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Results in Journal Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition): 158

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Eka Putri Rahmadhani, Ani Margawati, Apoina Kartini
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 9, pp 166-171; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.9.2.166-171

Abstract:
Background: A work environment that is exposed to heavy metals, such as a coal mining environment, can change fat metabolism in the body. Changes in fat metabolism will lead to cardiovascular disease. Consumption of dairy products, e.g. whey protein, can reduce the risk of metabolic disorders and cardiovascular disease.Objectives: To test and analyze the differences in triglyceride levels before and after whey protein intervention to field workers with different working conditions.Materials and Methods: This experimental research with pretest and posttest was conducted on field workers at PT Bukit Asam Tbk. Tarahan Port Unit, Lampung as an Arsenic exposed group and PTPN VII Way Berulu Business Unit as an Arsenic unexposed group. Both groups received 24 grams of whey protein daily for 28 days. The triglyceride levels before and after the intervention were measured by laboratory analysis using the enzymatic calorimetry method. The data were analyzed using independent t-test, Mann Whitney test, and Wilcoxon test.Results: The average triglyceride levels increased by 50.48 ± 98.09 mg/dL in the exposed group and 16.78 ± 67.67 mg/dL in the unexposed group. There was a significant difference in triglyceride levels before and after the whey protein intervention in the two groups.Conclusions: The whey protein intervention increased the triglyceride level in the exposed group and decreased it in the unexposed group.
Luh Putu Prema Wadhani, Nani Ratnaningsih
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 9, pp 151-158; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.9.2.151-158

Abstract:
Background: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in 2020 became the limelight worldwide, including in Indonesia. Infection caused by this virus can be prevented by social distancing, physical distancing, and a healthy lifestyle. Maintaining nutritional intake by implementing balanced nutrition guidelines is very important to enhance the immune system.Objectives: This study aimed to determine the description of the application of balanced nutrition guidelines during the COVID-19 pandemic in the community in Mataram City.Materials and Methods: This research was a descriptive study with a survey approach, and the data taken were cross-sectional. This research was conducted in May-June 2020 in the community in the Mataram City taken by purposive sampling with inclusion criteria, namely women and men of productive age, domiciled in the city of Mataram, married status, and at least elementary school education. Respondents in this study were 460 respondents who were calculated using the Slovin formula. Data on the application of balanced nutrition guidelines were obtained using a questionnaire. Data from the results of this research were analyzed using descriptive methods.Results: There are as many as >90% of the community has implemented a general message of balanced nutrition in addition to the fifth message. As many as 89.9% of respondents did not apply the fifth general message of balanced nutrition in limiting consumption of sweet, salty, and fatty foods. The majority of applications >50% of general messages of balanced nutrition were applied by respondents aged 21-29 years, female, high education and work status. Conclusions: The application of the general message of balanced nutrition during the epidemic COVID-19 in Mataram City was implemented optimally, but this application was not carried out in the fifth message in limiting consumption of sweet, salty, and fatty foods.
Etisa Adi Murbawani, Etika Ratna Noer, Enny Probosari
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 9, pp 123-127; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.9.2.123-127

Abstract:
Background: Hypertension is a highly prevalent health problem which incidence is greatest among the elderly. Hypertension may increase creatinine level and leads to other health problems like diabetes mellitus, kidney damage, and cardiovascular disease. Wrist circumference is a simple anthropometric measurement that can be used to identify hypertension and increasing level of serum creatinine.Objectives: To analyze the correlation of wrist circumference with blood pressure and creatinine level among the elderly.Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with a purposive sampling method. Subjects of this study were 84 women aged 60 years old or above at Unit Rehabilitasi Sosial Pucang Gading Semarang. The independent variable of this study was wrist circumference, and the dependent variables were systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and creatinine level. The result was analyzed using the Spearman-rho test.Results: The participants of this research were 49% women aged 60-65 years old, with an average age was 65.5 years old. The prevalence of hypertension was 61.9%. Most hypertension incidence in this research was caused by high systolic blood pressure (50%), and the rest was caused by high diastolic blood pressure (3.9%) and both (46.1%). The level of creatinine was normal with an average level was 0.75 mg/dL. There was no correlation of wrist circumference with systolic blood pressure systolic (r=0.15; p=0.19), diastolic blood pressure (r=0.1; p=0.38), and creatinine serum (r=0.18; p=0.09) among elderly.Conclusions: There was no correlation of wrist circumference with blood pressure and creatinine level among the elderly.
Pradita Putri Ramadhani, Fillah Fithra Dieny, Dewi Kurniawati, Hartanti Sandi, Deny Yudi Fitranti, Ayu Rahadiyanti, A. Fahmy Arif Tsani
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 9, pp 111-122; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.9.2.111-122

Abstract:
Background: Chronic energy deficiency (CED) that occurs at risk preconception women during pregnancy increased low birth weight (LBW) in infants. Household food security and diet quality are factors that cause CED. Therefore, this study aims to determine the relationship between household food security and diet quality with CED preconception women.Materials and Methods: We used a cross-sectional study design. The subject of 70 preconception women aged 16-35 years registered in the religious affairs office in Sumowono and Pringapus Subdistrict were selected by consecutive sampling method. Weight and height were measured to assess body mass index to determine CED. Household food security was measured using the Household Food Security Scale Module (HFSSM). Food intake data were obtained using the Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (SQ-FFQ) and DQI-I (Diet Quality Index-International) to measure diet quality. Bivariate analyses were tested using Rank Spearman and Pearson Product Moment.Results: The prevalence of subjects with CED risk was 48.6% and subjects with CED was 15.7%. 38.6% of subjects married at the age of 16-20 years, 75.1% of subjects had low household food security and 80% of subjects had low diet quality. There was no significant relationship between household food security and diet quality with CED, namely (p = 0.537) and (p = 0.711). The components of diet quality, namely variation, adequacy, moderation and balance also did not show a significant relationship with CED, respectively with p-value (p = 0.711), (p = 0.523), (p = 0.412), (p = 0.604 )Conclusions: There was no correlation between household food security and CED, also no correlation between diet quality and CED.
Diyan Yunanto Setyaji, Fransisca Shinta Maharini
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 9, pp 105-110; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.9.2.105-110

Abstract:
Background: Lack of insulin or the inability of cells to respond to insulin causes high blood glucose levels or hyperglycemia, a hallmark of diabetes. Consumption of foods with a low glycemic index and high fiber has been shown to provide the same benefits as pharmacological therapy in the control of postprandial hyperglycemia and can prevent the incidence of hypoglycemia in people with diabetes. Ganyong (Canna edulis) is a food source of carbohydrates and fiber. Kelor (Moringa oliefera) contains protein and some phytochemical compounds which have a hypoglycemic effect.Objectives: The objective of the study was to analyze the glycemic index of ganyong-kelor snack bars as a diet for diabetics.Materials and Methods: Ten respondents fasted for 10 hours and checked their fasting blood glucose levels, then consumed 105 grams of bread as the reference food. Every 30 minutes after eating, the blood glucose levels were checked. In the following week, after fasted, all respondents consumed 157 grams of a ganyong-kelor snack bar and checked their blood glucose levels every 30 minutes.Results: Every 100 grams of ganyong-kelor snack bar contains 230.13 kcal, 31.97 grams of carbohydrates, 9.25 grams of fat, and 4.75 grams of protein. In this study, bread was used as a reference food. If bread was corrected with glucose as a reference food, the glycemic index of the ganyong-kelor snack bar was 38.08. The calculation of the glycemic load used the converted-glycemic index and the total carbohydrates contained in 100 grams of the food. Ganyong-kelor snack bar had a glycemic load value of 12.10.Conclusions: Ganyong-kelor snack bar had good nutritional content and was categorized as food with a low glycemic index. The hypoglycemic effect of the ganyong-kelor snack bar came from its high fiber content. Ganyong-kelor snack bar can be consumed as a healthy snack for diabetic people.
Stephani Nesya Renamastika, Endang Mahati, Martha Kartasurya, Dodik Pramukarso, Dwi Pudjonarko, Retnaningsih Retnaningsih
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 9, pp 172-183; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.9.2.172-183

Abstract:
Background: The brain releases biochemical substrates, such as S100β protein, into circulation in response to ischemic conditions as a sign of damage in nerve cells and disruption of the blood-brain barrier’s integrity. Thrombolytic therapy has led to the development of many neuroprotective therapies such as protein, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, and inulin, which can be added to food products. Protein, phospholipids, and inulin, have a neuroprotective impact on nerve cells in the brain and blood-brain barrier.Objective: To prove the effect of protein, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, and inulin on S100β levels and clinical outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke.Materials and Methods: This study was done in a single-blind RCT. Eighteen ischemic stroke patients were randomly divided into nine subjects for the intervention group and nine subjects for the control group. The Control group received 250 ml conventional formula milk (11.8 g protein) 3 times/day. The intervention group received 250 mL commercial milk 3 rimes/day which contained 15 g protein with 128 mg phosphatidylcholine, 32 mg phosphatidylserine, and 3 g inulin. All of the groups were given hospital-standard therapy for ischemic stroke. S100β levels were measured at pre and post-intervention.Results: Pre and post S100β levels in intervention and the control group did not show any statistically difference (p = 0.777 and p = 0.096), but there was a trend of decreasing levels of S100β in the intervention group (-24.6 + 252.0 pg/mL) versus control group (135.8 + 216.2 pg/mL).Conclusions: The addition of protein, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, and inulin did not have a significant effect on S100β levels.
Nur Wulandari, Ani Margawati, Zen Rahfiludin
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 9, pp 86-96; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.9.2.86-96

Abstract:
Background: Health status can affect the Human Development Index (HDI) of a country. To improve the quality of human resources, the Indonesian Government has applied various policies, such as the nutrition improvement program, since there are still lots of toddlers suffering from underweight, wasting dan stunting. Even one out of three toddlers in Indonesia were detected stunting.Objectives: This study described the implementation of a nutrition improvement program for toddlers in the Central Buton District Health Office.Materials and Method: This was a qualitative study that involved ten informants. Three of those informants are nutritionists in the District Health Office, Head of Public Health Department, Head of NutritionDepartement. Also, two nutrition workers in primary healthcare centers and two mothers of malnourished toddlers.Results: These findings showed that in terms of input, trained human resources on nutrition were lacking, and the budget for the nutrition improvement program was inadequate. While, in the process, all implementors had done very well, although they still had no collaboration across sectors. In the output aspect, the health status of underweight, wasting, and stunting toddlers improved. Also, monitoring and evaluation were conducted on toddlers registered at the integrated service posts in 2018.Conclusions: There were still constraints on the input, process, and output aspects, even though there was an increase in the nutritional status of children under five, but nutrition problems for children under five in Central Buton Regency were still high.
Amilia Yuni Damayanti, Joyeti Darni, Hafidzatunnisa Hafidzatunnisa
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 9, pp 144-150; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.9.2.144-150

Abstract:
ABSTRAK Background: As much as 73.4% of children aged ≥ 5 years in Indonesia have breakfast with the low nutritional quality of food consumption, as evidenced by the prevalence of 95.5% of children's less consumption of vegetables and fruits. Breakfast habits affect fiber and micronutrient levels. Communication and nutritional information can increase accuracy in breakfast behavior from childhood. Effective and efficient media are needed. So far, the media for children has prioritized illustrations without paying attention to the cultivation of moral values.Objectives: This study aimed to determine the effect of Islamic comic media on improving healthy breakfast attitudes among students.Materials and Methods: The research design was a quasi-experimental type. Subjects were taken by a simple random sampling method. Ninety-six students were divided into three groups. Group A was given nutrition education using Islamic comic media about health breakfast (n = 32). Group B was given nutrition education using Islamic comic strip media about health (n = 32). Group C was a control group (n = 32). The study used two types of nutrition promotion media: comics and comic strips, which are stories about healthy eating in Islam. The time for nutrition education intervention through comics and comic strips is 2x ± 35 minutes. The pretest was ± 25 minutes with ± 10 minutes explaining the instructions for filling out the questionnaire. The posttest was ± 25 minutes with a discussion for ± 10 minutes—nutritional attitudes related to health breakfast by answering a validated questionnaire. We used the Lickert scale to categorized nutritional attitudes. Statistical test was done by Wilcoxon and Mann Whitney test.Results: The distribution of nutrition attitudes of respondents increased after the provision of Islamic comics, both comics and comic strips about breakfast. The nutritional attitudes increased significantly in the Islamic comic media group (p = 0.000) and the Islamic comic strip media group (p = 0.000), from 78.75 to 92.96 and 78.61 to 92.88, respectively.Conclusions: There was a relationship between counseling and Islamic comic media regarding healthy breakfast towards the nutritional attitude of elementary school-age students.
Aghnia Ilma Izzati, Mohammad Jaelani, Yuwono Setiadi, Enny Rahmawati, Yulianto Yulianto
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 9, pp 80-85; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.9.2.80-85

Abstract:
Background: Based on the results of Riskesdas 2018 that the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Indonesia showed an increase from 6.9% to 8.5%. Overweight is closely related to impaired blood glucose, insulin resistance, and decreased insulin secretion. Preventive efforts that have been made using non-pharmacological treatments, such as increasing the intake of fiber and lycopene from fruits.Objectives: This study aimed to determine the effect of tomato juice and guava juice on blood glucose levels in overweight women.Materials and Methods: The study design is a true experiment conducted in 11subjects in treatment group and 11 subjects in control group. The subject of this study were overweight adult women 45-55 years. Blood sampling was taken in the morning, then glucose levels were measured using the GOD-PAP method (Glucose Para Amino Phenazone). We gave 600 ml of tomato juice and red guava every day for 21 days. To find the effect of juice on fasting blood glucose levels controlled by nutrient intake and physical exercise using the Repeated Measure ANOVA test.Results: In the treatment group, there was a decrease of 3.24 mg/dl in blood glucose levels; while, in the control group, the decrease in blood glucose levels was only 0.26 mg/dl. However, we found no statistically significant differences in both groups.Conclusions: Consumption of tomato juice and red guava reduced fasting blood glucose.
Fillah Fithra Dieny, A Fahmy Arif Tsani, Umu Faradilla, Ayu Rahadiyanti
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 9, pp 97-104; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.9.2.97-104

Abstract:
Background: Santriwati (Islamic female student), women of reproductive age, were susceptible to experienced Chronic Energi Deficiency (CED). CED reflects the low energy availability of someone who can risk reducing bone density. Objectives: This study aimed to analyze the differences in body mass index, body fat percentage, hemoglobin levels, energy availability, and bone mineral density of female students who experienced CED risk and not experienced CED risk.Materials and Methods: The research design was a cross-sectional study, with 101 female students as subjects who were selected by random sampling. The research was conducted from February to March 2019 at the Kyai Galang Sewu Islamic Boarding School, Semarang. CED risk data was taken using the upper arm circumference measurement. Percent body fat and BMI data were taken using BIA. Energy availability data is obtained from the difference between energy intake (energy intake) and energy output (energy expenditure through physical activity) divided by Fat-Free Mass (FFM). Energy intake data was taken using the SQ-FFQ questionnaire, and energy expenditure was calculated using the 24-hour activity record form. Anemia data were collected using strip hemoglobin measurements. Bone density data were taken using the Osteosys Sonost 3000 densitometer. Bivariate analysis used the Independent T-Test.Results: A total of 57.2% of subjects experienced anemia. Subjects who had underweight nutritional status were 20.8%. Santriwati experienced osteopenia as much as 13.9%. There was no difference in bone density and hemoglobin levels between female students who were at risk of CED and not CED risk (p> 0.05), but there were differences in energy availability, body fat percentage, BMI between those at risk of CED and not CED risk (p <0.05)Conclusion: subjects at risk of CED (Lila <23.5 cm) had lower energy availability, body fat, and BMI than subjects who were not at risk of CED.
Natalia Desy Putriningtyas, Mardiana Mardiana
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 9, pp 159-165; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.9.2.159-165

Abstract:
Background: Fruit peel is a part of red dragon fruit that weighed 30-35% of the fruit weight and has not been used optimally. Red dragon fruit peel contains fiber, vitamin, flavonoid, tannin, alkaloids and has the potential as an antibacterial. Red dragon fruit peel can be processed into yogurt.Objectives: This research examined the antibacterial potential of red dragon fruit peel yogurt against Bacillus subtilis in hypercholesterolemic Wistar rats.Materials and Methods: Materials tested in this study were negative control, positive control, and caecum of hypercholesterolemic Wistar. This study used chloramphenicol as the positive control (K+) and DMSO 10% as the negative control (K-). The K1; K2; K3 were orally administered with 1.8 mL; 2.7 mL; 3.6 mL of red dragon fruit peel yogurt, respectively. Red dragon fruit peel yogurt was administered daily for 28 days. Caecum was collected and tested for antibacterial activity using disk diffusion (Kirby Bauer). The Bacillus subtilis was obtained from the Microbiology Laboratory of Center for Food and Nutrition Studies Universitas Gadjah Mada.Results: The average inhibition zone in K-; K+; K1; K2; K3 were 0.00±0.00 mm; 11.5±1.41 mm; 11.5±0.96 mm; 10.13±0.66 mm; 10.38±1.12 mm, respectively. The experimental animal groups, which received 2.7 mL and 1.8 mL of red dragon fruit peel yogurts, showed a significant difference compared to the positive control group (p= 0.026 and p=0.021, respectively). When the dose was increased to 3.6 mL, it showed no statistical difference in results (p=1.000).Conclusions: Red dragon fruit peel yogurt has an antibacterial potential against Bacillus subtilis.
Farida Farida, Hesti Permata Sari, Afina Rachma Sulistyaning
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 9, pp 73-79; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.9.2.73-79

Abstract:
Background: Yellow watermelon contains citrulline, which can suppress lactic acid production, while plantains contain potassium which is important for muscle performance. The yellow watermelon and plantain combination juice potential to be a natural sports drink that delays muscle fatigue by suppressing lactic acid production after exercise.Objectives: To determine the effect of yellow watermelon-plantain juice on lactic acid in rats after swimming test.Materials and Methods: This true experimental study used a post-test-only with controlled group design. Thirty Sprague Dawley rats, eight-week-old, male, were divided into five groups, namely positive control (C+), negative control (C-), dose 1 (P1), dose 2 (P2), and dose 3 (P3). The C (+) group received no juice and was not tested swimming, the C (-) group received no juice but was tested swimming, P1 received combined juice up to 1.8 g and tested swimming, P2 received combined juice up to 3, 6 g and tested swimming, P3 received combined juice up to 1.8 g with the addition of 0.27 g granulated sugar and tested swimming. The juice is given 30 minutes before the test. The swim test was performed for three minutes; after that, the blood was taken to test the lactic acid levels. The data were analyzed using the one-way ANOVA and the advanced post-hoc with the least significant difference test.Results: The lactic acid levels in C (+), in C (-), P1, P2, and P3 groups after swimming test were 1.38 mMol / L; 7.14 mMol / L; 3.74 mMol / L; 1.66 mMol; and 2.91 mMol/L. There were differences in levels of lactic acid (p <0.05) in each group after the combination juice intervention was given.Conclusion: Combination juice of yellow watermelon-plantain has an effect on lactic acid levels after swimming test. Dose 2 (3.6 g) was the best because it produces the lowest lactic acid after the swimming test.
Diah Retno Wahyuningrum, Retnaningsih Retnaningsih, Martha Irene Kartasurya
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 9, pp 184-197; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.9.2.184-197

Abstract:
Background: The occurrence of ischemia causes a loss of energy to switch to anaerobic processes resulting in acidosis due to reduced Adenosina Triphosphate (ATP). This condition makes neuron cells apoptotic. Apoptotic of several biochemical substrates in the brain, such as Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) exit into the circulatory system which is associated with dysbiosis through immunological pathways.Objectives: To determine the effect of giving enteral formula containing protein, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, and inulin on GFAP levels in patients with acute ischemic stroke Dr. Kariadi Hospital.Materials and Methods: This study was done in a single-blind RCT. Eighteen ischemic stroke patients were randomly divided into intervention (9 subjects) and control groups (9 subjects). The intervention group received 69 g of the powdered enteral formula three times a day for seven days. The formula contained protein (15 g), phosphatidylcholine (128 mg), phosphatidylserine (32 mg), and inulin (3 g). The subject who had diabetes mellitus received for 14 days at a dose of 34.5 g per day (7.5 g protein with additions 64mg phosphatidylcholine, 16mg phosphatidylserine, 1.5 g inulin). The control group received the standard enteral formula from the hospital, which contains (11.8 g protein without additions protein, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, and inulin). GFAP levels by ELISA method (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent Assay) at pre and post-intervention.Results: There was a trend of decreasing GFAP levels before and after in the intervention group towards a better direction from 8.37±4.25 to 8.30±4.9 compared with the control group which experienced an increasing trend from 5.4±1.8 to 7.5±4. There was no significant difference in GFAP levels after intervention between groups (p = 0.7).Conclusions: The addition of protein, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, and inulin had no significant effect on GFAP levels.
, Ari Tri Astuti
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 9, pp 128-135; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.9.2.128-135

Abstract:
Background: Hemodialysis patients often experience hypoalbuminemia complications, which occur mainly due to decreased synthesis due to inflammation, lack of protein intake, the fluid status of patients, and losses from the dialysate. Another problem in hemodialysis is malnutrition, with a prevalence between 23–73% globally. Gastrointestinal disorders such as nausea, vomiting, and decreased appetite also often occur in hemodialysis. Therefore, hemodialysis patients need to get nutritional support, which can be given in the form of catfish abon, one of the local Indonesian food.Objective: To determine the effectiveness of the use of catfish as a source of animal protein to improve the albumin levels of hemodialysis patients.Materials and Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study with a pre-post test design. This study involved 34 hemodialysis patients as subjects, with inclusion criteria, were routinely two times a week, aged >18 years, willing to be the subject and follow the research procedures, have albumin levels ≥3.0 g/dL, and no catfish allergies. Patients with anasarca edema, experiencing complications of diabetes mellitus and malignancy were excluded. The dependent variable was albumin content, while the independent variable was catfish as an animal protein source. Data were analyzed univariate and bivariate by Fisher's Exact test.Results: Fisher's Exact test results on the effectiveness of using catfish as an animal protein source to improve albumin levels of hemodialysis patients showed p-value=0.048.Conclusion: The use of catfish as an effective animal protein source significantly affected on improving albumin levels in hemodialysis patients.
Lalu Juntra Utama, Suryana Suryana, Anita Christina Sembiring
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 9, pp 136-143; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.9.2.136-143

Abstract:
Background: Diabetes mellitus, increased blood glucose or hyperglycemia, is associated with increased oxidative stress and cardiovascular diseases. This condition will further cause carbohydrate and fat metabolism change, resulting in the decreased antioxidant defense system. Black rice, red beans, and moringa leaves contain oleic acid, butyric amino acid, antioxidants, phytic acid, and arginine, which can improve insulin sensitivity, and blood glucose homeostasis.Objective: This study aimed to analyze the effect of betamelor (black rice, red beans, and moringa leaves) on blood glucose in ratsMaterials and Methods: The design of this research was experimental research with pre-and post-control group design. A total of 20 Sprague Dawley female rats were divided into four groups, namely standard feed (PS), 80% feed of betamelor (PB8), 50% feed of betamelor (PB5), and 20% feed of betamelor (PB2). Betamelor intervention was given as much as 5% of weight for 28 days. Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG) levels were measured using the GOD-PAP method. Blood glucose data were analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) at a 95% confidence level and using Duncan's test.Results: There were differences in FBG between groups after the intervention of betamelor. The results showed that after 28 days of intervention, betamelor decreased the serum glucose concentration from 122.69 mg / dL to 97.70 mg / dL (20.37%) in the PB8 group and from 123.91 mg / dL to 113.28 mg / dL (8.58%) in the PB5 group, but the standard diet (PS) increased by 5.73%. This result can be applied to reduce blood glucose levels in obese and patients with metabolic syndrome.Conclusions: There was a significant effect of giving a mixture of black rice, red beans, and Moringa leaves on fasting blood sugar in rats.
Habibah Abidin, Apoina Kartini, Ani Margawati
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 9, pp 198-207; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.9.2.198-207

Abstract:
Background: A Kader refers to a Village Health Worker (VHW), a volunteer, which becomes one of the sources of community reference. Commonly, they sustain a mother's knowledge regarding adequate complementary feeding. However, there are still some VHW who have not possessed a health education background nor been able to be independent.Objectives: This study aimed to analyze the impact of collaborative models on VHW's competence as in knowledge, self-efficacy, attitudes, and counseling skill on the topic of complementary feeding.Materials and Methods: The design of this research is a quasi-experiment control group pretest-postest, with the retrieval of subjects using purposive sampling. Subjects were selected based on the location of the posyandu. The population in this research was VHWs in the Lembang district were 40 VHWs in each group. The treatment group was given training intervention for 1 month with a collaborative model, combining several methods into a series. The main topic was counseling and complementary feeding. The control group was given booklets and leaflets. VHW's competence was measured using questionnaires. This research was conducted in January-April 2020.Results: Statistical test results before the treatment of both groups showed no difference (p>0,05) in each variable. Two months after the intervention, there were significant differensces in the mean score of knowledge (p=0,001), attitude (p=0,001), and VHWs self-efficacy (p=0,000) in both groups. VHW counseling skills (p=0,149) until the first month there was not a significant difference. Unexpectedly, in the second month, the VHW counseling skills could not be observed due to the global COVID-19 pandemic. The mean score of each group increased significantly, but the score of the treatment group was higher than the control group.Conclusions: A collaborative model is effective when compared to only providing booklets and leaflets in increasing VHW's knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy but not effective yet for VHW counseling skills.
Edy Waliyo, Shelly Festillia Agusanty, Nopriantini Nopriantini
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 9, pp 11-18; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.9.1.11-18

Abstract:
Background: Stunting in children was largely unknown by parents, because when visited the Posyandu there wasn’t assessment of length growth. The purpose of this study was to provide a card to monitor the lenght growth in children who are stunted against length for age z-skor (LAZ).Method: This type of research was a quasi experimental design pre and posttest control group design using two group: the intervention group was given a length growth monitoring card and and the control group was given a standard child growth chart. This research was conducted in Sambas Subdistrict, Sejangkung Regency for three months. The sample in this study was stunting children aged 3-21 months with a total sample of twenty each group. The dependent variable was LAZ, which is measured before and after the intervention. Statistical analysis was to determine the differences between the two groups after the intervention with the Mann Whitney Test.Results: The results showed that the group given the length growth card was the average value of LAZ before -3.12 ± 0.69 and after the intervention -2.98 ± 0.78 with an increase in the z-score of 0.14 ± 0.68, while the control group LAZ values before -2.68 ± 0.34 and after the intervention -2.62 ± 0.68 with an increase of 0.07 ± 0.633. Statistically with the Man Whitney Test showed no difference, but the change in the LAZ was higher in the group given the growth card compared to the control group.Conclusion: Giving growth cards and child growth charts did not difference in increasing LAZ in stunting children. However providing a growth monitoring card can encourage mothers to feed their children better.
Khairizka Citra Palupi, Mertien Sa’Pang, Erry Yudhya Mulyani, Aditya Fatkhi Laili
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 9, pp 27-32; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.9.1.27-32

Abstract:
Background: Prevalence of constipation in pregnant women is estimated at 11-38%. Impact of constipation in pregnant women are haemorrhoids and decreased quality of life. Meanwhile, determinants known to influence constipation during pregnancy are hormonal changes, poor diet, low physical activity and lack of fluid consumption. Objectives: Identify the determining factors that can affect occurrence of constipation and investigated the difference based on constipation status among pregnant women in Public Health Centre in Jakarta, Indonesia;Methods: This research was a cross sectional design conducted in July 2019 to October 2019. The subject was pregnant women. We used accidental sampling method to recruit subjects in Public Health Centre, Kebun Jeruk, West Jakarta. We measured the determining factors of constipation among pregnant women. Characteristic of pregnant women, knowledge, attitudes and practices were measured by questionnaires. Anthropometrics data for weight, height, and mid arm circumference were measured. Haemoglobin level was also measured. Bivariate analysis using Pearson or Spearman was used to investigate which factors associated significantly with constipation among pregnant women. We also assessed the difference of characteristic of pregnant women, knowledge, attitudes and practices using differential analysis (Mann-Whitney U-test). Results: The results showed that prevalence of constipation was 30%. Differential analysis showed that mothers who experienced constipation had a younger age and low nutritional and hydration behaviour scores. Other variables such as gestational age, weight before pregnancy, upper arm circumference, height, haemoglobin, knowledge score and nutritional attitude and hydration did not show significant differences based on constipation status. Correlation analysis showed an inverse relationship between maternal age and incidence of constipation, with r = 0.242 and a p-value = 0.015. Maternal age, nutritional behaviour and hydration also showed significant inverse relationship with incidence of constipation (r = -0.206 and p-value 0.039);Conclusion: Nutritional and hydration behaviour during pregnancy was related to the occurrence of constipation. Mothers are advised to have good nutrition and hydration behaviour to prevent constipation.
, Hanifah Yusuf
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 9, pp 19-26; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.9.1.19-26

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Background: Coffee contains caffeine. Caffeine is the main component that influences the response of the cardiovascular system and blood pressure (BP). Acute response of coffee to increased BP is related to caffeine.Objectives: This study aims to analyze the acute response of coffee consumption on BP in healthy females therefore coffee is an alternative therapy for hypotension.Methods: The research design was a clinical trial. Treatment: black coffee, Gayo’s Arabica, 10 mg, coffee brewed with 150 ml of boiling water, without sugar. BP was examined using a mercury sphygmomanometer and stethoscope. BP each subject was examined twice and averaged. BP was checked 3 times: before, 30, and 60 minutes after coffee consumption. All subjects were non-coffee drinkers. A total of 20 healthy female, 18-20 years old were divided into two groups: the non-intervention (n=9) and intervention (n=11). Data was analyzed by independent and paired sample t-test.Results: Coffee increased systolic 10-20 mmHg (14.09%) and diastolic 3.64 mmHg. Coffee lowers 36.36% of subjects with hypotension. There was no difference between systolic pre-test (101.11±12.69 vs 100.00±10.00 mmHg; p=0.83) and 30 minutes post-intervention (102.22±13.01 vs 101.82±9.82 mmHg; p=0.94). There were a significant differences in systolic after 60 minutes post-intervention (103.33±11.18 vs 114.09±5.84 mmHg; p=0.01*) between non-intervention and intervention. There was no difference between diastolic pretest (70.00±5.59 vs. 68.18±6.03 mmHg; p=0.49), 30 minutes (70.59±5.27 vs. 70.00±6.33 mmHg; p=0.83), and 60 minutes post-intervention (70.00±5.59 vs. 71.82±4.04 mmHg; p=0.41) between non-intervention and intervention. Data showed that systolic was significantly different (p=0.00*) after 60 minutes of coffee consumption in the intervention group. Conclusion: The acute response of coffee consumption to systolic increases was after 60 minutes and not 30 minutes of coffee consumption. Coffee doesn’t affect diastolic in healthy women, but it needs further research.
Vilda Ana Veria Setyawati, Faizzatun Ramadha
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 9, pp 42-47; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.9.1.42-47

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Background: Stunting in Brebes, Central Java is the highest 100 in Indonesia. Through the Family Plan Village (Kampung KB), National Population and Family Planning Board (BKKBN) was given the mandate to contribute in accelerating the improvement of nutrition, especially the problem of stunting. 15,873 villages in Indonesia were formed as Kampung KB. However, there were no studies that describe the extent to which the program was effective.Objectives: This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the Kampung KB on sensitive intervention to prevent stunting.Methods: Experimental research with and one group only post test study design used. In 60 mothers of children under the age of 24 months starting in March-October 2019 in Janegara Village, Brebes Regency. The intervention carried out was the Kampung KB. Its activities at the study site are conducted from March-October 2019 in the study population's parents. The intervention was family counseling by family planning counselors (PKB). The variables measured included planning for household life, habituation of clean and healthy lifestyles in the family, empowering family at home, and responsive care. Data was collected using a questionnaire that was prepared independently and has been tested for validity and reliability. Analysis of the data used to prove the hypothesis is one sample t test.Results: Most of the mothers understand family life planning (75%), PHBS practices are appropriate (61.37%), the role of fathers is good (83.3%), and mothers have taken responsive care responsive care (55%). Kampung KB is effective for improving the practice of PHBS (p = 0.003) and the role of fathers in the family (p = 0.0001).Conclusion: Kampung KB was effective to increase (PHBS) and the role of fathers in parenting.
Megawati Megawati, Nina Artanti, Hani Mulyani, Akhmad Darmawan, Heri Syahrian, Puspa Dewi N. Lotulung, Edi Supriadi, Galuh Widiyarti, Rizna Triana Dewi, Lia Meilawati, et al.
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 9, pp 48-52; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.9.1.48-52

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Background: Increased lipase activity can increase the amount of monoglycerides and fatty acids absorbed by the body, this is what affects obesity. If pancreatic lipase activity is inhibited, the production of fatty acids will decrease, consequently the level of fat in the blood will also decrease.Objective: To study anti obesity potential of a single herb or a mixture of green tea and other herbs (Syzygium polyanthum. Lv, Artocarpus communis.Lv, Cinnamomum verum..Lv, Manilkara zapota.Lv, Tectona grandis.Lv) by the in vitro inhibition assay of the lipase enzyme activityMethod: A single (8 herbs) or a mixture of three herbs powder (12 formulas) was put into a tea bag with a total weight of 1.5 g to be brewed in 100 mL bottled mineral water at 70⁰-90⁰C for 10 minutes. In vitro lipase enzyme inhibition assay were conducted to measure the ability of these samples as lipase inhibitor. Orlistat used as positive lipase inhibitor. Results: There was a difference results of lipase inhibition activity between the sample of a single and a mixture of herbs. Interestingly, the results shows that formula 3 (mixture of green tea, Manilkara zapota and cinnamon). has 53.942 % inhibition, formula 9 (a mixture of green tea, Syzygium polyanthum and cinnamon) has 67.322 % inhibition and formula 12 (a mixture of green tea, Tectona grandis and cinnamon) has 56.612 % inhibition which close to lipase inhibitory activity by standard Orlistat.Conclusion: The mixture of green tea and two other herbs has a lipase inhibitory activity similar to Orlistat, when compared to the single herb. The highest lipase inhibitory activity is found in formula 9.
Mohammad Zainul Ma'arif, Suradi Suradi, Sugiarto Sugiarto
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 9, pp 53-60; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.9.1.53-60

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Background: Smoking habits enhance free radical in the body, which oxidize lipids to form malondialdehyde. One group that is vulnerable to smoking is adolescents. Red dragon fruit and red guava have the possibility as functional foods due to their vitamin and phytochemical content, which have antioxidant effects. This is an opportunity to prevent oxidative stress among adolescent smokers.Objectives: This study aimed to analyze the effect of red dragon fruit, red guava, and its combination to total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels among adolescent mild smokers.Methods: This research was an experimental study with a randomized pre-test and post-test control group design. Forty-eight subjects of male adolescent aged 16-17 years with mild smoking habits were divided into four groups: the control group (K), the intervention group with 200 grams of red dragon fruit (P1), 200 grams of red guava (P2), and the combination of both (100 grams red dragon fruit + 100 grams red guava) (P3), for 14 days. TAC examination used the DPPH method and MDA levels using the TBARS method were measured before and after the intervention.Results: After 14 days of intervention, the mean TAC was changed by -0,10±0,76 in the K group, 0,97±1,62 in the P1 group, 0,74±1,39 in the P2 group, and 0,74±1,29 in the P3 group. But the changes of TAC in all intervention groups were not significantly different from the control group (p>0,05). The mean MDA level changed by 0,229±0,371 in the K group, decreased by -0,654±0,922 in the P1 group, -0,592±0,818 in the P2 group, and -1,166±0,670 in the P3 group. The mean difference of the MDA level in all intervention groups was significantly different from the control group (p
Yuli Astuti, Yudi Mulyana Hidayat, Enny Rohmawati
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 9, pp 33-41; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.9.1.33-41

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Background: Gestational weight gain (GWG) is physiological change in pregnancy. Inadequate gestational weight gain (IGWG) and excessive gestational weight gain (EGWG) can pose a risk of complication such as gestational hypertention, low birth weight, giant baby, and premature birth. Food intake (energy and macronutrient) play important role in providing pregnancy needs such as fetal and placental growth, and also play role in fat accumulation in some part of mother’s body. Objectives: This study aims to analyze the relationship between energy intake and macronutrient and gestational weight gain of pregnant woman and to know the consumption of food groups.Methods: This study was quantitative study using cohort prospective approach. 73 healthy pregnant women with normal body fat mass who met inclusion and exclusion criteria was weighed twice in a period of 8 weeks. 24 hours food recall in 2 unsecutive days was done between those times. The instruments used for this study were weight scale, stadiometer, and questionnaire. Nutritional analysis used Nutrisurvey and statistic analysis used Chi Square test.Result: There was a relationship between total energy intake and gestational weight gain ( p = 0.031) and there was no relationship between macronutrient component intake (carbohydrate, fat, and protein) and gestational weight gain (p = 0.175, p = 0.97, and p = 0.089 respectively). Respondent characteristic that has corelation with GWG is number of pregnancy. Most pregnant woman experienced EGWG (56.2%) and their food consumption not fulfilled the balance nutrient recommendation guidelines especially less in vegetables and fruits consumption.Conclusion:There is a significant corelation between energy intake and GWG.
Tia Sofa Rahmadanti, Aryu Candra, Choirun Nissa
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 9, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.9.1.1-10

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Background: Patients with chronic liver disease were risk to be malnourished due to malabsorption, hipermetabolic condition, and not receiving adequate nutrients orally. Diet therapy through enteral feeding based on soybean flour and goat milk flour play role as an alternative formula for chronic liver patients since it contains high Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAA) and Medium-chain Triglyceride (MCT).Objectives: to analyze viscosity, nutrient content, protein digestibility, and organoleptic properties of enteral feeding using soybean flour and goat milk flour.Methods: An experimental study using 3 distinc formula with ratio soybean flour to goat milk flour was P1(45:55), P2(50:50), P3(55: 45). Viscosity, fat, carbohydrate content, and energy density were analyzed using One Way Anova followed by Tukey test while protein content, protein digestibility, and energy density were analyzed using Kruskal Wallis followed by Mann Whitney test. Organoleptic properties were analyzed using Friedman followed by Wilcoxon test.Results:The higher the soybean flour, the higher the formula viscosity (p=0.000) and protein (0.007). In contrast, the higher the got milk flour, the higher the fat (p=0.000), carbohydrate (p=0.000), energy (p=0.000) and energy density (p=0.013). Formula P3 has the highest viscosity (1.93±0.039 cP) and protein (9.66±0.16%), while P1 has the highest fat (27.33±0.15%), carbohydrate (65.97±0.23%), energy (1.175±3.04 kkal), energy density (1.17±0.00 kkal/ml), and protein digestibility (45.90±1.49%) among others. However, there is no effect of different formula toward protein digestibility (p=0.116). Organoleptic properties showed that the higher the got milk flour, the higher its acceptance in all aspect including color (p=0.046), flavor (p=0.000), taste (p=0.009) dan texture (p=0.002).Conclusion: P1 was the best formula due to its level of viscosity, fat, energy, protein and energy density that meet requirements according to European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN). P1 also has the highest protein digestibility, and have the highest score of all organoleptic parameters.
Widia Pangestika, Ahmad Ni’Matullah Al-Baarri, Anang Mohamad Legowo, Mulyana Hadipernata, Wisnu Broto, Laili Izzati
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 9, pp 68-72; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.9.1.68-72

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Background: Discoloration was one indicator of food damage including in fruits, since the change may be used as a quality measurement. Salak became one of the commodities that often experience the browning reaction that may change the color. Since the yellow was close to the consumer preference along the preservation in salak, this color should be notified and may be represented as polyphenol change. Objectives: The focus of this study was to determine the pattern of inhibition of browning reactions in salak using HIO.Methods: This research determined the color level of yellow using digital color meter of salak that was stored in room temperature in aseptic treatment for 12 days. Result: Discoloration appeared in salak and it was clearly determined the change since a week of storage. The rate of discoloration was able to be detected highly after one week of storage. Conclusion: The discoloration of yellow color and the rate of salak could be detected specifically based on the day of storage. This research may open the information for the consumer to predict the storage time of salak based on the appearance of yellow color.
Natalia Desy Putriningtyas, Intan Permatasari, Dita Oktaviani, Anastasia Servia Raha, Siti Wahyuningsih
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 9, pp 61-67; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.9.1.61-67

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Background: Polyphenols, antioxidants, dietary fiber, and vitamin contained in the red dragon fruit peel. Red dragon fruit peel can be processed into marmalade. Red dragon fruit peel marmalade has the potential to be a functional food. Functional food is food that has a physiological function based on scientific studies.Objectives: The objective of this study is to analyze the effect of red dragon fruit peel marmalade on fasting blood glucose levels, HDL, LDL, and triglycerides levels of hypercholesterolemic Wistar rats.Methods: This study used a pre-&post-test control group design. Hypercholesterolemic male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into five groups. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by 1% cholesterol powder and 0.5% cholic acid for two weeks. All groups received standard chow. Samples were grouped into five groups: K-; K+; K1 (0.94 g/kg b.wt/day); K2 (1.41 g/kg b.wt/day); K3 (1.88 g/kg b.wt/day). The intervention was carried out for 28 days. GDP level was measured using the GOD-PAP. HDL, LDL, and triglyceride were analyzed with spectrophotometry. GDP, HDL, LDL, and triglyceride levels were measured twice before fasting. A paired t-test and one-way ANOVA were used to analyze the data.Results: The result showed that K-; K1; K2; K3 had a significant difference between groups before and after the intervention (p
, Anggraeni Utami
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.8.2.119-125

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Background: One obstacle in commercial enteral food formulation is the adjustment between nutritional value and rheological characteristics of the product.Objectives: To evaluate the nutritional value and viscosity of polymeric enteral nutrition (PEN) products made from purple sweet potato flour with variations in the level of maltodextrin as a stabilizer.Methods: The completely randomized design was used with four variations of maltodextrin, which was 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10%. The research was carried out by making purple sweet potato flour, then its proximate composition was measured as a basis for formulating a PEN product that was 200 kcal/200mL, with 60% carbohydrates (120 kcal / 200 mL), 15% protein (30 kcal), and 25% fat (50 kcal). The proximate composition and calorie value of the PEN products were tested. The PEN products were added hot water at a temperature of 90˚C; then, the viscosity was measured at room temperature. The viscosity of two types of commercial enteral nutrition products was measured as a reference.Results: The results showed that there was an effect of maltodextrin level on moisture, fat, and protein contents of PEN products, but there was no effect on calorie values. The viscosity of the PEN products displayed that the higher the maltodextrin level, the higher the viscosity of the product. The viscosity of the PEN products in accordance with the commercial enteral products was the treatment of maltodextrin 5% and 7.5%.Conclusion: There is an effect of maltodextrin as a stabilizer on the nutritional value and viscosity of PEN products based on purple sweet potato flour.
Salma Shafrina Aulia, Budi Setiawan, Tiurma Sinaga, Ahmad Sulaeman
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.8.2.134-142

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Background: Instant pumpkin cream soup enriched with tempeh had fulfilled 10% Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for elderly so that it can be used as an easy-to-serve snack, but decreasing quality of instant cream soup will be happened if the instant cream soup was stored for a long time. Objectives: This study aimed to analyze quality of water content, water activity and lipid oxidation in instant pumpkin cream soup during storage and estimated the shelf life of pumpkin cream soup enriched with tempeh.Method: Quality storage was analyzed using of water content, water activity (aw) and lipid oxidation. Estimation of shelf life was analyzed using Arrhenius Accelerated Shelf Life Testing (ASLT) model.Results: The results showed that the water content, aw levels and lipid oxidation of instant pumpkin cream soup increased during the storage period. The critical parameter used in this study was lipid oxidation. Instant cream soup without the addition of tempeh can last 447 days while the cream soup with the addition of tempeh has a shelf life of 433 days.Conclusion: Quality of instant pumpkin cream soup decreased during the storage period and it would be expired over a year.
Wahyu Ilmi Annisa, Martha Ardiaria, Ayu Rahadiayanti, Deny Yudi Fitranti, Fillah Fithra Dieny, Diana Nur Afifah, Choirun Nissa
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.8.2.85-91

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Background: Critically ill patients have an increased risk of developing infection. Enteral formula that given to patients must meet food safety which includes microbiology quality. In powder form, powder formula is a solution to suppress microbial growth, although it is still susceptible to oxidation. Shelf life is useful to determine the oxidation status. Objectives: This study aimed to analyze the value of TPC, Salmonella, E. coli and shelf life of enteral formula.Methods: This study was a completely randomized experimental design of one factor, namely the length of storage for values of TPC, Salmonella and E. coli with variations in storage for 0, 1, 2, and 3 hours at room temperature. Data on the TPC test was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis. The temperature used for shelf life with TBA based-Arrhenius equation is 250C, 350C, and 450C for 28 days.Results: There was a difference in the length of storage of 0, 1, 2, and 3 hours on the value of TPC. The TPC value at 0 and 1 hour did not exceed the normal limit. The value of Salmonella was negative/25 g and < 3/g for E. coli. The shelf life of enteral formulas was respectively 250C, 350C and 450C for 44.89, 28.26 and 18.32 days.Conclusion: The longer the length of storage, the higher the TPC value. In accordance with the Indonesian standard (SNI), there is no contamination of Salmonella and E. coli in the enteral formula. The longest shelf life is at 250C.
Sarah Melati Davidson, Ali Khomsan, Hadi Riyadi
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.8.2.143-148

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Background: Malnutrition in children under five causes a variety of developmental disorders. The nutritional need for children aged 3-5 age is very critical to reach optimum growth and development. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to analyse the association between nutritional status using WAZ, HAZ, WHZ index with gross motor, fine motor, passive communication, active communication, cognitive, self-help ability and social behavior development childred aged 3-5 years old. Methods: Data was obtained from a study entitled Improving Child Growth and Development through Nutrition and Psychosocial Intervention in Early Childhood Education (PAUD) Setting in Rural Areas and was fully funded by the Nestle Foundation (NF), Switzerland. The study design was cross-sectional, with 120 children aged 3-5 years old as subjects. Locations and subjects were selected purposively in Bogor District. Nutritional status was assesed by WAZ, HAZ, and WHZ index. Child development was assessed by using Bina Keluarga Balita questionnaire.Results: Most of the subjects had good nutritional status dan development level. WAZ indicator significantly associated with gross motor dan cognitive development (p
Zahroh Shaluhiyah, Aditya Kusumawati, Ratih Indraswari, Bagoes Widjanarko, Besar Tirto Husodo
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.8.2.92-101

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Background: Anemia prevalence among pregnant women in Central Java 2016 was 40.1% and 27.9% among fertile women aged 15-44 years. Anemia among pregnant mothers usually caused by ferrum defficiency due to low nutritional intakes during youth. The provision and processing of food at the family level that carried out mostly by mother were also the factors which related to nutrional problems at family level.Objectives: This study aims to identify mothers’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices in providing nutritional food for their family, pregnant women and children under five years old. Methods: An explanonatory research with cross-sectional survey has been conducted among mothersin Karanganyar Gunung and Karangayu Semarang. The mothers were selected using systematic random sampling with inclusion criteria were either pregnant or having children under five and willing to participate in this study. Of 200 mothers had participated in this survey. Data were collected by enumerator using structure questionnaires which have been validated before. Univariate, Chi-Square and logistic regression tests have been employed to analyze the data.Results: Nearly half of mothers have been categorized as poor practices in providing healthy food for their families (47%). More than half (56%) have good knowledge, but only 45.5% have positive attitudes towards providing healthy food. Mothers’ age (p = 0.048; OR = 0.547), education level (p = 0.042; OR = 0.580) and attitudes of providing healthy food (p = 0.001; OR= 3.138) were the influencing factors on providing healthy food. Conclusion: Mothers with positive attitudes have more likely to provide a healthy food for their families three times higher than those who have negative attitudes. Whilst, mothers who have aged ≥30 years were more likely to have protection (OR < 1) to provide healthy food than those who have aged
Arisanty Nur Setia Restuti, Adhiningsih Yulianti, Dewi Lindawati
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.8.2.79-84

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Background : Anemia is a condition when the body do not have enough healthy red blood cells. Laboratory sign of anemia is decreases of erythrocytes and haemoglobin (Hb) level. Anemia can be caused by deficiency of nutritional intake.Objectives : The purpose of this study was to determine changes in the number of erythrocytes and Hb levels of anemia rats which were intervened with chocolate drinks.Methods : The design of this study was an experiment with a pretest-posttest control group design. The samples in this research were 21 male wistar rats. Rats were induced by NaNO2 25mg/gBB for 18 days, then followed by an intervention of chocolate drink 4.3ml / day for 14 days. The results will be tested using one way ANOVA test and paired T-Test.Results : The results of this study showed that there were significant differences in the number of erythrocytes and Hb levels between groups before the intervention (p = 0.00) and (p = 0.011), so also after the intervention there is significant differences in the number of erythrocytes and Hb levels between groups (p = 0.00) and (p = 0.01).Paired T-Test results showed that there were significant differences in the number of erythrocytes and Hb levels before and after the study in the intervention group given chocolate drink (p = 0.00) and (p = 0.02).Conclusion : Chocolate drinks have an effect on increasing the number of erythrocytes and Hb levels in anemia rats.
Nurul Hindaryani, Muchlis Achsan Udji Sofro, Tri Winarni Agustini
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.8.2.149-153

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Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) destroys the antibody system, which causes faster protein breakdown resulting in lower albumin concentration. Zinc supplementation when added to protein in milkfish flour may increase albumin and zinc levels that associated with activity of the aminolevulinic acid dehydrase (ALAD) that synthesizes heme. Objectives: This study aimed to prove the effect of zinc and milkfish flour addition on albumin and hemoglobin levels in HIV/AIDS patients.Methods: An experimental study with randomized pre and post-test with the control group design using control subjects (n=17) and treatment (n=21). The administration of milkfish nastar with zinc to treatment group was 100 g/day for 60 days, while the control group was given milkfish nastar without zinc 100 g/day for 60 days. The measurement of albumin level used auto photometric with enzymatic color test methods and reticulated method for hemoglobin level measurement conducted before and after treatments. Data were analyzed using Shapiro-Wilk, paired t-test, and independent t-test with a significance value at p0.05). Means of hemoglobin level in the treatment group increased by 12.0%, while the control group increased by 7.9% (p
Ani Margawati, Hartanti Sandi Wijayanti, Nur Azkiyati Faizah, Miladita Ilmanda Syaher
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.8.2.102-109

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Background: College students are susceptible to the effects of obesity due to the wrong lifestyle. Nowadays, watching Mukbang autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR) video has been trending habit especially among college students. The food video increases visual stimulus will stimulate the brain. The audio stimulus can influence eating behavior when hungry. Objectives: The aims of the study were to determine the correlation of watching Mukbang ASMR video and pocket money with food intake and nutritional status of Diponegoro University students.Methods: This study was an observational research with cross-sectional design. Subjects were 60 Diponegoro University student aged 20 – 23 years old, selected by consecutive sampling. Independent variables is the habit of watching Mukbang ASMR video, food craving, and pocket money and the dependent variable are food intake and nutritional status by BMI. Data collected were done by interviews direct questionnaire about the habit of watching Mukbang ASMR video, FFQ, FFQ fast food and 3 x 24 hour recall and measure weight and height. Analysis using Rank Spearman and Chi Square correlation test.Results: This study found the reason subject watched Mukbang ASMR was because the sound produced by the video was satisfying. Watching Mukbang ASMR videos when hungry is significantly related to the subject's desire to eat (p = 0.044). The frequency of watching, the desire to eat after watching the ASMR Mukbang video and pocket money are not related to the adequacy of nutrient intake and nutritional status of the subject.Conclusion: Watching ASMR Mukbang videos and pocket money has no effect on student intake and nutritional status.
Indah Purnama Sari, Yustini Ardillah, Anita Rahmiwati
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.8.2.110-118

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Background: Stunting is an indicator of chronic nutritional problem among children under five years old that influenced by nutrition and health status of mothers not only before and during prenancy but also after delivery. One of the long-term effects of stunting is increasing the risk of obesity and other non-communicable diseases. Low birth weight is one of the causes of stunting which also indicates that the fetus has been malnourished during the womb and stunting is a manifestation of malnutrition for a long time. Objectives: This study aimed to determine of the association between low birth weight and stunting, as well as other variables among children between the ages of 6 to 59 months.Methods: This study used cross sectional design. Samples consisted of about 188 eligible children between the ages of 6 to 59 months which selected using simple random sampling technique. Data of the mother’s, infants and environmental characteristics were obtained through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Data on birth weight and length were obtained from interviews and crosscheck from the Maternal and Child Health book or child birth records and data on stunting obtained from height Z-score based on age. Data was analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression test.Results: The prevalence of stunting and low birth weight among children between the ages of 6 to 59 months in Seberang Ulu I subdistrict of Palembang was 39.4% and 8.5%, respectively. Birth weight was related to stunting (95% CI=1.28-2.76; p=0.012) and other variables like infectious diseases in the last 1 month (95% CI=1.13-2.26; p=0.009), maternal height (95% CI=1.10-2.19; p=0.016) and household monthly income (95% CI=1.04-2.28; p=0.024). Conclusion: Children with low birth weight had risk of stunting 2.29 higher than children with normal weight after controlling for other factors such as child’s age, mother’s age during delivery, availability of latrine and household monthly income.
Nabila Rifka Annisa, Fillah Fithra Dieny, Choirun Nissa, A. Fahmy Arif Tsani
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.8.2.126-133

Abstract:
Background: Several risk factors for central obesity include high Sugar-sweetened Beverages (SSBs) intake, lack of physical activity, and lack of sleep duration. High fructose corn syrup, the sweetener used in SSBs, increase body weight because of the bad effect of insulin secretion and leptin release. The fructose from this beverage can increase visceral adiposity accumulation. Objectives: This study aimed to analyze the intake of Sugar-sweetened Beverages (SSBs), physical activity, and sleep duration as risk factors for central obesity among women in the reproductive AgeMethods: This study used case-control design consists of 38Subjects in case and control groups. All women were in childbearing age (20-29 years) selected using a simple random sampling technique. The data taken were weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference. Food intake and sugar-sweetened beverage intake were obtained by using Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency (SQ-FFQ) questionnaire. Physical activity data were obtained using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) questionnaire. Sleep duration data were obtained using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Chi-Square test and logistic regression were used to analyze the data.Results: There were a significant relationship between Sugar Sweetened Beverages intake (p = 0.002, OR =5.926), energy intake of SSBs (p = 0.035, OR = 2.979) physical activity (p = 0.035, OR = 0.3111), duration of morning sleep / afternoon (p = 0.000; OR = 9.44) and sleep duration (p = 0.028, OR = 4.42) with central obesity. But there were no significant relationship between energy intake (p = 0.375), carbohydrates (p = 0.1), protein (p = 0.3), fat (p = 0.1) and fibers with central obesity.Conclusion: High intake of sugar-sweetened beverages, short duration of night's sleep and the duration>2 hours/day of a long day sleep are risk factors for increasing the incidence of central obesity among Women in reproductive Age.
Kartika Yuliani, Nyoman Kertia,
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 8, pp 69-74; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.8.1.69-74

Abstract:
Background : As one of important markers of cardiovascular complication in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, low density lipoprotein (LDL) shall be maintained to be in normal range. Based on previous research, consumption of probiotic yogurt contains Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. Lactis is presumed can improve LDL in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus but the scientific evidence is still few.Objectives: To investigate the effect of probiotic yogurt on LDL in patients with type 2 diabetes.Methods: This study was double blinded randomized controlled trial which was conducted on 32 patientss with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Subjects were divided randomly into 2 groups and given 4 weeks intervention. Subjects in control group were given conventional yogurt while subjects in intervention group were given probiotic yogurt contains L. acidophilus LA5 and B. animalis subsp. Lactis Bb12. Food intake data was collected 4 times using 24-hour recall method during intervention period. LDL of subjects was measured before and after intervention.Results: There was no significant difference between LDL before and after intervention in control group (128 – 148.5 mg/dL) and intervention group (130 – 120.5 mg/dL). Meanwhile, LDL after intervention in control group and intervention group were significantly different (p
Farah Nuriannisa, Nyoman Kertia,
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 8, pp 40-44; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.8.1.40-44

Abstract:
Background: Generally, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) have dysbiosis condition. Dysbiosis can increase oxidative stress that leads to hyperglycemia. Previous researches showed that yogurt consumption can reduce blood glucose in T2D, so it can be used as an alternative healthy snack for T2D patients.Objectives: To investigate the effects of probiotic and conventional yogurt with dosage 100ml/day on fasting blood glucose (FBG) in T2D patientsMethods: Randomized controlled trial, double blind with pre-post group design. The 30 T2D patients from 3 publics health centre in Yogyakarta, were assigned to two groups. Each group, either control or intervention group, received 100 ml/d of yogurt for 4 weeks. FBG samples was assessed before and after intervention periodResults: FBG significantly decreased in both group, which was -27 mg/dL in control group (p
, Firdananda Fikri Jauharany, Deny Yudi Fitranti, A Fahmy Arif Tsani, Ayu Rahadiyanti, Dewi Marfu’Ah Kurniawati, Hartanti Sandi Wijayanti
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 8, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.8.1.1-10

Abstract:
Introduction: Pre-conception women are potential mothers or vulnerable groups who need special attention. The less of nutrients Intake than necessary can lead to nutritional problems such as Chronic Energy Deficiencyand nutritional anemia that have an impact on the next phase of life such as the risk of giving birth to babies with low birth weight (LBW), babies stunting, and growth disruption and development of the fetus / baby during pregnancy or after that. Objective: To analyze the relationship between diet quality, chronic energy malnutrition status with anemia in the bride.Methods: A cross-sectional study with 70 subjects who were brides aged 16-30 years. Selection of subjects with consecutive sampling method. Dietary quality data was measured through the Semi Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (SQ-FFQ) and Diet Quality Index - International (DQI-I) forms, SEZ status assessed from body mass index (BMI) and upper arm circumference (LiLA). Anemia status was measured from hemoglobin levels, MCV, MCH, and MCHC. To examine the relationship between diet quality, chronic energy malnutrition, and anemia using a linear regression test.Results: The subject aged 16-30 years, and 41.4% are still
, Meita Hendrianingtyas
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 8, pp 75-78; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.8.1.75-78

Abstract:
Background : HbA1c is one of the parameters that can be useful for diagnosing diabetes mellitus that can occur in obesity. Monocyte as an inflammatory cell is widely studied in relation to diabetes mellitus and obesity. The purpose of this study is to analyze the correlation between HbA1c levels and monocyte percentage in obesity.Methods : A Cross-sectional study of 30 medical students at a private laboratory in Semarang on March – April 2017 was done. The monocyte percentage included incomplete blood count was examined with the Sysmex XS-800i hematology analyzer, while HbA1c level was examined with Hemocue HbA1c 501 System. Spearman test was done for analyzing data with p
Alfreda Sabrina Widyanti, Martha Ardiaria,
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 8, pp 45-50; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.8.1.45-50

Abstract:
Background: Cigarette smoke exposure is one of the source of free radicals that causes oxidative stress and decreases superoxide dismutase (SOD) level. Purple fleshed sweet potato is a type of food that contains antioxidants to neutralize oxidative stress.Objectives: To study the effect of purple fleshed sweet potato on superoxide dismutase (sod) level on rats exposed to cigarette smoke.Methods: This was a true experimental study with a post-test randomized control group design. The rats were randomized into 4 groups (6 rats in each group). The negative control group (K-) was treated with standard diet; the positive control group (K+) was treated with cigarette smoke exposure and standard diet; the treatment 1 (P1) group was treated with standard diet and purple fleshed sweet potato with the dose of 8 g / 200 g bw/day, and the treatment 2 (P2) group was treated with cigarette smoke exposure and purple fleshed sweet potato with the dose of 8 g /200 g bw/day.Results: There was a significant difference of SOD levels in each group (p=0.00) except between group K- and P1. Giving purple fleshed sweet potatoes increased SOD levels as much as 85.81±4.59 (P1). The K+ group had the lowest SOD level 22.34±3.98. The SOD level for K- group and P2 group was 82.27±4.59 and 67.73±6.68 respectively.Conclusion: The highest SOD level is on the treatment 1 group which is administered with purple fleshed sweet potato.
Winny Puspita, Ahmad Sulaeman, Evy Damayanthi
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 8, pp 11-23; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.8.1.11-23

Abstract:
Background: High calories intake from snacks with low nutritional value will contribute to increase the prevalence of obesity and diabetes. Nutritional strategies to prevent hyperglycemia are controlling blood glucose levels, restrict calories and carbohydrate intake. Sago starch (Metroxylon sp.), tempe and black rice contains ingredients such as dietary fiber, resistant starch, amylose and low glycemic index. Modified snack bar using these ingredients can produce attractive products and provide the beneficial nutrients.Objectives: To determine a snack bar formulation made from sago starch, tempe and black rice and analyze physicochemical characteristics and glycemic index value of the product.Methods: This study used a completely randomized design analyzing three different proportions of sago starch and tempe, namely F1 (2:1), F2 (1.5:1), and F3 (1:1) with two replications for each formula. The Selected formula was determined based on consumer acceptability by semi-trained panelists using 9-point hedonic scale, physicochemical properties, nutrient content, and glycemic index value. Results: The Selected formula (F3) was potentially used as functional food as indicated by high level of dietary fiber (11.05%), 8.8 % resistant starch, in vitro starch digestibility (14.02%), the highest amylose-amylopectin ratio (60.1% : 39.9%), low glycemic index (40) and low glycemic load (5.4). The F3 formula produced a slow increase and peak point of blood glucose response of 107.5 mg/dl at minute 30th lower than the administration of anhydrous glucose with peak point of blood glucose levels of 143.4 mg/dl.Conclusion: The F3 formula with the proportion of sago starch and tempe (1:1) had low glycemic index and was categorized as high-fiber food with high level of resistant starch. Therefore, this product has the potency as functional snack alternative for diabetes patients.
Febriani Dwi Bella, Nur Alam Fajar, Misnaniarti Misnaniarti
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 8, pp 31-39; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.8.1.31-39

Abstract:
Background: Nutritional problems do not always occur in poor families, in fact many of under five years in poor families in good nutritional status which have normal height (not stunting) based on the parenting in the family. The positive parenting in poor families are feeding habit, parenting habit, hygiene habit and health services habit. Objectives: This research aim to observe the parenting of feeding habits, parenting habits, hygiene habits and health services habits on the incidence of toddler’s stunting on poor families in the city of Palembang.Methods: This research was an observational study which using a quantitative approach with a Cross Sectional Study design. It took 100 mothers who have children aged 24-59 months from poor families in the city of Palembang were chosen by proportional random sampling.Data taken regarding feeding habits, parenting habits, hygiene habits, and health services habits obtained through questionnaires, and the incidence of child stunting obtained from measurements of children's height using a toddler's height measurement tool. Data analysis to observe the relationship between variables using the Chi-Square test.Results: The results showed the proportion of toddler stunting in poor families in the city of Palembang was 29%. There was a significant correlation between feeding habits (p-value = 0.000); parenting habits (p-value = 0.001; hygiene habits (p-value = 0.021) and health services habits (p-value = 0.000) on the incidence of toddler’s stunting.Conclusion: Normal height (not stunting) toddlers have positive deviance of feeding habits, parenting habits, hygiene habits and health services habits better than stunting under five years with same economic backgrounds family
, Vifin Zakiahtin Nafsih, Rosita Nur Avisha, Dewi Marfu’Ah Kurniawati, Rachma Purwanti, Choirun Nissa, Hartanti Sandi Wijayanti, Diana Nur Afifah
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 8, pp 60-68; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.8.1.60-68

Abstract:
Background: Pre metabolic syndrome is characterized by two of five risk factors: central obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and increased fasting blood glucose. Cinnamon yogurt and soygurt contain antioxidants and fiber which can improve insulin sensitivity and blood glucose homeostasis and prevent cell damage in pre-metabolic syndrome conditionsObjective: This study aimed to determine the effect of cinnamon yogurt and soygurt on fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum insulin, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in pre-metabolic syndrome rats.Method: This study was an experimental study with a pre and post-test control group design. The subjects were 15 male Sprague Dawley rats which were divided into 5 normal control mice (K) and 10 pre metabolic syndrome mice with a diet high in fat and fructose for group P1 (yogurt) and P2 (soygurt) each of 5 mice. The yogurt and soygurt were given as much as 3.4 ml / g BW for 28 days. FBG levels were measured by the GOD-PAP method, while serum insulin and MDA levels were by the ELISA method. Different tests before and after treatment using Paired t-test or Wilcoxon. The difference tests between groups using the One-Way ANOVA test or Kruskal Wallis.Results: There were no differences in FBG and MDA levels between groups after intervention (p> 0.05). The highest percentage reduction in FBG in the P2 (-11.59%), then P1 (-4.06%). The decrease in MDA levels in group P1 = 19.17%, and P2 = 15.44% lower than K = 24.43%. After the intervention, the insulin level in group P2 (0.46 ng / ml) was significantly higher than P1 (0.318 ng/ml), but both were not different from K (0.384 ng / ml).Conclusion: There was no significant effect on the administration of cinnamon yogurt and soygurt to FBG, serum insulin, and MDA levels.
, Fryta Ameilia Luthfinnisa, Fuadah Uyun, Dwi Retnoningrum, Fifin Luthfia Rahmi, Arief Wildan
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 8, pp 24-30; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.8.1.24-30

Abstract:
Background: Obesity cause various physiological changes in the body, one of which is insulin resistance causes high blood glucose levels. Chewing is a stimulus of cephalic phase responses and sensory stimulation that can increase hormones releasing such as insulin, ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Chewing plays important role in determining postprandial plasma glucose concentration.Objective: Investigate the effect of chewing on postprandial blood glucose in obese adults.Method: This was true experimental research. Research subjects were treated in the form of chewing 22 times and 40 times each mouthful. Blood glucose levels were measured using glucometer on fasting blood glucose and postprandial blood glucose 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 60 minutes, and 120 minutes. Statistical test using Independent t-test.Results: The mean postprandial glucose levels in the 22 chews group at 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 60 minutes, and 120 minutes were 112.11 ± 14.3328, 126.11 ± 15.667, 116.94 ± 15.539, and 89.67 ± 11.668 . While the mean postprandial blood glucose levels in the 40 chews group at 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 60 minutes, and 120 minutes were 122.22 ± 14.381, 129.61 ± 15.112, 109.50 ± 14.995, and 85.83 ± 13.963. There were statistically significant differences between chewing groups 22 times and chewing 40 times on fasting blood glucose and 15 minutes postprandial blood glucose (p = 0.041 and p = 0.042), while on 30 minutes postprandial glucose testing, 60 minutes , and 120 minutes there was no significant difference (p> 0.05).Conclusion: There was significant differences in 15 minutes postprandial blood glucose level between group 22 times chewing and 40 times chewing each mouthful.
La Mani, Siti Fatimah-Muis, Apoina Kartini
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 8, pp 51-59; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.8.1.51-59

Abstract:
Background: Stunted overweight is associated with mild chronic inflammation. The state of inflammation will increase the expression of hepcidin, which affects the iron status of the body, besides the intake of protein, iron, and vitamin C.Objective: To analyze the correlation of hepcidin levels and food intake (protein, iron, vitamin C) with serum transferrin receptors (sTfR) and hemoglobin in stunted overweight adolescents.Method: The design of research was cross-sectional. The subjects were 64 adolescents stunted overweight aged 15-18 years in four high/vocational schools in the Banyumanik District, Semarang City. Measurement the level of hepcidin and sTfR was using the ELISA method and haemoglobin was using Cyanomethemoglobin method. Data on protein, iron, vitamin C intake was using the SQ-FFQ method. Bivariate analysis was using Pearson and Spearman correlation test then followed by multiple linear regression analysis.Results: The result showed that 89.1% subjects had adequate intake of protein, 54.7% subjects had low intake of vitamin C, 76.6% subjects had low intake of iron. Hepcidin levels in all subjects were 100% normal. There were 7.8% subjects with a low sTfR and 7.8% with a low haemoglobin level. Statistic test showed there was correlation between hepcidin with haemoglobin and sTfR (p1 = 0,010 r1 = -0,319, p2 = 0,001, r2 = 0,569). From food intake, only intake iron was correlated with haemoglobin but not with sTfR. There was significant difference between the mean of haemoglobin and sTfR among girls and boys. Further analysis, showed that only hepcidin was a weak negative determinant for sTfR (R2 = 0,120). The determinant factors for haemoglobin were gender (p=0,001) and hepcidin (p =0,004) with the value of R2 = 0,577.Conclusion: Hepcidin correlated with sTfR and haemoglobin while iron intake only correlated with hemoglobin.
Addina Rizky Fitriyanti, Kusmiyati Tjahjono, Mohammad Sulchan, Sunarto Sunarto
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 7, pp 121-126; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.7.2.121-126

Abstract:
Background: Obesity is one of the risk factors for insulin resistance. Insulin resistance plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Wrist circumference has the potential for predicting obesity and insulin resistance.Objectives:. To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of wrist circumference against obesity and insulin resistance in late adolescents.Methods: The design of this study is a crossectional study with a sample of 85 students at Diponegoro University Semarang. Data collected consisted of anthropometric measurements (body weight, height, wrist circumference, neck circumference, waist circumference and pelvic girth) and blood vein sampling (fasting blood glucose and fasting insulin). Statistical analyses used in this study were Pearson or R Spearman correlation test.Results: Wrist circumference was positively correlated with all biochemical parameters and anthropometric measurements except the waist hip ratio. Wrist circumference correlates positively and significantly with fasting insulin and HOMA-IR in male adolescents. The results of the ROC curve analysis showed that the AUC value of wrist circumference in male adolescents had better performance in predicting obesity (88% (95% CI, 76% - 100%)) than insulin resistance (81% (95% CI, 51% -100%)).Conclusion: Wrist circumference is one of the anthropometric measurements that can be used for predicting obesity and insulin resistance in late adolescents.
Sriyanti Sriyanti, Evy Damayanthi, Faisal Anwar
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 7, pp 76-85; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.7.2.75-85

Abstract:
Background : Rosela (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) is an anthocyanin-rich plant that has good antioxidant capacity. However, the utilization was limited to red roselle, while previous studies showed that anthocyanin content was found to be higher in the thick roselle.therefore, this is an opportunity to develop purple roselle products as a preventive effort for degenerative diseases in men with fatness. Subjects in this study were male by considering the effect of estrogen on women which could play a role in suppressing oxidative stress.Objectives : This study aimed to analyze antioxidant (SOD/Superoxide dismutase) and oxidative status (MDA/malondialdehyde) level in obese adult men after administration of purple rosela drinks. Methods : This study was quasi-experimental with pre-post test. Eighteen obese subjects in the security unit were divided into two groups, namely the intervention group and control group. Intervention group (n = 9) was given purple rosela drinkin the amount of 480 mL/day, while the control group (n = 9) was given an equivalent amount of purple rosela drink without rosela. The subjects were daily administered for 6 weeks. Characteristic, anthropometric, food consumption and blood sample data were collected at the beginning and end of the intervention. Data analysis was performed by descriptively, paired t-test, independent t-test, ANCOVA.Results : The analysis showed that purple rosela drink tend to increase SOD levels (0.45 ± 0.14; 1.35 ± 0.71; p-value = 0.008) but this value was not significantly different from the control group (p-value = 0.128). MDA levels did not significantly different between the intervention and control groups (0.025 ± 0.083;-0.125 ± 0.60; p-value = 0.473).Conclusion : These results showed that administering 480 ml of purple rosela drink did not improve antioxidant and oxidative status in obese adult men.
, Safrizal Rahman
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 7, pp 92-98; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.7.2.92-98

Abstract:
Background: Coffee is believed and predicted as one of the risk factors for osteoporosis in sedentary and athletes. Long term regular consumption of coffee can lead to hypocalcemia, increase bone resorption and risk of osteoporosis.Objectives: The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of regular coffee consumption on bone resorption, thus predicting the risk of osteoporosis in athletes. The assessment risk of osteoporosis was done by measuring the biomarkers of bone resorption, namely: C-telopeptide (CTx) and serum calcium levels.Methods: The design of this study was a cross-sectional study. The subjects were athletes with regular exercise (aerobic exercise 2 times a week, for 50-60 minutes each training session). The total of samples were 50 people (male = 37; non-coffee=21 and coffee=16 and female=13; non-coffee=7 and coffee=6). Non-coffee is a group that does not consume coffee. Coffee drinkers are a group who regularly consume coffee daily at a dose of 1-2 cups per day (150-200 ml / cup). Coffee consumption habits were obtained from questionnaire interviews. The sampling technique was a total sampling. Examination of serum CTx levels was carried out by the Electro Chemiluminescence Assay method and serum calcium levels were examined using the O-cresolphthalein complexone method. Data were analyzed using the normality test (Kolmogorov-Smirnov), homogeneity (Levene's test) and independent sample t-test, with a significant degree of 95% (p
Rusda Camelia, Hartanti Sandi Wijayanti,
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 7, pp 99-108; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.7.2.99-108

Abstract:
Background: Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have problem in metabolism which makes them have limited food intake. The implementation of the diet is influenced by eating behaviors in children with ASD and parents in feeding children.Objective: This study was to analyze eating behaviors and factors influencing parents on child’s feeding.Methods: This quallitative study was using in-dept interviews to parents as informants. Observations related to children's eating habits and behaviors also conducted in this study. FFQ was also conducted to measure gluten and casein consumptions. The retrieval of subjects through purposive sampling based on inclusion criteria, there was 8 children with ASD aged 6-14 years old with their care taker as informans who were willing to join this study. Results: Children with ASD have unique food preferention and able to expres hunger and satiety amid the limitatins of social interaction. Gluten intake is more often consumed (26,63 times/week) than casein (5,25 times/week). 25% parents are implementating the diet and based on knowledges, obey the doctor or terapies, improve children’s behavioral experiences after diet, motivation, skills in processing food diets, purchasing power, and family supports. Parents are not implementating the diet because of children’s responses, informant’s worries, sibling behaviors who offer non-dietary food, limited dietary food in arround, and limited time to process dietary food.Conclusion: Eating behaviors’s subject is related to parent’s feeding. Feeding by informants are influenced by children’s responses, knowledges, attitudes, experiences and motivations, skills, purchasing power, availability of food, sibling behaviors, time, and family supports. Knowledges, motivations, and family support were the most important factors in feeding children with autism.
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