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Stea Emma Diletta, Pronzo Virginia, Pesce Francesco, Fiorentino Marco, Mitrotti Adele, Di Leo Vincenzo, Cortese Cosma, Casanova Annalisa, Nestola Sebastiano, Capaccio Flavia, et al.
Journal of Clinical Nephrology, Volume 6, pp 036-039;

Endotheliosis, thrombotic microangiopathy and complement system over activation have been described as pathologic features of tissue damage in the setting of coronavirus disease. Interestingly, complement-mediated cell injury is also a typical feature of atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome. Indeed, a growing body of literature has described a higher risk of microangiopathy recurrence, in aHUS patients who test positive for SARS-CoV-2. The correct clinical and therapeutic management patients with a history of HUS and SARS-CoV-2 infection is not well established. We report a case of SARS-CoV-2 infection in an aHUS patient who did not develop a recurrence of the disease and that was successfully treated with convalescent immune plasma therapy.
Kahindo Charles Kangitsi, , Wembonyama Stanis Okitotsho, Tsongo `zacharie Kibendelwa
Journal of Clinical Nephrology, Volume 6, pp 030-035;

Background: Assessment of knowledge of acute kidney injury (AKI) among healthcare workers (HCWs) is necessary to identify areas of deficiency and key topics to focus on while organizing educational programs to improve AKI care. The objective of this study was to assess AKI knowledge and practice among health care providers in North Kivu province, the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. Material and methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in six public hospitals in North Kivu province using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: A total of 158 HCWs completed the survey, among them 66 (41.78%) were physicians. The mean age of respondents was 36.07 ± 10.16 years and the male gender was 56.33%. Only 12 (7.59%) of the respondents had a good knowledge of the definition and classification of AKI. The respondents’ mean scores were 6.76 out of a total of 18 about risk factors for AKI and 6.29 out of a total of 11 with regard to nephrotoxic drugs. Regarding practices, 28.48% of the respondents assess the risk of AKI in their patients in their daily practices; 31.65% report AKI in the patients’ medical history, and 33.54% call on a nephrologist specialist to get specialized advice. Conclusion: This study found considerable gaps in knowledge and practice regarding AKI among most of HCWs in North Kivu province.
Journal of Clinical Nephrology, Volume 6, pp 001-002;

Clinical Nephrology is a specialty of medicine that concerns itself with the study of normal kidney function, kidney problems, the treatment of kidney problems and renal replacement therapy including dialysis and kidney transplantation. The Journal of Clinical Nephrology is an initiative of Heighten Science Publication to publish distinctive and scholarly manuscripts that can play astounding role in enhancing the excellence and confidence of the doctors, scientists and researchers associated in the studies related to renal medicine, hypertension and other related fields of Clinical Nephrology.
Kaur Kulvinder Kochar, Allahbadia Gautam, Singh Mandeep
Journal of Clinical Nephrology, Volume 6, pp 001-018;

The commonest etiology of acute kidney injury (AKI) is Sepsis that results in an escalation of morbidity and mortality in the hospital intensive care units. Existentially, the therapy of septic AKI rather than being definitive or curative is just supportive, without tackling the pathophysiology. Usually, Sepsis gets correlated with systemic inflammation, along with the escalated generation of Reactive oxygen species (ROS), in particular superoxide. Simultaneously liberation of nitric oxide (NO) subsequently reacts with the superoxide, thus, resulting in the generation of reactive nitrogen species (RNS), that is mostly peroxynitrite. This sepsis stimulated generation of ROS in addition to RNS might cause a reduction in the bioavailability of NO that modulates microcirculation aberrations, localized tissue hypoxia as well as mitochondrial impairment, thus starting a vicious cycle of cellular damage which results in AKI. Here we conducted a systematic review utilizing search engine PubMed, Google scholar; Web of science; Embase; Cochrane review library utilizing the MeSH terms like septic AKI; ROS; inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS); nicotinamide adenine nucleotide phosphate(NADPH)oxidase complex; Oxidative stress; Renal medullary hypoxia; Hypoxia inducible factor1; hypoxia responsive enhancer A; mitochondrial impairment; Intrarenal oxygenation; urinary oxygenation; erythropoietin gene; RRT; NAC; Vitamin C from 1950 to 2021 till date. We found a total of 6500 articles out of which we selected 110 articles for this review. No meta-analysis was done. Thus here we detail the different sources of ROS, at the time of sepsis, besides their pathophysiological crosstalk with the immune system, microcirculation as well as mitochondria that can result in the generation of AKI. Furthermore, we detail the therapeutic utility of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), besides the reasons for its success in ovine as well as porcine models of AKI. Moreover, we discuss preclinical along with clinical for evaluation of Vitamin C’s antioxidant effects as well as pleiotropic effects as a stress hormone that might aid in abrogation of septic AKI.
Khalil Karen, West-Thielke Patricia, Lichvar Alicia B, Benedetti Enrico, Okoroike Henry, Patel Shree
Journal of Clinical Nephrology, Volume 6, pp 019-025;

Background: Currently there are three available formulations of tacrolimus in the United States; these include immediate-release capsules (TAC-IR), extended-release capsules (TAC-XL), and extended-release tablets (TAC-XR). Previous studies have demonstrated non-inferiority between the three formulations in terms of efficacy. The purpose of this study was to compare three formulations of tacrolimus (TAC) and assess differences in time within the therapeutic range (TTR) and variability in levels. Results: Renal transplant recipients from January 2013 to October 2017 were retrospectively identified for analysis. Deviation from standard TAC protocol or formulation changes excluded patients. The primary outcome compared percent TTR (TTR %) among 3 TAC formulations over the first 90 days post-transplant. TTR was calculated using the Rosendaal method. Secondary outcomes included differences in TAC levels, TAC dose, eGFR, rejection, patient and graft survival between the TAC formulations. TAC-XR demonstrated a significantly higher TTR % compared to TAC-IR and TAC-XL (62.8% vs. 53.3% vs. 60.9%, p = 0.048). In post-hoc analysis, TAC-XR had a higher TTR % compared to TAC-IR (p = 0.065), which approached statistical significance. Average TAC levels, weight-normalized TAC doses, median dose-normalized TAC levels, rejection rates, eGFR, and graft or patient survival were similar among groups. Conclusion: In the early transplant period, TTR was significantly different among the groups. TAC-XR demonstrated numerically superior time within the therapeutic range. Patient-specific factors such as race, obesity, genetic polymorphisms may impact this variability and clinical outcomes. Further analysis is necessary to understand the effect of each patient-specific factor on TAC exposure.
, Faye Maria, Seck Sidy Mouhamed, Ndong Boucar, Faye Moustapha, Lemrabott Ahmed Tall, Ba Bacary, Diagne Seynabou, Mbengue Mansour, Dieng Ameth, et al.
Journal of Clinical Nephrology, Volume 5, pp 056-060;

Introduction: Determination of dry weight is one of the daily goals to achieve in hemodialysis. The aim of this study was to validate the use of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) in estimation of dry weight in a population of Senegalese chronic hemodialysis patients. Patients and methods: A 9-week cross-sectional study was carried out at the hemodialysis unit of Aristide Le Dantec University Hospital. Adult patients with no previous hospital history were included. The total body water (TBW) was measured with a single frequency bioelectric impedance foot-to-foot analyzer, before and after six successive hemodialysis sessions. These results were compared with those from clinical measurements with the Watson equation using a Student’s t-test and Bland-Altman analysis. Results: 264 measurements were made in 22 patients (46.6 years, 54.5% men, 92.3 months on dialysis, 62.7 kg mean dry weight). A significant reduction in weight (ΔWeight = 2.0 ± 1.1 kg; p < 0.0001) and in TBW measured by the BIA (ΔTBWBIA = 3.3 ± 1.0 liters; p < 0.0001)) or calculated by Watson’s equation (ΔTBWWatson = 0.5 ± 0.2 liter; p = 0.0001) was observed. There was a strong linear correlation and agreement between the 2 TBW measurements in pre-dialysis. In post-dialysis the concordance diagram indicated a bias = –2.2 and wide agreement limits. Conclusion: The BIA allows reproducible and reliable measurements and a fair estimate of the TBW in pre-dialysis.
, Galindo John F, Villaquiran Mónica R, Valenzuela Emilio D, Cardenas Andres, Daza Luis Jose, Correcha Maria Camila, De Jong Jonathan, De La Cruz Prieto Yaroslad, Gutierrez Gerardo, et al.
Journal of Clinical Nephrology, Volume 5, pp 061-066;

Background and objectives: An arteriovenous fistula is considered to be an ideal vascular access for patients receiving hemodialysis, its main limitation is its high failure rate to achieve maturation and long-term functionality loss. Multiple strategies have attempted to identify patients at risk. Bioelectrical impedance has shown to be a valuable resource in the determination of the hydration status, and the measurement of the phase angle through this method has demonstrated to be a good indicator of the nutritional state and its related as a general marker of survival. The objective of this study is to analyze the role of plasma albumin and phase angle measured through bioelectrical impedance as tools useful for predicting failure of arteriovenous fistulas. Materials and methods: prospective observational study, including 104 patients with chronic kidney disease receiving hemodialysis who underwent a native arteriovenous fistula during a period of 24 months. Analyzing its clinical characteristics, laboratory and phase angle through electrical bioimpedance, both univariate and multivariate analysis was performed both with logistic regression, furthermore calculation of coordinates and ROC curve to establish a better cut-off point. Results: of the variables that were analyzed only the phase angle measurement showed statistical significance OR 2.61 (1.6 – 4.4) p - value 0.001 for predicting arteriovenous fistula failure. In female patients with a phase angle value of 3.25 had a 90% sensibility and 53% specificity for male patients a value of 3.58 showed a sensibility of 84% and a specificity of 52% with ROC curve of 0.78. Conclusion: phase angle through bioimpedance is a useful parameter, helpful in predicting failure of native arteriovenous fistula, it is also an important tool for identifying patients at risk, in early stages prior to the construction of a vascular access.
Chaker Hanen, Jarraya Faiçal, Toumi Salma, Kammoun Khawla, Mahfoudh Hichem, Ayadi Fatma, Yaich Soumaya, Hmida Mohamed Ben
Journal of Clinical Nephrology, Volume 5, pp 107-111;

Background: Chronic kidney disease is a worldwide public health issue which is associated with an increased risk of end-stage renal failure and cardiovascular disease. Systemic inflammation exists during chronic renal failure. Recent researches have highlighted the pivotal role of inflammation between renal and cardiovascular disease. The aim of our study is to determine the inflammatory profile of the patient suffering from chronic kidney disease and the influence of hemodialysis on this profile. Methods: We carried out a cross sectional study on 93 patients in the Nephrology Department at Hedi Chaker University Hospital, Sfax, South of Tunisia. Among those patients, 72 patients underwent hemodialysis and 21 patients had chronic kidney disease at stage 3. Clinical data and antecedents were collected. Biological samples were taken after informing the patients and taking their consent. Biological data consisted in lipid profile, albumin rate, hemoglobin rate, uric acid concentration and the usual markers of inflammation noting sedimentation rate, C - reactive protein and orosomucoid. Results: Hemodialysis group of the 72 patients had mean hemodialysis vintage of 54.6 ± 43 months. The inflammatory profile was worse in hemodialysis patients compared to chronic kidney disease patients. Both sedimentation rate, C - reactive protein and orosomucoid were higher in hemodialysis group than in chronic kidney disease group with 71 ± 35.3 mm vs. 42.1 ± 15.5 mm (p < 0.05); 14.6 ± 28.7 mg/l vs. 6.7 ± 8 mg/l (p = 0.02); 1.3 ± 0.7g/l vs. 0.9 ± 0.4 g/l (p = 0.01), respectively. Conclusion: Inflammation increases in dialysis patient. It deserves the nephrologist’s consideration in order to minimize its harmful effects. The monitoring of inflammation markers must be integrated into the nephrologist’s medical practice.
Massimetti Carlo, Bellasi Antonio, Feriozzi Sandro
Journal of Clinical Nephrology, Volume 5, pp 088-094;

Aim: Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is an often underestimated cause of anemia in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of pharmacological correction of SHPT on anemia and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) need. Methods: For the purpose of this retrospective pre-post observational study, we selected 55 HD patients, receiving HD at one single center, in the period from January 2005 to December 2020. The follow-up (F-U) lasted 12 months. The selection criteria were parathormone (PTH) levels > 300 pg/ mL, and hemoglobin (Hb) levels < 11 g/dL, despite treatment with ESAs. Parametric and non-parametric tests were used when appropriate. In the light of exploratory nature of the study, the limited sample size and in consideration of the pre-post-design, no further adjustment for potential confounders is performed. Results: The hemoglobin levels throughout the study were correlated to serum PTH (r = -.257, p < 0.01). At the end of the F-U, in the 40 patients whose PTH levels decreased ≥ 30% (responders group) Hb levels increased from 10.3 ± 0.5 g/dL to 12.2 ± 1.1 g/dL (p < 0.001), and ESAs doses decreased from 141 ± 101 IU/kg/b.w./week to 94 ± 76 IU/kg/b.w./week (p < 0.05). On the contrary, in the non-responders group Hb levels did not change 10.3 ± 0.5 gr/dL at baseline and 10.1 ± 1.1 gr/dL at F-U (P = NS), and the mean doses of ESAs increased from 144 ± 75 IU/kg/b.w./week to 218 ± 145 IU/kg/b.w./week (P = NS). Conclusion: Adequate control of SHPT is associated with concomitant improvement of anemia and decrease in ESAs need. Future endeavors are required to confirm these preliminary results.
Rice Christopher, Kosuru Vatsalya, White John Jason, Beek Christine Van, Elam Rachel, Clemenshaw Michael, Carbone Laura, James Leighton
Journal of Clinical Nephrology, Volume 5, pp 084-087;

Background: Relapsing polychondritis is a rare systemic disease characterized by recurrent inflammation, and often destruction, of cartilaginous tissues. Renal manifestations are rare. Membranous nephropathy complicating relapsing polychondritis has been reported only once previously, and there is no standardized treatment for membranous nephropathy associated with relapsing polychondritis. Case presentation: A 67-year-old Caucasian man with a history of chronic renal disease presented with 9 months of progressive dyspnea on exertion and 5 months of erythema, pain, and collapse of auricular cartilage. Imaging studies confirmed active inflammation of laryngeal, auricular, and costal cartilage and he was diagnosed with relapsing polychondritis. Patient had longstanding proteinuria and renal biopsy demonstrated membranous nephropathy. Patient initially showed renal and respiratory improvement with etanercept, a tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitor, treatment. However, subsequent disease and treatment-related complications led to a progressive overall clinical decline and patient died approximately 1 year following relapsing polychondritis diagnosis. Conclusion: Membranous nephropathy may rarely complicate relapsing polychondritis. In our case, both the cartilaginous inflammation and the renal disease improved after treatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha blockade, however complications of existing airway disease led to recurrent hospitalizations and eventually death.
Diab Anas, Pellegrino Beth, Neuman Michelle M, Diab Kareem
Journal of Clinical Nephrology, Volume 5, pp 081-083;

Hypercalcemia in End Stage Renal Disease on Dialysis, is a frustrating complication for both medical staff and patients, and it may lead to vascular calcification, Calciphylaxis, and even aggravating cardiovascular disease, even in the absence of risk factors which can lead to early death [1], and correcting Hypercalcemia even in the absence of hyperphosphatemia is out most important to improve co-morbid conditions and reduce mortality, most common causes in end stage renal disease, includes high calcium dialysis bath, high dietary intake of Calcium rich food, exogenous intake of calcium products, or excessive intake of Vitamin D, underlying Sarcoidosis, rare causes need to be explored in resistant cases, including Vitamin A toxicosis, as being presented in this case.
Tamzaourte Mouna, Zajjari Yassir, Berrag Sanae, Adioui Tarik, Aourarh Aziz, El Kabbaj Driss
Journal of Clinical Nephrology, Volume 5, pp 077-080;

The introduction of a new class of drugs known as direct acting antiviral (DAA) agents represents a revolution in the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the general population, as these regimens are associated with higher sustained virological response (SVR) rates and fewer side effects. However, for patients with advanced chronic kidney disease suffering from HVC infection, treatment options including DAA remain limited. The aim of this study is to report our experience on Sofosbuvir (SOF) based regimen in the treatment of HCV in hemodialysis patients. In this observational study, we included all patients with chronic HCV infection on hemodialysis who were treated with SOF in our Hospital between April 2016 and March 2018. All patients were treated with a combination of 400 mg of SOF three times a week after hemodialysis and of 60 mg of Daclatasvir daily for a total of 12 to 24 weeks. A total of 20 hemodialysis patients were included in this study. 12 were females and the mean age was 52.1 ± 15.5 years. 11 patients were infected with HCV genotypes 1b. All patients achieved SVR. Clinical and biological tolerance was very good for all patients and none of them had to discontinue treatment because of side effects or developed hepatobiliary and cardiac toxicity. Two patients reported fatigue and another patient reported headaches. However, these symptoms were spontaneously resolved after the end of the treatment. In Morocco, despite the absence of new DAA combination treatment regimens which are not renally eliminated, our study concludes that SOF based treatment without Ribavirin or Peginterferon was effective and safe with minimal side effects. However, larger studies are still needed in order to validate these results.
, McCracken Courtney, Lieberman Kenneth, Leong Traci, Benfield Mark R
Journal of Clinical Nephrology, Volume 5, pp 067-076;

Objective: We set up a U.S. registry to examine prescription patterns and patient outcomes of repository corticotropin injection (Acthar® Gel) for childhood nephrotic syndrome. Methods: 18 participating U.S. pediatric centers performed retrospective review and prospective observation of patients < 21 years old with nephrotic syndrome treated with Acthar Gel. We captured baseline characteristics, drug regimen and duration, and disease response following treatment. Results: 46 patients, enrolled from 2015 to 2020 were included. 27 (58.7%) were male. 18 patients (39.1%) had a diagnosis of minimal change followed by focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in 16 patients (34.7%). Median age at start of treatment was 12.5 years (IQR 8.5-17.4) compared to 5.3 years at diagnosis (IQR 2.7-10.5 years). 52% were resistant to corticosteroids. The most common Acthar Gel regimen was 80IU twice a week with a median duration of 199 days (IQR 88-365). Among 37 patients with active disease, 18 (49%) were able to achieve partial or complete remission, though all patients that had a positive response were on other immunosuppressants concomitantly. Conclusion: We report the findings of the largest registry cohort of pediatric patients in the U.S. treated with Acthar Gel for clinically challenging cases of nephrotic syndrome. Acthar Gel was successful in inducing remission in approximately half of the patients with active disease at time of treatment. No predictors of response with respect to demographic data, age at start of Acthar Gel therapy, etiology of nephrotic syndrome, presence or absence of comorbidities, or steroid responsiveness was noted.
Yang Qilin, Huang Weichao, Zeng Xiaomei, Zheng Jiezhao, Chen Weixiao,
Journal of Clinical Nephrology, Volume 5, pp 042-046;

Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major health problem affecting millions of people worldwide. Effective preventative and therapeutic treatments remain to be produced. We aim to determine the association between blood glucose and mortality in critical patients with AKI. Method: This cohort study included 18,703 patients with AKI. The exposure of interest was baseline blood glucose. The outcome was 30-day mortality. Multivariable Cox regression analyses and smooth curve fitting were adopted to assess the independent association between blood glucose and 30-day mortality. Results: We identified 18,703 consecutive individuals with AKI. The average age of the participants was 66.8 ± 16.0 years, and about 42.7% of them were female. The overall 30-day mortality was 16.9%. Through the multivariate COX regression model and smooth curve fitting, we observed that the correlation between blood glucose and 30-day mortality is nonlinear. An inflection point was found at about 5.93 mmol/L. On the left side of inflection point, the effect size was 0.81 (HR: 0.81, 95% CI 0.74-0.89, p < 0.001). On the right side of inflection point, the effect size was 1.02 (HR: 1.02,95% CI 1.01-1.03, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Our study suggested that, among patients with AKI, there was a nonlinearity relationship between blood glucose and mortality in patients with AKI. The optimal of blood glucose associated with the lowest risk of 30-day mortality was around 5.93 mmol/L.
, Aya Sobhi, Taoufiq Aatif, Mounia Azizi, Driss Kabbaj
Journal of Clinical Nephrology, Volume 5, pp 031-033;

Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a rare complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and carries a high mortality. It was first described by Osler in 1904 as the most devastating pulmonary complication of SLE. We describe a case of a 23-year-old girl recently diagnosed with SLE associated by a class III nephritis treated with oral corticoids and mycophenolate mofetil who developed a Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage DAH a few days later. The early diagnosis and the aggressive therapy allowed us to have a favorable outcome.
Nasrallah R, Zimpelmann J, Cheff V, Thibodeau Jf, Burns Kd,
Journal of Clinical Nephrology, Volume 5, pp 023-030;

Introduction: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors such as empagliflozin (EMPA) protect against diabetic kidney disease. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) the main renal product of cyclooxygenase-2, inhibits vasopressin (AVP)-water reabsorption in the collecting duct (CD). The novelty of this study is that for the first time, we examined if EMPA affects the renal PGE2/EP receptor system and determined if CD responses to EMPA prevent water loss. Methods: Four groups of adult male mice were studied after 6 weeks of treatment: control (db/m), db/m+EMPA (10 mg/kg/day in chow), type 2 diabetic diabetic/dyslipidemia (db/db), and db/db+EMPA. Tubules were microdissected for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and CD water transport was measured in response to AVP, with or without PGE2. Results: Hyperglycemia and albuminuria were attenuated by EMPA. Renal mRNA expression for COX, PGE synthase, PGE2 (EP) receptor subtypes, CD AVP V2 receptors and aquaporin-2 was elevated in db/db mice, but unchanged by EMPA. Urine PGE2 levels increased in db/db but were unchanged by EMPA. AVP-water reabsorption was comparable in db/m and db/m+EMPA, and equally attenuated to 50% by PGE2. In db/db mice, AVP-water reabsorption was reduced by 50% compared to non-diabetic mice, and this reduction was unaffected by EMPA. In db/db mice, AVP-stimulated water transport was more significantly attenuated with PGE2 (62%), compared to non-diabetic mice, but this attenuation was reduced in response to EMPA, to 28%. Conclusion: In summary, expression of renal PGE2/EP receptors is increased in db/db mice, and this expression is unaffected by EMPA. However, in diabetic CD, PGE2 caused a greater attenuation in AVP-stimulated water reabsorption, and this attenuation is reduced by EMPA. This suggests that EMPA attenuates diabetes-induced excess CD water loss.
Ferreira Braga Fernanda Nogueira Holanda, das Chagas Medeiros Marta Maria, Viana Jr. Antônio Brazil, Maia Barros Levi Coelho, Pontes Marcelo Ximenes, de Sousa Lima Matheus Eugênio, de Sousa Lima Allyson Wosley, Camurça Fernandes Paula Frassinetti Castelo Branco
Journal of Clinical Nephrology, Volume 5, pp 034-041;

Background: Lupus Nephritis (LN) occurs in approximately half of all patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and it is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with SLE. Factors associated with poor renal outcome vary among studies, and researches coming from Brazil are scarce. Objectives: To identify the prognostic factors associated to the development of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) in LN patients followed in a tertiary hospital. Design and Settings: We conducted a retrospective cohort study set in a tertiary hospital in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Methods: We compiled a total of 214 LN patients diagnosed between 1983 and 2015. Data was collected from medical records and further analyzed using logistic regression. Results: LN prevalence was 53.9%. The cohort had a mean follow-up of 11.2 years (SD ± 7.2 years). At the end of follow-up, 93 of 197 patients (47.2%) had CKD, and 49 of 191 (25.6%) were on regular dialysis. The main factors associated for developing CKD after logistic regression analysis were the following predictors: hypertension (HR 2.80; 95% CI 1.30-6.01; p = 0.008), time between diagnosis of SLE and diagnosis of LN (HR 0.98; 95% CI 0.97-0.99; p = 0.009) and discontinuation of medications (HR 2.41; 95% CI 1.08-5.37; p = 0.03). Conclusion: Hypertension, discontinuation of medications, and time between diagnosis of SLE and diagnosis of LN are independent variables associated with the development of CKD and ESDR in our study.
, , Durdu-Rayman Nazik
Journal of Clinical Nephrology, Volume 5, pp 017-022;

Background: Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a rare and life-threatening complication of prostate carcinoma. Whether plasma exchange has a role in treatment remains a subject of debate. Here we present a case followed by a systematic review of the literature on this subject. Case report: We describe a 69-year old patient presenting with TMA, which was associated with an underlying metastatic prostate carcinoma. We conducted a search of similar cases in literature. Results: Our patient was treated and responded well on plasma exchange. Systematic review of the literature showed 17 additional cases of TMA associated with prostate carcinoma of which eleven were treated with plasma exchange with mostly good response. Conclusion: Based on current data we cannot exclude a potential role for plasma exchange in prostate cancer associated TMA.
Yalamarti Tanuja, , Adu Ntoso Kwabena, Alborzi Pooneh
Journal of Clinical Nephrology, Volume 5, pp 010-016;

Background: There is enough evidence to suggest that vancomycin increases the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) but the exact mechanism is not well understood. This study aims to understand the incidence of vancomycin-associated acute kidney injury (VA-AKI) among hospitalized patients and to identify the risk factors for VA-AKI. Methods: Patients aged 18 and above who received a minimum of 24 hours of intravenous vancomycin and who had serial creatinine measurements over a 13-month period were identified through electronic records. Patients with pre-existing AKI, or eGFR of less than 30ml/min, and patients with end stage kidney disease were excluded. Results were analyzed using t-test and Fisher’s test. A logistic regression model was used to identify the predictors for VA-AKI. Results: From the 598 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 70 developed AKI. Compared to those without AKI, patients with VA-AKI had higher mean serum vancomycin trough levels (22.6 mg/L vs. 14.6 mg/L), and a statistically significant longer duration of vancomycin use (6.7 vs. 5.2 days). Multivariate analysis revealed that serum vancomycin level of > 20 mg/L was associated with a six-fold increase in odds of VA-AKI when compared to those with vancomycin levels < 15 mg/L. The presence of hypotension, iodinated contrast use, and concomitant use of piperacillin-tazobactam were all associated with increased odds of VA-AKI. Conclusion: The incidence of VA-AKI in hospitalized patients with eGFR > 30 ml/min was 11.7%. Serum vancomycin levels of > 20 mg/L, hypotension and administration of iodinated contrast significantly increased the risk of VA-AKI. Piperacillin-tazobactam, when used with vancomycin, was noted to be an independent predictor of AKI, regardless of serum vancomycin trough levels, prompting a reevaluation of the safety of this widespread practice as empiric therapy. Close monitoring of kidney function, avoiding high serum vancomycin levels, maintaining hemodynamic stability, and avoiding unnecessary use of iodinated contrast seem to be essential for the prevention of VA-AKI.
, Manetti Alice Chiara, Maiese Aniello, Scopetti Matteo, Di Paolo Marco
Journal of Clinical Nephrology, Volume 5, pp 008-009;

, Al-Musawa Fatima E, Shadi Bagherzadeh, Siamak M Seraj, Amirhossein Afshar
Journal of Clinical Nephrology, Volume 5, pp 001-007;

Background: Glomerular hyperfiltration (GH) is a common feature of sickle cell nephropathy (SCN) starting at infancy and represents an early marker of incipient glomerular injury and renal dysfunction. Methods: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of GH among children (≤ 16 years) with sickle cell disease (SCD) at their steady state, recruited over 6 months at the Pediatric Outpatient Clinic in Al-Sadaqa General Teaching Hospital, Aden, Yemen. Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated using the Schwartz formula. Data on clinical history, anthropometry, blood pressure (BP) and laboratory investigations were collected. Results: Of 101 children (mean age 7.2 ± 3.9 years), 65 (64.4%) were males. The prevalence of GH was observed in 36 (35.6%) children, who were significantly older (10.7 ± 3.2 vs. 5.2 ± 2.7 years, p < 0.001) and had a lower fetal Hb level (5 ± 3.3 vs. 9 ± 7.1, p = 0.02). All children were normotensive, but hyperfiltrating children showed significantly higher systolic (97.2 ± 7.3 vs. 89.7 ± 5.2 mmHg) and diastolic pressure (55.1 ± 5.0 vs. 49 ± 4.3 mmHg) (all p < 0.001). Among evaluated children, 25.7% had hyperfiltration alone, whereas 9.9% had an associated microalbuminuria (MA), and no significant difference in eGFR between those with and without MA (158.4 ± 33.7 vs. 160.7 ± 29.8 ml/min/173m2, p = 0.84). Conclusion: This study demonstrated a relatively high prevalence of GH in Yemeni children with SCD that increased with age. Recognition of hyperfiltration and other early markers of nephropathy in this population could help to develop renal protective strategies to prevent progressive loss of kidney function.
Bagherzadeh Shadi, Seraj Siamak M,
Journal of Clinical Nephrology, Volume 4, pp 080-083;

A 66-year-old male with no known past medical history presented with history of two days of throbbing frontal headache associated with nausea, vomiting and left-sided facial droop. The patient also reported dizziness, subjective chills without cough, shortness of breath, or sputum production. Laboratory findings revealed elevated inflammatory markers but normal thyroid, kidney, and liver function tests. Initial sodium level was 126 mEq/L. Urine studies showed elevated urine osmolality of 647 mOsm/Kg and urine sodium level of 175 mEq/L, both suggestive of syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). The TSH and ACTH stimulation tests both came back as normal. CT scan of the chest showed no evidence of lung infiltrates. Diffusion weighted MRI of the brain showed no evidence of acute or subacute CVA. SARS-CoV-2 nasal swab test was resulted positive. With these findings we diagnosed our patient with SIADH. Patient was initially started on 3% saline infusion for symptomatic hyponatremia. A fluid restricted diet was enforced. Patient was also started on salt tablets in order to increase solute intake. Sodium slowly corrected throughout the hospitalization. Of note, our patient never became hypoxic, neither did he show evidence of clinical pneumonia. A CT imaging of the chest showed no lung infiltrates, and an MRI of the brain was negative for any acute intracranial abnormalities. This case highlights the role of early recognition of SIADH in the setting of SARS-CoV-2 infection even in the absence of hypoxemia or lung pathology.
, Brinton John T, Beil Liz, Soranno Danielle E, Gist Katja M
Journal of Clinical Nephrology, Volume 4, pp 070-076;

Severe Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is a common, serious problem affecting critically ill children that lacks effective treatment options. Currently, there are no treatment options for AKI other than supportive care. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is employed to reduce Fluid Overload (FO) burden and treat metabolic disturbances in AKI. Identifying patients upon admission who may require CRRT has potential clinical care implications. The aim of this study was to determine if the RAI had diagnostic capabilities to identify patients who would require CRRT. The analytic cohort consisted of patients who required CRRT and illness severity score matched controls who did not require CRRT at a single center. Patients who required CRRT had higher mortality rates, length of stay, and use of ventilatory and inotropic support. Sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) assessed and compared the discriminatory accuracy of three scores: 1) the renal angina index (RAI), 2) serum-creatinine (sCr) based AKI on day 0 and 3) modified RAI created with an additional RAI injury tranche that corresponded to severe stage 3 AKI sCr elevation. Compared to Day0AKI (AUC 0.78, 0.70-0.87; sensitivity 0.63, 0.45-0.79; specificity 0.93, 0.870.97) and RAI (AUC 0.76, 0.69-0.82; sensitivity 0.94, 0.81-0.99; specificity 0.57, 0.47-0.66), the modified RAI had the highest AUC (0.79; 0.72-0.85) with a high sensitivity (0.91; 0.77-0.98) and moderate specificity (0.65; 0.56-0.75) for prediction of CRRT requirements. As a more accurate tool for discriminating patients in need of CRRT, a modified RAI has numerous potential implications. Identifying patients who ultimately require CRRT at an earlier timepoint may influence timing of CRRT initiation in an attempt to avoid further FO, or may influence nephrotoxin administration. The diagnostic capabilities of the modified RAI may be refined by the addition of urinary biomarkers. These findings should be validated in a larger cohort.
, Neuman Michelle M, Diab Kareem, Gordon Daniel
Journal of Clinical Nephrology, Volume 4, pp 077-079;

Oxalate nephropathy due to Hyperoxaluria and elevated serum oxalate level is a well-known cause for interstitial fibrosis, and ESRD. Conditions associated with high serum Oxalate, should be considered as a possible contributing factor for a patient’s tubular injury. Well known cause for Hyperoxaluria including enteric Hyperoxaluria (due to gastric bypass, chronic pancreatitis, small Bowel resection, or malabsorption, as well as depletion of enteric oxalate-degrading bacteria [e.g., Oxalobacter). Other known causes of oxalate nephropathy include primary Hyperoxaluria, ethylene glycol intoxication, vitamin B6 deficiency, excessive ingestion of vitamin C or dietary substances rich in oxalic acid, aspergillosis, prolonged renal failure and various drugs (e.g., Known medications to cause Oxalate Nephropathy are: Orlistat, Praxilene, COX-2 inhibitors). Unusual presentation with Acute Kidney Injury with incidental finding of high serum Oxalate in a patient with a known CKD stage III, recently started on Polyethelene Glycol to treat his constipation.
Munoz-Martinez Alejandro, Akbar Waheed Maham, D Jhaveri Kenar, Rojas-Marte Geurys
Journal of Clinical Nephrology, Volume 4, pp 065-069;

A novel coronavirus known as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with a high rate of human-to-human transmission has emerged, resulting in a worldwide public health crisis of catastrophic proportions. Common initial symptoms of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) include fever, cough, fatigue, myalgia, and shortness of breath. Complications include acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), acute cardiac injury, acute kidney injury, and secondary infections [1,2]. There have been reports of patients infected with COVID-19 who either presented with muscle pain and rhabdomyolysis or developed muscle damage as a late complication during hospitalization [3-8].
, Flores Arizmendi Karla Adney, Gahona Villegas Junior Rafael, Yepes Genoy Paola Andrea, Garza Guerrero Elena Lissette
Journal of Clinical Nephrology, Volume 4, pp 061-064;

Background: Down syndrome (DS) is associated with various congenital diseases and malformations, including those of the kidneys and urinary tract. It has been thought that renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is more frequent in this population. The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of RTA and, secondarily, of other renal and urological disorders in persons with DS. Method: An observational, ambispective, descriptive and cross-sectional study of patients diagnosed with RTA, or suspected kidney or urological disorders, was carried out from July 2016 to September 2017 at the Down syndrome clinic of the Mexican National Institute of Paediatrics. Urinalysis was performed, along with analyses of venous blood gas, sodium, potassium, chlorine, calcium, phosphorus, albumin and creatinine. Those with any abnormal values were referred to nephrology for diagnostic evaluation. Results: Of a total of 700 patients seen at the clinic, 47 met the selection criteria. Of these, 32 had no RTA or other renal or urological alterations. The remaining 15 continued to the second phase of the study, where 6 were diagnosed with nephropathy or uropathy (RTA, systemic arterial hypertension, monosymptomatic familial haematuria, mild renal failure secondary to reflux nephropathy, urinary tract infection or right ureteropelvic stenosis). Four had mild metabolic acidosis without meeting the criteria for diagnosis of RTA. Conclusion: RTA is not more common in children with Down syndrome. Nephropathies and uropathies should be investigated in the evaluation of DS patients.
Rey-Vela Emilio, Muñoz Jesús, Rico-Fontalvo Jorge, Daza-Arnedo Rodrigo, Portela-Buelvas Katherin, Pájaro-Galvis Nehomar, Leal-Martínez Víctor, Abuabara-Franco Emilio, Cabrales-Juan José, Marín Leonardo, et al.
Journal of Clinical Nephrology, Volume 4, pp 056-060;

Rico-Fontalvo Jorge, Daza-Arnedo Rodrigo, Cardona-Blanco Maria Ximena, Leal-Martínez Victor, Abuabara-Franco Emilio, Pajaro-Galvis Nehomar, Cabrales Jose, Correa José, Cueto Manuel, Duran Amable, et al.
Journal of Clinical Nephrology, Volume 4, pp 044-55;

Pajaro Galvis Nehomar, Nehomar Pajaro Galvis, Jorge Rico-Fontalvo, Rodrigo Daza-Arnedo, Maria Ximena Cardona-Blanco, Emilio Abuabara-Franco, Victor Leal-Martínez, Jose Cabrales-Juan, José Correa-Guerrero, José Bohórquez-Rivero, et al.
Journal of Clinical Nephrology, Volume 4, pp 027-035;

Moreira Raquel M, , Dias Cristiane B, Yu Luis, Woronik Viktoria, Cavalcante Livia B
Journal of Clinical Nephrology, Volume 3, pp 186-186;

, Kafayat Aminu, A Adeolu Augustine, O Adeleye Amos, A Balogun James, A Badejo Oluwakemi, T Shokunbi Mathew, S Jegede Ayodele
Journal of Clinical Nephrology, Volume 3, pp 175-180;

Levin Daniel B, Malik Umar, Ajaaj Ihab, Blaschke Jon P, Skipper Betty, McClelland Sandra L, Fagan Kathleen, Harford Antonia M, Zager Philip G,
Journal of Clinical Nephrology, Volume 3, pp 154-160;

D Martínez-López, D Jover-Ríos, P Esteve-Atiénzar, J Méndez-Mora, Jm Seguí- Ripoll, A Méndez-Jover, F Caparrós-Hernández, V Jordá-Climent, C Seguí-Pérez, C García-Cervera, et al.
Journal of Clinical Nephrology, Volume 3, pp 148-153;

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