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Results in Journal Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar: 127

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Elsera Br Tarigan, Juniaty Towaha
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 4, pp 163-170; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v4n3.2017.p163-170

Abstract:
Robusta coffee is the most widely cultivated coffee in Indonesia. However, flavor quality of coffee is low due to improper harvesting and postharvest handling by farmers. Flavor quality mostly determined by fruit maturity level, fermentation and roasting time. The research aimed to investigate the effect of fruit maturity level, fermentation and roasting time on the physico-chemical characteristics of Robusta coffee. The research was conducted at Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute (IIBCRI), from May to July 2017, used a completely ranndomized block design with 3 factors. The first factor was fruit maturity level (red and reddish yellow), second factor was bean fermentation (24 and 36 hours) and the third factor was roasting time (10 and 13 minutes). Physical quality covered percentage of live insects, moisture content, foreign materials and amount of defective beans. Chemical quality covered moisture content, ash, fat, protein, caffeine and acidity. The results showed that physical quality of fermented beans i.e. moisture content and amount of defective beans were affected by fruit maturity level and fermentation time, while foreign materials is affected by the interaction between these two factors. Chemical quality of coffee i.e. fat and caffeine content were affected by the interaction between fruit maturity level, and fermentation and roasting time. Water and protein content were affected by interaction between fruit maturity level and fermentation time, and interaction between fruit maturity level and roasting time. The ash content is affected by the roasting time, whereas pH is affected by fermentation time and roasting time.
Meynarti Sari Dewi Ibrahim, Rr. Sri Hartati
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 4, pp 121-132; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v4n3.2017.p121-132

Abstract:
Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora) is a cross-pollinated plant, therefore vegetative propagation is necessary to ensure identical traits with parents, such as tissue culture techniques through somatic embryo. The study aimed to find the effect of plant growth regulator 2.4-D and thidiazuron in inducing embryogenic callus, by adding incision area on leaf explant, and to evaluate addition of GA3 in increasing somatic embryo conversion. The study was conducted from December 2014 to June 2016 in the Tissue Culture Laboratory, IAARD, Bogor. The research consisted of 2 stages. Stage 1 used a complete randomized design of 2 factors; the first factor was a combination of plant growth regulator 2.4-D (1.0 and 2.0 mg/l) and thidiazuron (1.0; 3.0; and 5.0 mg/l), the second factor was leaf incision (slashed and unslashed). Stage 2 used a complete randomized design, with GA3 treatment at different concentrations (0.0; 0.5; and 1.0 mg/l). Observed variables were percentage of callus formation, fresh weight of callus, number of torpedoes, number of somatic embryos at cotyledon stage, and number of germinated embryo. The results showed growth regulatory treatments influenced the percentage of embryogenic callus formation and fresh weight of callus. Extra incision on leaf showed no effect in embryogenic callus induction. Embryogenic callus inducted using 2.4-D 1.0 mg/l + thidiazuron 5.0 mg/l medium which then regenerated in ½ MS medium added with kinetin 2 mg/l exhibited the highest number of germination. Adding GA3 0.1 mg/l in regeneration medium is recommended to increase somatic embryos of Robusta coffee BP 308 clone.
Syafaruddin Syafaruddin, Dani Dani, Marcia Bunga Pabendon
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 4, pp 133-144; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v4n3.2017.p133-144

Abstract:
Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora var. robusta) is the most extensive developed in Indonesia, including Pagar Alam, South Sumatra. In the last few decades, many farmers in Pagar Alam conducted clonal selection and rehabilitation of Robusta coffee trees that generated indigenous clonal populations. This pattern in the long period can damage important alleles and reduce the genetic diversity of indigenous Robusta coffee in farmland. The research aimed to know the genetic diversity among indigenous Robusta coffee clones developed in Pagar Alam based on SSR markers. The study was conducted at Molecular Biology Laboratory, Cereals Research Institute, Maros, from February to April 2017. Molecular characterization of 19 indigenous Robusta coffee clones was conducted using 33 polymorphic SSR markers. The resulting binary data was then analyzed using PowerMarker program to determine polymorphism value (PIC), number and diversity of alleles, and heterozygosity values. The results showed that 33 polymorphic SSR loci produced 134 alleles with an average of 4.06 alleles/locus, whereas PIC values ranged from 0.09–0.77 with an average of 0.48. Of the 33 SSR loci, 19 loci (57.58%) exhibited very informative PIC value (> 0.55). Dendrogram generated using NTSYS program divided 19 indigenous Robusta coffee clones into 4 clusters at 0.53 similarity coefficient. KPA41clone was separated in its own cluster, potentially crossed with other clones. Based on genetic distance values >0.55, could arrange 14 combinations of interclonal crosses that potentially increase the genetic variability of indigenous Robusta coffee from Pagar Alam.
Dewi Listyati, Bedy Sudjarmoko, Abdul Muis Hasibuan, Enny Randriani
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 4, pp 145-152; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v4n3.2017.p145-152

Abstract:
Coffee farming is economically important for farmers in Bengkulu and the demand/consumption is also increasing which prompted the government to promote its development to improve the community economy. This research aimed to find the economic contributions of coffee farming and a general overview of its marketing by survey method, conducted from May to August 2014 in Rejang Lebong, Bengkulu. Data were collected from 40 respondents (farmers, traders at village and district level, wholesalers, and exporters), analyzed by cross tabulations, which then explained descriptively. The result showed that coffee farming in Bengkulu provides reasonable revenue for farmers, which can reach up to IDR8,417,600.00/ha with a value of R/C ratio of 1.87 for Robusta coffee farmers. The coffee chain marketing of Robusta coffee involving farmers as producers, traders at village or subdistrict level as initial gatherers who sell to wholesalers. Coffee marketing in Bengkulu is fairly efficient with relatively low market margin and the producers receive more than 50%.
Cici Tresniawati, Nur Kholilatul Izzah, Indah Sulistiyorini, Ilham Nur Ardhi Wicaksono
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 4, pp 79-88; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v4n2.2017.p79-88

Abstract:
Indonesia is the third largest cacao producing-country in the world and known having many superior local clones, such as that found in Lima Puluh Kota Regency, West Sumatra. However, there is lack of information about genetic background of those local cacao clones. This study aimed to assess genetic variability of 11 local cacao clones collected from Lima Puluh Kota Regency, West Sumatra using SSR markers. The research was conducted in the Integrated Laboratory, Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute (IIBCRI), Sukabumi, from August to November 2016. The genetic variabilities of local cacao studied were compared with 9 national varieties as reference genomes. Total genomic DNA of the plants was isolated using CTAB method. Cacao DNA was amplified using 18 SSR markers to determine their genetic variability. Afterward, the amplified DNA was separated using 6% non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The result exhibited that 12 markers were polymorphic. Further analysis of these polymorphic markers using PowerMarker program revealed a total of 83 alleles were obtained from all cacao clones analyzed. Meanwhile, PIC values ranged from 0.55 to 0.86 with an average of 0.70. A genetic similarity matrix based on UPGMA revealed three main groups at 68% similarity coefficients. Interestingly, all of the 11 local cacao clones were clearly distinguished each other and also from the national varieties. The result demonstrated the usefulness of SSR markers for discriminating local cacao clones. Further study is required to use these local clones in cacao breeding programs.
Kurnia Dewi Sasmita, Iswandi Anas, Syaiful Anwar, Sudirman Yahya, Gunawan Djajakirana
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 4, pp 107-120; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v4n2.2017.p107-120

Abstract:
Using acid soil as a cacao seedling medium limits the seedling growth due to low fertility, thus necessitating soil ameliorant treatment to improve its chemical, physical, and biological quality. This study aimed to investigate the effect of cacao husks as organic fertilizer and biochar on chemical and biological properties of seedling media and cacao seedling growth, was conducted in Soil Biotechnology Laboratory and Soil Fertility Laboratory, Bogor Agricultural University and Pakuwon Experimental Station at Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute (IIBCRI), Sukabumi, from June 2014 until February 2015. Completely randomized design (CRD) was used in the factorial treatment with three factors: (1) organic fertilizer treatment (without organic fertilizer and with organic fertilizer 10% of the weight of seedling media), (2) the types of biochar (rice husk and white albizia wood), and (3) the doses of biochar (0%, 1%, 2%, 4%, 6% of the weight of seedling media), with three replications respectively. Observation was on chemical and biological properties of the soil and seedling growth. The results showed that organic fertilizer or albizia wood biochar application significantly improved C-organic and C/N ratio. Increasing the dose of biochar or organic fertilizer application raised the pH, total N, and microbes respiration, whereas without organic fertilizer was linearly able to improve total population of microbes but not the dry weight of cacao seedling. The combination of biochar and organic fertilizers increased the stem diameter and dry weight of cacao seedling.
Aidha Utami, Dadang Dadang, Ali Nurmansyah, I Wayan Laba
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 4, pp 89-98; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v4n2.2017.p89-98

Abstract:
In Indonesia, Helopeltis antonii Signoret is one damaging pest in cacao plant which may cause 60% production loss. Farmers have been using synthetic insecticides to control it. However, insecticides use with inappropriate dose can lead to resistance. The research aimed to determine the resistance level of H. antonii against three types of insecticides. The research was conducted at Green House of Indonesian Spice and Medicinal Crops Research Institute, Bogor. Collection of field population and interview of insecticides use was conducted at cacao plantation in Bogor, Ciamis, and Sukabumi, West Java from August 2016 to June 2017. The insect used was 3rd instar which divided into two groups, laboratory and field populations. Insecticides used contained active ingredients of chlorpyrifos (organophosphate), lambda-cyhalothrin (pyrethroid), and thiamethoxam (neonicotinoid). Cucumber was used as feed substitute for the multiplication of H. antonii test. The experiment was performed using five insecticide concentrations determined by preliminary test result. The relationships between insecticide concentration and insect mortality was analyzed by probit program. The interviews indicated that the insecticides widely used by farmers are pyrethroid type. The result demonstrated that field population of H. antonii from Bogor and Ciamis were resistant to lambda-cyhalothrin with resistance ratio (RR) of 4.2 and 10.8, respectively, whereas population from Sukabumi had RR value of 1.2. All field population of H. antonii showed resistance indication against thiamethoxam with RR ranged from 1.8 to 3.1. Resistance indication to chlorpyrifos was only shown by population from Bogor (RR 1.5).
Gusti Indriati, Khaerati Khaerati, Iing Sobari, Dibyo Pranowo
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 4, pp 99-106; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v4n2.2017.p99-106

Abstract:
Xylosandrus compactus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is one main pest in coffee plant which damages the branches. Each Robusta coffee clones has unique genetical, physiological, and morphological characteristics, thus presumably has different resistance levels to X. Compactus. This study aimed to determine the attack intensity of X. compactus on four Robusta coffee clones (SA 237, BP 308, BP 358 and RBGN 371) in the field. The research was conducted at Pakuwon Experimental Station and Integrated Laboratory of the Indonesian Industrial and Beverages Crops Research Institute (IIBCRI), Sukabumi, from September to Desember 2016. Three years old Robusta coffee plants of SA 237, BP 308, BP 358, and RBGN 371 clones were used, with 2.5 m x 2.5 m spacing and Gliricidia sepium, Musa paradisiaca, and Aleurites trisperma as shading plants. Variables observed were the attack symptoms in the hole, the insects stadia, the hole diameter, number and length of eggs, number and length of larvae, length and width of X. compactus imago, the attack symptoms and intensity. Moreover, sunlight intensity and water content of coffee branch was also observed as supportiing data. Data were analyzed by anova of completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 treatments of coffee clones and 6 replications. The results showed that attack of X. compactus was occurred at the branch of coffee plant, which potentially causing crops damage. Of the four Robusta coffee clones observed showed that the highest attack intensity and number of holes occurred in SA 237 clone, and the lowest in RBGN 371 clone.
, Dani Dani, Edi Wardiana
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 4; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v4n1.2017.p41-48

Abstract:
In cacao crossing process, the genetic symptoms of direct effect of male parent as a pollen source on pod and beans performances generated from their crossing are called as the xenia effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of male parents on characters of pod and bean components generated from the crossing of several genotypes of fine cacao. The research was conducted at Kalikempit Afdeling of PTPN XII, Tulungrejo Village, Glenmore District, Banyuwangi Regency, East Java Province, at an altitude of 340 m asl, Latosol type of soil, and C type of climate, from May until December 2014. Crossing combinations were (1) DR 38 x DR 1, (2) DR 38 x DR 38, (3) DR 2 x DR 1, (4) DR 2 x DR 2, (5) DRC 16 x DR 38, and (6) DRC 16 x DRC 16. Variables observed were the quantitative and qualitative characters of pod and bean component. The results showed that male parent DR 1 crossed with female parent DR 2 contributed in increasing fresh bean weight (34.70%), fresh bean/pod weight (44.32%), fresh single bean weight (31.00%), pod apex and base constriction shapes. Meanwhile DR 38 crossed with DRC 16 showed xenia effect on fresh bean weight (47.01%), bean (31.22%), and qualitative characters i.e. the colour of mature pod and the availability of bottle neck. All of crossing combinations produced white colour beans above 85% thus qualified as good. DR 2 and DR 38 are potential male parents to enhance the number of white bean.
Saefudin Saefudin
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 4, pp 49-56; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v4n1.2017.p49-56

Abstract:
The needs of fertilizer for immature rubber plant (IRP) is influenced by many factors, including the type of soil, clones, plant age and cultivation technique. Information on fertilizers needs of IRP on various types of soils is still limited. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the response of the IRP toward organic and inorganic fertilizers in latosol soil in Sukabumi, West Java. The research was conducted at Pakuwon Experimental Station, Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crop Research Institute (IIBCRI) Sukabumi from June 2014 until June 2016. The research used split plot design with three replications. The main plot was organic fertilizer doses (0, 2, and 4 kg/plant), whereas the subplot was anorganic fertilizers doses (50%, 75%, 100%, and 125% from recommended dose). Variable observed were stem girth and length, leaf number, and leaf density of the apical branch, length of petiole, length and width of leaflet. The results showed that there was no significant interaction between dose treatment of organic fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer on all parameters of IRP grown on latosol soil in Sukabumi. Organic fertilizer significantly affect the character of stem girth, length and width of the leaflet. The more organic fertilizer given, the bigger stem girth of IRP, but the smaller length and width of the leaflet.
, Rifda Roswita
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 4; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v4n1.2017.p23-30

Abstract:
West Sumatra is one of the cacao plantation development areas in the western region of Indonesia coverages 150,319 ha. However, its productivity and quality are low due to a little adoption of cacao culture techniques and quality by farmers. One of the strategies to accelerate and expand the adoption technology is utilization of multi-channel dissemination spectrum (MCDS). This research aimed to improve the adoption of cacao technology innovations and cacao quality by cacao farmers in West Sumatra. The research was conducted at two centre cocoa areas, i.e. Padang Pariaman and Pasaman, from March until December 2013. The research activities consisted of (1) a base line survey to determine the adoption level of innovation and the need for cacao cultivation and post-harvest technology, (2) the dissemination of technology based on the MCDS model, initiated with advocacy, field school, distribution of printed media, setting up of demonstration plots of technology innovation, and a field day; and (3) the final survey to determine the effect of technology adoption on improvement of cacao quality. The results showed that a low technology adoption was associated with farmers’s education levels and experiences. The technology needed by cocoa farmers at both locations were pruning, fertilizing, side-grafting technology, developing small canals for plantation sanitation and water conservation, pest and disease control technology, fermentation and drying of cocoa beans. The average increase in the adoption of technology innovations in Padang Pariaman and Pasaman districts was 45.54% and 53.31%, respectively. The adoption of fermented cocoa beans technology increased cocoa quality tobecome a class III-A and complied with the Indonesian National Standard.
, Anna Fariyanti, Netti Tinaprilla
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 4, pp 31-40; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v4n1.2017.p31-40

Abstract:
Low productivity is the main problem in smallholder cacao plantation. One effort to overcome the problem is through rehabilitation. The research aimed to (1) analyze the factors affecting cocoa bean production, (2) analyze technical efficiency level, and (3) analyze the factors affecting technical efficiency of smallholder cacao plantation in Lampung Province. The research was conducted in Tanggamus and Pringsewu Regency, Lampung, from September to November 2015. A purposive sampling was used which obtained 32 samples of farmers as respondents from rehabilitated plantation with side-grafting technique and non-rehabilitated plantation, respectively. Data were analyzed using stochastic frontier analysis. The results indicated 4 factors affecting smallholders cacao production in Lampung Province, namely land, chemical fertilizer, family-labour, and rent-labour. Smallholder cacao plantation in Lampung Province was technically efficient (0.82) which affected by farmers’ age, farmers’ dependents, farmers group membership, and side-grafting application. Rehabilitated smallholder cacao plantation also showed higher level (ET=0.92) than non-rehabilitated one (ET=0.73). The research implicates on increasing smallholder cacao productivity in Lampung Province, especially the local government, to put more priorities in those factors significantly affecting smallholder cacao production, as well as to give support and facilitate plant rehabilitation program using side-grafting methods.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 4; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v4n1.2017.p1-12

Abstract:
One of the factors that affect the productivity of cacao plants is water availability. Water deficit will negatively affect the development of cacao flowers and beans. Water stress is reported as one of the causes of low productivity on plantation crops in Lampung Province. The study was aimed to analyze the characteristics of agroecology and supplemental irrigation required for growth and production of cacao in Lampung. The research was carried out in the District of Pesawaran, Tanggamus, East Lampung, and South Lampung, Lampung Province, from 2012 to 2015. The study was conducted with the survey method and literature study for the collection of the primary and secondary data, related to the characteristics of the land agroecology. Geographically, the main cacao growing areas in this region is divided into two regions, western region consist of Pesawaran and Tanggamus District and east region comprise of East Lampung and South Lampung District. Based on agroecological zones, the planting of cacao in both regions is in accordance with the recommendations of land use. However, land suitability analysis showed that some of the agroecological characteristics of land becomes a limiting factor for the growth and production of cacao, including soil pH < 5.5, low cations exchange capacity (CEC) (< 16 cmol(+)/kg), air humidity > 75%, and in some areas there is an erosion hazard. Another obstacle is the water deficit that occurs during 140 days within 1 year of cacao growth cycle that occurred in July until mid-November. There are two factors that can be applied to increase cacao productivity in Lampung province, i.e. (1) an improvement of cacao cultivation technology that can address the characteristics of agroecology as a limiting factor of growth, and (2) an application of a supplemental irrigation technology to avoid cacao from water stress. The requirement of supplemental irrigation is 340.5 mm in western region and 209.7 mm in eastern region of Lampung.
Ilham Nur Ardhi Wicaksono, Rubiyo Rubiyo, Dewi Sukma,
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 4; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v4n1.2017.p13-22

Abstract:
Analysis of genetic diversity of cacao germplasm collections using molecular markers has an important role in the assembly of new superior clones. The availability of commercial and superior local clones could increase the success of new superior clones’ assembly. Hence, the genetic diversity analysis of these materials needs to be done. The study was aimed to analyze genetic diversity of 28 cacao collections based on SSR markers that would be useful for selection of parental lines. The research was conducted in the Integrated Laboratory, Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute, Sukabumi, and Plant Molecular Biology laboratory, Bogor Agricultural University, from November 2015 to May 2016. Analysis of genetic diversity was conducted using 28 cacao clones (13 superior local clones and 15 commercial clones). DNA was extraction using CTAB method, which then amplified by PCR technique using 20 SSR primers. The result showed that all SSR markers used in this study were polymorphic with an average value of PIC was high (57%). Phylogenetic tree constructed using DARwin program version 6.05 is divided into 3 major groups, which placed commercial and superior local clones together in each group. Superior local clones observed herein might have close relationships with commercial clones that have long been cultivated in Indonesia. Furthermore, some cacao clones could potentially be parental lines because they had high genetic distance. The results showed that SSR markers are powerful tools to determine potential parental lines, which is expected to increase the chances of heterosis in their progenies.
, Enny Randriani, Syafaruddin Syafaruddin
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 3; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v3n3.2016.p167-174

Abstract:
The yellow Arabica coffee (AGK-1) is a superior local cultivar that has been widely developed in the Garut regency and several other districts in West Java. The advantages of this cultivar are high productivity, large berry size, and specialty flavor quality. One of the obstacles in its development is the coffee berry borer (CBB attack), caused by Hypothenemus hampei, which is the main pest of coffee plants worldwide. The objective of the study was to evaluate the percentage of infestation in Arabica coffee cultivars of AGK-1 both in laboratory and on field studies. The research was conducted from March to August 2016. The observation of CBB infestation level in the field was carried out in Ciawer and Legok Gede Village, Cikajang District, Garut Regency, West Java, taken on 4 years old plants (1,450 m asl), 6 years (1,300 m asl), 9 years (1,350 m asl), and 11 years (1,300 m asl). Infestation testing of CBB was conducted in laboratory of Plant Protection of Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute (IIBCRI), Sukabumi, using the method of choice and non choice test. The result showed that the percentage of H. hampei infestation on AGK-1 yellow Arabica coffee cultivar on field at all age and altitudes was low (3.24%–6.76%). Whereas laboratory testing showed that infestation level of CBB on yellow Arabica coffee cultivar AGK-1 as the highest, both from the choice and non choice test (51.25% and 17.5% respectively). On the other hand, the berry damage was low and not significantly different from other cultivars/varieties (19.37% and 6.25% respectively).
Nur Ajijah
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 3, pp 127-134; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v3n3.2016.p127-134

Abstract:
The composition of basal medium determines the regeneration success of in vitro culture. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of basal medium in the primary callus induction medium and explant type on the formation of cacao somatic embryo. The research was conducted at the Tissue Culture Laboratory of IAARD, Bogor, from June 2014 to December 2015. Primary callus induction derived from staminoid and petal explants of ICCRI 4 clone used two types of basal medium, i.e. DKW+ 9 µM 2.4-D + 1.16 µM kinetin or WPM + 9 µM 2.4-D + 1.16 µM kinetin. After 14 days, callus was subcultured onto secondary callus induction medium (WPM + 2.4-D 9 μM + kinetin 0.58 μM), and then onto DKW medium without growth regulators to induce the formation of somatic embryo. The research was designed in two-factor factorial design with five replications. The first factor was the type of basal medium on the primary callus induction medium (DKW and WPM) and the second factor was the type of explants (petal and staminoid). The results showed significant interaction effect between basal medium type and explant type on the formation of callus and somatic embryo of cacao. The highest percentage of callus formation was derived from staminoid explants on the DKW basal salt medium (92.5%). However, the highest percentage of somatic embryo formation and the number of somatic embryo per explant were obtained from DKW basal salt medium with petal explants (36.5% and 2.3). Therefore, the use of DKW basal salt medium and petal explant were recommended for the induction of somatic embryo of the ICCRI 4 clone.
, Dewi Nur Rokhmah, Saefudin Saefudin
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 3; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v3n3.2016.p135-140

Abstract:
The distance between the location of cuttings nursery and scions garden of Robusta coffee is considered as the main obstacle of cuttings viability during distribution period. One alternative to solve the problem is the utilization of packaging to keep the moisture of scions and viability of Robusta coffee cuttings. This study aimed to investigate the packaging technique of scions during the distribution period to maintain the viability. The experiment was conducted in the Integrated Laboratory and Pakuwon Experimental Station, Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute (IIBCRI), Sukabumi, from January to December 2015. The study used a split plot in time design with 5 replications. The main plot was the distribution periods of scion (7 and 10 days), while the subplot consisted of 3 types of packaging (plastic, paper, and sawdust), and all treatments of packaging type were added with polyacrylamide superabsorbent polymer. Variables observed were the water content; cuttings viability; weight of dry leaves and number of leaves; number, length, volume, and weight of dry roots; auxin and carbohydrate contents at two months after sowing. In addition, the economic effects of packaging types were analyzed. The results showed that the distribution periods of 7 and 10 days were able to maintain the viability of the Robusta coffee cuttings of 55.63%–64.01%. The recommended packaging type is plastic + superabsorbent polyacrylamide polymer for its low cost and the lightest.
, Yulius Ferry, Samsudin Samsudin, Rita Harni
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 3; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v3n3.2016.p159-166

Abstract:
The storage longevity of biofungicide containing Trichoderma virens and T. amazonicum to controll the whithe root diseases (WRD) in rubber plants is important to know to remain effective when applied. The composition of the multiplication medium in the T. virens dan and T. amazonicum biofungicide can affect the longevity and viability of conidia during storage. The objective of the research was to determine the effect of glycerol addition in the multiplication medium of T. virens and T. amazonicum biofungicide during storage. The research was conducted at the Laboratory of Plant Protection, Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute (IIBCRI), Sukabumi, from January to July 2014. The experiment used a completely randomized design with 8 treatments and 3 replications. The biofungicidal formula consisted of: (1) glycerol addition (0%, 3%, 6%, and 9%) in the multiplication medium of T. virens and (2) glycerol addition (0%, 3%, 6%, and 9%) in the multiplication medium of T. amazonicum. Each multiplication was mixed with a carrier (talc), dried, then packed in a plastic bag and stored for 4 months. Observations were carried out each month, including: the amount of conidia, Trichoderma sp. population, and water content. The results showed that the addition of glycerol to multiplication medium was able to maintain the viability of T. virens and T. amazonicum and the storage longevity of the biofungicide. The addition of 6% to 9% glycerol in the multiplication medium of T. virens and T. amazonicum showed the highest concentration, yielding conidia up to 7.98 x 107 – 8.59 x 107 conidia/g and population abundance of 11.67 x 103 – 14.67 x 103 cfu/g in biofungicide stored for 4 months.
Enny Randriani, Dani Dani, Handi Supriadi, Syafaruddin Syafaruddin
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 3; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v3n3.2016.p151-158

Abstract:
Coffee "Sidodadi" is the Robusta coffee clone, selected by farmers, widely developed in the Bengkulu region. The clones are distributed at different altitudes, i.e. 600, 900, and 1,200 m asl and presumably have different phenotyphic expression due to different growth environment. This study aimed to determine the influence of altitudes on the phenotypic expression of coffee "Sidodadi". The study was conducted at (1) 600 m asl (Sukarami subdistrict, Bermani Ulu district, Curup Regency), (2) 900 m asl (Airsempiang subdistrict, Kabawetan district, Kapahiang Regency), and (3) 1,200 m asl (Airles subdistrict, Muara Kemumuh District, Kapahiang Regency), from January 2014 to October 2015 with a survey method. A total of 5 trees were randomly assigned to each experimental unit and each was repeated 5 times. Phenotypic characters observed including vegetative morphology and yield components (data obtained using the difference test of two average t-Students on the 5% level), caffeine content, and cupping-test score. The sample of coffee beans used was 500 g with a water content of 10%–10.9% taken at three different altitudes. The results showed a significant effect of altitude on vegetative growth and yield components of "Sidodadi" Robusta coffee. Altitude of 1.200 m asl produces vegetative, generative, and higher-yielding coffee yields, but with lower caffeine content than those grown at 600 and 900 m asl. Meanwhile, the best flavor quality with a score of 85.25 is indicated by "Sidodadi" Robusta coffee grown at an altitude of 900 m asl which delivered high body, long aftertaste, dark chocolate aroma, and caramelly flavor.
, Widi Amaria, Khaerati Khaerati, Efi Taufiq
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 3; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v3n3.2016.p141-150

Abstract:
Phytophthora palmivora Butl. is a causal pathogen of black pod rot of cocoa (BPR) which leads to severe crop losses. Control of P. palmivora using biological agents such as endophytic fungi is most recommended for its environmentally friendly benefits. The aim of this research was to obtain endophytic fungi from cacao plant that works as biological agent against P. palmivora. The research was conducted at Plant Protection Laboratory, Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute (IIBCRI), Sukabumi, from January to July 2015. The exploration for endophytic fungi was carried out in cacao producing regions such as Southeast Sulawesi, West Java, and Lampung. The samples taken were of leaves, pods, and branches of a number of cacao varieties and clones. Isolated endophytic fungi were then being sterilized, selected, and studied in vitro using PDA medium and in vivo using cacao pod. The exploration obtained 269 endophytic fungi, consisted of 195 isolates from Southeast Sulawesi, 41 isolates from West Java, and 33 isolates from Lampung. The evaluation of endophytic fungi isolated from P. palmivora showed that there were 4 species of Trichoderma isolates which have potentials for biological agents to control P. palmivora, namely SWI, STII, PB5, and SWII with inhibitory effect of 70.33%; 68.89%; 67.43%; and 66.67%, respectively.
Rusli Rusli, Yulius Ferry, Bariot Hafif, Edi Wardiana
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 3; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v3n3.2016.p175-184

Abstract:
The use of post tin mining land for agricultural purpose is constrained by the coarse soil texture (sand), low C-organic, acid pH and low nutrient content which can be rehabilitated with soil ameliorant treatment. The research objective was to determine the best soil management of post tin mining land through the use of soil ameliorant, fertilizer, and mycorrhiza application for rubber plant growth. The research was conducted in Mandor District, Landak Regency, West Kalimantan, from 2014 until 2015. The experiment design was a split plots with 3 replications. The main plot was the use of ameliorant i.e M1 (16 kg of compost + 24 kg of quartz tailings), M2 (16 kg of clay soil + 24 kg of quartz tailings), M3 (8 kg of compost + 8 kg of clay soil + 24 kg of quartz tailings), and control (without soil ameliorant). Subplot was fertilizer dosage i.e D1 (100% of the recommended doses), D2 (100% of the recommended doses + 100 g of mycorrhiza), D3 (125% of the recommended doses), D4 (125% of the recommended doses + 100 g of mycorrhiza). The study was conducted at altitude of 50 m asl, type A climate, annual rainfall at 2.600 mm, sandy soil (82.2%) with very low N (0.09%), very low K (0.08 cmol (+)/kg), and low P (9.24 ppm). Variables observed were the rubber plant growth (plant height, stem diameter, and number of leaves). Result showed that optimizing the rubber growth at post tin mining land needs soil ameliorants application such as compost and clay. Meanwhile, the optimal dose of fertilizer is 125% of the recommended dose plus 100 g of mycorrhiza.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 3, pp 61-70; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v3n2.2016.p61-70

Abstract:
Civet coffee is produced through microbial digestion inside the civet’s tenue intestinal and caecum. Therefore, fermented coffee using probiotic microbes isolated from the civet digestive organs presumably will produce coffee with a distinctive flavor and aroma, which is similar to civet coffee. The research aimed to determine the effect of the fermentation period on physical quality of beans and flavor profile of probiotics Arabica coffee. The research was conducted at Belanga and Belantih Village, Kintamani District, Bangli Regency, laboratory of Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology (AIAT) Bali, laboratory of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute Jember, and laboratory of Indonesian Center for Agricultural Postharvest Research and Development Bogor, from June to December 2013. Fermentation was carried out in 2 phases: (1) fermentation using probiotic microbes isolated from civet’s intestum tenue, (II) fermentation using probiotic microbes isolated from civet’s caecum. The treatments were arranged as follows: P1 = fermentation at phases I and II, each for 4 days, P2 = fermentation at phases I and II, each for 5 days, P3 = fermentation at phases I and II, each for 6 days, P4 = fermentation at phases I and II, each for 7 days. The result showed that probiotics Arabica coffee has a reasonably good physical quality and met the requirements of SNI 01-2907-2008. The best flavor was obtained in 2 fermentation phases, each for 6 and 7 days with a total score of 81.44 and 80.91, respectively, which then classified as specialty coffee. The qualities shown are better compared to original Arabica civet coffee.
Dani Dani, Nur Kholilatul Izzah, Enny Randriani
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 3, pp 83-94; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v3n2.2016.p83-94

Abstract:
Identification of the genetic diversity within populations of yellow-berried Arabica coffee cultivar based on morphological characters faced an obstacle in finding identical environmental conditions at farmers field. Therefore, an approach which is not influenced by differences in environmental conditions is required, for instance based on DNA polymorphism. The research aimed to analyze genetic variation within populations of yellow-berried Arabica coffee cultivar based on SSRs markers. The research was conducted in the Integrated Laboratory, Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute, Sukabumi, from April until June 2015. The leaf samples for DNA extraction were obtained from yellow-berried Arabica coffee cultivar (AGK-1) and two red-berried cultivars as controls, namely ABP-1 (dwarf type) and Typica (tall type). AGK-1 and ABP-1 cultivars consisted of 17 and 5 individual numbers, respectively, whereas Typica cultivar comprised three individuals. PCR amplification was carried out using 12 SSR primers. Four primers (M24, SSRCa052, M32, and M42) produced polymorphic band. The binary data obtained in this research was subsequently processed using NTSYS-PC program version 2.1. The genotypes were grouped based on a genetic similarity matrix using the unweighted pair group method arithmetic mean (UPGMA). The result showed the existence of genetic variation among individual of AGK-1 cultivars, which forming three clusters at the genetic similarity value of 67%. One cluster exhibited close genetic relationships between some individuals within the population of AGK-1 cultivar and Typica cultivar. Meanwhile, the other two clusters showed high genetic similarity between AGK-1 cultivar and ABP-1 cultivar. The result demonstrated the possibility of gene flow between genotypes or residual heterozygosity within the population of AGK-1 cultivar at farmers field, which required a further study.
, Yulius Ferry
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 3, pp 109-116; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v3n2.2016.p109-116

Abstract:
The productivity of cacao in Indonesia is still low, as most of cacao plants in farmers’ plantation have grown old. Rejuvenation of old cacao plants needs a lot of cost and time, therefore, it requires a cheaper and faster alternative. One of the alternatives is rehabilitation through side grafting using scion from superior clones. The study was aimed to know the effect of ten cacao clones as scion and dosage of NPK fertilizer for side grafting of cacao plants. The research was conducted in cacao plantation, Way Kanan district, North Lampung, from 2012 to 2013. The split plot design with three replications was used in this study; with the main plot factor was the 10 cacao superior clones as scion i.e. K1 = PA150, K2 = Sca12, K3 = TSH 908, K4 = ICS60, K5 = TSH 858, K6 = IMC67, K7 = Sulawesi 02, K8 = Jumbo, K9 = Sulawesi 01, and K10 = ICCRI 04. The subplot factor was the NPK fertilizer dosage, i.e. P0 = without fertilizer, P1 = 300 g NPK, P2 = 600 g NPK, and P3 = 300 g NPK + 100 g mycorrhiza. Each of the expeimental unit consisted of 6 plants. The variables observed were the success level of side grafting, growth of shoot length and diameter of shoot stem. The results showed that the best success level and growth of shoot length of side grafting for cacao plantation in Way Kanan district, North Lampung was using scion obtained from TSH 908 and TSH 858 clones. Meanwhile, the optimal dosage of NPK fertilizer was 600 g/plant/year and 300 g/plant/year + 100 g mycorrhizal/plant.
Saefudin Saefudin, Edi Wardiana
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 3, pp 95-102; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v3n2.2016.p95-102

Abstract:
The long distance between scion and production garden requires storage and transport processes for the scion that are needed in rubber green budding. Therefore, information about the rubber scion storage and packaging technology need to be known. This study was aimed to determine the effect of storage period and packaging types of scion on the success and growth of rubber green budding. The study was conducted at Pakuwon Experimental Station of Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute, Sukabumi, from February until May 2015. The split plot design with three replications was used in this study. The main plot factor was three levels of scion storage periods, i.e. 3, 4, and 5 days after harvesting the scion. The subplot factor was the 4 techniques of scion packaging: (1) the wood box with five layers of moistened newsprint paper, (2) the wood box with moistened sawdust, (3) the wood box with five layers of moistened newsprint paper and scion wrapped in plastic bags, and (4) the wood box with moistened sawdust and scion wrapped in plastic bags. The variables measured were the success level and bud growth of rubber green budding. The results showed that the success level and growth of rubber green budding from scion stored for 4 days are not significantly different compared to those that stored for 3 days. Meanwhile, the best technique of scion packaging is the woodbox with five layers of moistened newsprint or moistened sawdust medium and the scion wrapped in plastic bags.
Nur Ajijah, Rr. Sri Hartati
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 3, pp 71-82; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v3n2.2016.p71-82

Abstract:
Information on the effect of cytokinins on cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) primary somatic embryogenesis and its interaction with explant types and genotypes is not yet known. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of cytokinins and its interaction with explant types and genotypes on cacao somatic embryogenesis. The study was conducted at tissue culture laboratory of IAARD, Bogor from April until December 2012 and October 2014 until February 2016. Three types of cytokinins i.e. kinetin (0.58, 1.16, and 2.32 μM), thidiazuron (0.01, 0.02, and 0.04 μM) and benzylaminopurine (0.55, 1.11, and 2.22 μM) in combination with 9 μM 2,4-D were tested for their effectiveness in inducing somatic embryogenesis from petals and staminoid explants of Cimanggu 1 genotype. Furthermore, three levels of kinetin (0.58, 1.16, and 2.32 μM) also in combination with 9 μM 2,4-D were evaluated for their influences on the somatic embryogenesis from petals and staminoid explants of three cacao genotypes i.e. Sulawesi 02, ICCRI 04 and Cimanggu 3. The result demonstrated that 2.32 μM kinetin and staminoids explant were more effective to induce cacao somatic embryogenesis of Cimanggu 1 genotype (7%, 0.23 embryos/explant). Additionally, there were interaction effects between the level of kinetin with explant types and genotype on the percentage of explants forming embryo at 12 weeks after culture. The highest percentage of somatic embryo formation was shown by ICCRI 04 genotype with the use of petals explant and a kinetin level of 1.16 μM (31.85%), but not significantly different from the level of kinetin 2.23 μM (25.55%). The formation of primary somatic embryos of cacao is largely determined by the type and level of cytokinins, type of explant, and genotype.
, Heri Syahrian Khomaeni, Liberty Chaidir,
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 3, pp 103-108; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v3n2.2016.p103-108

Abstract:
Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) is a cross-pollinated plant that has self-incompatible character. Assembly of superior clones through artificial pollination requires information of genetic relationships between accessions as a reference for parental lines selection. The study was aimed to determine the genetic diversity and relationships of 49 tea clones based on leaf morphology and yield components. The research was conducted at Pasir Sarongge experimental garden, Cianjur, West Java, from April to November 2015. The observed morphological characters were leaf length and width, leaf area, leaf angle, number of vein leaf, and internode between first and second leaves. Meanwhile, yield components were pecco number, pecco weight (p+3), banji bud number, banji bud weigth (b+1), and yield. The data were then used for descriptive analysis and grouping using UPGMA method based on dissimilarity matrix by XL-STAT software version 2009. The research showed that 49 clones observed here have variability on yield, leaf area, number of banji bud, and pecco number with coefficient of diversity 27.77%–51.83%. On the other hand, result of cluster analysis divided tea clones into four groups. The first group consisted of 34 clones with morphological characteristics similar to sinensis type (narrow leaves and low productivity). Group II comprised 12 clones with morphological characteristics (wide leaf) and productivity (high) similar to assamica type. Group III and IV, each contained one clone, and have similarity to assamica. The most far genetic relationships was found between group I and II (55.59%), while the closest one observed between group III and IV (5.76%).
, Funny Soesanthy, Syafaruddin Syafaruddin
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 3, pp 117-126; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v3n2.2016.p117-126

Abstract:
Ephestia cautella is one type of storage pests that causes a decrease in cocoa bean quality. Control of this pest using chemical insecticides is not recommended because it is harmful to the environment and consumer health. The research aimed to examine the repellency and insecticidal activity of several types of extract and botanical oil against E. cautella larvae. The research was conducted in the Plant Protection Laboratory, Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute, from March to November 2012. Botanical materials used were water extracts from Ageratum conyzoides leaves, Azadirachta indica seeds, and Allium sativum tubers, as well as oil from Reutalis trisperma, Syzygium aromaticum, and Andropogon nardus, with respective concentration of 0.5%. The insects test used was the 3rd instar larvae generated in the laboratory. Preliminary testing of the repellency activity was performed used the multiple-choice method, while subsequent testing used the dual-choice method with the parameters of larvae number remains in each treatment until 72 hours. The insecticidal activity was conducted using residual method on the feed substitute, by calculating mortality rate of the test insects. Observations were made at 24, 48, and 72 hours after treatment. The results showed that water extract from A. sativum bulbs and A. conyzoides leaves have high repellency percentage on the E. cautella larvae, i.e. of 81.33% and 78.67%, respectively. Thus, these two vegetable extracts have the potential to be used as cocoa bean protectant from storage pest attacks. The extracts from A. indica seed, A. sativum bulbs, as well as oil from R. trisperma and S. aromaticum showed insecticidal properties that are able to kill E. cautella larvae.
, Edi Wardiana
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 3; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v3n1.2016.p29-36

Abstract:
Grafting is the most common cocoa propagation technique applied by farmers. One of the factors that determine the grafting success in cacao is the compatibility level between the scion and rootstock. The objectives of this research was to evaluate the grafting compatibility of half-sib family of Sulawesi 01 clone as rootstock with five superior cacao clones i.e. Sulawesi 01, Sulawesi 02, Sca 6, MCC 01, and MCC 02 as scions. The research was conducted at Pakuwon Experimental Station, West Java, at the altitude of 450 m above sea level with Latosol type of soil and B type of climate (Schmidt & Fergusson), from April to September 2015. This research used the randomized completely block design with five treatments of grafting combinations and five replications. Observation was taken at 14th, 21st, and 28th days after grafting on the total percentage of surviving graftings, percentage of sprouting grafting, percentage of grafting that have not sprouted, and bud sprouting rates. Data were analyzed by variance, correlation, and regression analysis. The results showed that the surviving grafting, the sprouting grafting and the rate of sprouting up to the 28th days after grafting varied among the scions. Based on the parameters observed, Sulawesi 01, Sulawesi 2, and Sca 6 demonstrated higher compatibility rate compared to MCC 01 and MCC 02. The results is applicable in seedling provision through grafting techniques in order to support cacao rejuvenation and or rehabilitation.
, Funny Soesanthy, Yulius Ferry
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 3; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v3n1.2016.p37-44

Abstract:
The effectiveness of Trichoderma sp as biocontrol for white root disease is determined by the environment, thus it is best applied as biofungicide. The application of Trichoderma sp. with suitable carrier is expected to suppress pathogen (Rigidoporus microporus) in rubber seedlings. The objective of the research was to study the effectiveness of Trichoderma sp. biofungicide with three types of carriers in controlling white root disease in rubber seedlings. The research was conducted in Plant Protection Laboratory and screen house of Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute (IIBCRI), Sukabumi, from July to December 2013. The experiment used a factorial design with 2 factors and 3 replications. The first factor is 4 types of Trichoderma, namely Trichoderma virens, T. hamatum, T. amazonicum, dan T. atroviride whereas the second factor is the three types of carrier, namely molasses, compost, and talc. The biofungicide were made of four species of Trichoderma and the three carriers thus resulting in 12 biofungicides. The spora population of Trichoderma sp. was 108 spores/ml from which then 100 ml or gram applied on each plant. Rubber seedlings used were of AVROS 2037 clones, 3 months old clone-grafted seedlings grown in polybag. Observations were on the incubation stage, the intensity of the white root disease attack, the disease suppression, and the population of Trichoderma sp. in soil. The results showed no interactions between types of Trichoderma with types of carrier. The four Trichoderma species studied had similar suppressing effectivity on white root disease in rubber seedlings. Talc, compost, and molasses increased the Trichoderma sp. growth but talc was shown had the highest effectivity in suppressing the disease.
, Syamsul Falah, Eneng Nurlaela
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 3; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v3n1.2016.p53-60

Abstract:
GMB 7 is a tea variety which has high productivity and a potential source of natural antioxidants, grow well at low, medium, and high altitude. The research aimed to analyze the effect of altitude on antioxidant activity, total phenolic and total flavonoids content of GMB 7 tea variety. The research was conducted at the Biopharmacy Laboratory, Bogor Agricultural University, from November 2014 to February 2015. The treatments tested were of tea shoots extracts taken from three different altitudes at PT Tambi tea plantations,Wonosobo, at 690, 1.280, and 1.890 m above sea level. The tea shoots (100 g) were mixed in aquades with the ratio of 1:10, extracted with hot water (90°C; 30 minutes). The extracts were then filtered and evaporated using rotary vacuum evaporator (50 rpm; 60°C) to obtain a raw dried extract. Total phenolic was tested with Follin-Ciocalteu method at a wavelength of 765 nm while the total flavonoids was tested using AlCl3 method at a wavelength of 510 nm. The antioxidant activity was determined by diphenylpicrylhydrazyl method (DPPH) at a wavelength of 517 nm. The results showed that total phenolics, total flavonoids, and IC50 at an altitude of 690 m asl is higher compared to those at 1.280, and 1.890 m above sea level , respectively by 19%; 290.62 GAE mg/g extract, 125 CE mg/g extract, and 5.48 ppm. The total phenolic and flavonoid content significantly correlated with the antioxidant activity (IC50).
Kasma Iswari
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 3; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v3n1.2016.p21-28

Abstract:
The lump quality produced by farmers in West Sumatra is low dueto limited access to technologies and postharvest facilities,insufficient implementation of Standard Operating Procedures (SOP), and other problems. The research aimed to study the adoption of postharvest SOP of rubber and its impact at farmers level in Dharmasraya Regency, West Sumatera. The experiment was conducted in three districts at Dharmasraya Regency of West Sumatra Province, from March until December 2013, utillizing descriptive survey through demonstration plot and field school. Parameters observed were the adoption level, lump quality, and rubber trade before and after the demonstration and field school. The result showed that the adoption level of rubber postharvest technology varied, from very low to very high. The adoption positively contributed to lump quality improvement at farmers level, thus meeting the SNI requirements. The price of sheet which meets the SNI did not significantly differ from low graded lump so it is less produced by farmers. Further regulation which endorsed industries to buy rubber at processing and marketing unit or farmers supporting market is needed.
, Enny Randriani, Juniaty Towaha
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 3; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v3n1.2016.p45-52

Abstract:
Altitude defines the climatic elements which in turn affect the soil chemical properties. Growth, productivity, qualities, and coffee flavor determines by a number of factors, one of which is the chemical properties in the soil. The research aimed to analyze the correlation between altitude, soil chemical properties, and physical quality of Arabica coffee beans in highland areas of Garut. The research was carried out in Garut Regency, West Java, from April to Agustus 2014. The research used survey method with purposive random sampling from selected locations. Parameters observed were soil chemical properties, percentage of normal beans and the beans weight at the altitude of 1.000–1.600 m asl. The data were then analyzed using correlation method. The result showed a significant correlation between altitude with soil chemical properties and Arabica coffee beans physical quality in Garut highlands. The higher the altitude, the higher level of soil chemical properties, such as pH, C-organic, N-total, Na, and KTK, in contrary with total P2O5. Higher altitude and chemical properties inline with higher percentage of normal beans and the weight of 100 Arabica coffee beans.
, Emil Budianto, Dadi Rusadi Maspanger
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 3; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v3n1.2016.p1-10

Abstract:
Chemical modification of natural rubber latex by emulsion graft copolymerization with thermoplastic monomer produces thermoplastic natural rubber (TPNR). Ratio composition of natural rubber to thermoplastic monomer determines the TPNR properties. TPNR has good mechanical properties of natural rubber and high processability of plastic material thus enhancing its application in industry. The research, which was conducted at research laboratory of Indonesian Rubber Research Institute, from June to December 2014, aimed to study the effect of the ratio of deproteinized natural rubber (DPNR) latex to vinyl monomer (VM: methyl methacrylate and styrene) on physical and mechanical properties of TPNR produced from batch graft copolymerization. Batch graft copolymerization was conducted at certain ratios of DPNR latex with methyl methacrylate and styrene (70:30; 60:40; and 50:50) at (65°C, 5 hours), and subsequently at (70°C, 1 hour). The result showed that batch technique tend to cause the formation of homopolymer vinyl which also affected the TPNR properties. Visually, the TPNR had white color, hard and brittle texture yet easier to process as shown by low time and energy consumption during compounding. The ratio of DPNR to VM at 70:30 was regarded as the optimum ratio for its balanced properties between elastomeric material of DPNR and thermoplastic material of VM.
, Haryadi Haryadi, Supriyanto Supriyanto
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 3; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v3n1.2016.p11-20

Abstract:
The cocoa beans produced by farmers in Indonesia are mostly nonfermented with unfavourable taste and flavour. Incubating the cocoa beans in acetate buffer medium has been shown to improve the quality of non fermented dried cocoa beans. Pre-incubation treatments of non fermented cocoa beans by physical treatments such as soaking and crushing them prior to the incubation in acetate buffer is expected to improve the beans quality (i.e. fermentation index and polyphenol). The aim of the research was to determine the effect of pre-incubation treatment of non fermented dried cocoa beans in acetate buffer medium on fermentation index and total polyphenols content.The research was carried out in Process Engineering Laboratory, Food Chemical and Biochemical Laboratory, and Postharvest Technology Laboratory at Gadjah MadaUniversity from April to December 2013. The research used three treatments, first: the crushed beans size 4 mm, whole beans soaked in water (45°C; 16 hours), and beans without soaking (control). The incubation was performed in two stages, the first stage was in the acetate buffer medium at pH 2.7; 600 mM for 24 hours, then subconsequently at pH 5.5; 600 mM for 12 hours. The results showed that crushed bean treatment of non fermented cocoa beans prior to incubation increased the fermentation index values, from 1.15 to1.54 and decreased total polyphenol content from 55.69 to 24.16mg GAE/g.
, Samsudin
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 2; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v2n3.2015.p143-150

Abstract:
Nematoda puru akar (Meloidogyne sp.) merupakan salah satu pembatas produksi pada tanaman kopi. Pengendalian nematoda yang banyak dilakukan saat ini adalah menggunakan agens hayati seperti bakteri Bacillus sp. karena ramah lingkungan dan dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan tanaman. Penelitian bertujuan mengetahui pengaruh bakteri endofit Bacillus sp. PG76 dalam bentuk formula molase, kompos, dan talc terhadap infeksi nematoda puru akar (Meloidogyne sp.) dan pertumbuhan tanaman kopi. Percobaan dilakukan di laboratorium dan rumah kaca Balai Penelitian Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Sukabumi mulai Desember 2013 sampai Mei 2014. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak lengkap 6 perlakuan dengan 10 ulangan. Perlakuannya adalah tiga formula bionematisida berupa molase, kompos, dan talc; nematisida kimia sebagai pembanding (karbofuran), kontrol positif (tanaman diinokulasi nematoda, tanpa formula), dan kontrol negatif (tanaman tanpa formula dan nematoda). Formula berisi bakteri endofit Bacillus sp. PG76 dengan kerapatan 109 cfu/ml. Pengujian formula dilakukan pada tanaman kopi berumur 6 bulan dengan konsentrasi 100 ml/pohon untuk molase, dan 100 g/pohon untuk kompos dan talc. Satu minggu setelah perlakuan formula, tanaman kopi diinokulasi dengan 500 ekor larva 2 Meloidogyne sp. Tiga bulan setelah perlakuan dilakukan pengamatan terhadap jumlah puru, populasi nematoda di dalam akar dan tanah serta pertumbuhan tanaman kopi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan ketiga formula bionematisida Bacillus sp. PG76 (molase, kompos, dan talc) dapat menekan populasi nematoda Meloidogyne sp. pada tanaman kopi. Formula bionematisida terbaik adalah molase dan kompos dengan penekanan 74,0% dan 73,2%, sama efektifnya dengan nematisida kimia karbofuran (73,3%). Formula molase dan kompos juga dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan tanaman kopi. Bionematisida mengandung Bacillus PG76 prospektif mengendalikan nematoda. Kata kunci: Bacillus sp., Meloidogyne sp., molase, kompos, talc Meloidogyne sp. is an important pathogen of coffee plant. Bacillus sp. is commonly used to control the nematode as it is environmentally friendly. The study aimed to determine the effect of endophytic bacteria Bacillus sp. PG76 formulated in the molasses, talc or compost on the infection of Meloidogyne sp. The experiments were conducted in the laboratory and greenhouse of the Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute, Sukabumi from December 2013 to May 2014. The experimental design was a completely randomized, 6 treatments and 10 replications of six months-old coffee plants. Six treatments were tested (Bacillus sp. PG76 formulated in molasses, compost, or talc; carbofuran; plant inoculated with the nematode only, and plant neither treated with the formula nor the nematode). Population of Bacillus sp. PG76 in each formula was 109 cfu/ml. Number of formulas applied per plant was 100 ml of molasses, 100 g of talc, or 100 g of compost. One week after the treatments, the plants were inoculated with 500 larvae-2 Meloidogyne sp. Parameters observed were the number of gall, nematode population in the roots and soil, and the coffee plant growth. The results showed that all the treatments (molasses, compost, and talc) suppressed the population of Meloidogyne sp. The best formulas were molasses and compost that reduced the nematode infection up to 74.0% and 73.2%, respectively, similar to that of carbofuran (i.e. 73.3%). Furthermore, application of the formulas increased coffee plant growth. The study suggests that Bacillus sp. PG76 formulation is prospective to control the nematode.
, Bedy Sudjarmoko,
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 2; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v2n3.2015.p123-132

Abstract:
Produktivitas kakao petani masih rendah karena banyak tanaman yang sudah tua dan tidak menggunakan benih unggul. Rendahnya adopsi benih unggul disebabkan oleh banyak faktor yang saling terkait. Penelitian bertujuan mengkaji faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi petani dalam mengadopsi benih unggul kakao sebagai masukan penyusunan strategi peningkatan adopsi benih unggul kakao. Penelitian dilakukan secara survei pada daerah pengembangan kakao di Kabupaten Pesawaran dan Lampung Utara, Provinsi Lampung, pada bulan Mei sampai Agustus 2012. Survei dilakukan dengan wawancara langsung terhadap 103 orang petani kakao di kedua kabupaten. Data yang dikumpulkan adalah karakteristik petani dan faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi adopsi. Analisis karakteristik responden dilakukan secara deskriptif. Faktor-faktor yang berpengaruh terhadap adopsi benih unggul kakao dinilai dengan model persamaan struktural (structural equation model/SEM). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan tiga faktor terpenting yang mempengaruhi adopsi petani terhadap adopsi benih kakao unggul adalah preferensi petani terhadap benih, ketersediaan benih, dan faktor eksternal. Harga benih tidak berpengaruh langsung terhadap adopsi. Dengan demikian, produktivitas, ketahanan terhadap hama dan penyakit, umur produktif, efisiensi penggunaan pupuk, kemudahan dalam pemeliharaan, kualitas benih, daya tumbuh benih unggul, ketersediaan/akses terhadap benih serta sarana diseminasi memiliki peranan sangat penting untuk proses adopsi. Oleh karena itu, strategi yang dapat dilakukan dalam upaya mempercepat adopsi benih unggul kakao adalah memperbanyak benih kakao dengan karakteristik keunggulan yang disukai oleh petani dan membuat kawasan benih di sentra produksi kakao supaya mudah diakses oleh petani. Selain itu, promosi informasi tentang keunggulan benih perlu ditingkatkan. Kata kunci: Kakao, adopsi, benih unggul, preferensi, ketersediaan The productivity of smallholder cacao farmers is low due to the old plants and low adoption of superior seeds. The low adoption of superior seeds may be caused by multiple factors that are inter-related. This study aimed to assess factors that influenced farmers in the adoption of superior cacao seeds. The study is important in formulating a strategy that would increase the adoption of cacao seeds by farmers. The research was conducted in two regenciess of the cacao centre productions in Lampung Province (i.e. Pesawaran and North Lampung), from May to August 2012. The survey was conducted through a direct interview with 103 farmers in the study locations. Data on the respondences’s characteristics were analyzed descriptively. Factors that may affect the adoption was analysed using a structural equation model (SEM). The results showed there were three most determining factors in the adoption of superior cocoa seeds, such as farmer’s preference, seed availability and external factors. Price of seeds was not an important factor in adoption of seeds. Hence, productivity, resistant to pests and diseases, productive age, fertilizer efficiency, ease of plant management, seed quality, seed vigor, availability/ease to access and dissemination method have important role to adoption process. The study implies that the strategy to increase seed adoption is providing superior cocoa seeds based on the farmers’ preference and establishing the seed productions’s regions in the cocoa center production areas to ease of their accessibilities. In addition, the dissemination of information on the seeds superior characters should be promoted.
, Edi Wardiana
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 2; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v2n3.2015.p133-142

Abstract:
Periode kering yang panjang akan berdampak negatif terhadap pertumbuhan dan hasil kakao. Penelitian bertujuan mengetahui tingkat toleransi 35 genotipe kakao terhadap periode kering. Penelitian dilakukan di KP. Pakuwon, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Sukabumi, Jawa Barat; ketinggian tempat 450 m dpl; jenis tanah Latosol; dan tipe iklim B; mulai Agustus 2014 sampai Oktober 2015. Tiga puluh lima genotipe kakao, terdiri atas dua genotipe unggul Sulawesi 1 dan SCA 6 serta 33 genotipe lokal digunakan dalam penelitian. Tanaman kakao berumur 3 tahun, ditanam pada jarak tanam 3 m x 3 m di bawah pohon penaung kelapa Genjah Salak umur 26 tahun. Sepuluh pohon contoh dipilih secara acak; buah dipanen pada bulan Februari 2015 untuk periode basah dan Oktober 2015 untuk periode kering, berdasarkan data curah hujan dan hari hujan. Sebanyak 10–30 contoh buah per genotipe dipilih secara acak dari populasi komposit untuk masing-masing periode panen. Peubah yang diamati adalah bobot segar/buah, jumlah biji/buah, bobot segar dan kering biji/buah, serta bobot segar kulit buah + pulp/buah. Tingkat toleransi tanaman kakao terhadap periode kering didasarkan pada peubah bobot kering biji/buah. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan periode kering selama enam bulan sebelum panen berdampak nyata terhadap penurunan komponen buah kakao sebesar 4,92%‒42,54%. Berdasarkan karakter bobot kering biji/buah, tiga genotipe kakao, yaitu KW 163, KW 165, dan KW 215, dapat dikelompokkan ke dalam genotipe toleran kekeringan, sedangkan genotipe lain termasuk ke dalam kelompok yang cukup toleran dan rentan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perlunya penelitian berikutnya untuk merakit varietas unggul kakao tahan kekeringan. Kata kunci: Kakao, periode kering, toleransi A prolong dry periods could have a negative impact on growth and yield of cacao. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the tolerance levels of 35 cacao genotypes to dry periods. The study was conducted at the Pakuwon Experimental Station, Indonesian Industrial and Beverages Crops Research Institute, Sukabumi, West Java; 450 m above sea level; Latosol soil type; and B type of climate; started from August 2014 until October 2015. Thirty five cacao genotypes consisted of two released variety (i.e Sulawesi 1 and SCA 6) and 33 other genotypes were used in this research. The cacao plants were three-years old, cultivated at a 3 x 3 m spacing distance under the 26 years old Salak Dwarf coconut trees. Ten plant samples were determined randomly and the fruits were harvested in February 2015 (wet period) and October 2015 (dry period). A bulk of 10–30 pods per genotype were randomly selected for each harvest periods. The variable observed were fresh weigth per pod, number of beans per pod, fresh and dry weight of beans per pod, and fresh weight of pod husks + pulps per pod. The tolerance level to dry periods was determined base on the dry weight of bean/pod. The result showed that a continueous six months dry periods prior to harvesting significantly reduced yield components from 4.92%-42.54%. Based on the dry weight of beans per pod, three genotypes, namely KW 162, KW 165, and KW 215, were classified as tolerant, while the other were moderately tolerant and susceptible to drought. The result implies the important of further research to obtain superior cacao clones resistance to drought.
, Edi Wardiana
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 2; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v2n3.2015.p159-168

Abstract:
Pertanaman kopi di Provinsi Bengkulu umumnya sudah tua atau rusak sehingga perlu diremajakan atau direhabilitasi. Klon unggul lokal kopi Robusta, seperti Sidodadi, Payung Hijau, dan Payung Kuning, telah banyak dikembangkan untuk rehabilitasi di daerah tersebut. Penelitian bertujuan menganalisis stabilitas hasil tiga klon kopi Robusta unggul lokal Bengkulu pada ketinggian sedang sampai tinggi. Penelitian dilakukan di Kabupaten Curup (670 m dpl) dan Kabupaten Kepahiang (900 dan 1300 m dpl), Provinsi Bengkulu, mulai Juli 2014 sampai Agustus 2015. Klon kopi Robusta Bengkulu yang diuji adalah Sidodadi, Payung Hijau, dan Payung Kuning hasil sambung tunas plagiotrop berumur 5 tahun setelah sambung. Setiap unit percobaan terdiri dari 5 pohon contoh ditentukan secara acak dan masing-masing diulang 5 kali. Peubah yang diamati adalah bobot segar buah/pohon, bobot kering biji/pohon, bobot segar/buah, dan bobot kering/biji. Analisis data menggunakan analisis ragam tergabung yang dilanjutkan dengan uji stabilitas hasil dengan metode Eberhart dan Russell. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kopi Robusta klon Payung Hijau mempunyai stabilitas dan hasil biji paling tinggi dibandingkan dengan dua klon lainnya (Sidodadi dan Payung Kuning). Produksi kopi klon Payung Hijau mencapai 1,19 kg bobot kering biji/pohon, 4,31 g bobot segar/buah, dan 0,63 g bobot kering/biji. Oleh karena itu, klon Payung Hijau berpotensi menjadi sumber entres bagi program peremajaan atau rehabilitasi pertanaman kopi tua. Kata kunci: Kopi Robusta, interaksi GxE, ketinggian tempat, stabilitas The population of Robusta coffee in Bengkulu province were mostly old thus it need rejuvenation or rehabilitation. Local clones of Robusta coffee, such as Sidodadi, Payung Hijau and Payung Kuning, have been cultivated for rehabilitation in Bengkulu Province at an altitude of >700 m above sea level (asl). This study aimed to analyze the yield stability of the three Robusta coffee clones at medium to high altitudes. The study was conducted from January to September 2015 in Curup Regency (670 m asl) and Kepahiang Regency (900 m and 1300 m asl), Bengkulu Province. The three tested Robusta coffee clones were 5 years old Sidodadi, Payung Hijau, and Payung Kuning,which propagated through plagiotropic grafting. Each experiment unit consisted of 5 plant samples and were obtained by randomized sampling with 5 replications respectively. The parameters observed were fresh weight of berry/plant, dry weight of beans/plant, fresh weight/berry, and dry weight/beans. The data analyzed using combined variance followed by yield stability test of Eberhart and Russell method. The results showed that Payung Hijau clone had the highest bean yield compared to the other two clones (Sidodadi and Payung kuning). The production of Payung Hijau clone reached 1.19 kg dry weight of bean/plant, 4.31 g fresh weight/berry, and 0.63 g dry weight/bean. Therefore, the Payung Hijau clone was potentially used as scions source for the coffee plantation rejuvenation or rehabilitation.
Rikky Herdiansyah, Rita Nurmalina, Ratna Winandi
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 2, pp 151-158; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v2n3.2015.p151-158

Abstract:
Harga yang diterima oleh petani karet di Indonesia lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan di negara produsen lainnya sebagai akibat dari rantai pasok sistem pemasaran yang belum efisien. Untuk itu, diperlukan upaya untuk meningkatkan kinerja rantai pasok. Penelitian bertujuan menganalisis rantai pasok sistem pada sistem pemasaran karet dan pengaruh manajemen rantai pasok terhadap peningkatan efisiensi pemasaran di setiap lembaga anggota rantai pasok. Penelitian dilakukan di Kabupaten Tebo, Provinsi Jambi, mulai Desember 2014 sampai Februari 2015. Efisiensi sistem pemasaran dianalisis menggunakan pendekatan nilai B/C ratio dan nilai tambah, sedangkan rantai pasok dianalisis menggunakan pendekatan supply chain network (SCN). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan terdapat empat rantai pasok dalam pemasaran karet alam rakyat, yaitu Pola I (petani – pedagang pengumpul desa – pedagang pengumpul kecamatan – pedagang besar – pabrik), Pola II (petani – pedagang pengumpul desa – pedagang besar – pabrik), Pola III (petani – pasar lelang – pabrik), dan Pola IV [petani – Unit Pengolahan dan Pemasaran Bokar (UPPB) – pabrik]. Dari empat pola tersebut, manajemen rantai pasok karet alam rakyat terbaik terjadi melalui pola keempat, yang diindikasikan dengan adanya kesepakatan antara petani dengan pabrik karet untuk menghasilkan kualitas bokar yang lebih bermutu dan harga lebih tinggi, di samping melakukan pembinaan, penyuluhan dan pelatihan. Pola tersebut meningkatkan efisiensi pemasaran dengan indikator B/C ratio sebesar 1,29 dan persentase nilai tambah petani 96,82%. Oleh karena itu, supply chain network pemasaran karet rakyat melalui pola petani-UPPB-pabrik telah mendorong petani untuk menghasilkan bokar yang lebih berkualitas sehingga harganya lebih tinggi. Pemerintah perlu merekomendasikan pola tersebut kepada petani lain untuk meningkatkan pendapatan petani karet. Kata kunci: Efisiensi pemasaran, nilai tambah, rantai pasok, saluran pemasaran Rubber price received by smallholders in Indonesia is lower compared with other countries due to inefficient marketing system. Therefore, it needs an effort to increase in the supply chain performance. The objective of the research was to analyze marketing system of natural rubber and the effect of supply chain management on marketing efficiency. The research was conducted at Tebo Regency of Jambi Province from December 2014 until February 2015. Marketing system was analyzed using B/C ratio and value-added approach, whereas supply chain was carried out using a supply chain network approach. The results showed that there were four patterns in the marketing channels of natural rubber. Pattern I (farmers – village traders - subdistrict traders - district traders - industries); Pattern II (farmers – village traders - district traders - industries); Pattern III (farmers –auction market - industries); and Pattern IV [farmers –Rubber Processing and Marketing Unit (RPMU) – industries]. The supply chain management was only found in the Pattern IV, where there was an agreement between farmers and the RPMU to improve the quality of rubber for higher price. In addition, farmers also received advocation and training from the RPMU. Pattern IV exhibited improvement marketing efficiency as indicated by a B/C ratio at 1.29 and value added at 96.82%. The adoption of SCN framework was able to motivate farmers to produce a better quality of rubber that afforded a higher price. Therefore, the government is necessarily to recommend the addoption of this pattern in increasing farmers’ income.
Nur Kholilatul Izzah, Enny Randriani, Dani
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 2; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v2n3.2015.p113-122

Abstract:
Kopi Arabika berbuah kuning (AGK-1) merupakan kultivar lokal yang berpeluang untuk dilepas sebagai varietas unggul. Namun, asal-usul genetiknya (genetic background) belum jelas. Padahal, karakter itu merupakan salah satu syarat dalam pelepasan varietas. Penelitian bertujuan menganalisis kekerabatan genetik kultivar AGK-1 dengan 11 kultivar kopi Arabika berbuah merah berdasarkan marka simple sequence repeats (SSR). Penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Molekuler Balai Penelitian Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar (Balittri) Sukabumi, dan Laboratorium Biologi Molekuler Balai Besar Litbang Bioteknologi dan Sumber Daya Genetik Pertanian Bogor, mulai Maret sampai Juni 2015. Kedua belas kultivar kopi Arabika yang digunakan berasal dari Kabupaten Garut. Sebanyak 12 primer SSR digunakan untuk menelusuri kekerabatan genetik kultivar kopi Arabika. Kekerabatan genetik dianalisis menggunakan marka SSR untuk melihat polimorfisme dan clustering. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kedua belas marka SSR yang digunakan mampu mengidentifikasi kekerabatan 12 kultivar kopi Arabika ke dalam tiga kelompok (pada nilai ambang 66%). Pengelompokan secara genetik berkaitan dengan morfologi tanaman, terutama karakter pertumbuhan, yaitu tinggi, semi katai, dan katai. Kultivar AGK-1 secara genetik berkerabat dekat dengan salah satu kultivar berbuah merah, yaitu ABP-2 yang berasal dari Brasil dan keduanya mempunyai tipe pertumbuhan semi katai. Kultivar AGK-1 berbuah kuning diduga merupakan hasil persarian bebas dari tetua berbuah merah, terutama kultivar ABP-2. Dengan demikian, kopi Arabika berbuah kuning AGK-1 merupakan kultivar yang unik dan berpeluang untuk dilepas sebagai varietas unggul lokal. Kata kunci: Coffea arabica, kekerabatan genetik, marka SSR Yellow berry of Arabica coffee (AGK-1) cultivated in Garut is a local cultivar that potentially could be released as a superior variety. However, its genetic background has not been studied. Information of genetic background is one of the requirement in releasing of a new variety. The objective of this research was to analyze the genetic relationships of AGK-1 cultivar with 11 red berries Arabica coffee cultivars based on simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers to find polymorphisms and clustering. The research was carried out at the Molecular Laboratory of Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute and Biology Molecular Laboratory of Indonesian Center for Agricultural Biotechnology and Genetic Resources Research and Development, from January to March 2015. These twelve Arabica coffee cultivars were obtained from Garut Regency. A total of 12 SSR primers were used to investigate the genetic relationships of the plant. The result showed that 12 SSR markers were adequate to identify the relationships among 12 Arabica coffee cultivars. The genetic clustering obtained in this study is related to plant morphology, particularly plant growth characters, such as tall, semi dwarf and dwarf. AGK-1 cultivar genetically related to ABP-2, one of red berries cultivars that originated from Brazil. Both of these cultivars have the same growing type characters (i.e. semi dwarf). AGK-1 cultivar that has yellow berry color presumably derived from an open pollinated red berries parents, mainly ABP-2 cultivar. Therefore, AGK-1 is a unique cultivar that could be released as a local superior variety.
Nasrun, Nurmansyah
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 2, pp 61-68; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v2n2.2015.p61-68

Abstract:
Penyakit jamur akar putih (JAP) (Rigidoporus microporus) merupakan penyakit utama yang menurunkan produksi karet. Pemanfaatan agens hayati rizobakteria dan fungisida nabati diharapkan dapat mengendalikan penyakit JAP. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengetahui potensi rizobakteria dan fungisida nabati berbahan aktif sitronelal, geraniol, eugenol, dan katekin untuk pengendalian penyakit JAP pada karet. Penelitian uji in vitro dilaksanakan di laboratorium Kebun Percobaan (KP) Laing Balittro, Solok dan uji in planta dilaksanakan di perkebunan karet Sijunjung, Sumatera Barat, mulai April–November 2012. Penelitian uji in planta menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok (RAK) dengan dua faktor dan tiga ulangan. Faktor pertama adalah perlakuan rizobakteria, yaitu Bacillus sp. Bc94, Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf55, kombinasi Bacillus sp. Bc94, dan P. fluorescens Pf55. Faktor kedua adalah perlakuan formula fungisida nabati, yaitu formula F1, F2, dan tanpa fungisida nabati. Parameter yang diamati adalah penekanan pertumbuhan R. microporus dan perkembangan penyakit JAP. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan Bacillus sp. Bc94, P. fluorescens Pf55, serta kombinasi bahan aktif fungisida nabati sitronelal, geraniol, eugenol, dan katekin mempunyai daya hambat yang tinggi terhadap pertumbuhan jamur R. microporus, yaitu masing-masing 89,54%; 90,49%; dan 81,39%. Kombinasi Bacillus sp. Bc94 dan P. fluorescens PF55 dengan fungisida nabati formula F1 dan F2 potensial mengendalikan penyakit JAP pada karet dengan penekanan intensitas penyakit 80,95%−82,91%.Kata kunci: Karet, Rigidoporus microporus, jamur akar putih, rizobakteria, fungisida nabatiThe white root fungus (WRF) disease caused by Rigidoporus microporus is the main disease that reduce rubber production. The use of biological agents, such as rhizobacteria and botanical fungicide is expected to control WRF disease. The research aimed to determine the potential of rhizobacteria and botanical fungicide with the active compound of citronellal, geraniol, eugenol, and catechin to suppress the growth of R. microporus and control WRF disease. The in vitro studies were conducted at the laboratory of KP. Laing, Solok, whereas in planta tests at rubber plantations in Sijunjung, West Sumatra from April to November 2012. The in planta tests used the factorial designs, which were arranged in a randomized complete block design with 2 factorials and 3 replications. The first factor was 4 treatments, using Bacillus sp. Bc94, Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf55, a combination of Bacillus sp. Bc94 and P. fluorescens Pf55, and without rhizobacteria. The second factor was 3 treatments, using biofungicide formula: formula F1, formula F2, and without botanical fungicide. The parameters assessed were inhibition of R. microporus growth and development of WRF disease. The results showed that Bacillus sp. Bc94, P. fluorescence Pf55 and the combination of citronellal, geraniol, eugenol, and catechin had the highest inhibitions on R. microporus growth: 89.54%, 90.49%, and 81.39%, respectively. The combinations of Bacillus sp. Bc94 and P. fluorescens PF55 with botanical fungicide formulas (F1 and F2) significantly inhibited the WRF disease intensity up to 80.95%–82.91%.
, Rusli, Juniaty Towaha
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 2; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v2n2.2015.p85-90

Abstract:
Model peremajaan bertahap merupakan salah satu cara untuk meningkatkan produktivitas karet rakyat yang sudah tua dan rusak. Kelemahan dari model ini adalah tingginya keragaman pertumbuhan tanaman muda di lapangan. Penelitian bertujuan mengetahui pengaruh pemupukan ekstra dan pemberian mikoriza terhadap pertumbuhan tanaman karet muda dalam model peremajaan secara bertahap. Lokasi penelitian di Desa Ramsay, Kecamatan Way Tuba, jenis tanah podsolik merah kuning dengan klasifikasi iklim termasuk B2 menurut Oldemand, mulai tahun 2012 sampai tahun 2014. Penelitian dilakukan dengan rancangan petak terpisah. Sebagai petak utama adalah umur tanaman: P1 (umur 3 tahun), P2 (2 tahun), dan P3 (1 tahun). Sebagai anak petak adalah dosis pupuk: D1 (dosis 100% rekomendasi), D2 (dosis 100% rekomendasi + mikoriza), D3 (dosis 125% rekomendasi), dan D4 (dosis 125% rekomendasi + mikoriza). Pemberian pupuk dilakukan dua kali setahun, sedangkan mikoriza diberikan satu kali setahun pada akhir musim hujan. Bahan tanaman yang digunakan adalah klon karet PB 260, dengan teknik budidaya standar seperti penyiangan, bobokor, dan penyiraman pada saat musim kemarau. Peubah yang diamati adalah tinggi tanaman dan lilit batang. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan pemberian pupuk ekstra 25% dari rekomendasi yang ditambah dengan mikoriza mampu meningkatkan pertumbuhan tanaman karet yang tertinggal pertumbuhannya karena umur yang lebih muda. Dosis pupuk 125% dari rekomendasi + mikoriza dapat menghasilkan pertumbuhan tanaman umur 2 tahun sama dengan pertumbuhan tanaman umur 3 tahun yang dipupuk dengan dosis rekomendasi. Mikoriza bekerja secara sinergis dengan pupuk anorganik, dan mampu meningkatkan efektivitas dan efisiensi pemupukan ekstra pada model peremajaan karet secara bertahap.Kata kunci: Karet, pupuk, mikoriza, peremajaanGradual rejuvenation model is an option to increase the productivity of smallholder rubber plantation due to old and damaged plants. The limitation of this model is the high variation of the growth of young plant in the field. This study aimed to determine the effect of extra fertilization and mycorrhiza on the growth of young rubber plants in the gradual rejuvenation model. The research was located at Ramsay Village, Way Tuba District, with red-yellow podzolic soil types and climate type of B2 according to Oldemand, from 2012 to 2014, and arranged in split plot design. The plant age, P1 (3 years old); P2 (2 years old); and P3 (1 year old) was denoted as the main plot, whereas the subplot is fertilizer dosage, D1 (100% of recommended dosage); D2 (100% of recommended dosage + mycorrhiza; D3 (125% of recommended dosage); D4 (125% of recommended dosage + mycorrhiza). Fertilizer application was done twice a year, while mycorrhiza were given once a year toward the end of the rainy season. The plant material used was PB 260 clone, with a standard agricultural practices such as weeding and watering during the dry season. Variables measured were plant height and girth. The results showed that application of 25% extra from the recommended dosage + mycorrhiza was able to accelerate the growth of young rubber plants. Fertilizer dose of 125% from the recommendation + mycorrhiza applied on 2-year-old plants exhibited the same growth with 3-year-old plant that treated with recommended dosage. This result indicates that mycorrhiza works synergistically with inorganic fertilizer, which enhances the effectivity and efficiency of extra fertilization in gradually rejuvenation models.
Rusli, Sakiroh, Edi Wardiana
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 2; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v2n2.2015.p107-112

Abstract:
Rekomendasi pemupukan tanaman kopi Robusta yang tersedia sekarang ini hanyalah bersifat umum, padahal jenis dan jumlah pupuk yang dibutuhkan tanaman kopi Robusta sangat tergantung pada kondisi lingkungan, jenis klon, dan umur tanaman. Penelitian bertujuan mengetahui pengaruh kombinasi dosis pupuk urea, SP36, dan KCl terhadap komponen pertumbuhan, hasil, dan kualitas biji empat klon kopi Robusta pada tanah Podsolik Merah Kuning (PMK), Lampung Utara. Penelitian dilakukan di KP. Cahaya Negeri, Lampung Utara, pada ketinggian tempat 250 m dpl dengan jenis tanah PMK dan tipe iklim C (Oldemand), mulai Oktober 2011 sampai Juni 2014. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah petak terpisah dengan 4 ulangan. Sebagai petak utama adalah 4 klon kopi Robusta, yaitu (K1) = BP 42; (K2) = BP 409; (K3) = BP 936; dan (K4) = BP 939, sedangkan sebagai anak petak adalah 4 kombinasi dosis pupuk urea, SP36, dan KCl, yaitu (P1) = 30:20:20 g/pohon; (P2) = 40:30:30 g/pohon; (P3) = 50:40:40 g/pohon; dan (P4) = 60:50:50 g/pohon. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan keempat klon kopi Robusta (BP 42, BP 409, BP 936, dan BP 939) yang ditanam pada tanah PMK, KP. Cahaya Negeri, Lampung Utara, memiliki respons yang sama terhadap kombinasi dosis pupuk urea, SP36, dan KCl. Untuk keempat klon tersebut, dosis pupuk urea, SP36, dan KCl masing-masing sebanyak 50, 40, dan 40 g/pohon merupakan dosis optimal dan cukup efisien bagi pertumbuhan dan hasil buah sampai umur 2,5 tahun. Namun demikian, dosis tersebut masih belum mampu untuk meningkatkan kualitas biji kopi. Kata kunci: Kopi Robusta, podsolik merah kuning, pemupukan Recommendation of Robusta coffee fertilizer that available until now is only in general. In fact, the type and amount of fertilizer needed is highly dependent on environmental conditions, clones, and plant age. The study aimed to investigate the effect of combination doses of urea, SP36, and KCl fertilizer on growth, yield, and bean quality of four Robusta coffee clones cultivated in red-yellow podzolic soil type (PMK), North Lampung. The study was conducted at KP. Cahaya Negeri, North Lampung, with the altitude of 250 m above sea level, PMK soil type and climate type of C (Oldemand), from October 2011 to June 2014. The research was arranged in split plot design with four replications. The main plot was four Robusta coffee clones i.e. (K1) = BP 42; (K2) = BP 409; (K3) = BP 936; and (K4) = BP 939, while the subplot was four combination doses of urea, SP36, and KCl i.e. (P1) = 30:20:20 g/tree; (P2) = 40:30:30 g/tree; (P3) = 50:40:40 g/tree; and (P4) = 60:50:50 g/tree. The results showed that four Robusta coffee clones (BP 42, BP 409, BP 936, and BP 939) cultivated in PMK soil type, KP. Cahaya Negeri, North Lampung, had the same response to combination doses of urea, SP36 and KCl fertilizer. The combination doses of urea, SP36, and KCl of 50, 40, and 40 g/tree, respectively were optimal and efficient for growth and yield of those four clones until 2.5 years old. However, the dose has not yet been able to improve the quality of coffee beans.
, Iing Sobari, Octivia Trisilawati, Juniaty Towaha
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 2; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v2n2.2015.p91-98

Abstract:
Mikoriza merupakan agens hayati yang dapat meningkatkan efisiensi penggunaan pupuk kimia (anorganik) karena dapat meningkatkan ketersediaan unsur hara tanah. Penelitian bertujuan mengevaluasi efektivitas mikoriza dan pupuk NPKMg terhadap pertumbuhan dan hasil tanaman kopi muda di lapangan. Penelitian dilaksanakan di KP. Pakuwon, Sukabumi, Jawa Barat, mulai Januari 2013 sampai November 2014. Perlakuan yang diuji adalah penggunaan mikoriza 3 taraf: tanpa mikoriza, 200 spora/pohon, dan 400 spora/pohon; dan pemberian pupuk NPKMg, 4 dosis (dosis rekomendasi, ¾, ½, dan ¼ dosis rekomendasi). Perlakuan disusun dalam rancangan acak kelompok, 3 ulangan dengan ukuran petak 4 pohon. Dosis rekomendasi adalah pemberian pupuk NPKMg sebanyak 140 g/pohon/tahun (40 g urea, 50 g SP-36, 30 g KCl, dan 20 g kieserit). Pupuk NPKMg diberikan dalam 2 tahap, sedangkan mikoriza diaplikasikan dua bulan setelah pemberian pupuk NPKMg yang pertama. Parameter yang diamati meliputi karakter vegetatif (tinggi tanaman, diameter batang, dan jumlah cabang) dan generatif (hasil kopi) serta tingkat infeksi mikoriza pada akar kopi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan pemberian kombinasi mikoriza 400 spora dan 105 g NPKMg per pohon/tahun menghasilkan pertumbuhan tanaman kopi terbaik sampai umur 15 bulan setelah tanam, tetapi belum berpengaruh terhadap produksi kopi. Pemberian inokulum mikoriza sebanyak 200 dan 400 spora/pohon memperlihatkan tingkat infeksi mikoriza yang sama pada akar kopi pada semua pemberian dosis pupuk. Kata kunci: Kopi Arabika, mikoriza, pupuk Mycorrhiza is a biological agent that could improve the efficiency of chemical fertilizers (inorganic) due to it can increase the availability of soil nutrients. The study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of mycorrhiza and NPKMg fertilizers on growth and yield of coffee plants in the field. The research was carried out at KP. Pakuwon, Sukabumi, West Java, from January 2013 to November 2014. The treatments that examined in this study were 3 levels of mycorrhiza application (M0, without mycorrhizal fungi; M1, application of 200 spore/tree; and M2, application of 400 spore/tree), and 4 dosage of NPKMg fertilizers (F1, recommended dose, RD; F2, ¾ RD; F3, ½ RD, and F4, ¼ RD). The treatments were arranged in a ramdomized block design with 3 replications, and the plot size consisted of 4 coffee plants. The recommended dose of fertilizer is 140 g NPKMg/tree/years (40 g urea, 50 g SP-36, 30 g KCl, and 20 g kieserit). NPKMg fertilizers were applied two times, whereas mycorrhiza was given two months after the first application of NPKMg fertilizers. The observed parameters were vegetative characters (plant height, stem diameter, number of branch) and generative character (coffee yield) as well as the infection rates of mycorrizha on roots. The results showed that application of 400 spores of mycorrhizal fungi and 105 g NPKMg/tree/year exhibited the best growth of coffee plants until 15 months after planting (MAP). However, that combination was not significantly affected coffee production. Moreover, application of 200 and 400 spores of mycorrhizal fungi/tree combined with all dosage of NPKMg fertilizers revealed the same infection rates of mycorrizha on roots.
Sumanto, Dedi Sholeh Efendi, Bambang Prastowo
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 2; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v2n2.2015.p77-84

Abstract:
Problem yang dihadapi oleh kakao rakyat adalah produktivitas dan kualitas yang masih rendah. Rendahnya kualitas disebabkan sebagian besar petani belum melakukan fermentasi dengan pertimbangan waktu yang terlalu lama. Biji kakao tipe Lindak diselimuti daging buah (pulp) yang tebal sehingga diduga berpengaruh terhadap waktu fermentasi dan mutu biji. Tujuan penelitian adalah menguji teknologi bioproses dan alat/mesin pemeras (depulper) untuk mempercepat waktu fermentasi dan meningkatkan mutu biji kakao fermentasi. Penelitian dilakukan mulai Juli 2011 sampai Juli 2012 di Kabupaten Pacitan, Jawa Timur pada kelompok tani kakao. Mesin pemeras/pengatus pulp (depulper) kakao yang diuji terdiri dari dua tipe, yaitu tipe enjin berkapasitas 500 kg biji kakao segar/jam dan tipe manual berkapasitas 20 kg biji kakao segar/batch (10 menit). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan fermentasi berlangsung lebih cepat pada biji yang diperas pulpnya, baik menggunakan alat depulper enjin maupun manual. Suhu dan pH fermentasi mencapai puncak pada hari keempat dan menurun pada hari kelima serta biji yang dihasilkan lebih bagus dengan warna cokelat bersih dan cerah. Mutu biji juga lebih baik, ditunjukkan dengan peningkatan rasa dan warna serta berkurangnya keasaman, astringent, dan bau. Kata kunci: Mutu kakao, depulper, fermentasi, pemeras pulp, bioproses In general, the classic problems faced by the cocoa farmer are low productivity and quality of cocoa beans as farmers do not perform fermentation due to a longer processing time. Bulk cocoa beans covered with pulp presumably affecting the fermentation time and bean quality. The research objective was to assess a combination of bioprocessing technology and mechanized-depulping to improve the quality of fermented cocoa beans. The study was conducted from July 2011 to July 2012 on cocoa farmer groups in Pacitan Regency, East Java, using engine depulper (500 kg/hour capacity) and manually (20 kg/10 minutes or about 120 kg/hour capacity). The results showed that fermentation time was shorter in squeezed pulp, either using engine depulper or manually. Both the temperature and pH of fermented beans reached its highest point on the fourth day and decreased on day five, from which obtained higher quality beans indicated by clean and bright brown color with better flavour and color as well as lower acidity, astringent, and smell.
Gusti Indriati, Samsudin, Widi Amaria
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 2; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v2n2.2015.p99-106

Abstract:
Lecanicillium lecanii merupakan jamur entomopatogen yang berpotensi untuk pengendali hama pengisap daun teh Helopeltis antonii. Penelitian bertujuan mengetahui potensi L. lecanii dalam mengendalikan H. antonii pada tanaman teh. Penelitian dilakukan di Laboratorium Proteksi Tanaman Balai Penelitian Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar (Balittri), mulai Januari sampai Oktober 2014. Pengujian terdiri atas uji infektivitas dan antifedansi L. lecanii terhadap nimfa H. antonii serta uji kompatibilitas dengan insektisida nabati secara in vitro, menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap (RAL). Uji infektivitas dan antifedansi dilakukan pada empat kerapatan, yaitu 106, 107, 108, 109 konidia/ml dan kontrol. Setiap perlakuan uji infektivitas diulang empat kali dengan variabel pengamatan adalah mortalitas dan perkembangan nimfa, sedangkan uji antifedansi diulang sepuluh kali dengan variabel pengamatan adalah persentase pengurangan makan. Uji kompatibilitas dilakukan secara in vitro dengan serbuk Piper retrofractum (PR), Tephrosia vogelii (TV), dan Annona squamosa (AS), masing-masing 2,5%; 5,0%; 7,5%; dan kontrol, dan diulang empat kali. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan jamur L. lecanii mampu menginfeksi dan mematikan nimfa H. antonii sebesar 65% di laboratorium dan mengurangi makan sebesar 83,04%. Penambahan serbuk A. squamosa dan T. vogelii masing-masing 2,5%–7,5% tidak mempengaruhi pertumbuhan koloni L. lecanii pada media PDA, tetapi serbuk P. retrofractum dengan konsentrasi yang sama secara nyata menghambat pertumbuhan L. lecanii. Serbuk A. squamosa dan T. vogelii kompatibel dengan L. lecanii.Kata kunci: Teh, Helopeltis antonii, Lecanicillium lecanii, entomopatogen, insektisida nabati Lecanicillium lecanii is an entomopathogenic fungus that potential to control tea mosquito bug Helopeltis antonii. The research aimed to determine the potential of L. lecanii in controlling H. antonii in tea plant. The research was conducted at the Laboratory of Plant Protection, Indonesian Industrial and Beverages Crops Research Institute (IIBCRI) Sukabumi, from January to October 2014. The study consisted of infectivity and antifeedancy of L. lecanii on H. antonii nymph, as well as its in vitro compatibility with botanical insecticide, using completely randomized design (CRD). The infectivity and antifeedancy tests of L. lecanii on H. antonii nymph were carried out using 4 densities: 106, 107, 108, 109 conidia/ml, and control. Each treatment of infectivity test was repeated 4 times with observed variables were mortality and development of nymphs. Meanwhile, antifeedancy test was repeated 10 times with the observed variable was percentage of feeding reduction. The in vitro compatibility test of L. lecanii was done by using Piper retrofractum (PR), Tephrosia vogelii (TV) and Annona squamosa (AS) powder with the concentration of 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5%, respectively and control, which repeated 4 times. The results showed that L. lecanii capable to infect and kill H. antonii nymph at about 65%...
, Laba Udarno
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 2; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v2n2.2015.p69-76

Abstract:
Kafein berperan dalam menentukan pahit/sepetnya teh. Perbedaan genotipe dan jenis pemetikan menyebabkan perbedaan kandungan kafein dan kualitas teh. Penelitian bertujuan mengetahui kandungan kafein dan karakteristik morfologi pucuk (peko) dengan 3 daun muda di bawahnya (P+3) pada beberapa genotipe teh. Penelitian dilaksanakan di perkebunan teh Tambi dan di laboratorium pengujian Balai Besar Industri Agro (BBIA) Bogor mulai April sampai Juni 2013. Ekstraksi kafein menggunakan kloroform dan diukur pada panjang gelombang 276,5 nm. Analisis kafein dilakukan terhadap pucuk (peko) dengan 3 daun muda di bawahnya (P+3) yang disusun dalam rancangan acak lengkap (RAL) dengan 6 genotipe teh sebagai perlakuan (Tbs 1, Tbs 2, RB 3, Kiara 8, Cin 143, dan Hibrid) dan 4 ulangan. Karakterisasi terhadap pucuk teh dilakukan terhadap karakter morfologi kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan genotipe berpengaruh nyata terhadap kandungan kafein. RB 3 merupakan genotipe yang memiliki kadar kafein P+3 tertinggi (3,58%) yang diikuti oleh genotipe Cin 143 (3,43%). Berdasarkan kadar kafein, Tbs 1 dan Tbs 2 merupakan genotipe harapan dengan kualitas lebih baik dibandingkan dengan RB 3 dan Cin 143. Keragaman antar genotipe terdapat pada karakter bentuk daun, pangkal daun, tepi daun, ujung daun, permukaan atas daun, warna daun, bulu pada peko, panjang daun, lebar daun, rasio panjang terhadap lebar daun, panjang tangkai daun, jumlah tulang daun, tebal daging daun, dan panjang peko. Kadar kafein berkorelasi negatif nyata terhadap rasio panjang dan lebar daun. Kata kunci: Teh, kafein, karakter kualitatif, karakter kuantitatif Caffeine plays an important role in determining a bitter flavor of tea. Different genotype and picking types cause differences in caffeine content and quality of tea. The research aimed to determine the caffeine content and morphological characteristics of shoots (peko) with 3 young leaves below (P+3) on several tea genotypes. The study was conducted at Tambi tea plantation and Laboratory of Testing, Center for Agro-based Industri (CABI), Bogor from April to June 2013. Caffeine was extracted using chloroform and measured at a wavelength of 276.5 nm. Caffeine analysis was carried out using shoots (peko) with 3 young leaves below (P + 3), which were arranged in a completely randomized design with 6 tea genotypes as treatments (Tbs 1 Tbs 2, RB 3, Kiara 8, Cin 143, and Hybrid) and replicated 4 times. Characterization on tea shoots was done by observing quantitative and qualitative characters. The results showed that genotypes had significant effect on caffeine content. RB 3 genotype had the highest caffeine content (3.58%) followed by Cin 143 genotype (3.43%). Based on caffeine content, Tbs 1 and Tbs 2 are promising genotypes with better quality than RB 3 and Cin 143. The diversity among genotypes revealed by shape, base, edges, and the tips of the leaves; the upper surface of leaves, leaf color, feathers on shoots (peko), leaf length and width characters, the ratio of the length and width of leaf, petiole length, number of leaf bones, flesh thick leaves, and shoots (peko) length. Moreover, caffeine content was negatively correlated with the ratio of the length and width of leaf.
, Efi Taufiq, Budi Martono
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 2, pp 35-42; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v2n1.2015.p35-42

Abstract:
Penyakit karat daun yang disebabkan oleh Hemileia vastatrix merupakan penyakit yang sangat merugikan pada tanaman kopi karena dapat mematikan tanaman. Penelitian bertujuan mengetahui ketahanan pohon induk kopi Liberika Meranti terhadap penyakit karat daun kopi (H. vastatrix) yang akan digunakan sebagai varietas unggul komposit. Kegiatan penelitian telah dilakukan di Desa Kedabu Rapat, Kecamatan Rangsang Pesisir, Kabupaten Kepulauan Meranti pada tahun 2013 dan 2014. Observasi dilakukan di kebun petani dengan luas 170 ha, terhadap pohon induk kopi Liberika yang telah diseleksi sebelumnya. Ketahanan terhadap H. vastatrix diamati dengan melihat gejala serangan pada daun di setiap pohon. Parameter yang diamati adalah gejala serangan dan indeks intensitas penyakit (IIP). IIP mengacu pada skor tanaman terserang, yaitu 0 = kebal, 1%–29% = tahan, 30%–49% = agak tahan, 50%–69% = agak rentan, dan 70%–100% = rentan. Hasil observasi dari 106 pohon induk kopi Liberika Meranti terhadap H. vastatrix diperoleh 90 pohon (84,90%) tahan, 14 pohon (13,1%) agak tahan, dan 1 pohon (0,9%) agak rentan. Ketahanan kopi tersebut cukup stabil selama 2 tahun pengamatan.Kata kunci: Kopi Liberika, Hemileia vastatrix, karat daun, ketahananLeaf rust disease caused by Hemileia vastatrix is considered as the most devastating disease in coffee plants due to it can kill the plants. The objective of this research was to determine the resistance of Liberica coffee derived from Kepulauan Meranti against leaf rust disease (H. vastatrix) that will be used as a composite variety. The research was conducted in Kedabu Rapat Village, Rangsang Pesisir Sub-district, Kepulauan Meranti in 2013 and 2014. Observations were carried out at farmer field in an area of 170 ha toward Liberica coffee that previously has been selected. Leaf rust resistance can be observed on the leaves of each selected Liberica coffee tree. The observed parameters were attack symptoms and disease intensity index (IIP). The disease intensity index (IIP) refers to the score of infected plants, i.e.: 0 = immune, 1%–29% = resistant, 30%–49% = moderate resistant, 50%–69% = moderate susceptible and 70%–100% = susceptible. The observation result on 106 selected Liberica coffee trees against H. vastatrix showed 90 trees (84.90%) were resistant, 14 trees (13.1%) were moderate resistant, and one tree (0.9%) was susceptible. The resistance of Liberica coffee is known quite stable during two years of observation.
Bedy Sudjarmoko, , Dewi Listyati, Samsudin Samsudin
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 2; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v2n1.2015.p21-28

Abstract:
Pengisap pucuk dan cacar daun masing-masing merupakan hama dan penyakit utama pada tanaman teh. Kemampuan petani dalam mengendalikan hama dan penyakit tersebut semakin menurun seiring dengan makin tingginya biaya produksi dan rendahnya harga jual produk teh. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengetahui kesediaan petani membiayai teknologi pengendalian serangan hama pengisap pucuk dan penyakit cacar daun pada tanaman teh. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Kabupaten Sukabumi dan Cianjur, Jawa Barat, mulai bulan Maret sampai November 2014 dengan menggunakan metode survei. Data primer dikumpulkan melalui wawancara mendalam (in-depth interview) terhadap 94 responden petani teh, sedangkan data sekunder dikumpulkan dari Dinas Perkebunan setempat, Direktorat Perlindungan Tanaman, Direktorat Jenderal Perkebunan, dan salah satu PTPN di Jawa Barat. Responden dalam penelitian ini ditentukan secara purposive dan data yang diperoleh kemudian diolah menggunakan analisis willingness to pay (WTP). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kemampuan petani teh untuk mengendalikan serangan hama pengisap pucuk dan penyakit cacar daun teh jauh lebih rendah dibandingkan biaya pengendalian yang dibutuhkan. Kesediaan petani untuk mengendalikan serangan hama pengisap pucuk dan penyakit cacar daun teh dipengaruhi oleh pendapatan, serta persepsi petani terhadap biaya dan manfaat pengendalian. Pendapatan dan persepsi petani teh terhadap pengendalian hama pengisap pucuk dan penyakit cacar daun memiliki pengaruh yang lebih besar terhadap kesediaan membiayai teknologi pengendalian.Kata kunci: Camellia sinensis L., teknologi, WTP, petaniThe tea mosquito bugs and blister blight are two main pest and disease on the tea plantations. However, the ability of farmers to control these pest and disease was decreased due to the increase of production cost and the decrease of tea prices. The objective of this research was to determine the willingness to pay of farmers on control technology of mosquito bugs and blister blight in tea plantation. The experiment was conducted in Sukabumi and Cianjur, West Java from March to November 2014 using a survey method. Primary data was collected through in-depth interviews with 94 respondents of tea farmers. Meanwhile, secondary data was collected from Plantation Service, Directorate of Plant Protection, Directorate General of Plantation and one of government plantation companies in West Java. Respondents in this research were chosen by purposive sampling, and the resulted data were analyzed using willingness to pay (WTP) analysis. The results showed that the ability of tea farmers to control mosquito bugs and blister blight much lower compared to the cost to control both of pest and disease. The willingness to pay of tea farmers in controlling tea mosquito bugs and blister blight are influenced by income, the perception of farmers to costs and benefits of control. Farmers’ income and perception to control these pest and disease have greater influence on the willingness to pay this control technology.
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