Results in Journal Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar: 115
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Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 29-38; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n1.2020.p29-38
Availability of inexpensive and efficient tissue culture methods is needed in the development of mass propagation methods. The efficiency can be obtained through the use of low cost media components such as granulated sugar. The study aimed to determine the efficiency of cacao somatic embryo development medium using granulated sugar and its effect on somatic embryo formation. The study was conducted at Tissue Culture Laboratory for Superior Seed Development, IAARD, Bogor, from March to October 2016. Formation and maturation of somatic embryos was conducted using DKW medium without growth regulators. The treatments tested were carbon sources in the media (laboratory grade sucrose; a mixture of sucrose and granulated sugar with a ratio of 3:1, 2:2 and 1:3; granulated sugar) and cacao genotypes (Sca 6 and ICCRI 4). The study used in a randomized complete block design in factorial 2 favtors with 8 replications, which consisted of 10 explants per experimental unit. The results showed that carbon sources and genotypes significantly affected somatic embryos formation, whereas the interaction effect was not significant. The use of granulated sugar 30 g/l produced approximately 35.3% of somatic embryo formation and 3.5 somatic embryos per explant, which is not significantly different from sucrose 30 g/l (31.1% and 4.1), whereas the mixture of sucrose and granulated sugar produced the lowest average percentage of somatic embryo formation and the number of somatic embryos per explant (20.3%, 18.8%, 17.8% and 1.5; 2.2; 2.8 respectively). The low-cost somatic embryogenesis method was successfully developed with an efficiency of 98.8% per liter of media.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 39-52; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n1.2020.p39-52
The growth of cacao in acid soils is commonly limited by some problems such as low available P and pH, and high Al saturation. Therefore, research is needed to solve the problem of coffee cultivation in acid soil. This study aimed to determine the effect of ameliorant, phosphate solubilizing microbes (PSM), and phosphate fertilizers (P) on the growth and nutrient uptake of cacao seedlings, and some acid soil properties. The study used a randomized block design with 3 factors and 3 replications. The first factor was ameliorant applications (without ameliorant, 10% organic fertilizer, 4% rice husk biochar, 4% rice husk biochar + 10% organic fertilizer). The second factor was PSM applications: without PSM, Burkholderia ambifaria (BPF) inoculants, and Aspergillus niger (FPF) inoculants. The third factor was P fertilizers applications (without Phosphate Rock (PR), 100, 200, and 400 mg P/kg of PR, and 400 mg P/kg of SP-36). The results showed that the applications of 4% rice husk biochar + 10% organic fertilizer + BPF or FPF inoculants increase the number of leaves by 77.9% and 69.2%, respectively, and increase the dry weight of shoot by 93.6 % and 101.9%, respectively. Phosphate rock application in media without organic fertilizer increases dry weight of shoots and roots of cacao seedlings, and the uptake of P, Ca, and Mg in shoots linearly in line with the increase of PR dose to 400 mg P/kg. Application of rice husk biochar significantly increased the acid phosphatase activity of growing media. Meanwhile, organic fertilizer increased the soil pH, acid phosphatase and available P activity, and decreased Al-dd growing media.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 19-28; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n1.2020.p19-28
Seedling is an important process in preparing cocoa plant material. The growing medium must have sufficient nutrition and physical properties to enable cocoa seeds to grow well. Arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi (AMF) and biological charcoal (biochar) added into growing media were expected to increase the growth of cocoa seeds. The study aimed to determine the effect of AMF and biological charcoal on the growth of cocoa seeds. The randomized complete block design (RBD) in factorial 2 factors with three replications was used in this study. The first factor was AMF application consisted of two levels, namely: M0 = without AMF and M1 = application of 10 g/seedling AMF (100 spores/seedling). The second factor was the biochar application consisted of 5 factors namely: B0 = no biochar, B1 = 2% rice husk biochar, B2 = 4% rice husk biochar, B3 = 2% albizia wood biochar, and B4 = 4% albizia wood biochar. The variables observed were the height of seedling, number of leaves and stem diameter at 3, 4, 5 and 6 month after planting (MAP), leaf chlorophyll content, weight of dry cocoa seedling, and nutrient content in seedling media. The result showed that the application of AMF significantly affected the height of seedling at 3, 4, 5 and 6 MAP. While the application of biochar significantly affected the height and number of leaves of cacao seedlings.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 9-18; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n1.2020.p9-18
Ant (Formicidae: Hymenoptera) is one of the dominant groups of insects and has significant biological and ecological properties. The presence of ants in coffee plantations plays an important role as it functions as a predator. The study aimed to investigate the effect of coffee plantation agroecosystem on the diversity and abundance of ant species. The study was conducted from February to June 2018 at Pakuwon Experimental Station. The coffee plants were divided into 4 groups, based on their locations and agroecosystems, where each group consisted of 4 observation plots. Ants sampling were taken from 15 sample plants in each plot. Observation was conducted on ants found in the stems, leaves, twigs and fruits of coffee plants. The ants were taken for 5 to 10 minutes from each plant. The differences in coffee agroecosystem were grouped based on location, altitude, coffee species, shade plant, and vegetation around the observation site. The study found 59 ant morphospecies with a total of 2,535 individuals. The dominant ant was Dolichoderus sp1. There were 4 ant species that were found in all four locations, namely Camponotus sp1., Crematogaster sp1., Dolichoderus sp1., Polyrhachis sp1. which are predatory. The analysis result showed that different coffee agroecosystem affects diversity and abundance of ants.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 1-8; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n1.2020.p1-8
Assessing coffee sensory quality is generally carried out by panelists using cup testing with reference to the Specialty Coffee Association of America (SCAA) standards. A high level of sensitivity sensory is essential thus it must be done by trained panelists. Given the limitations of the method, a deeper study is required to obtain a standard of assessment of coffee sensory quality based on more reliable and precise analytical methods, one of which is biochemical components. This study was aimed to analyze the sensory quality and biochemical components of Arabica coffee and determine the indicators of sensory attributes based on those biochemical components. The study was conducted at two Arabica coffee-producing areas in West Java from May to September 2019. The biochemical components analyzed included caffeine, trigonelline, chlorogenic acid (CGA), sucrose, and lipid, while the sensory attributes assessed were aroma, flavor, aftertaste, acidity, body, balance, uniformity, sweetness, clean cup, and overall. The survey method with stratified and simple random sampling was used and followed by Two-way Anova and Partial Least Square analysis. Results showed variations in the biochemical content of coffee from the two areas. Lipid has a positive correlation with the aroma and flavor attributes, and negatively correlated with the body attribute. Caffeine has a negative correlation with the aftertaste attribute, whereas CGA has a negative correlation with the acidity attribute. Correlation between biochemical components with sensory attributes showed that the biochemical content acts as an indicator of sensory attributes.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 6, pp 99-108; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v6n3.2019.p99-108
Analysis of combining ability and correlation between characters in cacao plays an important role and benefits in an effort to obtain superior high-yield genetic material. This analysis makes it easy to find out the best combination of parents in producing superior progeny. The study aimed to analyze the combining ability and correlation of cacao pod numbers in F1 population generated from half-diallel crossing. The study was conducted at Pakuwon Experimental Station, Sukabumi, West Java, at an altitude of 450 m above sea level with Latosol soil type and B climate type (Schmidt and Fergusson), from 2014 until 2018. The experiment was arranged using a randomized block design (RBD) with 10 combinations of half-diallel crossing method that were repeated three times. The parental genotypes used were ICCRI 03, TSH 858, DR 1, ICS 13, and SCA 6. The variables observed were the number of healthy pods, number of rotten pods, number of cherelle wilts, and total pod numbers. The combining ability was analyzed using the Griffing 4 method, while correlation analysis was carried out phenotypically and genotypically.The results showed the action of non-additive genes in the F1 generation and three combinations of crosses, namely ICCRI 03 x TSH 858, TSH 858 x DR 1, and ICS 13 x SCA 6 had the opportunity to be developed into superior hybrids. In addition, it is known that there were phenotypic and genotypic positive correlations between the observed pod component characters.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 6, pp 109-118; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v6n3.2019.p109-118
Vascular streak dieback (VSD) caused by Ceratobasidium theobromae is a major disease in cacao which results in yield losses up to 45%. Controlling VSD using secondary metabolites and botanical fungicide is expected to reduce disease attacks because secondary metabolites contain antibiotics, enzymes, and toxins that can control the disease and botanical fungicide that are antifungal. The research aimed to determine the effect of Trichoderma spp. secondary metabolites and botanical fungicide to control VSD in cacao. The research was conducted in the Integrated Laboratory, IIBCRI, Sukabumi, Biotechnology Laboratory, BPPT, Serpong and farmer gardens in Rahmat Village, Palolo District, Sigi Regency, Central Sulawesi, from March to December 2017. The research used a randomized block design of 7 treatments with 3 replications; each replication consists of 10 plants. The treatments were: (1) Trichoderma virens LP1, (2) T. amazonicum LP3, (3) botanical fungicide, (4) T. virens LP1 + botanical fungicide, (5) T. amazonicum LP3 + botanical fungicide, (6) chemical fungicide (for comparison), (7) control (without application). Variables observed were the symptoms of the attack, severity and disease progression, and production. The results showed that Trichoderma spp. secondary metabolites suppress VSD disease severity and increase cacao production up to 33.97%–61.34%, either in a single form or in combination with botanical fungicide. T. virens LP1 secondary metabolite showed the highest suppression of VSD disease (54.18%), followed by the combination of T. virens LP1 + botanical fungicide (47.64%), better than chemical fungicide (30.89%). Thus, Trichoderma spp. secondary metabolites can be used as a VSD control technology.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 6, pp 119-126; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v6n3.2019.p119-126
Arabica coffee is a perennial crop hence it has a long selection cycle. Therefore, efforts to shorten the selection process is necessary, such as at seedling stage. This study aims to identify morpho-physiological characters variability among Arabica coffee cultivars at seedling stage. The experiment was conducted at Pakuwon Experimental Garden of Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute, Sukabumi, from January to October 2017. Seeds collected from open pollinated trees of four arabica coffee cultivars (Ateng Super, P88, Gayo 1, and Gayo 2) were then sown on seedbed and newly-emerged cotyledonous seedlings were transferred immediately into polyethylene bag (polybag). Seedlings were arranged in randomized complete block with 5 replications, each consisted of 10 seedlings of each cultivar. Morpho-physiological characters observed and analyzed were shoot (plant height, lateral shoot formation, number of internodes, internode length, stem diameter, shoot’s dry weight); leaves (number of leaves, leaf length, leaf width, L/W ratio, leaf area, stomata density , chlorophyll content); and root (root length, number of primary roots, root volume, root’s dry weight, root/shoot ratio). The result showed value of genetic coefficient of variation (GCV), phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV), and broad sense heritability (h2bs) of plant height characters are classified as high, each of which is 21.66%; 23.66%; and 0.84, respectively. The characters of the stem length and leaf width showed high h2bs value (0.97 and 0.67 respectively), while the KKG and KKF values were classified as moderate (19.60% and 19.88%, respectively and 10.71% and 13.10%, respectively). Those three characters could be utilized as distincitive markers of the four Arabica coffee cultivars.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 6, pp 127-134; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v6n3.2019.p127-134
Candlenut [Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.] is a perrenial plant that has high economic value. Information about vegetative and generative characters, as well as yield components that influence the yield is needed in the early stages of selection process in plant breeding. Selection of these characters can be done using Sequential Path Analysis (SPA) according to the plant development cycle, and then confirm the model using the Structural equation modeling (SEM) method. The aim of this study was to determine the vegetative characters and yield components that influence the candlenut production. The research was carried out at Pakuwon Experimental Station, Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute, Sukabumi, from January to December 2018. Plant materials used in this study was 129 candlenut trees at 9 years old which were planted with a spacing of 10m x 10m. The data were analyzed using SPA followed by model confirmation using SEM method. The results showed that the production of seed was directly and positively influenced by the leaf petiole length, number of productive branches, seed weight, and number of fruits per tree, while the effect of stem height character is indirectly. Based on these results, plant selection based on vegetative characters such as leaf petiole length, number of productive branches, stem height character, number of fruits per tree and seed weight can be used to obtain high-yielding candlenut plants.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 6, pp 135-144; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v6n3.2019.p135-144
Sustainable standards and certification can encourage coffee farmers to adopt good agricultural practices (GAP), achieving coffee production that is economically, socially and environmentally sustainable. The Common Code for Coffee Community (4C) is a standard and certification scheme currently exists in Robusta coffee production center in Lampung Province. However, sustainable standard and certification become less relevant without farmers’ participation. Farmers’ participation in standards and certification has been relatively low and studies on the issue are relatively rare. This study aims to analyze the determinants of farmer’s participation in 4C Standards and Certification. The study was conducted in West Lampung and Tanggamus Ragency, Lampung Province from February to May 2019. The total number of respondents was 120 people (4C certified farmers and non-certified farmers) surveyed with a systematic-random-sampling method. Data was analyzed using heckprobit regression. The results showed that farmer participation in 4C was determined by the selling price of coffee, farmers’ side job, farmers' preference to replace coffee with other commodities, and the farmers’ group activity. The results indicated that 4C and coffee stakeholders at national scale need to consider policies on how to improve coffee price, optimizing the farmer organizations, and the added-value of coffee production.