significantly decreased in the +VE Con, Exp1 and Exp2 groups as compared to the control group (p˂0.05), but not in the -VE Con and Exp3 groups (p˃0.05). Histologically, the +VE Con group showed a significant decrease in the number of primary, secondary and Graafian follicles as well as corpus luteum as compared to the control group (p˂0.05), but not in the negative, Exp2 and Exp3 groups (p˃0.05). In the Exp1 group, the number of primary and secondary follicles as well as corpus luteum significantly decreased (p˂0.05), however, the numbers of Graafian follicle and the corpus luteum were significantly increased as compared to the +VE Con group (p˂0.05). The AA was supposed to increase the apoptosis and folliculogenesis degradation in the rat ovarian tissue by decreasing ERK gene expression. Administration of NAC ameliorated the deleterious effects of AA in a dose-dependent manner and improve folliculogenesis by reducing apoptosis level. Thus, the NAC supplement could be helpful in ameliorating animal fertility.
, Citra Dewi Yulia Chistie
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 34-38; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i1.2053

Abstract:
This study was aimed to investigate performance and quality of broiler duck carcasses fed with Morinda citrifolia and Arthrospira plattensis. A total of 168 two-week-old broiler duck with an initial average body weight of 463 ± 29.38 g and a diversity of 6.35 % were randomly allotted to 7 experimental groups with 4 replications each with 6 bird per replication. Treatments were T0 (basal diet as a control), T1 (basal diet + 0.2% of Morinda citrifolia powder (MP)), T2 (basal diet + 0.5% of Arthrospira plattensis powde(AP)) , T3 (basal diet + 0.2% of MP+ 0.5% of AP), T4 (basal diet + 0.4% of MP + 0.5% of AP), T5 (basal diet + 0.2% of MP + 0.1% of AP), T6 (basal diet 0.4% of MP + 0.1% of AP). Variables measured were feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, carcass percentage, abdominal fat, and visceral organ. Data were analyzed for variance based on a Completely Randomize Design and continued with Duncan’s multiple Range Test for differences. Result showed that the treatments did not affect (P>0.05) on feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio. The treatments also did not affect (P>0.05) carcass percentage, abdominal fat, and visceral organ. The diet did not significantly improve performance and quality of broiler duck carcasses.
Simon Petrus Ginting, Andi Tarigan, Kiston Simanuhuruk
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 26-33; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i1.2196

Abstract:
Lactating goats are prone to negative energy status due to increased body fat reserve mobilization to support the high energy requirement of milk production. The study was aimed to investigate the responses of the lactating goat on diets provided in total-mixed ration differing in the energy sources. The experiment was conducted using a total of 35 does having 2-3 parities and an average bodyweight of 30.3±4.48 kg and BCS of 2.5 ± 0.05 on a scale basis of 1 to 5. Animals were allocated to one of five dietary treatments (seven animals/treatment) formulated to be iso-nitrogen dan iso-calory in a total mixed ration. Cassava meal was used as the source of glucogenic energy and bergafat as the main source of lipogenic energy. There were no DM intake differences (P>0.05) between the glucogenic diet (1.49% and 2.28% fat), but significant increases (P0.05) and ranged from 37 to 43 mg/dl and 39 to 51 mg/dl, respectively. Numerically, however, the blood glucose and urea level linearly increased as the diet becoming more lipogenic due to the increased feed intake. It is concluded that lactating goats offered diets with lipogenic energy sources (7.5% fat content) presented in pelleted total mixed-ration during the entire lactation period had a higher dry matter and nutrient intakes, body weight gain and body condition score compared to those fed diets with glucogenic energy source.
, Ahmad Baidlowi, Achmad Fauzi, Ida Tjahajati
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 19-25; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i1.2079

Abstract:
The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of the combination of mix culture bacteria (EM4®:E) and fungi (Trichoderma viridae:TV) on physical quality and in vitro rumen fermentation parameters of peanut hull-based feed supplements. Basal feed was divided into four treatments, which were: P0 (BF); P1 (E:25%+TV:75%); P2 (E:50%+TV:50%),; and P3 (E:75%+TV:25%); and each treatment had three replications. Feeds were fermented facultative anaerobically for nine days. The observed parameters were physical qualities (color, odor, fungi appearance and pH), and in vitro rumen fermentation parameters (rumen pH, microbial protein content, and total volatile fatty acid content). Data were analyzed using one way ANOVA design, and the significance of differences were tested using Kruskall-Wallis test for the physical qualities data and Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test (DMRT) test for in vitro rumen fermentation parameters. Results showed that the combination of E and TV at different level did not affect odor and the fungi appearance parameters (P≥0.05), however, it significantly affected P≤0.05) color change from blackish (1.64) in P0 to brownish in P1, P2 and P3 of 2.44; 2.69; and 2.80, respectively. The pH also decreased significantly (P≤0.05) by 10.67%. Treatment also did not affect the rumen pH, microbial protein content, and total volatile fatty acid content (P≥0.05). It is concluded that the combination of the EM4® 25%: Trichoderma viridae 75% on peanut-hull based feed supplement fermentation gives the best result on color and pH fermented feed product without affecting the rumen fermentation process.
Ibrahim Abu El- Naser
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 1-10; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i1.2069

Abstract:
This study was done to determine the direct and maternal genetic and phenotypic trends for productive traits such as first lactation milk yield (FLMY, kg), first lactation period (FLP, d) and first lactation daily milk (FLDM, kg), and reproductive traits such as age at first calving (AFC, mo), First days open (FDO, d) and first calving interval (FCI, d). Data were collected over consecutive 25 years (1991 to 2015) of 1104 first lactation of 135 sires and 482 dams maintained at Mahallet Mousa farms of Animal Production Research Institute. Data were analyzed by Animal model to determine genetic parameters for studied traits. Means of FLMY, FLP, FLDM, AFC, FDO and FCI were 1546.5kg, 189d, 7.9kg, 37.9mo, 120.8d and 428d, respectively. The direct heritability (h2a) for same traits were 0.25, 0.18, 0.24, 0.45, 0.18 and 0.19, respectively. Corresponding maternal heritability (h2m) for mentioned traits was 0.12, 0.19, 0.22, 0.25, 0.12 and 0.12, respectively. Genetic correlations (rg) among studied traits were varied between -0.19 to 0.38. Accuracy of predicted breeding value varied between 69 to 94, 0.37 to 94 and 42 to 91% for FLMY, FLP, FLDM, AFC, FDO and FCI of sires, cows and dams, respectively that revealed the genetic improvement could be actualized through each of cows or sires or dams. Additive and maternal genetic, permanent environmental and phenotypic trends were not significant for all studied traits. It indicated that it is important to set up a plan to improve genetic and environmental conditions thus, increasing productivity and realization of high profitability.
Indri Mareta, Gilbert Nathaniel, Turrini Yudiarti, Endang Widiastuti, Hanny Indrat Wahyuni, Sugiharto Sugiharto
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 182-190; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i4.2515

Abstract:
This study was aimed to evaluate effect of a mixture of Averrhoa bilimbi fruit filtrate and shrimp paste (Mysis sp.) on the growth performance, blood profile, selected intestinal bacterial number and pH value of broiler digestive tract. The mixture of A. bilimbi fruit filtrate and shrimp paste were incubated for 4 days and were then used in the experiment. For in vivo experiment, 40 day-old Lohmann broiler chicks were distributed randomly to two treatment groups, i.e., control (T1) and chickens given the mixture of 10% A. bilimbi fruit filtrate and shrimp paste in drinking water (T2). Body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly. At day 42, 2 birds from each pen (8 chicks per treatment group) were taken for blood and digesta collection. Internal organ weight and carcass traits were determined thereafter. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was lower (P<0.05) on treatment group than control. Hemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) of treatment group were higher (P<0.05) than that of control. Total cholesterol was higher (P<0.05) in treatment group than that in control. Total cecum coliform was lower (P<0.05) in treatment group than that in control. The pH values of the small intestinal segments (jejunum, ileum, cecum) was lower (P<0.05) in treatment group than that in control group. In conclusion, administration of the blends of A. bilimbi fruit filtrate and shrimp paste into drinking water improved FCR, increased hemoglobin and MCV values, decreased gut pH and cecal coliform of broiler chickens.
Andri Cahya Irawan
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 24; doi:10.14334/jitv.v24i4.2025

Abstract:
Black Soldier Fly are natural antibiotics. It is expected that the use of BSF larvae in poultry rations as an alternative source of conventional protein will contribute to improving the immune status and maintaining animal health, thereby reducing the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs). This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the best type of BSF protein for determining the health status of laying hens based on the activity and capacity of macrophage phagocytosis on the non-protein A bacterium Staphyllococcus aureus. Results of this study indicated that the BSF extract (P3) has the highest phagocytic capacity value. This result proves that the BSF extract can induce macrophage cells to optimally process bacterial cells or foreign phagocyte particles. The highest average activity value, and phagocytic capacity of peritoneal macrophages was resulted from BSF extract (P3), respectively was 91.34 ± 0.38% and 22.84 macrophage-1 bacteria.
Tuti Haryati, Arnold P Sinurat, H Hamid, Tresnawati Purwadaria
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 24, pp 158-165; doi:10.14334/jitv.v24i4.2055

Abstract:
BS4 enzyme that is produced from solid substrate fermentation (SSF) on coconut cake with Eupenicillium javanicum BS4 in tray bioreactor has been applied as a feed additive. It increases the nutritional value of animal feedstuff. The BS4 production on SSF may be influenced by the better aeration through the perforated trays or by the thinner substrate. The aim of this research is to optimize the production of BS4 with different substrate thicknesses and types of trays. The trial was carried out using a factorial randomized design (2x2x3) with 6 replicates. The first factor was the type of trays: i.e., non-perforated and perforated tray. The second factor was the thickness of the substrate: i.e., 1.5 and 3.0 cm, while the third factor was the duration of fermentation: i.e. 5, and 7 days. The variables observed were moisture content, dry matter loss (DML), mannanase and saccharification activities, soluble protein content, their specific activities, and yield. Statistical analysis showed no interactions between the three factors, but there were interactions between types of trays and substrate thicknesses, as well as type of trays and incubation times on the mannanase activity and yield of mannanase. The results showed that DML was observed on day 7 were around 31.43- 36.89. The highest mannanase activity was observed on the non-perforated tray with 3 cm thickness on day 7. The saccharification activity towards palm kernel meal was better in the non-perforated tray on day 7 but not influenced by The yield value of mannanase and saccharification activities on a non-perforated tray with 3.0 cm thickness on day 7 was also the highest. Based on energy efficiency and the cost of production, it can be concluded that the optimum condition to produce the BS4 enzyme was observed in the non-perforated tray with 3 cm thickness and fermented for 7 days.
Ibrahim Abu El- Naser
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 24, pp 143-150; doi:10.14334/jitv.v24i4.2034

Abstract:
Data in this study were collected from live body weight records and milk yield for the first three lactations of Egyptian buffaloes maintained at the Mahallet Mousa Experimental Station of Animal Production Research Institute, relying on 987 records of Egyptian buffaloes spread over 16 years. These data were analyzed to estimate genetic parameters using animal model. Overall means in kilograms of BW, WW, W18, WFC, 1stMY, 2ndMY and 3rdMY were 36.56, 96.95, 322.02, 462.09, 1561.53, 1755 and 1837.71, respectively. Direct additive heritability (h2a) for mentioned traits were 0.31, 0.22, 0.24, 0.27, 0.23, 0.23 and 0.17, respectively. Corresponding computation of maternal heritability (h2m) for same traits were 0.39, 0.34, 0.22, 0.40, 0.29, 0.31 and 0.21, respectively. Evaluation of genetic correlations among different all studied traits were positive and ranged from 0.07 to 0.83, while phenotypic correlations were positive and ranged from 0.02 to 0.55. Accuracy of (PBV's) varying from 62 to 76, 62 to 83 and 41 to 77% for sires, cows and dams, successively; pointing out the genetic improvement could be achieved through any pathway of them. Higher direct and maternal heritability for BW and WFC and genetic correlations between first three lactations milk yield and each of BW and WFC higher than genetic correlations between first three lactations milk yield and WW and W18. Therefore, it is appropriate to select buffalo female calves for live body weight at birth than for live body weights at other ages.
Asep Sudarman, G B Listiawan, L Khodijah
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 24; doi:10.14334/jitv.v24i4.2006

Abstract:
This research aimed to evaluate the performance of fattened madura cattle fed on coffee husk as a source of fibre to substitute grasses. Twenty Madura steers aged approximately 1.5 to 2.0 years with initial weight of 165-190 kg were divided randomly into four different experimental diets, namely R0= 90% concentrates +0% coffee husk +10% napier grass, R1= 90 % concentrates +3.33% coffee husk +6.67% napier grass, R2 = 90% concentrate +10% 6.67% coffee husk +3.33% napier grass, R3 = 90% concentrates 90% + 10% coffee husk +0% napier grass. The feed was given at 3% body weight of dry mater. The cows were kept in individual pen for two months. Variables measured were dry mater intake, feed efficiency, average daily gain (ADG), digestibility of feed and income over feed cost. Data obtained were analyzed using analysis of variance based on randomized block design followed by Duncan’s multiple range test. Results showed that dry matter intake, ADG, feed efficiency and feed digestibility of cattle on each treatment of the feed were not significantly different (P > 0.05). Average of dry matter intake and daily gain for R0, R1, R2, and R3 were 6.01, 5.84, 5.73 and 5.62 kg/head/day and 0.88, 0.87, 0.84 and 0.93 kg/head/day respectively. While the average of feed efficiency and DM digestibility for R0, R1, R2, and R3 were 14.64, 14.89, 14.65 and 16.54 % and 84.82, 84.37, 83.47 and 83.30 %, respectively. It is concluded that the used of 10% coffee husk as a source of fibre for substitution of napier grass can be used without negative effect on madura’s cattle performances and tend to give higher values of IOFC on fattening program.
Eni Kusumaningtyas, - Masrianti, F Fitrya
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 24, pp 173-181; doi:10.14334/jitv.v24i4.2078

Abstract:
Rhizopus oligosporus (RO) in isolate culture was known to reduce contamination toxigenic mold Aspergillus flavus (AF) and aflatoxin B1 in chicken feed. Application in culture form was not effective. The aim of this research was to evaluate RO activities in extract and inoculum form to reduce contamination of AF and aflatoxin B1 in corn. RO was harvested from agar plate, blended, added with water (ratio 1:1 (w/v)) and centrifuged. Supernatant was filtered using Whatman 41. Inoculum was made by inoculation RO in soy powder and incubated at 28oC for 5 days. Inoculum was dried at 40oC for 24-28 hours. Assay was conducted by addition extract or inoculum to corn. Extract and corn ratio were 1:1 (v/w), while inoculum doses were 5, 25, 50, 1000 dan 200 g/kg corn. Assay for aflatoxin B1 was done using kit ELISA aflatoxin. The result of this research showed that extract was able to reduce AF contamination up to 1 log 10, while the less concentration of inoculum which able to inhibit AF up to 6 log 10 was 100 g/kg corn. Extract RO 125 and 250 mL/kg corn was able to reduce aflatoxin contamination by 93.69 % and 85.84 %. Inoculum at dose 5 and 100 g/kg corn was able to reduce aflatoxin 57.58% and 85%. Based on the result, it could be concluded that RO in extract or inoculum form was able to reduce contamination of AF and aflatoxin B1 in corn. Rhizopus as inoculum was easier to be applied than in extract form.
, Sofjan Iskandar
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 24, pp 151-157; doi:10.14334/jitv.v24i4.2033

Abstract:
KUB-2 line of chicken has improved local chicken selected from the KUB-1 chicken line. KUB-2 was selected for more egg production and yellow shank. KUB-1 chicken has 64% various of black feather color, which sometimes tends to have unpreferred dark carcass. Yellow shank color has a positive correlation with the skin color of carcass. As many as 517 pullets of KUB-2 at 4th generation were divided into two groups of 194 pullets of KUB-2kk (yellow shank) and 323 pullets of KUB-2nk non-yellow shank). The chickens were raised intensively in the individual cages for the 24 weeks observation. Variables measured were age at first egg (AFE) bodyweight at first egg (BWFE), egg weight at first egg (EWFE), average egg weight (AEW), average egg production (AEP) during 24 weeks, feed conversion ratio (FCR) of 25-43 weeks of age, and mortality. The result showed that there was no statistically significant different (p>0.05) between KUB-2nk and KUB-2kk respectively for AFE of 156.2 d and 158.1 d, for BWFE of 1788 g and 1808 g, for EWFE of 31.32 g and 31.34 g, for AEP24 of 103.3 eggs or 61.5% and 101.9 eggs or 60.7%, and for FCR25-43 of 3.53 and 3.54. AEW increased with increasing age of hen, the mortality of the whole population was 0.98%.
, Simson Tarigan, H Farhid, Jagoda Ignjatovic
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 24, pp 122-134; doi:10.14334/jitv.v24i3.1987

Abstract:
Matrix 2 ectodomain (M2e) protein is a potential antigen for detection of influenza A virus infection in vaccinated poultry (DIVA test). However the M2e antigenicity and immune response it induces in either humans or animals are poorly understood. Seventeen M2e peptides and sixteen recombinant M2e (rM2e) proteins with amino acid (aa) changes introduced at position 10, 11, 12, 13 14, 16, 18 and 20 were compared by western blot (WB) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using mouse anti-M2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) 14C2, and anti-M2e peptide chicken and rabbit polyclonal antibody (pAb). The mAb 14C had the best discriminating power and indicated that all six positions contributed to the M2e antigenicity. Position 11 was the important immunodominant and affected Mab14C binding to a greatest degree. Changes in the adjacent position 14, 16 and 18 also influenced the binding, and it detected regardless of the method (WB or ELISA), or the antigen used (M2e peptide or rM2e). For chicken pAb and rabbit pAb, the immunodominant aa was position 10 and the antibody reaction was not affected by aa change at 11. The binding of rabbit pAb was also affected by changes at 14 and 16, which confirm the contribution of these positions to the M2e antigenicity. Position 10 was the only important position for the binding of chicken pAb to M2e. Overall, the study showed that the M2e antigenic sites are located between residues 10 – 18 and that aa changes at position 10, 11, 12, 14, 16 and 18 may all affect the antibody binding within the M2e protein.
Eni Kusumaningtyas, Didik Tulus Subekti, D Fl Fitaningtyas
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 24, pp 112-121; doi:10.14334/jitv.v24i3.1976

Abstract:
Mare milk protein contains bioactive peptide which beneficial for human and animal health. Peptides in the fraction and single may show different activities. The objectives of the study were to evaluate antimicrobial and anti-inflammation activities of the fraction and single peptide derived from mare milk protein. Antimicrobial assay was conducted by testing antibacterial and antifungal activities of fraction <3 kDa, peptide HPYFYAPELLYYANK, LVNELTEFAK and LANSLTEFAK against Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. Anti-inflammation effect was detected by interleukin 1-β (IL- 1β) and Tumor Necrosis Factor -α (TNF-α) production in mice after administration of Escherichia coli’s lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and combined with fraction or single peptide. The result showed that antibacterial and antifungal of fraction <3 kDa was higher than all of single peptide. This may because of synergistic interaction among peptide in the fraction which increase the activities. Fraction <3 kDa was also able to decrease production of IL-1β and TNF-α better than single peptide indicated its ability to decrease inflammation. Based on the results, antimicrobial and anti-inflammation activities fraction <3 kDa was better than single peptide.
Reem S. Mourad
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 24, pp 103-111; doi:10.14334/jitv.v24i3.2002

Abstract:
The present study was carried out in the veterinary units on 14 normal cows and 32 cows with Retained Placenta. Cows were chosen after about 6 to 12 hours from parturition in Shebin Elkom, Menoufia, Egypt. Results show that there was very highly significant increase of concentrations of all blood biochemical components, macro elements and micro elements in normal cows than those in retained fetal membranes cows except in globulin, Sodium and Manganese. On the other hand, plasma concentrations of biochemical components were highly significant between summer and winter in cholesterol, total protein and albumin but it wasn’t significant in glucose, globulin and A/G ratio. Moreover, there was very highly significant in plasma concentration between summer and winter in all macro elements except potassium and Ca/P ratio. Also, there was very highly significant in plasma concentration between summer and winter in all micro elements except Manganese. Meanwhile, plasma concentrations of biochemical components were not significant between parities except in A/G ratio. Furthermore, there was no significant in plasma concentration between summer and winter in all macro elements. But, there was very highly significant (P≤0.01) in plasma concentration of Cu and Cd between summer and winter, and it was significant (P≤0.05) in Fe and Se but, there was no significant in Co, Zn, Mn, and Mo. The aim of this study was to determine blood plasma constituents and inorganic macro and micro elements in the case of retained placenta in crossbred cattle under Egyptian conditions.
Ha El-Hady Abed, O M El-Malky, Reem S Mourad, I S Al-Gezery
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 24, pp 87-94; doi:10.14334/jitv.v24i3.2003

Abstract:
The study determined the level of plasma β-endorphin and cortisol concentrations in peripheral blood circulation of buffalo cows suffering from reproductive disorders (dystocia and retained placenta) and weakness body condition score during periparturient period. Twenty multi-parous Egyptian buffalo cows at late pregnancy period were used for two months before parturition. β-endorphin concentrations were higher in buffalo suffering from reproductive disorders groups. Whereas, β-endorphin concentrations were 134.9±4.8 for retained placenta, 121.3±4.9 for dystocia, 114.2±8.4 for weakness and 113.5±6.5 pg/ml for control. In the closer period around parturition both of plasma β-endorphin and cortisol followed the same trend toward a gradually increased values during -2,-1days and zero time in all groups. A concomitant trend was noticed in β-endorphin and cortisol concentrations in postpartum period with reduce values were observed in all groups after parturition continued for month or more. Buffalo suffering from reproductive disorders were showed a high relative values in β-endorphin and cortisol concentrations. A significant differences (P<0.01) were observed between the experimental groups. Generally, buffaloes suffering reproductive disorders had a clear impact on blood plasma β-endorphin concentration around parturition process.The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between various reproductive disorders as a stress factors with plasma β–endorphin and cortisol in buffalo cows around parturition and changes in these parameters could be used as an objective measure of the stress associated labour. Stress has been hypothesized to be a cause of impaired reproductive efficiency. Stress may cause an overproduction of beta-endorphins and free radicals
Amam Amam, Zaenal Fanani, Budi Hartono, Bambang Ali Nugroho
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 24, pp 135-142; doi:10.14334/jitv.v24i3.1927

Abstract:
Accessibility of resources in theory can affected the development of broiler farming in a region. This research was conducted with the objectives of: 1) to formulate indicators of resource use on the development of partnership system of broiler farming business, and 2) to find the model of the development of resources use accessibility to partnership system of broiler farming business. The research was conducted in August 2017 up to January 2018 in Malang Regency of East Java Province, Indonesia. 100 respondents as partnership system of broiler farmer was participated in this study who was determined by total sampling. The research variables consist of: a) financial resources, b) technology resources, c) physic resources, d) economic resources, e) environmental resources, f) social resources, g) human resources, and h ) business development. The data was analyze used by SEM with SmartPLS 2.0 analysis tool. The results indicate that: 1) The development of partnership system of broiler farming business is directly influenced by the financial resources of 2.421, the physic resources is 1.821, the economic resources 2.445, and the human resources 2.904, but the development of partnership system of broiler farming business direct are not affected by technology resources, environmental resources, and social resources; 2) The development of partnership system of broiler farming business is indirect with quality of human resources is influenced by the financial resources of 2.629, technology resources of 6.092, physic resources of 2.308, and economic resources of 2.312, but the development of partnership system of broiler business is indirectly with the quality of human resources are not influenced by environmental resources and social resources.
Hikmayani Iskandar, , M Yusuf
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 24, pp 95-102; doi:10.14334/jitv.v24i3.2020

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of adding Insulin Transferrin Selenium (ITS) in the medium on maturation and fertilization rates of Bali cattle oocytes. The ovarium of Bali cows were sliced to produce oocytes, then the collected oocytes were subsequently selected based on their quality. Those oocytes were maturated for 24 hours and then fertilized for 18 hours in the incubators of 5% CO2 with temperature of 38.5ºC. Oocytes were stained using 2% of aceto orcein, and observed under a microscope. This study was divided into four treatments at different addition of ITS in the medium and replicated four times, and analized using a Factorial Complete Randomized Design (CRD)at each treatment. The treatments consisted of P0 as control, P1 (5 ng/ml), P2 (10 ng/ml), and P3 (15 ng/ml). Parameters observed in this study were the stages of oocytes maturation rate that consisted of germinal vesicle (GV), germinal vesicle break down (GVBD), metaphase I (M-I), and metaphase II (M-II), and fertilization rate that consisted of absence of pronucleus (P0), 1 pronucleus (PN1), 2 pronucleus (PN2), and more than two pronucleus (>2PN). The results of this study showed that addition of ITS at 5-15 ng/ml did not effect maturation and fertilization rates of Bali cows oocytes.The conculision of the study is addition of ITS at 5 ng / ml produces the best level of maturation and for the best level of fertilization with addition ITS at 15 ng / ml.
Ria Ariyanti, N Ulupi, T Suryati, Ri Arifiantini
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 24; doi:10.14334/jitv.v24i2.1861

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Sentul cocks is one of the native chicken breeds in Indonesia which is originally raised by Villagers in Ciamis District, West Java. Healthy chicken cells can function properly, especially in the metabolic process. Healthy chickens are expected to produce better muscle development. IgY is a protein molecule substance that can neutralize a number of microorganisms that cause infection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of IgY concentration on physicochemical and organoleptic qualities of meat. This study used 20 cocks, 4th month ages, consist of 2 treatments (IgY concentrations above 9.30 ± 0.45 mg mL-1 and IgY concentrations below 9.30 ± 0.45 mg mL-1). The variable observed include physicochemical and organoleptic quality of meat. The study was used completely randomized design. Data were analyzed by t-test. The result concluded that cocks with concentrations above 9.30 ± 0.45 mg mL-1 produced meat with lower malonaldehyde. The low content of malonaldehyde in meat shows that the meat produced is healthier.
Hartati Hartati, Bdp Soewandi, Aar Hapsari, S Anwar, D Pamungkas
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 24; doi:10.14334/jitv.v24i2.1939

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Calf birth weight (CBW) is one of the important selection criteria to predict mature body weight and for calving ease in beef cattle. The GH and GHR genes are considered as candidate genes responsible for growth traits in cattle. The objectives of this study were to identify the polymorphism of GH|MspI and GHR|AluI genes and its association with CBW in Grati-PO cattle. A total of 186 Grati-PO cattle raised by BCRS from May to December 2017. Genomic DNA were isolated from whole blood and used in genotyping analysis using the PCR-RFLP method. The result showed that the average of CBW of Grati-PO cattle in present study was 25.58±3.31 kg. There was no statistical difference for CBW between male and female. The genotype frequency of CC, CT, and TT of GH gene were 1.1, 18.8 and 80.1 %, respectively and allele frequency of C and T of the GH gene were 0.105 and 0.895, respectively. While the genotype frequency of AA, AG, and GG of GHR gene were 66.1, 25.3 and 8.6 %, respectively, and allele frequency of A and G of GHR gene were 0.788 and 0.212, respectively. It concluded that both GH|MspI and GHR|AluI gene are polymorphic but not significantly associated with CBW in Grati-PO cattle.
Sumudu Chathurika, Sathya Sujani, Ariyathilaka Manawadu, Thakshala Seresinhe
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 24; doi:10.14334/jitv.v24i2.1963

Abstract:
Recently the utilization of biological feed additives over chemical feed additives in animal feeds have increased. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of supplementing wild guinea grass (panicum maximum) with two plant species, artocarpus heterophyllus (jack leaves; ah) and tridax procumbens (Tp) containing plant secondary metabolites tannin and saponin, respectively and the enzyme product dyadic cellulase (Ce) and yeast (Ye). For each suplement two levels of treatments were tested. In plant-based suplements 20 (Aht1, Tpt1) and 30% (Aht2 and Tpt2) substituted the base substrate. The enzyme was applied as 10 µl (Cet1) and 20 µl (Cet2) and yeast as 4 mg (Yet1) and 6 mg (Yet2). the experimental design was a randomized complete block design (rcbd) and the period of in vitro rumen fermentation incubation was 72 hrs. All treatments significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced the in vitro gas production (Ivgp) compared with the control. Treatments of ah and ce significantly (P < 0.05) improved the in vitro rumen dry matter degradability (ivrdmd). All treatments significantly (P0.05) influenced with supplements. in conclusion, treatments enhanced the rumen fermentation in means of enhanced ivgp, ivrdmd and reduced protozoa numbers.
Ari Sulistyo Wulandari, Hd Rahayu, Sd Volkandari, N Herlina, S Anwar, Y Irnidayanti
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 24; doi:10.14334/jitv.v24i2.1905

Abstract:
Stearoyl-Coenzyme A desaturase 1 (SCD1) belongs to the fatty acid family of desaturases. In lactating ruminants, the SCD1 protein is highly expressed in the mammary gland and is relevant for the fatty acid composition of milk and dairy products. Polymorphism of SCD1 gene in Holstein-Friesian (HF) cows could be used as a basis of molecular selection of cattle in order to increase their productivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the polymorphism of SCD1 gene of Holstein-Friesian cows in Indonesia. A total of 162 blood samples of HF cows were collected from four different locations i.e. Bogor, Sukabumi, Tasikmalaya and Enrekang districts. Genotyping of SCD1 gene used PCR-RFLP method with NcoI restriction enzyme. The result showed that three genotypes (AA, AV and VV) and two alleles (A and V) have successfully found and polymorphic. A allele was dominant in all populations (0.63) and in Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium. The highest A allele was found in Sukabumi (0.78) and the lowest was in Bogor (0.55). Heterozigosity observed and expected reached 0.471 and 0.470, respectively. In conclusion, genetic polymorphism was found in all population with dominant of A allele. This finding can be used as a early genetic information of Holstein-Friesian cattle in Indonesia and to build breeding strategy for improving of productivity especially improving of healthy fat milk.
Kabirul Islam Khan, Iqbal Hossain, Moksedul Momin, , Nurul Quader, Omar Faruk Miazi
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 24; doi:10.14334/jitv.v24i2.1924

Abstract:
The study was carried out at Chittagong district of Bangladesh with a predesigned well-structured questionnaire to know the baseline information of indigenous sheep and effects of protein supplementations on fertility. Three iso-caloric but different graded levels of protein containing rations were supplied to the three different groups of sheep in three locations. The morphometric traits of sheep such as hair length, ear length, tail length, body length and quantitative trait, body weight in the location 3were higher than the other two locations. Hair length of male (1.91±0.01cm) was longer than female whereas the average body length, tail length and body weight of females were higher than the males. All the correlation values was positive, where the highest value was observed among the body weight, body length and withers height (r=0.73) and the lowest value was observed in between chest girth and ear length (r=0.25). Considering the qualitative traits percentage of plain coat color, non-pigmented skin color, brown coat color and semi-pendulous ear found maximum than others and the values were 54.21%, 69.16%, 45.79%, 57.01%, respectively. The semen volume, sperm counts, percentages of normal and viable sperm were higher in treatment 2 than the other two groups. The present study concluded that there is an influence of protein supplementation on reproductive performance especially semen profile in ram and this outcome will create a new horizon of sheep production in Bangladesh.
Aanbs Dinata, Yusti Pujiawati, S Aurum
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 24; doi:10.14334/jitv.v24i2.1958

Abstract:
Defaunation agents and molasses combination indicate able to improve digestibility of feed. This study was conducted to assest productivity of Bali Cattle fed ration supplemented with molasses solution containing several types of defaunation agents (moladef). Twenty Bali Cattle with average body weight of 307.56±52.46 kg were used in this research for six months. This study was arranged in a completely randomized design with four treatments and five replications. The treatments were P1 : Napier grass+pollard 1. 5 kg/head/day, P2 : napier grass + pollard 1. 5 kg/head/day + Hibiscus tiliaceus moladef 10 cc/head/day, P3 : napier grass + pollard 1. 5 kg/head/day + Hibiscus rosasinensis moladef, P4 : napier grass + pollard 1. 5 kg/head/day + Aloe vera moladef 10 cc/head/day . The parameters observed were average daily gain (ADG), feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed digestibility. This study suggest that the best average daily gain (ADG) was found in treatment P2 is 543,13 g/head/day. Treatment P2 also showed highest dry matter digestibility and crude fiber digestibility was 81,36% and 73,85%. It is concluded that Bali Cattle fed on napier grass + pollard 1. 5 kg/head/day + Hibiscus tiliaceus moladef 10 cc/head/day resulted in the highest ADG and CF digestibility.
Rijanto Hutasoit, Riyadi, Juniar Sirait
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 24; doi:10.14334/jitv.v24i1.1923

Abstract:
Indigofera zollingeriana (Indigofera) plant is potential feed ingredients. The propagation of this plant is through seed. The low quality of seed is a problem in its development. This study was aimed to evaluate the relationship of pod colour with quality of Indigofera seeds. The study was designed in a complete randomized design consisting of four pod colours and four replications, namely: P1= green, P2= brownish green, P3= brown, and P4= black. The parameters observed were: characteristic and morphology of pods and seeds of Indigofera, the growth of sprouts, and the growth of fungus on Indigofera seed. Results showed that the number of pests was fewest found in P2, brownish green pod (14%). The highest number of seeds was in P1, green pod (5173) and P2, brownish green pod (4944). The highest germination (62%) was detected in P2 (brownish green). The heaviest sprout was in P2, in brownish green pod (0.035g), highest sprout (2.68 cm) in P4, black pod colour. Based on fungus observation, the black pod (P4) provided the fewest result (6.63%), however most fungus grew very well in P1, the green pod (47.88%). It could be concluded that the brownish green pod colour was the best phase for harvesting good quality I. zolligeriana seed.
Cecep Hidayat, Sofjan Iskandar
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 24; doi:10.14334/jitv.v24i1.1913

Abstract:
Sensi-1 Agrinak is a strain of the improved native chickens for meat production in Indonesia. The objective of this study was to investigate influence of different dietary energy and protein levels on performance, meat bone ratio, and meat chemical composition of Sensi-1 Agrinak chicken, reared until 10 weeks of age. Two hundred and sixteen of unsexed day old chickens (DOC) of Sensi-1 Agrinak were subjected to six experimental rations differed in dietary crude protein (CP) content,. Namely: 21;19; and 17 % and dietary metabolizable energy (ME) (2800 and 3000 kcal/kg). Each treatment combination was replicated four times and fed from day old to 10 weeks old. In each treatment combination there were nine unsexed-DOCs. The parameters observed were performance (i.e. live weight, feed intake, viability, FCR), economic index (European Production Efficiency Factor/EPEF), meat bone ratio, and meat chemical composition. Result showed that increased of dietary CP level increased live weight and EPEF (p0.05) meat chemical composition. It is concluded that optimal dietary levels of crude protein and energy for unsexed Sensi-1 Agrinak chicken up to 10 weeks of age were 21% CP and 3000 kcal/kg.
Syahruddin Said, Setiorini Setiorini, Amaitshaa Adella, Indah Sari, Nursafira Fathaniah, Tulus Maulana
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 24; doi:10.14334/jitv.v24i1.1873

Abstract:
The objective of the current study was to asses the optimal concentration of glutamine, glycine and cysteine amino acids in tris-citric-acid-fructose egg yolks (TCFY) extender on quality of SO bull spermatozoa during freezing and thawing. In this study the DNA stability of frozen-thawed Sperm was also indentified. Three mature bulls maintained at PT. Karya Anugerah Rumpin, private cattle breeding company, West Java, Indonesia were used as semen donors. Semen was collected using artificial vagina and were evaluated prior to freezing. Semen was diluted with TCFY supplemented with different concentrations of amino acids (5, 15 and 25 mM glycine and glutamine, and 3, 5 and 7 mM cysteine) then processed for colling and freezing. Semen quality parameters (subjective motility, viability and membrane and DNA integrity). Data showed that in general the effect of addition of selected amino acids (glycine, glutamine and cysteine) into TCFY extenders on motility, viability and membrane integrity of SO spermatozoa after cooling were significantly different (p<0.05) higher than that of control. Addition of 15 mM glycine, 15 mM glutamine and 5 mM cysteine resulted in significant (p<0.05) increase post-thawing sperm motility and sperm viability as compared to that of control. Furthermore, when spermatozoa were stained with acridine orange after fixation with acetic alcohol, the DNA integrity of post-thawing spermatozoa showed that all spermatozoa were remain intact. In conclusion ,addition of 15 mM glycine, glutamine and 5 mM cysteine increase the cryoprotecting efficacy of bovine bull cryopreservation extender, and furthermore all DNA spermatozoa were remain intact.
Hendry Tri Saragih, F. Viniwidihastuti, R. P. Lembayu, A. R. Kinanthi, H. Kurnianto, I. Lesmana
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 24; doi:10.14334/jitv.v24i1.1889

Abstract:
The needs for chicken meat have been dominated by meat from exotic broilers (bred from imported parent). The potential of local broilers chicken in Indonesia is expected to be able to provide the meat for national needs for chicken meat. The objective of this research was to determine the day-old-chick (DOC) phenotypic characteristics of chickens in Indonesia that have the potential as broilers. The phenotypic characteristics are in the form of body morphometry, visceral organ weight and small intestinal histo-morphology. The chickens used were the DOC type of exotic Broiler, Kampung, exotic male Layer, KUB-1 and Pelung. A total of 125 chickens consisting of 25 chickens of each strain at posthatched age were observed for its body morphometry and its visceral organ weight, and small intestinal histo-morphology. The observed data were then analyzed by similarity analysis using MVSP 3.22 to create a dendogram with the Unweighted Pair Group with Aritmetic Average (UPGMA) method. Results showed that there were 2 different clusters from the level of similarity in their characteristics. Exotic broilers had 94.65% similarity to male exotic layer chicken and 92.26% to pelung chicken, while Kampung chickens had 90.16% similarity to KUB-1Chicken. In conclusion, it is indicated that the level of similarity of the phenotypic characteristics of pelung chickens were close to the type of exotic broiler and male exotic layer chicken. This level of similarity lead to the expectation that pelung chickens potential to be a candidate for meat-type of local chicken.
Simson Tarigan, Sumarningsih
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 24; doi:10.14334/jitv.v24i1.1871

Abstract:
The need for rapid diagnostic tools or point- of- care diagnostic tests for Avian Influenza in Indonesia is very high and the price of these imported diagnostic tools is very expensive. As a result, a large budget requires to provide the needs. The main component of a rapid diagnostic tool is the monoclonal antibody (mAb) specifically recognized influenza viruses. The objective of this study was to produce mAb that can recognize all subtypes of Avian Influenza viruses using the phage display technology. Influenza-A focused scFv commercial library was panned using alternating recombinant H1N1 NP and H5N1 virions. Whereas, bacteriophages bound to the panning baits were eluted with serum from H5N1-infected chickens. Phagemid from suppressor E. coli (TG1) infected with bacteriophage displaying anti-NP on its surface was isolated and then transformed into a non-suppressor E. coli (HB2151) to express NP-scFv. Monoclonal NP-scFv antibody with a molecular weight of about 27 kDa was purified from the culture supernatant using a nickel-chromatography column. The amount of pure NP-scFv obtained was around 1.2 mg /L culture. As an additional component for its use in immunoassays, antibody to NP-scFv was produced in rabbits. The generating polyclonal antibody recognized the NP-scFv specifically and sensitively. The anti-NP-scFv monoclonal antibody and the anti rabbit scFv polyclonal antibody produced in this study are envisaged appropriate for the development of diagnostic tools for point-of-care for Avian Influenza.
Rita S. Dewi, April H. Wardhana, Retno D. Soejoedono, Sri Mulatsih
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 24; doi:10.14334/jitv.v24i1.1864

Abstract:
Surra is a disease attacking livestock caused by a flagellated protozoan, Trypanosoma evansi. Indonesia archipelago is reported as an endemic country of the disease, except Sumba Island. However, Surra outbreak occurred in this Island in 2010 due to livestock movement from the neighbour island, Sumbawa. It generated high mortality in livestock, particularly in horses and buffaloes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Surra treatment strategies in East Sumba District from 2010-2016 and to estimate the incidence of Surra in the next few months (forecast). The treatment strategy of Surra in East Sumba was divided into 2 (two) periods e.g. the first period in 2010-2011 using Isomethamedium as the single drug (period I) and the second period in 2012 - 2016 using a combination between diminazene aceturate as curative and isomethamedium as a prophylactic drug (period II). All data in the present study was obtained from the local livestock agency of East Sumba District from 2010 – 2016 when Surra outbreak occurred. The effectiveness of those two treatment strategies was compared using the proportion test. The results demonstrated that morbidity and mortality of horses and buffaloes were significantly greater in the period I (2010-2011) compared to period II (2012-2016). The treatment strategy in the period II was able to decrease the proportion of morbidity in horses and buffaloes for 1.44% and 0.66%, respectively. Likewise, the proportion of mortality in period II was also less than the period I from 3.79% to 1.30% for horses and from 2.80% to 0.55% for buffaloes. Based on forecasting study analysis using the control program projected with decomposition method for the next 12 months demonstrated that the treatment strategy in the period II could reduce the incidence and death of livestock by Surra. The treatment strategy using a combination between isometamedium and diminazene aceturate in East Sumba District might be more effective compared to using isometamedium alone.
Widya Pintaka Bayu Putra, St Nugraheni, Y Irnidayanti, S Said
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 23, pp 174-179; doi:10.14334/jitv.v23i4.1862

Abstract:
Gen Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF1) pada mamalia berfungsi untuk mengontrol pertumbuhan tulang dan otot. Oleh karena itu gen IGF1 banyak digunakan sebagai salah satu kandidat gen untuk seleksi ternak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi genotip gen IGF1 (ekson 1) menggunakan metode PCR-RFLP dengan enzim restriksi SnaBI (TAC*GTA). Sebanyak 90 ekor sampel DNA sapi Pasundan dari Kabupaten Ciamis dan Pangandaran, Jawa Barat telah digunakan pada penelitian ini. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa seluruh sampel yang dianalisis memiliki genotip CC dengan alel C sebagai alel yang umum pada gen IGF1/SnaBI. Genotip CC yang diperoleh pada penelitan ini disebabkan karena terdapat mutasi transisi pada posisi basa ke g.218T/C (GenBank: KF202095). Mutasi ini menyebabkan perubahan asam amino dari methionine (AUG) menjadi valine (GUG). Disimpulkan bahwa gen IGF1/SnaBI pada sapi Pasundan bersifat monomorfis dan tidak dapat digunakan untuk seleksi molekuler.
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