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Ei Mon Kyaw, I Wayan Budiastra, Sutrisno Sutrisno, Samsudin Samsudin, Dheni Mita Mala
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 119-126; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n3.2020.p119-126

Abstract:
Liberica is one of coffee species that is becoming popular and increasingly in demand in present days due to its unique characteristics. Caffeine is one of the important coffee quality parameter which determines the coffee flavor, consumer preference and market price. Caffeine content is usually analyzed by chemical method which is destructive, time consuming, expensive and involving a lot of procedures. NIR Spectroscopy is one of the non-destructive techniques to overcome these disadvantages. This study was conducted at the Department of Mechanical and Biosystem Engineering, IPB University for NIR measurement and the Center of Agro-based Industry (BBIA), Bogor for chemical analysis from August to November 2019. The study aimed to determine the best calibration model for the prediction of caffeine content in Liberica coffee green bean powder. In this study, FT-NIRS in the wavelength of 1000-2500 nm was used for NIR measurement and HPLC tool was used for chemical analysis. Kubelka-Munk (K/S) and Absorbance (Log 1/R) were used as data transformation, whereas Standard Normal Variance (SNV) and Second derivative of Savitzky-Golay (dg2) as data pretreatment. In addition, Partial Least Square (PLS) and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) were applied for multivariate calibration method. The best calibration model for the prediction of caffeine content of Liberica coffee green bean powder was obtained by the spectral data pretreated with second derivative of Savitzky-Golay (dg2) and Kubelka-Munk data transformation using PLS calibration method with the results of r = 0.90, RPD = 2.24, CV = 2.01%.
Andika Herianto Simarmata, Kralawi Sita, Totok Herwanto, Ahmad Thoriq
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 149-162; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n3.2020.p149-162

Abstract:
Application of tea harvest mechanization can increase work productivity, cost efficiency, and reduce the amount of starch loss in tea leaves. The problem is that the harvester machines that are operated in most tea plantations in Indonesia are imported. The harvester machine operators have the potential to experience skeletal, muscular, and peripheral nerve disorders called Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs). This study aims to evaluate the design of the type GT 120 Ochiai tea leaf harvester machine based on operator anthropometry and to find the operator's working posture during the tea picking process that needs immediate improvement. Anthropometric data were collected through measurements of the operator's body dimensions, while biomechanical data were collected through video recordings of the work-movements of all operators in operating the machine with a land slope of 5o – 10oand a land slope of 35o–40o at a plant height of 75 cm to 110 cm. Data analysis was performed using the REBA (Rapid Entire Body Assessment) and OWAS (Ovako Working Posture Analysis) methods. The results showed that the design of the type GT 120 Ochiai engine was in accordance with the operator's anthropometry. The results of REBA analysis show that there is a high work risk when operating the harvester machine, namely in the land conditions with a slope of 35o – 40o with a plant height above 100 cm and when moving the sacks of the harvest to a temporary shelter. Meanwhile, according to the results of the OWAS analysis, it is necessary to take corrective action as soon as possible, namely the position of operator 3 and operator 4 and it is necessary to change the position of operator 1 and operator 2. Based on the results of the REBA and OWAS analysis, it is better if the operator’s work shift changes in machine operation with the slope of the land 35o – 40o.
Samsudin Samsudin, Khaerati Khaerati, Gusti Indriati, Arlia Dwi Hapsari
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 179-188; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n3.2020.p179-188

Abstract:
Hypothenemus hampei is a coffee berry borers (CBB) that is difficult to control because it lives inside the coffee berries. Blastospores of entomopathogen fungal are expected to be effective in controlling these pests. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of blastospores Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, Metarhizium anisopliae and Lecanicillium lecanii to infect, kill and inhibit the development of H. hampei on coffee cherries in the laboratory. The study was conducted from March to December 2019 at the Plant Protection Laboratory, Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute, Sukabumi. The study used 14 treatments, namely 3 types of fungi are P. fumosoroseus, M. anisopliae and L. lecanii with every 4 densities are 108, 107, 106, and 105 blastospores/ml, positive control using botanical insecticides (Biotris) and negative control, and repeated 4 times. The parameters observed were mortalities, number of bor holes, and insect development after treatment. The results showed that all blastospores were able to infect and kill H. imago in the laboratory. The highest mortality occurred in the treatment of P. fumosoroseus with 108 blastospores/ml densities (P1) by 39.91%. Blastospores of 3 entomopathogens were able to inhibit the number of bor holes on the coffee cherries, with the highest inhibition in the treatment of L. lecanii 106 blastospores/ml (L3) by 28.57%. All types of blastospores can also inhibit insect development in the coffee cherries. Treatment of M. anisopliae 108 blastospore/ml (M1) was able to reduce the number of eggs and nymphs by 78.69% and 74.24% respectively compared to negative controls. Blastospores from three types of entomopathogens have the potential to be developed as bioinsecticides to control CBB.
Rita Harni, Khaerati Khaerati, Rita Noveriza, Sri Yuliani
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 127-136; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n3.2020.p127-136

Abstract:
Black pod disease caused by Phytophthora palmivora is a significant disease on cocoa crops worldwide. Citronella and geraniol are two dominant substances of citronella oil that have fungicidal activity, which is potentially used to control black pod disease. However, those two substances are relatively unstable form volatile. To improve stability can be done using nanotechnology. The study aimed to analyze the effectiveness of citronella-oil-nanoemulsions formulas on the growth of P. palmivora in vitro and on cocoa pods. Eight nano formulas were prepared at the Postharvest Center in Bogor; however, the effectiveness was conducted at the Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute in Sukabumi. The nano formula was prepared following spontaneous, simultaneous, and inversion methods. The experiments were designed in a completely randomized design, with five replications. Eight treatments were evaluated, i.e., the inversion formulas (F1, F2, F5 & F7), spontaneous (F3, F6 & F8), and simultaneous (F4). Two concentration levels of the formula were tested, i.e., 0.5% for in vitro and 1.0% in cacao pods. The variables observed were the inhibition rate of formula, bioassay, concentration, and inhibition rate on cacao pods. The nanoemulsion formulas of citronella oil could inhibit 23.13%–77.78% of the growth of P. palmivora. Formula F5 was the best, which inhibited 77.78% growth in vitro and 31.60% in cacao pods. The nanoemulsions of citronella oil affected the growth rate, fresh weight, and dry weight of P. palmivora. For better effectiveness of the formula on cocoa pods, the concentration should be increased.
Meynarti Sari Dewi Ibrahim, Enny Randriani
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 137-148; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n3.2020.p137-148

Abstract:
The Arabica coffee is predominantly self-pollinated plants thereby contributing to low genetic diversity. The effort to increase the genetic diversity of Arabica coffee through crossing strategy is time-consuming, and induce mutation is necessary to enhance the rate of genetic variation. The aims of this study were to observe the effect of gamma-ray irradiation on the growth of apical and axillary bud cuttings and to determine the value of LD50 on apical cuttings and Arabica coffee axillaries. The study was conducted at the Tissue Culture Laboratory, Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute, from January to December in 2018.. The planting material that was irradiated was Arabica coffee plantlets resulting from somatic embryogenesis propagation. Irradiation is carried out at the National Nuclear Energy Agency. The irradiated plantlets were cut and subcultured onto MS medium without growth regulators, 30 g L-1 sucrose, and 2.5 g L-1 phytagel were added. The design used a completely randomized design with 10 replications. The treatments tested were the dose of gamma-ray irradiation (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 Gy). The results showed that gamma-ray irradiation had an effect on all observed parameters. The mortality percentage of apical shoot cuttings began to be found at 30 Gy, while axillary cuttings at 20 Gy increased with an increasing dose of gamma-ray irradiation. The number of shoots and leaves varied between irradiation doses on both apical and axillary cuttings. The LD50 value of apical shoot cuttings was 36.80 Gy, while axillary cuttings were 22.24 Gy
Iing Sobari, Sumadi Sumadi, Santi Rosniawaty, Edi Wardiana
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 163-178; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n3.2020.p163-178

Abstract:
During the storage period, cocoa seeds undergo various processes that will affect the content of their food reserves and will have an impact on germination capacity and seeds vigor. The objective of this study is to investigate the changes of biochemical and vigor of cocoa seeds after storage for a maximum of 4 weeks with an interval of 1 week. The experiment was conducted at the Integrated Laboratory and Greenhouse of Balittri, Sukabumi, West Java, from October to December 2019. The completely randomized design with five treatments of seeds storage duration: (a) seeds unstored, (b) seeds stored for 1 week, (c) seeds stored for 2 weeks, (d) seeds stored for 3 weeks, and (e) seeds stored for 4 weeks, and five replications were used in this study. Parameters observed during seed storage were the biochemistry change of seeds and the percentage of germinated seeds, while during seed germination is an indicator of seed vigor. The results showed that storing cocoa seeds for 1-4 weeks decreased the fat content of the seeds, while the free fatty acids, protein, and percentage of germinated seeds increased. Until the 21st day after sowing, seed storage increases electrical conductivity but decreases growth rate, maximum growth potential, viability, and hypocotyl length. Seeds stored for one week still good in their vigor (viability of 80%), while seeds stored for 2-4 weeks have decreased their vigor (maximum viability of 54.4%).
Pembina Purba, Anggoro Cahyo Sukartiko, Makhmudun Ainuri
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 83-92; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n2.2020.p83-92

Abstract:
Coffee is one of the flagship commodities in the international export market. Its function is important to the economy and encourages the development of world Agroindustries. The coffee beans physical and coffee flavor are the important components influenced by the genetic nature of plants, cultivation practices and growing environments and the interaction between these factors. The research aimed to detemine the beans physical quality and flavor of Gayo Arabica coffee Geographical Indications (GIs) based on the different altitudes. The research was conducted in Gayo Highlands, Aceh Tengah and Bener Meriah Districts. The stratified sampling method was conducted at an altitude of 1,000-1,500 masl (meter above sea level) and 1,500-1,750 masl, the land suitability classification included as S1 and S2 respectively. The variables observed were beans physical quality (weight of 100 Arabica coffee beans and value of defects) and flavor profile. Data were analyzed by independent sample t-test. The results showed that there were differences in the average weight of 100 Arabica coffee beans between S1 and S2 altitudes, but the defect value did not differ significantly. The other results showed that the coffee flavor profile of Arabica Gayo GIs in both districts and altitudes has a total score of 82.75-85.25 points and categorically as specialty coffee (excellent). In general, the S2 altitude of Gayo highland produces a physical quality of 100 Arabica coffee beans and flavor better than the S1 altitude.
Sakiroh Sakiroh, Meynarti Sari Dewi Ibrahim
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 73-82; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n2.2020.p73-82

Abstract:
Morphological characterization of superior Robusta coffee plants has been widely studied, but for the anatomical and physiological character is still relatively limited. Result of this characterization is important as a basic information in order to create the new superior varieties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the morphological, anatomical, and physiological characteristics of seven clones of Robusta coffee (SA 203, BP 534, BP 42, BP 409, BP 939, BP 308 and BP 436). The experiment was conducted at Pakuwon Experimental Station and Integrated Laboratory of Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute, Sukabumi, West Java, from October to November 2019. The Completely Randomized Design with 7 Robusta coffee clones as treatments and three replications was used in this study. The variable observed were morphological (leaf area), anatomical (stomata shape and density) and physiological characters (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll). The results showed that the leaf area of the first and third leaves of seven clones of Robusta coffee were relatively uniform. The stomata shape of Robusta coffee leaf is parasitic type (Rubiaceous) type. The SA 203 and BP 409 clones have the fewest stomata contents. The content of chlorophyll a, b, and total in the first and third leaves varies between clones. Chlorophyll content in the basal, middle, and apical leaf were relatively uniform, except clones SA 203 and BP 939 for the first leaf, and SA 203 and BP 436 for third leaf. The correlation analysis showed a positive relationship between leaf area and chlorophyll content.
Ahmad Thoriq, Rizky Mulya Sampurno, Luthfie Hafidz Imaduddin
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 109-118; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n2.2020.p109-118

Abstract:
The development of specialty coffee roasted beans business and coffee roasting services is currently quite rapid, but often that the business is not based on the feasibility analysis. This study aims to analyze the feasibility level of the production of specialty coffee roasted beans and roasting service of coffee beans. This study was carried out beginning from November 2019 until February 2020 with case study method at Java Sumedang Coffee (JSC) in Genteng Village, Sukasari District, Sumedang Regency, West Java Province. Primary data was collected based on test results and interviews directly with the business manager of JSC, while secondary data were obtained from published scientific articles. The results of this study show that with the use of a roasted machine for 5 hours per day or 1200 hours per year at an interest rate of 7% per year, the business of specialty roasted coffee beans production at JSC are feasible with an assumption of a minimum selling price of Rp.128,500/kg. The indicators of business feasibility are NPV (Net Present Value) Rp. 111,759,128.10; BCR (Benefit Cost Ratio) of 1.02%; IRR (Internal Rate of Return) of 6.21%; capital returned in the 17th month. While, in the coffee bean roasting service business are feasible if the minimum roasting service cost is Rp. 14,000/kg, with feasibility indicators are NPV Rp. 112,286,86; BCR of 1.23; IRR of 6.25% per month; and PBP occurred in the 17th month.
Khaerati Khaerati, Gusti Indriati, Edi Wardiana
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 93-108; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n2.2020.p93-108

Abstract:
The coffee berry borer (CBB) Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is one of the main pests that cause yield losses in coffee plants. This pest directly attacks the coffee berries, both immature and ripe. The entomopathogenic fungi is one of the potential biological agents for CBB, environmentally friendly and does not kill non-target organisms. The study was conducted at the Integrated Laboratory, Industrial and Beverage Crop Research Institute, from June to October 2018. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of bioinsecticide based on entomopathogenic fungus of Talaromyces pinophilus (EFTP) and vegetable oil on CBB. The completely randomized design with 31 treatments and 3 replications was used in this study. The 31th of treatments consisted of 9 formulas of bioinsecticide based on EFTP and vegetable oil, control-positive (bioinsecticide based on EFTP and water), and control- negative (Klorpirifos insecticide). Variables observed were the activities of EFTP enzyme, effectiveness of vegetable oil as a carrier material, mortality of CBB beetles, percentage of CBB attacks, percentage of hollow berries, and number of holes per 10 coffee berries. Results showed that the formula of bioinsecticide based on EFTP produce the chitinase and protease enzymes which were potential as biological agents to control CBB in vitro. Soybean oil is the most effective as a carrier material in formulating EFTP. The formula of S69MK30 and S79MK20 in concentration of 7.50% respectively have the highest potential as biological agents to control CBB. Other potential formula is S69MKT30 in concentration of 7.50%.
Nanda Supriana, Usman Ahmad, Samsudin Samsudin, Eko Heri Purwanto
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 61-72; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n2.2020.p61-72

Abstract:
The processing of coffee can be classified into 3 types namely: dry, semi-wet and wet processing. And then, roasting is the process of forming the taste and aroma of coffee. The study was conducted at Pakuwon Experimental Station, Coffee and Cacao Processing Units, and Integrated Laboratory of Balittri, and TTPHP Laboratory of IPB Bogor, from July until October 2019. The study aimed to investigate (1) the effect of processing methods on physical quality characters of green beans, and (2) the effect of processing methods and roasting temperatures on chemical characters of coffee roasted and organoleptic characters of coffee brewed. The completely randomized design in factorial 2 factors and 3 replications was used in this study. The first factor were 3 type of processing methods (dry, semi-wet, and wet), and the second factor were 2 level of roasting temperatures (180oC and 210oC). The variables observed in the green beans were physical quality characters, while in roasted coffee were water content, caffeine content, and antioxidant activity, and in brewed coffee were organoleptic characters. Result showed that the best green beans was produced from a wet processing method with a minimum total defect value of 21.33 (quality 2). Roasting temperature has a very significant effect (p<0.01) on water content and antioxidant activity, while caffeine content is not significantly affected. Based on the results of cupping test, the best brewed coffee (final score >80.00) was obtained from the treatments of a dry, semi-wet and wet processing method with a roasting temperature of 210°C.
Ilham Nur Ardhi Wicaksono, Budi Martono
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 53-60; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n2.2020.p53-60

Abstract:
The estimated value of genotype variability, phenotype variability, environmental variability, and heritability have an important role in breeding activities of tea in order to create the superior varieties. The objective of this study was to investigate the phenotypic performance, genotype and phenotype variation, and heritability value of nine genotypes of tea. The study was conducted at Pemandangan block, Tambi Plantation Unit, Wonosobo, Central Java, from April 2013 until April 2014. The Randomized Complete Block Design (RBD) with nine treatments and three replications was used in this study. The 9th of treatments consisted of 2 genotypes of tea resulting from a cross (GMB 3 and GMB 4), 2 introduced genotypes (TRI 2024 and TRI 2025), and 5 local genotypes resulting from selection (Cin 143, Kiara 8, RB 3, Tambi 1, and Tambi 2). The results showed that the genotype of GMB 3 more higher than other genotypes in pecco length, leaf length, leaf width, length of leaf stalk, and length of leaf internodes characters, whereas Tambi 2, GMB 3, and GMB 4 more higher in fresh weight of P+2 and P+3. The production of fresh shoot of GMB 4 more higher than the other genotypes, but not significant with GMB 3 and RB 3. The leaf length and fresh shoot production characters has a wide of genotype and phenotype variability, whereas the high of heritability value were found in all characters observed. The selection based on leaf length and fresh shoot production characters will be effective because both characters have a high genotypes variability and heritability.
, Iswandi Anas, Syaiful Anwar, Sudirman Yahya, Gunawan Djajakirana
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 39-52; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n1.2020.p39-52

Abstract:
The growth of cacao in acid soils is commonly limited by some problems such as low available P and pH, and high Al saturation. Therefore, research is needed to solve the problem of coffee cultivation in acid soil. This study aimed to determine the effect of ameliorant, phosphate solubilizing microbes (PSM), and phosphate fertilizers (P) on the growth and nutrient uptake of cacao seedlings, and some acid soil properties. The study used a randomized block design with 3 factors and 3 replications. The first factor was ameliorant applications (without ameliorant, 10% organic fertilizer, 4% rice husk biochar, 4% rice husk biochar + 10% organic fertilizer). The second factor was PSM applications: without PSM, Burkholderia ambifaria (BPF) inoculants, and Aspergillus niger (FPF) inoculants. The third factor was P fertilizers applications (without Phosphate Rock (PR), 100, 200, and 400 mg P/kg of PR, and 400 mg P/kg of SP-36). The results showed that the applications of 4% rice husk biochar + 10% organic fertilizer + BPF or FPF inoculants increase the number of leaves by 77.9% and 69.2%, respectively, and increase the dry weight of shoot by 93.6 % and 101.9%, respectively. Phosphate rock application in media without organic fertilizer increases dry weight of shoots and roots of cacao seedlings, and the uptake of P, Ca, and Mg in shoots linearly in line with the increase of PR dose to 400 mg P/kg. Application of rice husk biochar significantly increased the acid phosphatase activity of growing media. Meanwhile, organic fertilizer increased the soil pH, acid phosphatase and available P activity, and decreased Al-dd growing media.
Nur Ajijah, Sri Hartati
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 29-38; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n1.2020.p29-38

Abstract:
Availability of inexpensive and efficient tissue culture methods is needed in the development of mass propagation methods. The efficiency can be obtained through the use of low cost media components such as granulated sugar. The study aimed to determine the efficiency of cacao somatic embryo development medium using granulated sugar and its effect on somatic embryo formation. The study was conducted at Tissue Culture Laboratory for Superior Seed Development, IAARD, Bogor, from March to October 2016. Formation and maturation of somatic embryos was conducted using DKW medium without growth regulators. The treatments tested were carbon sources in the media (laboratory grade sucrose; a mixture of sucrose and granulated sugar with a ratio of 3:1, 2:2 and 1:3; granulated sugar) and cacao genotypes (Sca 6 and ICCRI 4). The study used in a randomized complete block design in factorial 2 favtors with 8 replications, which consisted of 10 explants per experimental unit. The results showed that carbon sources and genotypes significantly affected somatic embryos formation, whereas the interaction effect was not significant. The use of granulated sugar 30 g/l produced approximately 35.3% of somatic embryo formation and 3.5 somatic embryos per explant, which is not significantly different from sucrose 30 g/l (31.1% and 4.1), whereas the mixture of sucrose and granulated sugar produced the lowest average percentage of somatic embryo formation and the number of somatic embryos per explant (20.3%, 18.8%, 17.8% and 1.5; 2.2; 2.8 respectively). The low-cost somatic embryogenesis method was successfully developed with an efficiency of 98.8% per liter of media.
Dewi Nur Rokhmah, Iing Sobari, Kurnia Dewi Sasmita
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 19-28; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n1.2020.p19-28

Abstract:
Seedling is an important process in preparing cocoa plant material. The growing medium must have sufficient nutrition and physical properties to enable cocoa seeds to grow well. Arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi (AMF) and biological charcoal (biochar) added into growing media were expected to increase the growth of cocoa seeds. The study aimed to determine the effect of AMF and biological charcoal on the growth of cocoa seeds. The randomized complete block design (RBD) in factorial 2 factors with three replications was used in this study. The first factor was AMF application consisted of two levels, namely: M0 = without AMF and M1 = application of 10 g/seedling AMF (100 spores/seedling). The second factor was the biochar application consisted of 5 factors namely: B0 = no biochar, B1 = 2% rice husk biochar, B2 = 4% rice husk biochar, B3 = 2% albizia wood biochar, and B4 = 4% albizia wood biochar. The variables observed were the height of seedling, number of leaves and stem diameter at 3, 4, 5 and 6 month after planting (MAP), leaf chlorophyll content, weight of dry cocoa seedling, and nutrient content in seedling media. The result showed that the application of AMF significantly affected the height of seedling at 3, 4, 5 and 6 MAP. While the application of biochar significantly affected the height and number of leaves of cacao seedlings.
, Gusti Indriati
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 9-18; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n1.2020.p9-18

Abstract:
Ant (Formicidae: Hymenoptera) is one of the dominant groups of insects and has significant biological and ecological properties. The presence of ants in coffee plantations plays an important role as it functions as a predator. The study aimed to investigate the effect of coffee plantation agroecosystem on the diversity and abundance of ant species. The study was conducted from February to June 2018 at Pakuwon Experimental Station. The coffee plants were divided into 4 groups, based on their locations and agroecosystems, where each group consisted of 4 observation plots. Ants sampling were taken from 15 sample plants in each plot. Observation was conducted on ants found in the stems, leaves, twigs and fruits of coffee plants. The ants were taken for 5 to 10 minutes from each plant. The differences in coffee agroecosystem were grouped based on location, altitude, coffee species, shade plant, and vegetation around the observation site. The study found 59 ant morphospecies with a total of 2,535 individuals. The dominant ant was Dolichoderus sp1. There were 4 ant species that were found in all four locations, namely Camponotus sp1., Crematogaster sp1., Dolichoderus sp1., Polyrhachis sp1. which are predatory. The analysis result showed that different coffee agroecosystem affects diversity and abundance of ants.
, Anggoro Cahyo Sukartiko, Makhmudun Ainuri
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 7, pp 1-8; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v7n1.2020.p1-8

Abstract:
Assessing coffee sensory quality is generally carried out by panelists using cup testing with reference to the Specialty Coffee Association of America (SCAA) standards. A high level of sensitivity sensory is essential thus it must be done by trained panelists. Given the limitations of the method, a deeper study is required to obtain a standard of assessment of coffee sensory quality based on more reliable and precise analytical methods, one of which is biochemical components. This study was aimed to analyze the sensory quality and biochemical components of Arabica coffee and determine the indicators of sensory attributes based on those biochemical components. The study was conducted at two Arabica coffee-producing areas in West Java from May to September 2019. The biochemical components analyzed included caffeine, trigonelline, chlorogenic acid (CGA), sucrose, and lipid, while the sensory attributes assessed were aroma, flavor, aftertaste, acidity, body, balance, uniformity, sweetness, clean cup, and overall. The survey method with stratified and simple random sampling was used and followed by Two-way Anova and Partial Least Square analysis. Results showed variations in the biochemical content of coffee from the two areas. Lipid has a positive correlation with the aroma and flavor attributes, and negatively correlated with the body attribute. Caffeine has a negative correlation with the aftertaste attribute, whereas CGA has a negative correlation with the acidity attribute. Correlation between biochemical components with sensory attributes showed that the biochemical content acts as an indicator of sensory attributes.
, Widi Amaria, Anis Herliyati Mahsunah, Irwan Lakani
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 6, pp 109-118; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v6n3.2019.p109-118

Abstract:
Vascular streak dieback (VSD) caused by Ceratobasidium theobromae is a major disease in cacao which results in yield losses up to 45%. Controlling VSD using secondary metabolites and botanical fungicide is expected to reduce disease attacks because secondary metabolites contain antibiotics, enzymes, and toxins that can control the disease and botanical fungicide that are antifungal. The research aimed to determine the effect of Trichoderma spp. secondary metabolites and botanical fungicide to control VSD in cacao. The research was conducted in the Integrated Laboratory, IIBCRI, Sukabumi, Biotechnology Laboratory, BPPT, Serpong and farmer gardens in Rahmat Village, Palolo District, Sigi Regency, Central Sulawesi, from March to December 2017. The research used a randomized block design of 7 treatments with 3 replications; each replication consists of 10 plants. The treatments were: (1) Trichoderma virens LP1, (2) T. amazonicum LP3, (3) botanical fungicide, (4) T. virens LP1 + botanical fungicide, (5) T. amazonicum LP3 + botanical fungicide, (6) chemical fungicide (for comparison), (7) control (without application). Variables observed were the symptoms of the attack, severity and disease progression, and production. The results showed that Trichoderma spp. secondary metabolites suppress VSD disease severity and increase cacao production up to 33.97%–61.34%, either in a single form or in combination with botanical fungicide. T. virens LP1 secondary metabolite showed the highest suppression of VSD disease (54.18%), followed by the combination of T. virens LP1 + botanical fungicide (47.64%), better than chemical fungicide (30.89%). Thus, Trichoderma spp. secondary metabolites can be used as a VSD control technology.
Dani Dani, Dewi Nur Rokhmah, Dibyo Pranowo
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 6, pp 119-126; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v6n3.2019.p119-126

Abstract:
Arabica coffee is a perennial crop hence it has a long selection cycle. Therefore, efforts to shorten the selection process is necessary, such as at seedling stage. This study aims to identify morpho-physiological characters variability among Arabica coffee cultivars at seedling stage. The experiment was conducted at Pakuwon Experimental Garden of Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute, Sukabumi, from January to October 2017. Seeds collected from open pollinated trees of four arabica coffee cultivars (Ateng Super, P88, Gayo 1, and Gayo 2) were then sown on seedbed and newly-emerged cotyledonous seedlings were transferred immediately into polyethylene bag (polybag). Seedlings were arranged in randomized complete block with 5 replications, each consisted of 10 seedlings of each cultivar. Morpho-physiological characters observed and analyzed were shoot (plant height, lateral shoot formation, number of internodes, internode length, stem diameter, shoot’s dry weight); leaves (number of leaves, leaf length, leaf width, L/W ratio, leaf area, stomata density , chlorophyll content); and root (root length, number of primary roots, root volume, root’s dry weight, root/shoot ratio). The result showed value of genetic coefficient of variation (GCV), phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV), and broad sense heritability (h2bs) of plant height characters are classified as high, each of which is 21.66%; 23.66%; and 0.84, respectively. The characters of the stem length and leaf width showed high h2bs value (0.97 and 0.67 respectively), while the KKG and KKF values were classified as moderate (19.60% and 19.88%, respectively and 10.71% and 13.10%, respectively). Those three characters could be utilized as distincitive markers of the four Arabica coffee cultivars.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 6, pp 135-144; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v6n3.2019.p135-144

Abstract:
Sustainable standards and certification can encourage coffee farmers to adopt good agricultural practices (GAP), achieving coffee production that is economically, socially and environmentally sustainable. The Common Code for Coffee Community (4C) is a standard and certification scheme currently exists in Robusta coffee production center in Lampung Province. However, sustainable standard and certification become less relevant without farmers’ participation. Farmers’ participation in standards and certification has been relatively low and studies on the issue are relatively rare. This study aims to analyze the determinants of farmer’s participation in 4C Standards and Certification. The study was conducted in West Lampung and Tanggamus Ragency, Lampung Province from February to May 2019. The total number of respondents was 120 people (4C certified farmers and non-certified farmers) surveyed with a systematic-random-sampling method. Data was analyzed using heckprobit regression. The results showed that farmer participation in 4C was determined by the selling price of coffee, farmers’ side job, farmers' preference to replace coffee with other commodities, and the farmers’ group activity. The results indicated that 4C and coffee stakeholders at national scale need to consider policies on how to improve coffee price, optimizing the farmer organizations, and the added-value of coffee production.
Cici Tresniawati, Nur Kholilatul Izzah, Ilham Nur Ardhi Wicaksono, Indah Sulistyorini, Edi Wardiana
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 6, pp 127-134; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v6n3.2019.p127-134

Abstract:
Candlenut [Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.] is a perrenial plant that has high economic value. Information about vegetative and generative characters, as well as yield components that influence the yield is needed in the early stages of selection process in plant breeding. Selection of these characters can be done using Sequential Path Analysis (SPA) according to the plant development cycle, and then confirm the model using the Structural equation modeling (SEM) method. The aim of this study was to determine the vegetative characters and yield components that influence the candlenut production. The research was carried out at Pakuwon Experimental Station, Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute, Sukabumi, from January to December 2018. Plant materials used in this study was 129 candlenut trees at 9 years old which were planted with a spacing of 10m x 10m. The data were analyzed using SPA followed by model confirmation using SEM method. The results showed that the production of seed was directly and positively influenced by the leaf petiole length, number of productive branches, seed weight, and number of fruits per tree, while the effect of stem height character is indirectly. Based on these results, plant selection based on vegetative characters such as leaf petiole length, number of productive branches, stem height character, number of fruits per tree and seed weight can be used to obtain high-yielding candlenut plants.
Nur Kholilatul Izzah, Ilham Nur Ardhi Wicaksono, Cici Tresniawati, Edi Wardiana
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 6, pp 99-108; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v6n3.2019.p99-108

Abstract:
Analysis of combining ability and correlation between characters in cacao plays an important role and benefits in an effort to obtain superior high-yield genetic material. This analysis makes it easy to find out the best combination of parents in producing superior progeny. The study aimed to analyze the combining ability and correlation of cacao pod numbers in F1 population generated from half-diallel crossing. The study was conducted at Pakuwon Experimental Station, Sukabumi, West Java, at an altitude of 450 m above sea level with Latosol soil type and B climate type (Schmidt and Fergusson), from 2014 until 2018. The experiment was arranged using a randomized block design (RBD) with 10 combinations of half-diallel crossing method that were repeated three times. The parental genotypes used were ICCRI 03, TSH 858, DR 1, ICS 13, and SCA 6. The variables observed were the number of healthy pods, number of rotten pods, number of cherelle wilts, and total pod numbers. The combining ability was analyzed using the Griffing 4 method, while correlation analysis was carried out phenotypically and genotypically.The results showed the action of non-additive genes in the F1 generation and three combinations of crosses, namely ICCRI 03 x TSH 858, TSH 858 x DR 1, and ICS 13 x SCA 6 had the opportunity to be developed into superior hybrids. In addition, it is known that there were phenotypic and genotypic positive correlations between the observed pod component characters.
Nur Ajijah, Cici Tresniawati, Syafaruddin Syafaruddin
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 6, pp 89-98; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v6n2.2019.p89-98

Abstract:
Container culture have an important role in determining the success of in vitro culture since it will affect the development of culture, such as the formation of embryonic structures. The study aimed to determine the effect of culture container types on cacao somatic embryogenesis. The study was conducted at Tissue Culture Laboratory, Superior Seed Development Unit of IAARD, Bogor, from April to September 2016. The tests were conducted on the effect of container and explant types as well as the effect of container types and genotypes. The effects of container and explant types were tested using callus induced from petal and staminoid explants of Sca 6, whereas the effects of container types and genotypes were tested using callus induced from petal explants of Sca 6 and ICCRI 4. Afterwards, the somatic embryos were induced using petri dishes or culture bottles according to treatment. The results showed no significant interaction between container and explant types on the average percentage of the formation and number of somatic embryos (10.28% embryos/explants in culture bottles and 7.89% embryos/explants in petri dishes). Meanwhile, there was significant interaction between genotypes and container types in the initial period of somatic embryos formation (15 and 18 weeks after culture), but the effect was not significant in the final period of observation (21 weeks after culture). The results indicate that culture bottles, which have lower prices, can be used to replace petri dishes to induce the formation of somatic embryos in cacao.
, Jajang Sauman Hamdani, Cucu Suherman, Tati Nurmala, Heri Syahrian
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 6, pp 61-68; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v6n2.2019.p61-68

Abstract:
Pruning on tea plants is an ecophysiological manipulation to initiate the growth of new shoots as the formation of pecco shoots. Cytokinin, one of which is benzyl amino purine (BAP), is a growth regulator that can be applied to stimulate shoot initiation after being pruned. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of pruning and cytokinin application on the growth and yield of tea. The study was conducted at the Experimental Station of the Tea and Quinine Research Center, Gambung at an altitude of 1250 m above sea level (asl), from June to August 2018. Plant material used in this study was a 7-year-old GMB 7 clone. The exerimental design used was a randomized block design (RBD) consisting of eight treatment combinations with four replications and contained 32 experimental units. The treatments used were clean and jambul/ajir pruning, 40 cm and 60 cm pruning height and BAP concentration. The variable observed were number of pecco shoots, number of banji shoots, fresh weight and dry weight of shoots. The results showed that the combination of type and height of pruning with the BAP application affected the number of pecco and banji shoots on the third picking, but did not affect the fresh and dry weight of shoots. The treatment of clean and jambul/ajir pruning at 60 cm height and added with BAP application at 60 ppm exhibited the best treatment in producing the number of shoots and reduce the number of banji shoots.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 6, pp 69-78; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v6n2.2019.p69-78

Abstract:
Coffee leaf rust disease (Hemileia vastatrix) causes large damage to Arabica coffee plantation in Asia, Africa, and America. In Indonesia, particularly in North Sumatra, the resistance level of Arabica coffee genotypes is still unknown. The objective of this research was to determine the resistance variability of Arabica coffee genotypes to leaf rust disease and its relation to leaf morphology. A total of 84 genotypes grown in North Sumatra were selected in November 2015 and 2016, and December 2017 using a nested design. Data were analyzed using nested design, correlation, stepwise regression, and cluster hierarchy analysis. The result showed that the G56 genotype performed the most resistant to leaf rust disease, with a severity of 5.21%. The severity of leaf rust disease has high genotypic variation, low heritability, and high genetic advance. Leaf morphological ratios showed moderate to high genotypic variation and heritability. The severity of leaf rust (y) significantly correlated with the ratio of leaf length to leaf area (x1) and the ratio of leaf length to leaf width (x2) with the equation y = 2.04 + 62.48x1 - 3.95x2, and multiple correlation coefficients R = 0.470 **. By using the leaf rust severity and the two ratios in the cluster analysis, these 84 genotypes were grouped into five clusters. The result showed that several Arabica coffee genotypes with a high level of resistance to leaf rust disease are potential to be further developed.
, Sumadi Sumadi, Anne Nuraini
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 6, pp 79-88; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v6n2.2019.p79-88

Abstract:
Macadamia can be propagated using seeds. However, the seed is difficult to germinate due to shell hardness. This study aimed to determine the proper combination of seed scarification needed to break the seed coat using rotational soaking and drying at varied temperatures. The experiment was conducted at Manoko Experimental Station and BPTP of West Java from December 2018 to April 2019, used a Randomized Complete Block Design in 15 treatments and 3 replications. The treatments were: (1) water soak (WS) 24oC+drying 35oC; (2) WS 35oC (first day)+WS 24oC+drying 35oC; (3) WS 50oC ( first day)+WS 24oC+drying 35oC; (4) WS 35oC everyday+drying 35oC; (5) WS 50oC everyday+drying 35oC; (6) WS 24oC+drying 40oC; (7) WS 35oC (first day)+WS 24oC+drying 40oC; (8) WS 50oC (first day)+WS 24oC+drying 40oC; (9) WS 35oC everyday+drying 40oC; (10) WS 50oC every day+drying 40oC; (11) WS 24oC+drying 45oC; (12) WS 35oC (first day)+WS 24oC+drying 45oC; (13) WS 50oC (first day)+WS 24oC+drying 45oC; (14) WS 35oC everyday+drying 45oC; and (15) WS 50oC everyday+drying 45oC. Variable observed were moisture content of seeds, rate and percentage of seeds cracking, and length of seeds radicle. The results showed that alternating temperature during soaking and drying affected seed scarification. The fastest seed breaking rate is 3.27 days in soaking at 50oC everyday for 18 hours, with 45oC drying temperature for 6 hours, the percentage of seed breaking reached 87.67%.
, Sumardjo Sumardjo, Dwi Sadono, Prabowo Tjitropranoto
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 6, pp 51-60; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v6n2.2019.p51-60

Abstract:
Indonesia is the third largest cocoa producer in the world after Ivory Coast and Ghana. Central Sulawesi is a center of Indonesian cocoa commodity, yet has low improvement. This is presumably due to the lack of support of farmer institutions that were formed not based on farmers' needs or the interests of farmers. The objectives of this study were to: (1) analyze the level of institutional support for cocoa farmers in Central Sulawesi Province, and (2) analyze the role and strategy of increasing institutional support for cocoa farmers in Central Sulawesi Province. The study was conducted in four districts in Central Sulawesi Province: Poso, Sigi, Morowali Utara and Donggala Regencies. The research sample was 380 farmers. To describe the research variables used descriptive statistical analysis in the frequency table and Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The results showed that most farmers (70.2%–98.7%) assessed that institutional support in the contexts of marketing, capital, processing, and technical guidance were relatively low so it tended to be less conducive to increasing farmers' independence. The institutional role of those four contexts was also low categoryzed (26.6–43.0) so that it needs serious attention in an effort to increase the weak independence of farmers.
Bedy Sudjarmoko, Enny Randriani
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 6; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v6n1.2019.p13-20

Abstract:
Coffee is one of the strategic commodities in West Java for its important economic role in West Java. However, studies on coffee farming efficiency are still rarely found. Information on efficiency is critical because it affects the benefits the coffee farmers gain and its development program. This study aimed to investigate factors affecting the technical efficiency and technical efficiency level of Arabica Garut Kuning (AGK) coffee farming in Garut Regency, carried out from June to September 2016 using survey methods. Research location was determined by purposive sampling and 72 respondents were randomly chosen from Arabica coffee farmer population in Garut Regency. The data was analysed using stochastic frontier production, estimated by Maximum Likelihood Estimates (MLE) method. The results showed that the factors influencing the technical efficiency of coffee farming are land area, use of Urea fertilizer, ZA fertilizer, SP 36 fertilizer, herbicide and labor. The technical efficiency of farmers is quite high (average of 0.81). Means farmers have been technically efficient especially in allocating resources and utilizing existing cultivation technology. To further improve the technical efficiency as well as its revenue share of AGK, support from local governments and other stakeholders is still urgently needed.
Eko Heri Purwanto, Sigit Setyabudi, Supriyanto Supriyanto
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 6, pp 21-32; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v6n1.2019.p21-32

Abstract:
Microbial activities in cocoa pulp decomposition is key in cocoa beans fermentation. Ragi tape is widely used as a source of microbes (starters). The study aimed to investigate the pattern of changes in the number of microbes, substrate degradation activities and primary metabolites production during fermentation with the addition of ragi tape. The study was conducted at the laboratories within the Faculty of Agriculture Technology and Integrated Laboratory of Experiment and Research, UGM from March to October 2018 . Fermentation experiment used 2 kg of fresh cacao beans stored in a plastic box per batch, its temperature was set daily. The amount of microbes was enumerated using total plate count (TPC), whereas substrate degradation and primary metabolites were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC). Temperature, pulp and seed pH, and fermentation index were observed. The results showed that adding ragi tape for fermentation generated a maximum amount of yeast, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) of 9.03+0.85; 9.05+0.17; and 9.15+0.89 log cfu/g of cocoa pulp respectively, with substrate degradation in the form of sucrose reduced by 97%, glucose 98.6%, fructose 97%, and citric acid 71% on the third day. Maximum production of primary metabolites of ethanol is 27.84+21.85 mg/g of cocoa pulp, lactic acid 4.18+3.16 mg/g of cocoa pulp and acetic acid 3.38+5.43 mg/g of cocoa pulp. Fermentation with the addition of ragi tape accelerates the process to three days with a fermentation index value of 1.05+0.06 and seed pH of 5.97+0.20.
, Usman Ahmad, Sukrisno Widyotomo, Yusianto Yusianto
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 6, pp 33-40; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v6n1.2019.p33-40

Abstract:
Pulping and fermentation of coffee cherry determine the quality of green beans and coffee flavors. Delay in pulping will cause the slime stick to the hull skin hence decreasing the bean quality and flavor. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of soaking before pulping and fermentation time to the color of coffee hull skin and the cup quality. The research was carried out at the experimental station of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute in Malang Regency (ICCRI) and ICCRI laboratory in Jember Regency from July 2018 to January 2019. Experiments used factorial completely randomized design. The first factor was cherry soaking duration (0, 24, 48, and 72 hours) and the second factor was fermentation duration (0, 24, and 48 hours) and then combined into 12 treatments, with three replications. Ten kilograms of coffee cherries were soaked prior to pulping then fermented in a plastic bag and added with Lactobacillus casei 2,5 x 107 cfu/ml as starter. Parameters observed were color of hull skin (L value, a*, dan b*) and the cup quality. The results showed that soaking the cherry decreased the green beans quality which is indicated by less brightness (L), high a* value, and decreasing b* value of hull skin color. While the fermentation treatment can increase the value of L, decrease the a* value, and increase the b* value. The interaction of treatment of soaking and fermentation time significantly affected the lightnessl a* and b* value. Soaking and fermentation treatments did not significantly affect to the flavor, salt/acid, balance, and total score of coffee flavor. Soaking is not recommended for more than 48 hours and fermentation should be carried out 48 hours.
, Enny Randriani, Laela Sari, Anne Nuraini
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 6, pp 41-50; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v6n1.2019.p41-50

Abstract:
High genetic diversity is one factor that determines the success of plant breeding. Mutation induction by gamma ray irradiation is one method to improve plant genetic diversity. This study aimed to 1) obtain growth regulators composition suitable in inducing embryogenic callus, 2) determine the effect of gamma ray irradiation on the growth and development of somatic embryos, and 3) obtain lethal dose (LD) 20 and 50 values in Robusta coffee BP 436. The study was conducted at the Tissue Culture Laboratory, Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute, from May 2017 to December 2018. Explants used were young leaves of Robusta coffee BP 436. Callus induction used ½ MS media with 2,4-D (4.52 μM) and 2-iP (0.00; 4.93; 9.86; 14.79; and 19.72 μM) treatment. Mutation induction was performed using gamma radiation dosed at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 Gy treatments. The regeneration media was ½ MS containing GA3 (0 and 1 mg/l). The study used a complete randomized design with 10 replications. The results showed the best combination of plant growth regulator to induce the callus was 2.4-D 4.52 μM + 2-iP 19.72 μM. The fresh weight of cultures was inhibited above 30 Gy, whereas the number of somatic embryos decreased at doses above 10 Gy. Addition of GA3 1 mg/l in regeneration media increased the number of somatic embryos in torpedo phase, but not in gamma irradiation exposed calluses. The LD20 and LD50 of Robusta coffee BP 436 are 16.81 and 28.52 Gy, respectively.
, Andi Ishak
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 6, pp 1-12; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v6n1.2019.p1-12

Abstract:
Farmer-Owned Enterprise (FOE) of Bukit Kaba Mandiri in Rejang Lebong Regency is one of the economic institutions that is beneficial for farmers to increase the productivity and efficiency of coffee and cattle integrated farming suitable for its regional potentials. However, FOE is still in constraints due to its lack of organizational management capability in developing the coffee-cattle bioindustry hence the research aimed to build a strategy in developing the FOE in coffee and cattle bioindustry. The study was conducted at FOE of Bukit Kaba Mandiri in Rejang Lebong Regency, Bengkulu, from January to October 2018. Focus Group Discussion (FGD) was carried out to collect data with 16 respondents and in-depth interviews with FOE administrators. Data collected included strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats faced by FOE which were then analyzed using Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats (SWOT) method to formulate an FOE development strategy. The strategy was then compiled based on priorities with Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). The results formulated three strategies, namely: (1) increasing production of quality feed to meet the needs of dairy cattle, (2) producing competitively priced compost from cow manure, and (3) establishing market partnerships with coffee exporters. Producing competitively priced compost from cow manure is the first priority that FOE needs to develop.
Khaerati Khaerati, Yulius Ferry, Rusli Rusli
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 5, pp 113-122; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v5n3.2018.p113-122

Abstract:
Leaf fall disease in rubber caused by Corynespora cassiicola fungi significantly decreases rubber productivity. C. cassiicola causes leaves to fall all year round, a delay in the tapping of immature rubber plants, yield decrease of producing plants, and even death of susceptible clones. The study aimed to obtain phylloplane and endophytic microbes potentially to inhibit the disease, was conducted from January to December 2016. The study used randomized complete design to assess antagonistic fungi and phylloplane and endophytic bacterias toward C. cassiicola in isolates obtained through exploration in West Java and West Kalimantan. Pathogen isolation showed Corynespora sp with pale brown color, single conidia which slightly bended, shaped like a stick that is swollen at the base, with 2–14 septa. Inhibitory analysis found 42 fungi isolates and 19 bacteria isolates potentially inhibiting C. cassiicola. Six fungi isolates have an inhibitory ability of ≥90%, consisting of two phylloplane fungi isolates (DTJF11 and CPSR7) and four endophytic fungi (CEBPM15, CEBPM23, CEBPM27, and CEPR9) with lysis, mycoparasitism, competition, and antibiosis inhibitory mechanism. The identification showed fungi isolate of DTJF11 is classified as Trichoderma asperellum, CPSR7 as Talaromyces pinophilus, and CEBPM15 as Amanita tenuifolia. Potential bacterial isolates as biological agents are BP7, L3, BP3, BP4, BP5 and BP6 isolates, which have inhibitory power of 28.54%–40.94%, with antibiosis inhibition mechanism.
Nur Kholilatul Izzah, Budi Martono, Baharuddin Baharuddin, Edi Wardiana
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 5, pp 95-104; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v5n3.2018.p95-104

Abstract:
Molecular and morphological characterization of cacao clones obtained from exploration in Southeast Sulawesi is very important to know their superiority and genetic relationships. Analysis of genetic diversity using molecular markers is also useful for detecting duplication found among collected clones. The research aimed to determine the genetic diversity of local cacao clones derived from Southeast Sulawesi based on SSR markers and morphological characters. The research was conducted at Cacao Research Sub-Station, Lebojaya Village, Konda Subdistrict, South Konawe Regency, Southeast Sulawesi, and Integrated Laboratory of Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute Sukabumi, and Molecular Biology Laboratory of Indonesian Center for Agricultural Biotechnology and Genetic Resources Research and Development Bogor, from April to November 2015. Genetic diversity analysis was performed on 21 cacao clones covering 19 local clones and 2 national varieties using 22 SSR markers. The molecular characterization results showed that 11 markers are polymorphic, and subsequently used to group cacao clones using NTSYS program. The grouping results divided the cacao clones into 4 main groups at 0.46 genetic similarity values. Based on genetic distance values >0.7, 8 combinations of cacao clones can be selected as parental clones with the expectation to increase the effect of heterosis on progeny. On the other hand, result of morphological characterization generally indicated the diversity between the four cacao groups. Based on molecular and morphological characterization, it can be seen that cacao clones derived from Southeast Sulawesi have a high diversity and can be utilized in the development program of new improved varieties.
Muthia Syafika Haq, Adhi Irianto Mastur
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 5, pp 105-112; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v5n3.2018.p105-112

Abstract:
Efforts to poduce superior tea varieties require a long time, therefore a more practical method is needed, through cleft grafting. Planting material to be used should have superior qualities such as high yield, drought tolerance, resistant to pest and disease, and good inner quality. The research aimed to investigate the growth of grafted seedlings of several superior tea clones. The experiment was conducted at IRITC Gambung Experimental Garden with an altituted 1,250–1,450 m asl, from March 2016 until June 2017. Randomized complete block design with 9 treatments and 3 replications was used in this study. The 9 treatments were a combinations of scion and rootstock from several superior tea clones (GMB 3, GMB 7, GMB 9, TRI 2025, PS 1, and Gedeh 1) by grafting technique. Variables observed were plant height, number of leaves, number, and length of roots. The data were analyzed by anova and followed by duncan multiple range test (DMRT) at 5% level. The results showed that the grafting combinations of TRI 2025/GMB 3, TRI 2025/GMB 7, TRI 2025/GMB 9, PS 1/GMB 3, PS 1/GMB 7, and Gedeh 1/GMB 3 showed good compatibility and growth compared to PS 1/GMB 9, Gedeh 1/GMB 7, and Gedeh 1/GMB 9. Therefore, those six combinations can be used for tea propagation through grafting technique.
, Rubiyo Rubiyo, Sudarsono Sudarsono
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 5, pp 135-144; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v5n3.2018.p135-144

Abstract:
Propagation of cacao plants is generally carried out vegetatively. Therefore, plants that are clonally propagated should be genetically uniform. Genetic uniformity in cacao clones is also very important information for germplasm conservation and in obtaining pure parental crosses. Evaluation of genetic uniformity can be seen through analysis using SSR markers. This study aimed to determine the genetic uniformity in six cacao clones using SSR markers. This experiment was conducted at IIBCRI Integrated Laboratory in Sukabumi and Plant Molecular Biology Laboratory, IPB Bogor, from September 2015 to December 2016. Six cacao clones used (TSH 858, TSH 908, ICS 13, PA 300, GC 7 and UIT) are from Kalitelepak experimental station of PTPN XII, Genteng District, Banyuwangi, East Java. Ten samples were taken randomly to represent cacao clones. DNA amplification was carried out using 12 SSR markers. The result showed that 12 SSR markers generated 45 alleles with the number of alleles per locus was 3-4 alleles. The polymorphic information content (PIC) ranges from 0.37–0.67, which are identied as very informative molecular analysis in identifying the genetical uniformity of the evaluated cacao population. Six SSR loci generated variant alleles within both the TSH 858 and UIT clones, indicating there are off-type plants in these two samples. Clonal uniformity were detected for samples of the GC 7, ICS 13, PA 300 and TSH 908 clones. On the other hand, 8.33% of evaluated samples within the TSH 858 and UIT clones were off-type plants.
, Samsudin Samsudin
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 5, pp 123-134; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v5n3.2018.p123-134

Abstract:
Coffee berry borer (CBB) is the main pest of coffee plants. This pest is difficult to control as it attacks coffee fruit on the tree, multiplies inside the fruit and stays till storage. The study aimed to determine the potential liquid smoke from plant waste to control CBB. The research was conducted at Plant Protection Laboratory (IIBCRI), from January to December 2016. The liquid smokes made from cacao pod husks, sawdust, coconut shells, and rice husks. Phytochemical content of liquid smokes was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively using gas cromatografy mass spectrometry (GCMS). Toxicity analysis was carried out by residual and contact methods at concentrations of 1%; 1.5%; 2%; 2.5%; controls (aquades), and chlorpyrifos insecticide (2 ml/l) as comparison. Each treatment used 15 H. hampei imagos, repeated 3 times. Mortality parameters were observed at 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours after treatment (HAT). To investigate antifeedance, 10 coffee fruits were infested with 20 imagos in plastic containers, repeated 3 times and parameters observed were the number of holes at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 days after infestation. The results showed that the largest component in liquid smoke presumably functioned as insecticides are Benzenesulfonic acid 4-hydroxy and Acetic acid. All liquid smokes tested were toxic to CBB imagos. The highest CBB mortalities occurred after liquid smoke treatment from coconut shell at concentrations of 2.5% by 48.87%, attack rate was only 20%, decreased 70%. Liquid smoke from coconut shell is the most potential as botanical insecticide to control CBB.
Rita Harni, Efi Taufik, Samsudin Samsudin
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 5, pp 67-76; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v5n2.2018.p67-76

Abstract:
Rust disease caused by fungus Hemileia vastatrix is a major disease of Arabica coffee, which reduces yield by 20%–70%. Botanical fungicide is a potential alternative because environmentally friendly and safe to humans health. The research aimed to analyze the effect of oils and extracts of fungicidal plants on uredospore germination and attack intensity of H. vastatrix. The research was conducted in laboratory and greenhouse of Indonesian Industrial and Beverages Crops Research Institute (IIBCRI), Sukabumi, from January to December 2016. The plant oils were of cloves, citronella, Reutealis trisperma, and neem, while the plant extracts used were mahogany, Ageratum conyzoides, and wood vinegar. Those oils and extracts were assessed on uredospores germination of H. vastatrix, both in vitro and on coffee seedlings in the greenhouse. A complete randomized block design was used with 9 treatments and 5 replications. The oils and extracts at 5% concentration were applied on coffee leaves of 6 months old plants then inoculated with H. vastratrix uredospora simultaneously. Attack symptoms, incubation period, attack percentage and intensity were observed. The results showed that plant oils and extracts used in present study effectively reduced the uredospora germination of H. vastatrix. However, oils of neem and R. trisperma as well as A. conizoides extract are more potential to suppress H. vastatrix infection in coffee leaves in greenhouse and reduced attack intensity from 22.2% to 3.6%; 5.2%; and 7.6% with inhibitory level at 83.8%; 76.6%; and 65.8%, respectively. Therefore, they are considered as potential biocontrols for rust disease.
Erdiansyah Rezamela, Yati Rachmiati, Tito Trikamulyana
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 5, pp 87-94; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v5n2.2018.p87-94

Abstract:
Zinc deficiency (Zn) in tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] may inhibit growth and decreases shoots production. To overcome the deficiency, zinc is generally given in the form of zinc sulphate fertilizer (Zn 22.75%) through foliar application. Today there is a micro-fertilizer with a higher zinc consentration (Zn-30%). The research aimed to determine the effect of dosage and application interval of Zn-30% micro fertilizer on production and yield component of tea shoot. The experiment was conducted in Pasirmalang Estate, Afdeling Wetan Block Pakurendeng II, PT Perkebunan Nusantara VIII Pangalengan Bandung, West Java, altitude ±1,600 m asl, from November 2016 to June 2017. The tea clone used was productive GMB 7. Experiments were designed by randomized block design with 2 factors and 4 replications. The first factor is Zn-30% that consisted of 4 levels i.e. Zn-30% with a dose of 300, 250, and 200 g/ha respectively, and ZnSO4 with a dose of 2 kg as control. The second factor is interval of application that consisted of 2 levels, once and twice applications after plucking. Variables observed were production and yield components of tea shoot. The results showed that application of Zn-30% with a dose of 300 g/ha in one time interval of application after plucking effectively increased shoot production compared to other doses, but not significantly different with ZnSO4 in two time interval of application. Application of Zn, either in the form of oxide salt or zinc sulphate, increased the percentage of pecco shoots and reduces number of banji shoots.
Iing Sobari, Dibyo Pranowo, Edi Wardiana
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 5, pp 59-66; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v5n2.2018.p59-66

Abstract:
Farmyard manure and biofertilizer is able to substitute chemical fertilizers in improving the plants growth and production. The manure acts as the energy source for soil microbes, while biofertilizer with phosphate solubilizing microbes (PSM) can increase phosphate (P) availability for plants. The research aimed to investigate the effect of farmyard manure added with PSM on growth and yield of 5 Robusta coffee clones, conducted at Pakuwon Experimental Station, Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute (IIBCRI), Sukabumi, from January 2014 to June 2017. A split plot design was used with 3 replications. The main plot factors were 5 Robusta coffee clones (BP 308, SA 237, BP 42, BP 358, and BGN 371), whereas the subplot factors were types of fertilizers (chicken, sheep, and cow manure added with PMS), and NPK fertilizers as control. Variables observed were components of vegetative growth, percentage of flowering plants, and weight of fresh berries. The results showed that 5 Robusta coffee clones used exhibited similar responses to the PMS-added farmyard manure application. Chicken manure added with PMS enhanced P-available and improved vegetative growth of coffee plants better than other farmyard manure, similar with the effect of NPK fertilizers. Up to 4 years old plants, the PM-added farmyard manure application did not affect the weight of fresh berries.
Budi Martono, Syafaruddin Syafaruddin
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 5, pp 77-86; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v5n2.2018.p77-86

Abstract:
Knowing the genetic diversity in the tea germplasms collection is one of important conditions for assembling new superior varieties. Information of genetic diversity can be obtained through analysis using RAPD molecular markers. The study aimed to determine the genetic diversity of 21 tea genotypes based on RAPD markers. The research was conducted in Integrated Laboratory, Seameo Biotrop, Bogor, from July to September 2013. Genomic DNA was isolated from 21 tea genotypes leaf samples, then amplified with primer OPA 03, OPA 05, OPB 04, OPB 06, OPC 06, and OPD 08. Electrophoresis result was converted into binary data. The genetic similarity and cluster analysis calculation was done using NTSYS-pc version 2.10. In this research, 50 polymorphic bands (94,34%) and 3 monomorphic band (5,66%) were obtained. Cluster analysis based on Nei's genetic distance using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmatic (UPGMA) divided 21 tea genotypes into two groups at a genetic similarity value of 0,48. Group 1 consisted of 20 tea genotypes, while the second group comprised only a one genotype (Sin 27). The range of genetic similarity matrix was between 28%–92%, the lowest genetic similarity (28%) was found between GMB 4 and Sin 27 genotypes, while the highest (92%) was found between AS 2 and AS 1 genotypes. The information obtained can be utilized in breeding programs with the support of agronomic characters as well as in the conservation of tea germplasm.
Widi Amaria, Rita Harni, Edi Wardiana
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 5, pp 49-58; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v5n2.2018.p49-58

Abstract:
Biological agents Trichoderma virens and T. amazonicum have been developed and examined for their effectiveness through in vitro and in vivo approaches against Rigidoporus microporus, the cause of white root disease (WRD) in rubber. The effectiveness of these bio-agents can be determined by testing the dosage and frequency of Trichoderma spp. biofungicide application. The research aimed to investigate the effective dose and application frequency of Trichoderma spp. biofungicide on R. microporus infection in rubber seedling. The experiment was conducted in laboratory and screen house of Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute (IIBCRI), Sukabumi, from June to December 2014. A randomized block design was used with 14 treatments and 3 replications, i.e biofungicide combination (T. virens and T. amazonicum), dosage (25, 50, and 75 g), application frequencies (1 and 2 times application), and two controls (positive and negative). Rubber seedlings used were propellegitiem seeds of GT1 clone planted in polybags. Trichoderma spp. was multiplied using fermentation method in liquid medium, whereas biofungicide was formulated using talc as carrier. Observed variables including Trichoderma spp. population number, incubation period, attack intensity, and WRD attack suppression. The results showed that T. virens and T. amazonicum biofungicides with 50 g/plant dose at one application was the most effective and efficient in suppressing R. microporus development on rubber seedlings. The type, dosage, and frequencies of application increased Trichoderma spp. population in soil, prolonged the pathogen’s incubation period, decreased WRD attack intensity, and suppress the attack of WRD disease.
Retno Utami Hatmi, Makhmudun Ainuri, Anggoro Cahyo Sukartiko
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 5, pp 11-20; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v5n1.2018.p11-20

Abstract:
Cacao genotype most cultivated in Indonesia divided into three main groups, namely Criollo, Forastero, and Trinitari. Beside genetical factor, the pod and beans qualities are also strongly influenced by the environment in which the plant grows. The research aimed to analyze the types and physical qualities of the pod and bean from Patuk, Gunungkidul at three elevations range (154.00–267.20, 302.00–401.00, and 469.20–657.90 m above sea level/asl). The research was conducted at smallholder plantations in Patuk District, Gunungkidul, Yogyakarta from September until Desember 2017. As many as 40–42 samples were randomly taken from each elevation range and analyzed by descriptive statistic and one-way anova. The parameters observed were cocoa types identification (Criollo, Forastero, and Trinitario), pod’s physical quality (fresh weight of fruits, length to width ratio, fresh weight of beans, number of beans, and fresh weight of one bean), and bean’s physical quality (thickness, length/width ratio, dry weight of one bean, and number of beans in 100 g). The results showed that Trinitario cacao type dominates at elevation range of 154.00–267.20 m asl, while Forastero dominates at elevation range of 302.00–401.00 and 469.20–657.90 m asl. The pod physical qualities of Criollo, Forastero, and Trinitario showed highest fresh weight per bean at 469.20–657.90 m asl compared to those at lower elevation (increased 19.05%–31.94%). At elevation of 469.2–657.9 m asl, Forastero shown higher beans physical quality at all variables, whereas Criollo was significantly higher dry weight per bean and number of beans per 100 g, and Trinitario shown significantly higher bean thickness.
Nia Rosiana, Rita Nurmalina, Ratna Winandi, Amzul Rifin
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 5, pp 1-10; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v5n1.2018.p1-10

Abstract:
Fluctuations in Indonesian Robusta coffee exports occurred along with a declining trend in coffee exports compared to major competitor countries over the past fifteen years. This research aimed to analyze the dynamics of the competitiveness of Indonesian Robusta coffee exports and the level of competition among the major competitor countries such as Vietnam and India. The methods used are Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA), Dynamic Revealed Comparative Advantage (DRCA), and Rank Spearman Correlation. These methods were selected to analyze changes in competition level within 15 years’ time dimension (2000–2015) as well as to analyze the relationships among competing countries, which may affect Robusta coffee market of each country. The analysis showed that Indonesia's coffee competitiveness tends to increase compared to the two major competitors of Robusta coffee exporter of the world such as Vietnam and India. However, Indonesia's coffee competitiveness is still a half below Vietnam. The Indonesian coffee rivalry against Vietnam and India is not significantly correlated due to the different markets of export destination countries. Increasing competitiveness and the strength of competition in export market can be done through quality improvement and continuity of domestic Robusta coffee in accordance to the demand of world consumers.
Samsudin Samsudin, Rita Harni, Efi Taufik
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 5, pp 39-48; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v5n1.2018.p39-48

Abstract:
Phytophthora palmivora is a pathogenic fungus that causes pod rot and stem cancer in cacao plant. This pathogen was difficult to control because it survives in the form of mycelium and chlamydospores in infected plant parts or in soil. Trichoderma viride is expected to inhibit the growth and development of this pathogen. The study aimed to determine the effectiveness of T. viride in inhibiting P. palmivora infection on cacao, conducted at Plant Protection Laboratory and Greenhouse of Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute (IIBCRI), Sukabumi from March to December 2014. The T. viride TNU isolates used was purified and propagated in the laboratory. The T. viride inhibition against P. palmivora growth and development was tested in vitro on potato dextrose agar medium (PDA) and in vivo on infected cacao pods and seedlings. The parameters observed were percentage of inhibition on PDA and the disease progression on infected pods and seedlings. The results showed that T. viride inhibited the growth of P. palmivora with inhibition percentage up to 68.60%, a strong antagonist for P. palmivora on PDA and reduced P. palmivora infection on seedlings in the greenhouse. Applications of T. viride 3 days before or after inoculation with P. palmivora was able to protect cacao seedlings in polybags, respectively by 60% and 45%. However, T. viride has not been able to hinder the development of pod rot disease on cacao.
Santi Rosniawaty, Intan Ratna Dewi Anjarsari, Rija Sudirja
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 5, pp 31-38; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v5n1.2018.p31-38

Abstract:
Tea (Camellia sinensis [L.] O. Kuntze) is one of priority commodities in West Java. Extensification of tea plantation in lowland and suboptimal areas is believed to contribute significantly in improving the farmers welfare. Temperature differences between the lowland and highland areas affects the metabolism of tea plants. In technical culture, centering (pruning) is required to form the shrub with ideal branching. This study aimed to determine cytokinin effects on the growth of tea plants after centering in the lowland areas. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Station of Faculty of Agriculture, Padjadjaran University, Jatinangor, from November 2016 until June 2017 using 10 months old tea plant materials. The experiments used a randomized block design with 4 replications. The treatment used was cytokinin derived from coconut water with concentration of 25%, 50%, and 75%, cytokinin in the form of benzyl amino purin (BAP) with concentration of 60 ppm, 90 ppm, and 120 ppm, and control (without cytokinin). The results showed that cytokinin derived from coconut water or in the form of BAP applied in tea plants after centering, was only effective up to 3 months after application. At 1 and 3 months after application, 50% coconut water or BAP 60 ppm increased the length of stem diameter, number of leaves, shoot length, and number of shoots. Therefore, coconut water with 50% concentration or BAP 60 ppm can be used as source of cytokinins for tea plants in the lowlands after centering.
Enny Randriani, Dani Dani, Edi Wardiana
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 5, pp 21-30; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v5n1.2018.p21-30

Abstract:
The cup quality of Arabica coffee is influenced not only by its cultivar, but also the altitudes and bean processing techniques. However, the interaction between those three factors has not been widely reported. The research aimed to analyze the quality attributes of four Arabica coffee cultivars grown at different altitudes as well as processed by different methods. The study was conducted at coffee plantations in Kampung Legok Gede at 1,400 m above sea level (asl) and Pasir Geulis at 1,700 m asl, Margamulya Village, Cikajang District, Garut Regency; Indonesian Industrial and Beverages Crop Research Institute (Balittri), Sukabumi; and Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute, Jember, from April until November 2017. Data were analyzed by anova of completely randomized design in factorial three factors and two replications. The first factor is cultivars, the second factor is altitude, and the third factor is processing method. Correlation and path analysis were also used in this study. The result showed significant interaction between three tested treatments on aftertaste and body attributes. The cultivars factor significantly influenced the total score, balance, and overall attributes. The altitudes factor has significant effect on total score and flavor attribute, meanwhile processing methods exhibited significant effect on total score, aroma, and flavor attributes. All of the coffee quality attributes highly correlated with the total score, whereas the overall attribute has the strongest direct effect.
Rita Harni, Widi Amaria, Syafaruddin Syafaruddin, Anis Herliyati Mahsunah
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 4, pp 57-66; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v4n2.2017.p57-66

Abstract:
Trichoderma spp. is a beneficial microbe that produces bioactive molecules (secondary metabolites) containing antibiotics, enzymes, hormones, as well as toxins, which play an important role in plant diseases biocontrol. The research aimed to determine the potential of secondary metabolite Trichoderma spp. to control vascular streak dieback disease in cacao seedlings. The research was conducted in Plant Protection Laboratory of Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute (IIBCRI) and farmers' garden in Balubus village, Lima Puluh Kota, West Sumatera, from April to August 2016. The research used a complete randomized design of 7 treatments using 5 replications, each treatment with 5 plants. The treatment was a secondary metabolite of T. virens LP1, T. hamatum LP2, T. amazonicum LP3, T. atroviride JB2, and T. viride PRD, control (no secondary metabolite), and chemical fungicide as comparison. The 3 months old cacao seedlings were treated with secondary metabolite of Trichoderma spp. by spraying the metabolite suspension throughout the leaf surface. The secondary metabolite applied once a week for 6 times. C. theobromae inoculation was conducted naturally by placing cacao seedlings under a cacao tree infected with VSD. Observations were incubation period, VSD intensity, and growth of cacao seedlings. The results showed that secondary metabolites potentially utilized for controlling VSD in cacao seedlings. The most potential secondary metabolites are T. amazonicum LP3 and T. virens LP1 with respective disease suppression up to 81.8% and 63.2% or higher than and equivalent chemical fungicide (63.6%), and can increase plants height, number of leaves, and girth diameter.
Edi Wardiana, Juniaty Towaha, Syafaruddin Syafaruddin
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 4, pp 67-78; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v4n2.2017.p67-78

Abstract:
Identification and grouping of diverse cacao accessions based on morphological character of pod components is important in breeding activities to generate superior varieties. This study aimed to grouping 33 cocoa accessions based on morphological characters of pod components, conducted at Pakuwon Experimental Station, Sukabumi, West Java, at an altitude of 450 asl with Latosol soil and B type climate (Schmidt and Fergusson), from January until December 2015. Observation was taken on 33 cacao accessions of Kaliwining (KW), planted in 2012 with 3 m x 3 m spacing under 26 years old Genjah Salak coconut trees as shading. Ten mature pods were randomly harvested from 10 cocoa plants of each accession at respective two seasons (February and December 2015). The variables observed were 7 characters of pod components i.e.: (1) fresh weight of pod, (2) number of beans, (3) fresh weight of beans, (4) dry weight of beans, (5) fresh weight of pod husk, (6) number of pod furrow, and (7) fresh weight of pulp. Data were analyzed by factor analysis followed by hierarchical cluster analysis in Ward's method and discriminant analysis. The result showed that 19 accessions were classified as high in bean and pod husk component characters, 9 accessions were classified as high in pulp characters, and 5 accessions i.e. KW 162, KW 528, KW 570, KW 571, and KW 720 were classified as high in all characters of pod components, and potential as parents in generating superior cacao varieties.
Bedy Sudjarmoko, Dewi Listyati, Abdul Muis Hasibuan
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 4, pp 153-162; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v4n3.2017.p153-162

Abstract:
Cocoa is a strategic commodity with an important role in Indonesian economy. Despite being the world's third largest cocoa producer and exporter after Ivory Coast and Ghana, Indonesia still faces a number of problems in production, processing, and marketing. The government issued Permentan Nomor 67/Permentan/OT.140 /5/2014 which aims to improve the competitiveness and added value of Indonesian cocoa, support national cocoa postharvest industries, protect the consumers of unqualified cocoa beans, increase cocoa farmers’ income, and facilitate the tracing for production and circulation deviation. The study aimed to develop a strategic priority recommendation in achieving the goals of Permentan Nomor 67/ Permentan/OT.140/5/2014. The study was conducted in West Sumatra, West Java, East Java, Yogyakarta, and DKI Jakarta from January to December 2016. The study was conducted by survey method and the data was analyzed analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The results indicated that priorities should be put forward on: 1) implementing national regulation on cocoa beans fermentation consistenly and continuously; 2) product diversification with affordable and achievable cost and technology; 3) a massive, continuous, and intensive campaign on social awareness of the importance of sustainable energy; 4) stimulating small to big scale cocoa processing industries; 5) intensification, rehabilitation, and rejuvenation of the cocoa farming to meet the domestic demand for cocoa.
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