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Results in Journal Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner: 268

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, J. F. Cane, Alan P. Dargantes
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v21i3.1417

Abstract:
The study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes, practices (KAP), and financial losses of buffalo raisers due to Trypanosoma evansi infection (surra) and its control in Agusan del Sur Province. One-hundred and sixty (160) buffalo raisers from eight villages in four municipalities (towns) in Agusan del Sur, Mindanao, Southern Philippines were personally interviewed. Majority (63.65%) of respondents provided information about surra. Mean knowledge score of 12.54 was quite low to consider the respondents well informed about surra. Financial losses from mortalities among livestock in eight villages (in four towns) in Agusan del Sur amounted to 9.3 million Philippine Pesos (PHP) (US$ 0.2 M) with additional losses for treatment and diagnosis amounting to PHP 657,000 and PHP 229,500, respectively. The estimated mass treatment and diagnostic costs were PHP 2.4 and PHP 1.1 million, respectively. The estimated overall total financial losses was PHP 13.7 million, averaging PHP 1.7 million per village, and an estimated PHP 538 million (US$ 10.7 M) of total financial losses among livestock in Agusan del Sur due to surra. In conclusion, buffalo raisers in Agusan del Sur Province lack adequate knowledge, attitudes and practices to effectively control surra, a disease that has caused high financial losses among livestock in the province.
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v21i3.1574

Abstract:
Limited availability of forage diet throughout the year could be overcome by utilization of crop by-products. Corn cob, a by-product from maize production is potential to be used as a fiber source for grass replacement. The objective of the study was to compare the effect of two different basal diets (basal grass diet and corn cob silage) with or without Calliandra supplementation on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen utilization, rumen fermentation and growth of sheep. The study used 20 male sheep St Croix breed. The sheep were divided into 5 groups based on body weight. Each group was fed with one of four diet treatments for 13 weeks. The treatments were grass basal diet + concentrate, Corn cob silage (CCS) + concentrate, Grass basal diet + concentrate + 5% Calliandra leaf meal, CCS + concentrate + 5% Calliandra leaf meal. The ratio of basal diet (grass or CCS) to concentrate was 40 : 60% and was formulated in iso protein (crude protein content 14%). The diet was offered in total mix ration. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design and arranged in factorial 2 x 2 (2 type basal diets and 2 Calliandra supplementation levels) with 5 replications. Results showed that there was no interaction between basal diet and Calliandra supplementation on feed consumption, average daily gain (ADG), nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation, except for crude protein (CP) intake. Feed consumption was not affected by basal diets or Calliandra supplementation. Feed conversion ratio and protein conversion ratio were better in grass basal diet than CCS. CP digestibility was higher in corn cob silage than basal grass diet without Calliandra supplementation. N retention was higher in corn cob basal diet than basal grass diet. Rumen fermentation was significantly affected by basal diet in which rumen ammonia and VFA concentrations were higher in grass basal diet. Grass basal diet had higher propionic acid production than CCS basal diet. From this study, it could be concluded that in iso protein diet, basal grass diet was comparable to corn cob basal diet as revealed by average daily gain was similar in both diets with average 107.5 g/head/day. Calliandra supplementation at 5% in the grass or CCS basal diet did not improve sheep performance.
Nurhayati D. Purwantari, Irawan Sugoro
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21, pp 151-158; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v21i3.1520

Abstract:
Phosphorus availability in soil as a mobile mineral influences forage growth. The purpose of doing this research is to enhance the soil phosphorus availability and grass production of Panicum maximum cv Riversdale by intercropping system with legums. The experiment was conducted based on with randomized design with five treatments of mixcropping of: (i) Gliricidia sepium + P. maximum; (ii) Calliandra calothyrsus + P. maximum; (iii) Leucaena leucocephala cv Taramba + P. maximum; (iv) Calopogonium mucunoides + P. maximum; (v) P. maximum as negative control. Plants were grown in pots with split-root technique using partition with a whole to allow some legume roots grew in the grass side. After growing for three months, on the legume areas 32P isotop solution was injected for 50 ml (11.23 μci/ml). After 21 days incubation samples were collected from both soil areas and both plants. The translocation of 32P was determined using geiger counter from legumes into the grass and the concentration of 32P was also determined in all plants. Forage productions was determined both in the legumes and grass. Result showed that soil phosphorus concentration in the grass area was significantly improved by intercropping with G. sepium and C. callothyrsus, while the one with L. leucocephala was similar, and the one with C. mucunoides was significantly lower than that of negative control (without legume). Detection of 32P showed that there was P translocation in the system. P. maximum grass production depending on kind of legumes (P<0.05) those with G. sepium was significantly higher, L. leucocephala and C. callothyrsus were not significantly higher, while the one with C. mucunoides was 26.2% lower from the control although not significantly. However, C. mucunoides produced the highest forage from the legume plant. It is concluded that grass-legume intercropping had a positive impact on phosphorus soil concentration in the grass area and grass production. Kind of legumes influenced the effectivity.
, Sofjan Iskandar, Tike Sartika, T. Wardhani
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21, pp 174-181; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v21i3.1397

Abstract:
The aim of doing this experiment was to observe the growth response of improved native breeds of chicken under diets differed in energy and protein content. Three groups of improved native breeds, obtained from mating of ♂KUB to ♀KUB (Line 1), of ♂SenSi to ♀KUB (Line 2) and of ♂Gaok x ♀KUB (Line 3), were subjected to three experimental diets, differed in metabolizable energy (ME) and crude protein (CP) content. The experimental diets consisted of Diet 1 (2,800 kcal ME/ kg with 17,81% CP), Diet 2 (2,950 kcal ME/ kg with 18,61% CP) and Diet 3 (3,100 kcal ME/ kg with 19,25% CP). The experiment was designed as factorial 3 x 3 with 7 replications of each treatment combination, consisted of 5 birds per treatment combination. The chickens were raised up to 10 weeks of age. Results of the experiment showed that Line 2 (♂SenSi mated to ♀KUB) had highest body weight at 10 weeks of age (P<0.05), lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR) and highest European Production Efficiency Factor (EPEF), compared to other two lines. The appropriate diet for Line 2 was Diet 2. It could be concluded the crossbred line that was resulted from crossing of ♂SenSi to ♀KUB (Line 2), had potential to be used as improved native chicken for the industry in Indonesia supported by appropriate diet containing 2,950 kcal ME/kg with 18.61% crude protein.
Debora - KanaHau, Jacob Nulik
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21, pp 159-164; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v21i3.1586

Abstract:
A series of experiments on techniques and time of sowing, and weed management of legumes Clitoria ternatea cv Milgarra, Centrosema pascuorum cv Cavalcade and cv Bundey, and Lablab purpureus cv Highworth, was conducted in East Nusa Tenggara (in the islands of Timor, Flores, and Sumba) in order to determine proper technique and time of sowing and weed management, which would be efficient in labor use and sufficient biomass production. Treatments of sowing techniques included dibble, furrow (covered and not covered), and broadcast (harrowed and not harrowed); while sowing time consisted of early wet season (December-January), mid of wet season (February-March) and the end of wet season (April-May), while weed managements consisted of weeded and unweeded treatments. The experiments employed block randomized design with four replications using plot sizes of 3 x 4 m to 4 x 5 m, depending on the availability of land for the experiments. The results of the experiments showed that the best sowing technique with the highest plant population at 4 weeks after planting was dibbling (42 plants/m²), followed by furrow, while the lowest plant population was obtained at the broadcast technique (9-20 plants/m²). Similarly, the highest biomass production was obtained in the dibbling technique (1.75 to 2.5 tons DM/ha per harvest at 12 weeks after planting in Ende, and 4-5 ton DM/ha in Nagekeo), followed by furrow technique covered or not covered (1-1.3 tons DM/ha in Ende and 3.5-4 tons DM/ha in Nagekeo), and the lowest in broadcast technique (0.3-1 ton DM/ha in Ende and 2-2.5 ton DM/ha in Nagekeo). However, considering the labor requirement and cost, it was recommended that furrow technique to suit the small farmer practices in the region. Weed management showed that weeded treatment (keep legume cleaned of weeds) gave significantly better (P<0.05) biomass production compared with to that of unweeded treatment. It can be seen also that weed had more suppressing effects on Clitoria ternatea, compared to that of Lablab purpureus, especially when the plants were sown in the early wet season.
Fifi Afiati, Farha Elein Kukihi
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21, pp 182-189; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v21i3.1414

Abstract:
Immunomodulatory activity assay and characterization of exopolysaccharide (EPS) from Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) was done in Bogor. Bacteria used in this study was LAB strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Exopolysaccharide was extracted from L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus then characterized with FT-IR spectrophotometer to determine the functional group. IR spectrum analysis using Fourier Transform-Infra Red (FT-IR) showed that EPS from both LAB isolates were carbohydrate compounds. Immunomodulatory activity in vivo from EPS was measured using phagocytic activity and phagocytic capacity macrophage cells from mice peritoneal cavity fluid. Exopolysaccharide were given orally to mice in concentrations of 100 μg/ml, 200 μg/ml and 300 μg/ml for 14 days then the mice were infected with Staphylococcus aureus. Result showed that EPS from both LAB isolate enhanced either phagocytic activity and phagocytic capacity macrophage cell from mice peritoneal fluid. EPS from L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus concentration 300 μg/ml showed the highest phagocytic activity of macrophage cells and EPS from S. thermophilus concentration 300 μg/ml showed the highest phagocytic capacity. It is concluded that EPS potency tested as immunomodulatory derived from a culture of L. delbrueckii and S. thermophilus subsp.bulgaricus are able to increase the activity and phagocytosis murine peritoneal macrophages.
Mohammad Azri Bin Azmi, S. Alias, A.A.A. Ghani, M.S. Shahudin, Y.M. Goh, M.M. Noordin, M.T. Yusof, Z. Zunita, H.A. Hassim
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21, pp 144-150; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v21i2.1362

Abstract:
Oil palm fronds (OPF) is widely used as the source of roughage for the farm animals. However, the full potential of OPF as animal feed is limited by their high lignin content which limits the rumen microbe’s access to the cellulose and hemicellulose. White rot fungi (WRF) are a group of fungi belonging to basidiomycete phylum and are commonly found in decaying woody plant. They possess the ability to degrade lignin. This experiment aims to identify the phylum of the best lignin decaying fungi based on their enzymes activity. In this experiment, 11 fungi species were isolated from decaying oil palm fronds. They are labelled as WR1, WR 2, WR3, WR4, WR5, WR6, WR7, WR8, WR9, WR10 and WR11. Their fibernolytic enzyme activities which includes laccase, manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, avicelase, carboxylmethylcellulase and xylanase are analysed using the solid state fermentation method. It is was found that 5 fungi species which are the WR1, WR2, WR4, WR7 and WR10 produced the highest ratio of lignin degrading enzyme to cellulose and hemicellulose degrading enzyme. The fungi are then analysed under microscope to determine the phylum of the fungi. From the observation, the fungi are identified to belong to the phylum basidiomycetes due to presence of clamp connection.
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21, pp 135-143; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v21i2.1361

Abstract:
Oil palm estate area in Indonesia is generally located in a sub-optimal land that has great opportunity for the development of forage supply. This study aims were to determine productivity of Indigofera zollingeriana under various canopy level. This research used factorial randomized block design with 3 canopy levels (under 2, 5, and 7 year oil palm canopy) and 2 levels of soil acidity (neutral and acid soil) treatments, where each treatment was repeated 4 times. Parameters observed were production and nutrient content of Indigofera zollingeriana. Research results showed that there was no interaction between the canopy levels and soil acidity on the production of fresh leaves, stems/branches, biomass, and leaves/stem ratio of I. zollingeriana. Production of fresh leaves, stems, biomass, and leaves/branches ratio of I. zollingeriana significantly (P <0.01) decreased along with increase of canopy level. Soil acidity significantly (P <0.05) decreased production of fresh leaves, stems, biomass, and leaves/branches ratio. Level of canopy treatment significantly (P <0.05) increased content of crude protein, crude fiber and energy, otherwise value of in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and organic matter digestibilyity (IVOMD) were decrease. Soil acidity significantly (P <0.05) decreased calcium content, in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) of I. zollingeriana.
Yeni Widiawati, M.N. Rofiq, B. Tiesnamurti
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21, pp 101-111; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v21i2.1358

Abstract:
Methane emission from enteric is a sub-category considered under the Agriculture sector greenhouse gas emissions by UNFCCC, thus Indonesia developed calculation on enteric CH4 EF for ruminant using Tier-2 method as country-specific emission factors (EF). Indonesia has huge amount of beef cattle population, which contributes significant amount to national enteric methane emission. The aim of this study was to estimate enteric methane EF for beef cattle in Indonesia using IPCC Tier-2 method. The EF generated from this study is then used to estimate the methane emitted from beef cattle. Data on beef cattle population was obtained from BPS, data on energy content of feed, feed intake and digestibility were compiled from laboratory analysis and published paper. Equations were adopted and followed the instruction of IPCC 2006. Local cattle has different CH4 EF among each sub-category, which are ranging from 18.18 to 55.89 Kg head-1 yr-1, with the average of 36.75 head-1 yr-1. Imported beef cattle has lower CH4 EF (25.49 kg head-1 yr-1) than the average for local beef cattle. Overall, the national CH4 EF of beef cattle calculated by using IPCC Tier-2 method in Indonesia is 33.14 head-1 yr-1. The value is lower than default EF from IPCC for Asia country (47 kg head-1 yr-1). The conclusion is enteric CH4 EF for beef cattle in Indonesia calculated using Tier-2 method shows the real livestock system in Indonesia condition. Further research needed to be addressed are calculation of EFs for various breeds and feeding systems, since large variations of breeds and types of feed among provinces in Indonesia.
, D.A. Lestari, D.M. Malini
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v21i2.1360

Abstract:
The process of freezing and thawing of semen could lead spermatozoa death and low fertility for alive spermatozoa. This research was subjected to determine the optimum concentration of vitamin C in diluent media to improve the quality of non-sexing and sexing result of thawed dairy cattle (Bos taurus) spermatozoa. The method used was completely randomized design with 3x4 factorial consisting of spermatozoa isolation and vitamin C concentration. Spermatozoa isolation factors were non-sexing and sexing results (X and Y spermatozoa). Vitamin C concentrations factors were 0% (K); 0.25% (P1); 0.50% (P2) and 0.75% (P3). Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's Multiple Range Test 95%. The optimum concentration of vitamin C in diluent media to improve the quality of non-sexing thawed dairy cattle (Bos taurus) spermatozoa was 0.25%. While the optimum concentration of vitamin C in diluent medium to improve quality of thawed dairy cattle (Bos taurus) spermatozoa both X and Y was 0.50%. Administration of vitamin C in diluent media could improve the quality of thawed non-sexed and sexed (X and Y spermatozoa) spermatozoa in dairy cattle (Bos taurus).Kata Kunci: Spermatozoa, Bos taurus, Vitamin C, Sexing, Diluent, Thawing
, J.H. Lee, H.L. Choi
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v21i2.1359

Abstract:
South Korea has declared to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 30% compared to the current level by the year 2020. The greenhouse gas emissions from the cattle production sector in South Korea were evaluated in this study. The greenhouse gas emissions of dairy cattle, Non-Korean native cattle, and Korean native (Hanwoo) cattle production activities in 16 local administrative provinces of South Korea over a ten-year period (2005–2014) were estimated using the methodology specified by the Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventory of the IPCC (2006). The emissions studied herein included methane from enteric fermentation, methane from manure management, nitrous oxide from manure management and carbon dioxide from direct on-farm energy use. Over the last ten years, Hanwoo cattle production activities were the primary contributor of CH4 from enteric fermentation, CH4 from manure management, NO2 from manure management and CO2 from on-farm energy use in the cattle livestock sector of South Korea, which comprised to 83.52% of total emissions from cattle production sector.
Supriyati, R. Krisnan, I.G.M. Budiarsana, L. Praharani
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v21i2.1356

Abstract:
Dairy goat contributes to food and nutrition security. However, information on nutrient consumption and milk yield, as well as milk composition of Saanen x Etawah (SAPERA) grade goat is limited. This experiment was done to evaluated nutrient intake, milk yield and its composition of lactating SAPERA goats fed with different levels of dietary energy and protein in concentrate diet. Thirty multiparous SAPERA goats were used in a randomized block design with three treatments (R1, R2 and R3) and ten replications for 12 weeks of lactation. The concentrate diets were formulated to contain: 18% CP and 72% TDN (R1), 17% CP and 75% TDN (R2), 16% CP and 78% TDN (R3). Those does were penned individually, and fed by basal diet (fresh chopped King Grass ad libitum, 500 g of fresh mixed forages) and 1 kg of experimental concentrate. Results showed that the treatments had significant (P0.05) effects on DM and TDN intake. No significant differences were found in milk yield and milk composition between treatments. In conclusion, this trial suggested that the best feed for lactating SAPERA goats was the mixture of chopped grasses, mixed forages and concentrate diets (16% CP and 78% TDN) with 160 g/kg CP and 750 g/kg TDN of the total DM, produced a milk of 1.55 kg/d with 90 g/day of milk fat, 43 g/day of milk protein and 75 g/day of milk lactose.
, E. Ghoneim, A.H.M. Ibrahim
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v21i2.1353

Abstract:
This study was carried out to investigate variance components, direct heritability, maternal genetic parameters, estimated breeding values and factors affecting pre-weaning growth criteria of Romney sheep. Data were collected over the period from 2006 to 2012 with records of 4989 lambs descended from 76 rams and 2190 ewes of Romney sheep maintained at S. Island of New Zealand via Gene Marker Lab., Faculty of Agric. and Life Sci., Lincoln Univ., New Zealand. Results proved that genetic and non-genetic factors affecting studied criteria had significant effects (P<0.05). Genetic and environmental estimates of live body weights at birth (LBW), weaning (LWW) and Kleiber ratio (KR) were 0.20±0.074, 0.15±0.042 and 0.14±0.052 for direct heritability (h2a±SE); 0.59±0.219, 0.41±0.023 and 0.08±0.002 for maternal heritability (h2m±SE); 0.11684, 2.6378 and 0.27565 for additive variances (σ2a), 0.34596, 7.1179 and 0.14532 for maternal variances (σ2m); and 0.002395, 10.1262 and 0.509339 for permanent environmental variances (σ2e), respectively. EBV’s of LBW, LWW and KR ranged from -0.555: 0.502, -1.554: 3.006 and -0.633: 0.242 direct, -0.863: 0.954, -4.942: 2.554 and -0.469: 0.179 maternal for rams, respectively; and -0.664: 0.830, -2.996: 4.586 and -1.651: 0.677 direct, 1.429: 1.142, -7.541: 4.920 and -1.223: 0.492 maternal for ewes, respectively. Results suggest the importance of considering the non-genetic factors in pre-weaning growth performance of lambs. Moderate heritability and positive coefficients of phenotypic and genetic correlation for studied criteria indicate to the possibility of improving them using traditional selection.
A.F.M. Azmi, A.A.A. Ghani, A.S. Saadan, A. Mokrish, K.S. Lai, M. Zamri-Saad, A.B. Zuki, H.A. Hassim
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v21i2.1357

Abstract:
Histological changes of liver in does with pregnancy ketosis were characterized. Twenty pregnant does at day 80 of pregnancy were used for this experiment. A total of 10 does were fed by grass (Napier) and goat concentrate with water ad libitum. Those 10 goats considered as healthy pregnant goat, and another 10 goats showing clinical and subclinical signs of ketosis considered as unhealthy pregnant does. Liver biopsies were performed when clinical signs appeared. Beta-Hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), free fatty acid (FFA), and glucose were dosed. Histological preparation revealed similar incidence and intensity of mild liver steatosis with lower cellular vacuolation in hepatocyte presence in healthy late pregnant does. Almost all of the pregnant does with ketosis state (n=8/10) had large amount of small lipid droplets in almost every hepatocyte over the whole liver acinus with higher number of cellular vacuolation, and related with higher BHBA and FFA levels while low in glucose level.
, M. Hayashida, M. Miralestari
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21, pp 83-87; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v21i2.1355

Abstract:
Sweet potato plant is produced in Indonesia in large quantities. Sweet potato leaves and stems can be used as a source of protein and the tuber can be used as an energy source. This study was aimed to analyze the effect of feeding of sweet potato biomass on the rumen fermentation characteristics, digestibility of dry matter and organic matter as well as rumen microbial population of thin tail sheep. This study used a randomized block design by applying four feed treatments, i.e., T0 (100% Napier grass), T1 (70% of Napier grass + 30% concentrate), T2 (50% of Napier grass + 50% sweet potato leaves), and T3 (70% sweet potato leaves + 30% sweet potato tuber) with three replicates. Rumen fluid samples were taken with stomach tube method using a vacuum pump. Results showed that the T3 diet has higher (P<0.05) digestibility of dry matter and organic matter, concentration of NH3 and VFA, and rumen bacterial population than those of T0 and T1diets but similar to that of T2 diet. Rumen pH and protozoa population was not different among the treatments. It can be concluded that the use of sweet potato biomass can improve the quality of rumen fermentation of sheep.
Yelly M. Mullik, Muhammad Ridla, Iwan Prihantoro, Marthen L. Mullik
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21, pp 19-25; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v21i1.1301

Abstract:
Chromolaena odorata is a potential feed source but its usage is hampered by presence of various secondary metabolic compounds in plant’s tissues. One group of them is tannin. This experiment was aimed to evaluate various pre-treatment methods on total tannin concentration and in vitro digestibility of dry- and organic-matter. An 8 x 3 completely randomized experimental design was employed to test 8 different treatments. The treatments were: Fresh = freshly-chopped chromolaena leaves as control, Sun-dried = sun-dried (3x 24 hours) chromolaena leaves, Oven-dried = oven-dried (60oC for 24 hours) chromolaena leaves, Boiled = water-boiled (5 minutes) chromolaena leaves, RenWater = water-soaked (4 hours) chromolaena leaves, RenNaOH = NaOH-soaked (4 hours) chromolaena leaves, RenHCl = HCl-soaked (4 hours) chromolaena leaves, and Fermented = anaerobically-fermented (21 days) chromolaena leaves. Parameters measured were concentration of total tannins and nutrient content. The results showed that application of low heat (Sun-dried), hot water (Boiled), water soaking (RenWater), or unaeobic fermentation technique significantly reduced total tannin by 43% into 62% compared to control. The highest suppression (62%) was achieved by Fermented treatment. In the contrary, medium heat application (oven-dried at 60°C) or chemicaltreatments (HCl or NaOH) had no effect. Protein content of chromolaena was improved by 60% and crude fiber was reduced by 32% in Fermentaed treatment compared to the control. It could be concluded that anaerobic fermentation can be used an effective strategy to reduce tannin concentration in Chromolaena odorata without affecting its feeding value.
, Sumarningsih
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v21i1.1251

Abstract:
Rapid diagnostic tools or point-of-care (POC) test is needed in the effort to control and eradicate the high pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in Indonesia. Accuracy of a POC test is determined by the specificity of antibodies, which is the main component of a POC test. Recently a linear epitope, CNTCKQTP epitope, located at 274-281 amino acid residue of H5 hemagglutinin has been confirmed to be present all clade of H5N1 viruses. This study aimed at producing and evaluating the reactivity of a monospecific, polyclonal antibody against the epitope. The Antibody was produced by immunising a goat with the peptide in the form of multiple antigen peptide (MAP). The specificity of the antibody was estimated by assaying its reactivity against influenza virus subtypes H3N3, H4N4, H5N1, H6N5, H7N7, H9N2, H10N7 and H11N9; and recombinant hemagglutinins H1-H12, H14 and H15 with ELISA and immunoblot. The results of the assay showed that CNTKCQTP antibody was not specific for H5 haemagglutinin because it cross-reacted with other haemagglutinins especially H7, H8 and H9. The potential of the peptide containing the epitope, GNCNTKCQTPMGAINSS. as an ELISA reagent for assaying H5 antibodies in chickens previously vaccinated and challenged with the H5N1 virus was also evaluated in this study. In contrast, the results of previous studies, the ELISA using GNCNTKCQTPMGAINSS as coating antigen was not sensitive in detecting antibody to haemagglutinin H5 in chickens.Key Words: AI Virus, Hemagglutinin H5, CNTKCQTP Epitope, MAP, Immunoassay
, Tresnawati Purwadaria, Tuti Haryati
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v21i1.1389

Abstract:
An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effectivity of an enzyme complex produced by Eupenicilium javanicum BS4 on the performance of laying hens fed with different feed ingredients. Three diets were formulated with similar nutrients (protein, ME, digestible amino acids, Ca and available P) value to meet the nutrient requirement of laying hens. Diets were formulated based on maize, palm kernel cake (PKC) or rice bran. The diets were either supplemented or not with BS4 enzyme complex and fed to Isa Brown pullet from 19 to 37 weeks old. Each diet was fed to 24 birds and the performances were recorded. Data were analysed statistically with 2 X 3 factorial design with six replicates. Results showed that supplementation of BS4 enzyme into laying hens diet did not influence body weight change, feed intake, mortalities, egg weight and egg shell thickness but significantly increased egg production (P<0.05) and the FCR (P<0.01) in any feedstuff tested. It also improved egg yolk colour score on diet contained 20% PKC. Laying hens fed 20% PKC produced more eggs than those fed maize or rice bran. The egg shell of laying hens fed rice bran were thicker than those fed with maize or PKC. It is concluded that BS4 enzyme complex is effective when supplemented into laying hens diet.
, Ria Sari Gail Sianturi, Elizabeth Wina, Diana Andrianita Kusumaningrum
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21, pp 34-40; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v21i1.1343

Abstract:
A controlled release delivery system of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) hormone helps to overcome the rapid degradation of hCG hormone in the blood, to avoid the use of multiple injections for ovulation induction and to enhance reproductive efficacy. This study aimed to prepare chitosan nanoparticles hCG (CS-NPh) and to determine its efficacy as nasal spray of CS-NPh. The observed parameters include physico-chemical characteristics of CS-NPh and the follicle size, corpus luteum, the time of ovulation and onset of estrus performed after administration of CS-NPh as a nasal spray compared with intramuscular hCG (control) at a dose of 1,000 IU in dairy cattle. The result showed that the formation of the hormone hCG nanoparticles is still in the size range of nanoparticles with a well and more stable molecular mass distribution, so it can be used as a carrier component of hormones. The result showed that the time of ovulation after hCG by intramuscular (day to 3.13±0.35) and CS-NPh as a nasal spray (days to 3.33±0.49) with the follicle size by 1.62±0.22 and 1.76±0.28 cm showed no significant differences (p> 0.05), likewise the size of the corpus luteum and onset of oestrus. This indicates that administration of CS-NPh as a nasal spray can be used in enhancing the induction of ovulation in dairy cattles.Key Words: Nanoparticles, hCG, Nasal Spray, Ovulation
, Iman Supriatna, M. Agus Setiadi, Mohamad Fahrudin
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v21i1.1315

Abstract:
In poultry embryos, primordial germ cells (PGCs) are progenitor cells for gametes, which have unique migration pathway. Primordial germ cells arise from epiblast in germinal crescent and circulate through the bloodstream for a short period of time, then leave blood vessel to migrate toward gonads. The aim of this study was to determine the potential production capacity of circulated-PGCs of KUB chicken at different developmental stages of embryo using a rapid and simple method. Seventy five KUB chicken fertile eggs were divided into five groups and incubated at 38.5 0C with a humidity of 60%. Hatching was set to the embryonic development stage of 14-18. The blood was collected through dorsal aorta using micropipette under microscope. The collected blood was placed in a 1.5 ml eppendorf tube which was previously filled with 100 µl phosphate buffered saline without Ca2+ and Mg2+ (PBS-) mixed with fetal bovine serum (FBS) with a ratio of 90%:10%. The PGCs were purified using lysis buffer ammonium chloride potassium method. The results showed that average production of circulated-PGCs per embryo of KUB chicken were significantly affected by stage of embryonic development (P <0.05). The average production of circulated-PGCs at stage 14, 15, 16, 17, and 18 were 37.9; 53.5; 49.8; 38.3; and 33.5 respectively. The number of circulated-PGCs was not different among stages 14, 17 nor 18. The highest number of circulated-PGCs of KUB chicken was obtained at stage 15, so that the isolation and collection of PGCs through the blood circulation was recommended in stage 15.Key Words: KUB Chicken, PGCs, Embryonic Development Stage, Ammonium Chloride Potassium
Muhammad Imron, Iman Supriatna, Amrozi, Mohamad Agus Setiadi
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v21i1.1349

Abstract:
Superovulation treatment on PO cattle (Bos indicus) was less responsive compared to Bos taurus breed. It might due to the difference of their follicular dynamic. This study was conducted to investigate the follicular dynamics and its repeatability in PO cattle. Follicular dynamics observations conducted on 9 cows trough ultrasound scanning every day. Observations of wave patterns repeatability were performed in 6 cows which its wave pattern already known on the next consecutive IOI. Research result indicated that PO cattle had 3 (66%) and 4-waves (34%) pattern. The first wave of 3 and 4-waves pattern emerged on day -0.4+0.9 and 1.4+1.1 respectively. The second wave of 3 and 4-wave pattern emerged on day 9.8+1.5 and 7.4+1.9 respectively. The pattern of 3 waves has a longer follicle dominant duration (11.6+1.5 day) in the first wave of estrous cycle, compared with 4 waves pattern (10+2.92 and 7+1.00 day respectively). The growth rate of dominant follicle was not different significantly between the 3 and 4-waves pattern (0.87+0.23 and 0.94+0.25 mm/day respectively). Similarly, ovulatory follicle diameter between 3 and 4-waves pattern was also not different significantly (12.24+12.34 and 12.30+12.23 mm respectively). Observation of wave patterns repeatability in 6 PO cows indicated that PO cattle had high repeatability in follicular wave pattern (0.88) and the number of growing follicle was 0.91. This study resulted data for dynamic of follicular development, wave pattern, its repeatability which be expected to design the protocol of superovulation treatment or other reproduction technologies based on follicular dynamic to improve its result in PO cattle.
, Z. A. Jelan, J. B. Liang
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v21i1.1352

Abstract:
This experiment was carried out to determine the effect of mulberry-leucaena foliage mixed feed on protein digestibility and VFA production using an in vitro gas production study. Mulberry was mixed with one of 2 leucaena varieties (Leucaena leucocephala hybrid and Leucaena leucocephala local) at 3 levels (0, 25 and 50%). Study was conducted in completely randomized design. Mulberry foliage, leucaena and mixtures of mulberry-leucaena were incubated for 24 hours in glass syringes. Parameter recorded were gas production, in vitro true dry matter digestibility (IVTDMD), in vitro N digestibility (IVND) and VFA production. Results of the study showed that supplementation of leucaena to mulberry decreased IVOMD, gas production and protein digestibility in the rumen buffered medium. The mixture of mulberry and leucaena hybrid at ratio 50% resulted in the lowest IVND than other treatment. However it increased protein digestibility in acid pepsin incubation as an estimate of protein availability in intestine. Gas production decreased in mulberry leucaena mixtures was followed by decreased total VFA production. Tannin derived from leucaena hybrid supplementation to mulberry at ratio 1 : 1 was most effective to decrease protein digestion in the rumen and to increase protein digestibility in acid pepsin incubation. In conclusion mixing of hybrid leucaena hybrid with mulberry foliage was able to protect protein degradation from mulberry in the rumen.
Arie Febretrisiana, Anwar, Simon Sinulingga
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v21i1.1350

Abstract:
The aim of this research was to compare the effectiveness of different extender (either Triladyl or Tris Egg Yolk extender) and different packaging method (pool and straw) of chilled semen an the length of preservation and the quality of chilled semen of Boer goat. Semen was collected using an artificial vagina from 3 two years old Boer bucks with body weight of 50-55 kg. It was evaluated under a microscope, then each was diluted either in Tris egg yolk extender (TEY) or Triladyl. Those diluted sperms were then packed either in pool or straw and preserved at 5⁰C refrigerator. Sperm motility, viability and membrane integrity of each group were evaluated every 24 h for up to 5 days. Results showed that sperm motility in Triladyl of pool packaging system up to 3 days was higher than straw packaging system or TEY in pool or straw packaging system which were 45.8%, 26.1%, 32.1% and 9.1%, respectively (P<0.05). Percentage of sperm membrane integrity showed the same pattern to Triladyl both in pool and straw packaging system which was higher than TEY group (75.2% and 77,2%; P<0.05). Sperm viability in Triladyl both in pool or straw packaging system decreased (P<0.05) after 3 days of preservation (77.1% and 76.2%) but TEY significanly decreased after 4 days of preservation either in pool or straw packaging system (73.2% and 58.0%; P<0.05). It was concluded that sperm quality decreased with increasing of the length of preservation while Triladyl extender in pool packaging system showed the best quality.Key Words: Chilled Semen, Boer, Triladyl, Tris Egg Yolk, Straw
Hidayati, R. Misrianti, A. Ali
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21, pp 41-48; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v21i1.1351

Abstract:
Kuantan cattle is one of local beef cattle breed of Riau Province which its origin was unknown. Kuantan cattle are commonly found in Indragiri Hulu and Kuantan Singingi Regency. Based on phenotype characterizations, kuantan cattles are similar with pesisir cattle (West Sumatera beef cattle). Historically, kuantan cattle were pesisir cattle brought by “minang” immigrants (Immigrant from West Sumatera) to this region. The purpose of this study was to analyze the origin of the kuantan cattle through genetic diversity analysis using DNA barcode. DNA barcode used was Cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene which was found in the mtDNA. DNA isolation was done on 25 kuantan’s blood samples and 18 pesisir blood samples. Amplification of COI gene segment used Polymerase Chain Reaction technique. The forward primer sequence used in this study was F’5 TTCTCAACCAACCATAAAGATATTGG-3’ and the reverse primer sequence used was reverse 5’-TAGACTTCGGGGTGTCCAAAGAATCA-3. It squeezed kuantan and pesisir sequence 5711 - 6420 base (GeneBank accession number NC_005971) with length by 710 bp. Analysis result of sequence using MEGA 5.2 Program showed that there were 6 polymorphic sites establishing 7 haplotypes on kuantan cattle and 9 polymorphic sites establishing 12 haplotypes on pesisir cattle. Based on genetic distance and phylogeney tree, kuantan and pesisir cattle were in same group with Bos indicus. Mutation in the COI gene segment in this study was too small and was not able to distinguish the difference of those breeds. The result of neighbor joining analyze indicated that kuantan cattle origin was from Bos indicus just like pesisir cattle.Key Words: COI Gene, Polymorphic, Kuantan Cattle, Genetic Distance, Phylogenetic Tree
, Risa Indriani,
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v20i4.1247

Abstract:
The progenitors of all avian influenza viruses are generally derived from ducks or other waterfowl that have undergone mutation and adaptation to become pathogenic in chickens or other poultry. Investigation of the presence of avian influenza viruses in ducks especially those living around chicken farms is, therefore, important. Serum from 54 ducks and 51 Muscovy ducks living around commercial layer farms in the districts of Cianjur and Sukabumi were collected in March - April 2014. The indication of AI-virus infection in those birds was based on an array of serological tests including competitive and indirect ELISAs for antibody to nucleoprotein, MM2e ELISA for antibody to M2e, HI test, ELISAs and dot blot for antibodies to haemagglutinin, and dot blot assay for antibodies to neuraminidase. Recombinant Haemagglutinins (H1-H13 and H15), recombinant neuraminidases (N1, N2, N7 and N9) and recombinant influenza-A nucleoprotein were used in the indirect ELISAs and dot blot assays. As many as 63% of duck samples and 13% Muscovy-duck samples were serologically positive to nucleoprotein, and 62% of the nucleoprotein-seropositive ducks were also positive to M2e. The high seroprevalence of AI in the ducks living around commercial poultry farms suggested that application of strict biosecurity measures on those farms is still needed. Based on the results of the ELISA and dot blot assays, AI virus subtypes H9N2 and H5N2, in addition to H5N1, were suspected to be circulating in those ducks. Further confirmation by virus isolation, however, is required because H9N2 and H5N2 subtypes have yet been unknown Indonesia and both the subtypes can cause serious disease in poultry.
Diana Andrianita Kusumaningrum, Bambang Purwantara, Tuti L. Yusuf, Polmer Situmorang
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v20i4.1240

Abstract:
Cryopreservation of spermatozoa has been used to preserve spermatozoa in very low temperatures. Glycerol is intracelullar cryoprotectant usually used in Tris citrate containing 20% egg yolk (TCEY), while TCEY-1.5% alginate was used as encapsulation media. The effect of alginate in microencapsulation process and glycerol concentration on viability spermatozoa (motility (%M), live sperm (%L) and intact apical ridge (%IAR) were studied in two steps. In the first step, the effect of alginate and microencapsulation process was studied. Three treatments of this step were: 1) TCEY add with semen (as control), 2) TCEY-Alginate add with semen, 3) TCEY-Alginate add with semen and microencapsulated, followed by conventional sperm cryopreservation using TCEY 7% glicerol. The second steps were done to evaluate the effect of two glycerol concentrations (5 and 7%) and two duration of equilibration time (3 and 4 hours). Result of these experiments showed, that microencapsulation was significantly alter the percentage of post-thawing motility (%M) and intact apical ridge (%IAR). The motility of microencapsulated sperm vs control was 44.7 and 50.83% respectively, whereas IAR 79.33% and 83.50% on microencapsulated sperm and control. There was evidence that alginate act as extracelullar cryoprotectant by protecting sperm during freezing. The mean of decreasing percentage of %M and %IAR in TCEY-Alginate were lower (15.97 and 6.44%) than control (23.80 and 7.37%). The effect of glycerol concentration and equilibration time on the viability of sperm was not significant different. There was no significant interaction of glicerol and equilibration time on the viability of spermatozoa. In conclution, microencapsulation processes altered the viability of sperm, alginate had an important roles as extracelullar cryoprotectant. Moreover the cryopreservation of microencapsulated sperm might be done using 5 or 7% glycerol in 3-4 hours duration of equilibration time. Key Words: Sperm, Alginate, Microencapsulation, Glycerol, Equilibration Time
Tenti Rahmawati, Luki Abdullah, Iwan Prihantoro
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v20i3.1188

Abstract:
Murdannia bracteata is one of potential forages for ruminant that has not been studied yet. This forage contents high mineral and it can be as fungtional feed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth and productivity, chlorophyll and minerals content of Murdannia bracteata caused by magnesium foliar application. The experiment was arranged in randomized complete design with five treatments and 4 replications. The application of magnesium level was arranged into: 0 ppm, 2000 ppm, 4000 ppm, 8000 ppm, and 12000 ppm. The study was conducted in a greenhouse, field laboratory of Agrostology, Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University. The result showed that growth, productivity, and chlorophyll content were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by increasing magnesium level. Increasing magnesium dossage resulted in decreasing calsium, potassium, and zink content (P0,05). In conclusion, increasing magnesium dossage up to 12000 ppm did not significantly affect growth, productivity, and chlorophyll content. However, increasing magnesium level decreased calsium, potassium, and zink content.
David Kurniawan, E. Widodo, I. H. Djunaidi
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v20i3.1187

Abstract:
Noni fruit is a medicinal plant with biological activity like antioxidant that could potentially be used as a feed additive in poultry. This research investigated the effect of noni fruit powder as feed additive on lipid profiles of blood and meat fatty acid compositions of meat of hybrid duck. One hundred twenty 2-week-old hybrid ducks crossing between Peking and Khaki Campbell duck were subjected. They were randomly allotted to 24 experimental units. Each experimental unit was 70x80x40 cm in size and it was used for 5 ducks up to they reached 56 days of age. Each unit was equipped with waterer and feeder. The ducks were raised on litter-type floor. The basal experimental diet was formulated according to the standards of National Research Council (1994). The method used for this study was experimental with 4 different treatments in 6 replications. The treatments were as follow: P0: basal feed without supplementation of noni fruit powder as control; P1: basal feed + 1 % noni fruit powder; P2: basal feed + 2 % noni fruit powder; P3: basal feed + 3 % noni fruit powder. Data were analyzed by one-way of Completely Randomized Design ANOVA and if there was significant effect followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Result showed that using noni fruit powder as feed additive had no significant effect (P>0.05) on lipid profiles of blood and fatty acid composition of meat.
Hartati, Muladno, Jakaria, R. Priyanto, A. Gunawan, Aryogi, Chalid Talib
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v20i3.1183

Abstract:
Productivity data from 560 head of PO cattle have been collected for 9 years from 2004 until 2013 for evaluating heritability estimation and environmental factors affecting production traits of Indonesian Ongole cross from birth to yearling old. Heritability estimation were analyzed using varians analysis with data of paternal halfsib correlation. Varians component for to estimate of heritability value were analyzed using completely randomized design one - way classification. While a general linear model was used to analyze the environmental factors (sex, year, parity, season and type of births). The results showed that sex of calves and year of births had significant differences (P<0.05) for all production traits such as weight at birth, weaning and yearling, while the type of birth only presented a significant difference on birth weight. Parity, season and generation exhibited nonsignificantly effect on those production traits. Estimation of heritability on birth weight, weaning weight and yearling weight were 0.28+0.12; 0.47+0.15 and 0.63+0.17 respectively. The highest heritability values obtained in yearling weight, this means that yearling weight will be effective as selection criteria to improve the genetic of PO cattle.
, P. K. Singh, D. K. Sadana
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v20i2.1162

Abstract:
In the present study an attempt has been made to differentiate three cattle populations of North East states of India i.e. Tripura, Mizoram and Manipur based on morphometric traits, using canonical discriminant analysis to see whether they are similar or distinct. Data consisted of eight different morphometric traits of 383 indigenous cows from Tripura (136), Mizoram (71) and Manipur (176). Morphometric traits included body length, height at withers, heart girth, paunch girth, face length, ear length, horn length and tail length without switch. All the morphometric traits under study differ significantly in these populations except horn length. All the traits, values were lower in Tripura cows than that of Mizoram and Manipur cows. The stepwise discriminant analysis showed that height at withers, body length, ear length, tail length without switch, paunch girth and face length were the most discriminating traits in these three cattle populations. The pair wise Mahalanobis distances between Tripura and Mizoram, Tripura and Manipur and Mizoram and Manipur were 9.72578, 5.72089 and 4.65239, respectively, and significant. The dendogram showed that there are two clusters; cluster one includes Manipur and Mizoram cows and cluster two Tripura cows those are clearly separated from cluster one. The Individual assignment of different cattle populations by the cross-validation classification revealed 84.13% of Tripura cows, 82.09% of Mizoram cows and 79.87% Manipur cows were assigned correctly into their respective population. Based on the present study we cannot conclude that they are three different distinct breeds. However, the present information on the three cattle populations could therefore be exploited in designing appropriate strategies for their management and conservation. Key Words: Indigenous Cattle, Morphometric Traits, Multivariate Analysis, Cluster Analysis, Canonical Discriminant Analysis
Annisa Rahmi, A. Setiyono, V. Juniantito
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v20i2.1169

Abstract:
Curcumin, a curcuminoid compound of turmeric has been demonstrated to have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Bleomycin (BLM) is an anti-cancer drug induced pulmonary fibrosis in human and animals. This study was aimed to investigate biological effects of curcumin on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice (Mus musculus) through pathomorphological assessment. In this study, 16 mice ddy strain were divided into four groups, namely (i) control, mice were subcutaneously (SC) injected with 100 µl sterilized aquadest in dorsal skin, (ii) BLM group, injected SC with 100 µl of 1 mg/ml BLM in dorsal skin, (iii) Curcumin (CMN) group, mice were intraperitoneally (IP) injected with 100 mg/kg body weight (BW) curcumin dissolved in 0,5% carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) and injected with 100 µl sterilized aquadest SC, (iv) BLM+CMN group, injected SC with 100 µl of BLM 1 mg/ml and injected IP with 100 mg/kg BW CMN in 0,5% CMC. All treatments were performed daily for four weeks period. The lung samples were collected and fixed in buffered neutral formalin (BNF) 10%. Histopathological evaluation was performed with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Masson’s trichrome (MT) stains. The results showed that BLM treatment significantly increased fibrosis area and alveolar wall area fraction as compared to control. OIn the other hand, CMN treatment significantly reduced fibrosis area and alveolar wall area fraction in mice treated with BLM. In conclusion, our study showed that CMN treatment may inhibit lung fibrogenesis in BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Key Words: Bleomycin, Curcumin, Mice, Pulmonary Fibrosis
Aprizal Panus, S. Setiyaningsih, N.L.P.I. Mayasari
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v20i2.1168

Abstract:
The objectives of this research were to study Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) infection in Subang area and to examine the diversity of the circulating NDV. Swabs of cloacal and oropharynx, and serum were sampled from total of 393 chickens and 149 ducks in backyard farms and live bird markets located in 10 subdistricts. Screening of NDV in pool of 5-7 samples by real-time Reverse-Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (rRT-PCR) matrix (M) showed 19/67 (28.3%) cloacal and 8/67 (11.9%) pharyngeal pools of chicken samples; 18/67 (26.9%) of the pools excreted virus via cloaca and oropharynx, while the duck pools of 8/30 (26.7%) shed virus from cloaca. Virus isolation attempted on individual sample from positive pools yielded 18 isolates which the majority of the isolates showed homogeneous antigenic character, only some of these showed variations up to 2 Log2 with Lasota and 4 Log2 with Komarov antisera. Majority of isolates had a higher affinity to Komarov indicating their propencity to virulent strains. Pathogenicity examination using elution test showed 3 isolates virus were grouped to mesogenic strains and 15 isolates to velogenic strain, in agreement with rRT-PCR fusion results. HI test on 408 sera showed that NDV antibody was detected in 48 (12%) birds with titres ranging from 1 to 8 Log2; only about 13% of vaccinated chickens demonstrated protective antibody titre (≥3 Log2). Newcastle disease is still endemic in Subang with relatively low antigenic variation among circulating strains. Key Words: Newcastle Disease, rRT-PCR Detection, Detection of Virulence, Antigenic Diversity, Antibody
, A. A. Sakti, , H. Julendra, , Hendra Herdian, , A. E. Suryani
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v20i2.1164

Abstract:
Organic additive for animal had been explored to replace antibiotic growth promoter. Probiotic from lactic acid bacteria was widely used to support the microbial balances in digestive tract, while organic mineral was added into diets to improve bioavailability for preventing mineral deficiency disorders. This experiment was aimed to assess probiotic (Pediococcus acidilactici RS2) and micromineral enriched yeast (MEY) combined with tannin from neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves containing tannin on king grass (P. hybrid) fermentability using in vitro gas production technique. Treatments consisted of P0 (control/forage without additive), P1 (P0+MEY); P2 (P0+MEY+crude tannin); P3 (P0+Probiotic); P4 (P0+Probiotic+MEY), and P5 (P0+Probiotic+MEY+crude tannin). The study was arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications in each treatment. Probiotic, MEY or tannin supplementation significantly increased (P<0.05) gas production without affecting volatile fatty acid, protozoa numbers, methane production and in vitro digestibility of forage. The highest cumulative gas production was found in forage treated by P4 followed by P5, P1, P5, P2, P3 and control. Kinetic of gas production was significantly affected by treatments after 8 h incubation. Although the treatments were only significantly affected gas production kinetic (b, c and total gas), the hierarchical cluster analysis indicated that some parameters consisted of acetate, propionate, in vitro digestibility, protozoa numbers, and methane production were closely correlated to the gas production kinetic parameters. It was concluded that either organic mineral supplementation or its combination with probiotic, and probiotic+tannin improved fermentabilty of forage without negative effect on in vitro digestibility. Key Words: Fermentability, In VitroDigestibility, Organic Mineral, Probiotic, Tannin
Sussi Widi Kurniasih, Retno D. Soejoedono, N.L.P.I. Mayasari
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v20i2.1166

Abstract:
Avian Influenza virus (AIV) still plays as a major cause of the death in poultry in Indonesia and around the world. The aim of this research was to determine the pathogenicity and to analyze the phylogenetic and genetic distances of hemagglutinin gene of isolated AI viruses in Indonesia in 2012-2013 particularly from West Java, Central Java, and North Sumatra. Samples were obtained from poultry farms that suffered from AI outbreaks, were inoculated and propagated in ten days old specific pathogen free (SPF) embryonated chicken eggs. Harvested allantoic fluids at 5 days after inoculation were tested for hemagglutination activity. Positive allantoic fluids were further tested to determine the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase subtype using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) and to be prepared for sequencing using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The sequence of hemagglutinin genes were analyzed for the amino acid pattern of the cleavage site region and the genetic distances and relationships of those viruses. The result indicated that all of the isolates are classified as HPAI with the pattern of cleavage site regions are QRESRRKKR and QRERRRKR. Six isolates are classified as H5N1 and 3 isolates are H5Nx. All of the isolates have close genetic relationship with the genetic distances less than 0.3 between one to another and also with several AI viruses that caused previous outbreaks in Indonesia. Key Words: Avian Influenza, Cleavage Site, Hemagglutinin, Pathogenicity, Phylogenetic
Heni Rizqiati, Cece Sumantri, Ronny Rachman Noor, E. Damayanthi, E. I. Rianti
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v20i2.1163

Abstract:
Buffalo milk is a source of various lactic acid bacteria (LAB) which is potential as culture starter as well as the probiotic. This study was conducted to isolate and identify LAB from indigenous North Sumatra river buffalo milk. Lactic acid bacteria was isolated and grown in medium De Man Rogosa Sharpe Agar (MRSA). The isolation was conducted to obtain pure isolate. The identification of LAB was studied in terms of morphology, physiology, biochemistry and survival on low pH. Morphology tests were conducted by Gram staining and cell forming; physiology tests were conducted for growing viability at pH 4.5 and temperature at 45oC; whereas biochemistry tests were conducted for CO2, dextran and NH3 productions. Determination of LAB species was conducted using Analytical Profile Index (API) test CHL 50. Results of identification showed that 41 isolates were identified as LAB with Gram-positive, catalase-negative, rod and round shaped characteristics. Resistance test done to low pH (pH 2) for the lactic acid bacteria showed decrease of bacteria viability up to1.24±0.68 log cfu/ml. The resistant isolates at low pH were L12, L16, L17, L19, L20, M10, P8, S3, S19 and S20. Identification with API test CHL 50 for 10 isolates showed that four isolates were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, L. pentosus and Lactococuslactis. Key Words: Buffalo Milk, LAB, Isolation, Identification
Iwan Herdiawan, Endang Sutedi
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v20i2.1165

Abstract:
Acid soil which contains Al3+ and Mn2 is generally unfavorable for crop including the tree legumes. The minerals are toxic to the plants resulted minimalization of growth and crop production. Caliandra calothyrsus, Indigofera zollingeriana, and Gliricidia sepium were tree legumes those are generally used for forage. The aim of this study was to compare their tolerancy to Al3+ and growth production on acid soil. The plants were grown in ultisol soil with 4.57 of pH collected from Palm Oil plantation, Sei-Putih, Medan. The experiment was carried out using completely randomized design (CRD) with kind of plants as the treatment and 12 times replication. The data were analyzed by ANOVA using the SPSS and excel program, followed by LSD test when the data was significantly difference. Variables measured were plant morphology, concentration of Al 3+ in the plant tissues, plant height, stem diameter, number of stem branches, root length, plant production, nutrient content, energy and in vitro digestibility. The highest Al 3+ contents in leaves, stem and root were significantly observed in those G. sepium, while the lowest contents was observed from those of I. zollingeriana. G. sepium was the most dwarf plant and its stem diameter was comparable with the one of C. calothyrsus, but was lower than that of I. zollingeriana. The highest number of branches was significantly observed in I. zollingeriana, while the lowest one was at G. sepium. The root length of C. calothyrsus was comparable with that of I. zollingeriana, while G. sepium root was the shorthest one. Root nodulation was only formed at I. zollingeriana. The highest biomass production was observed at I. zollingeriana which also had highest protein content and the best digestibility. Data from Al3 + concentration in tissues of leaves, stems and roots showed that I. zollingeriana was the most tolerant plant to acid soils. This tolerancy also affected higher plant growth, biomass production, nutrient concentration, and digestibility. Key Words: Avian Influenza, Cleavage Site, Hemagglutinin, Pathogenicity, Phylogenetic
Saepulloh M, Sendow I
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v20i1.1120

Abstract:
Enzootic Bovine Leucosis (EBL) is one of viral diseases in cattle caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV), from Retroviridae. The virus can be detected using severals methods such as Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), while antibody can be detected using Agar Gel Immunodifussion (AGID). The aim of this experiment was to study the effectivity of PCR and AGID methods to detect enzootic bovine leukosis virus in Indonesia. Samples of peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) were collected from cattles those with and without showing clinical signs. A total of 307 blood and serum samples were tested against BLV using PCR and AGID tests, while 21 semen samples which were from similar animals for blood collection were collected only for PCR test. The results indicated that twelve cattles have positive results with PCR test in PBL, but from those cattles only seven were positive with AGID. On the other hand, the PCR did not detect EBL in 21 bovine semen samples tested, although one sample gave positive result with PCR in PBL. This results indicated that PCR method from blood samples was more sensitive than that AGID method. The PCR detection was also more sensitive for PBL than that for semen samples. Key Words: Enzootic Bovine Leucosis, Indonesia
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