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磊李 玉
Published: 1 January 2021
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 11, pp 159-167; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2021.113021

Abstract:
为配合所设计柔性心电监测系统的下位机部分,设计一种心电数据处理系统,基于LabVIEW编程实现心电信号采样数据的分析。按照规定的协议,下位机通过蓝牙/串口将采集到的数据传输至上位机,上位机完成心电信号的数据可视化、实时测量心率、血氧饱和度以及体温等生理参数,对心电波形进行数字滤波处理、保存心电数据、读取二进制文件数据并重绘心电波形图。经分析测试,软件使用成本低、稳定性较好,基本实现用户短距离实时心电监测。 In order to cooperate with the lower computer part of the flexible ECG monitoring system designed, an ECG data processing system is designed, which realizes the analysis of ECG signal sampling data based on LabVIEW programming. According to the specified protocol, the lower computer will transmit the collected data to the upper computer through Bluetooth/serial port. The upper com-puter completes the data visualization of ECG signal, real-time measurement of heart rate, oxygen saturation, body temperature and other physiological parameters, digital filtering processing of ECG waveform, saving ECG data, reading the binary file data and redrawing the ECG waveform. Through analysis and test, the software has the advantages of low cost and good stability, and can basically realize short-distance real-time ECG monitoring for users.
陈 铭
Published: 1 January 2021
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 11, pp 31-39; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2021.112005

Abstract:
在肿瘤热疗中,治疗效果与组织区域处的温度监控有直接的关系,超声可以作为热疗中实现组织无损测温的一种重要手段。本文提出了一种基于超声图像纹理分析的应用于肿瘤热疗的无损测温方法,对新鲜离体动物肾脏进行射频消融(Radiofrequency Ablation, RFA)实验并实时记录超声影像及对应温度数据,对消融前后的减影图像进行小波变换并提取处理后图像的灰度梯度共生矩阵中的特征参数与温度进行曲线拟合。结果表明,在射频消融实验中,处理后超声图像的特征参数混合熵与温度具有显著的线性相关性,验证了所提出方法应用于消融过程中温度监控的可行性。 In tumor hyperthermia, effect is directly related to temperature monitoring during the therapy. Ultrasound can be used as one of the most important methods for noninvasive temperature meas-urement of tissues in hyperthermia. In this study, a noninvasive temperature estimation method for hyperthermia based on ultrasound image with wavelet transform and texture analysis was pro-posed. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) was performed on animal kidneys in vitro, and ultrasound images and temperature data were collected in real time. With wavelet transform of subtraction images before and after ablation, texture features such as energy and hybrid entropy extracted from gray-level gradient co-occurrence matrix of the processed ultrasound images were linear fitted with temperature. Results demonstrated that texture features hybrid entropy obtained from im-ages processed with proposed method had high linear correlation with temperature, and verified the feasibility of the proposed approach of temperature monitoring during RFA.
郎 梅
Published: 1 January 2021
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 11, pp 121-128; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2021.113016

Abstract:
破译DNA序列所代表的信息是基因组研究的基本问题之一。基因调控编码由于存在多义性关系而变得非常复杂,而以往的生物信息学方法往往无法捕捉到DNA序列的隐含信息,尤其是在数据匮乏的情况下。因而从序列信息中预测DNA序列的结构和功能是计算生物学的一个重要挑战。为了应对这一挑战,我们引入了一种新的方法,通过使用自然语言处理领域的语言模型BERT将DNA序列表示为连续词向量。通过对DNA序列进行建模,BERT有效地从未标记的大数据中捕捉到了DNA序列中的序列特性。我们将DNA序列的这种新的嵌入表示称为DNAVec (DNA-to-Vector)。此外,我们可以从模型中提取出预训练的词向量用于表示DNA序列,用于其他序列级别的分类任务。 Deciphering the information represented by DNA sequences is one of the fundamental problems of genomic research. Gene regulatory coding is complicated by the presence of polysense relationships, and previous bioinformatics methods often fail to capture the implicit information of DNA sequenc-es, especially when data are scarce. Predicting the structure and function of DNA sequences from sequence information is thus an important challenge in computational biology. To address this challenge, we introduce a new approach to represent DNA sequences as continuous word vectors by using the language model BERT from the field of natural language processing. By modelling DNA sequences, BERT effectively captures the sequence properties in DNA sequences from unlabelled big data. We refer to this new embedding representation of DNA sequences as DNAVec (DNA-to-Vector). In addition, we can extract pre-trained word vectors from the model for repre-senting DNA sequences for other sequence-level classification tasks.
文叶 浩
Published: 1 January 2021
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 11, pp 96-105; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2021.112013

Abstract:
完整的内皮屏障功能与机体正常的生理活动密不可分,血管内皮屏障功能受损,会出现血管渗漏、水肿等一系列病理变化,而凝血酶正是目前经典的内皮屏障功能破坏剂。从18世纪至今,人们追寻于研究凝血酶诱导内皮渗透性升高的相关机制,希望能从中找到对抗凝血酶破坏屏障功能的方法。本文将针对研究中凝血酶诱导血管内皮细胞渗透性增加的机制,包括凝血酶及其受体的相关特性,以及Ca2+、PKC、Rho GTPases家族、酪氨酸激酶/磷酸酶途径等在凝血酶诱导EC渗透性增加中的作用,结合近年来有关S1P及自噬相关通路的作用作一综述。 Intact endothelial barrier function is closely related to body physiological activities. Vascular leak-age, edema and a series of pathological changes will arise if vascular endothelial barrier function is damaged. Thrombin is the most common breaker of endothelial barrier function. Since the 18th century, researchers have investigated the mechanism of thrombin-induced increase in endothelial permeability, seeking a way to ameliorate thrombin-induced barrier disruption. This article is a summary focus on recent studies on the mechanism of thrombin inducing endothelial cell permea-bility, including the characteristics of thrombin and its receptor, and the role of Ca2+, PKC, Rho GTPases families, tyrosine kinase/phosphatase pathway, combined with the function of S1P and autophagy-related pathways.
张 昆
Published: 1 January 2021
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 11, pp 87-95; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2021.112012

Abstract:
目的:通过生物信息学方法分析与三阴性乳腺癌发生发展有关的关键miRNA。方法:从GEO数据库中找到三阴性乳腺癌miRNA数据集GSE121657,利用GEO2R鉴定差异表达的miRNA,通过starBase数据库预测出差异表达的miRNA所对应的靶基因,并对靶基因进行GO基因功能富集分析以及KEGG信号通路分析,最后建立编码蛋白互作网络并且从中筛查出关键的miRNA。结果:筛选出61个差异表达的miRNA,获得与之相对应的165个靶基因,这些靶基因主要涉及到细胞的定位、细胞周期、细胞分裂、细胞凋亡等生物学过程,参与PI3K-Akt、多巴胺能突触、Hippo、MAPK等信号通路的调控,找到关键性的调控因子hsa-miR-141-3p。结论:生物信息学分析提示hsa-miR-141-3p可能是三阴性乳腺癌重要的调控因子。 Objective: The key miRNA in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) was analyzed by bioinformatics analysis. Method: The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) dataset (GSE121657) was chosen and ex-plored to identify differentially expressed miRNAs using GEO2R, and the target genes matching for the miRNAs were predicted by starBase. Enrichment analysis of Gene Ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) was performed by the DAVID online tool. The networks between miRNAs and hub genes were constructed by Cytoscape software. Results: 61 differentially expressed microRNAs were screened and 165 corresponding target genes were obtained. These target genes mainly involved in biological processes such as cell location, cell cycle, cell division, cell apoptosis, etc., and mainly participated in PI3K-Akt, dopaminergic synapse, Hippo, and MAPK sig-naling pathways. The key regulatory factors hsa-mir-141-3p have been screened by the signal pathway, insulin pathway and MAPK pathway. Conclusion: Bioinformatics analysis suggested miR-NA hsa-mir-141-3p may is a good classifier of TNBC and might play key roles in the progression of TNBC.
李 娟
Published: 1 January 2021
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 11, pp 40-48; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2021.112006

Abstract:
在多种逆境条件下,真核生物通常会在细胞质中形成呈聚集状颗粒的mRNA-蛋白质复合体,即应激颗粒(stress granules, SGs)。SGs的形成具有重要生理意义,包括通过调控mRNA翻译以及抑制细胞凋亡相关信号通路等机制,将逆境压力对细胞造成的损伤最小化,并促进细胞对逆境条件的适应以及在逆境条件下的存活。研究表明,SGs与多种疾病的发生关联紧密,包括多种类型的肿瘤、神经退行性疾病以及病毒感染相关疾病等。肿瘤细胞利用SGs促进了逆境条件下的存活,而一些神经退行性疾病中蛋白聚集体的形成也与异常SGs密切相关。因此,SGs逐渐成为以上疾病的新型药物靶点并受到越来越多研究的关注,SGs抑制剂也就应运而生。本文主要就靶向SGs的化合物及其在相关疾病中的应用进行了总结和探讨,以期为SGs抑制剂的研究及其临床应用提供参考。 Upon a variety of adverse conditions, eukaryotic cells usually form aggregating droplet-like mRNA-protein complexes namely stress granules (SGs) in the cytoplasm. The physiological signifi-cance of SGs formation is to minimize stress-related damage, promote stress adaptation and cell survival via regulation of mRNA translation and inhibition of apoptosis-related signaling pathways. Accordingly, dysregulation of SGs are closely associated with many diseases, including many types of cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and viral infectious diseases SGs hijacked by cancer cells promote the survival of cancer cells under adverse conditions, while protein aggregates found in some neurodegenerative diseases are also related to abnormal SGs. Therefore, SGs attract the at-tention of growing studies as a new therapeutic target, concomitantly with the emergence of SGs in-hibitors. This review will summarize and discuss recent progress on compounds targeting SGs and their application in SGs-related diseases, which may be helpful for research and therapeutic appli-cation of SGs inhibitors.
月陈 秋
Published: 1 January 2021
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 11, pp 106-112; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2021.112014

Abstract:
蛋氨酸是人体必需氨基酸,参与蛋白质和体内多种具有重要功能的生物分子的合成。近年来在多种模式生物中发现限制膳食中蛋氨酸的摄入可延长寿命,促进代谢健康,延缓或改善多种慢性衰老相关疾病的发生发展。本文简要概括了近年来膳食蛋氨酸限制健康促进作用和相关机制的进展,以其对进一步研究和应用提供有益线索。 Methionine is an essential amino acid for human that plays critical roles in the syntheses of many important biological molecules including protein. Recent studies have demonstrated that dietary methionine restriction can prolong lifespan, improve metabolic heath, prevent and postpone the development of some age-related chronic diseases in various model organisms. In this review, we summarized the recent progression of researches regarding the health promotion effects of dietary methionine restriction and the underlying mechanism, and expected to provide clues for further research and application.
楠王 俊
Published: 1 January 2021
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 11, pp 63-68; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2021.112009

Abstract:
异位辅助性肝移植比起原位肝移植有着许多独有的优势,其在急性肝衰竭、遗传代谢性肝病、终末期肝病等治疗上进步显著。但是腹腔空间的缺乏、门静脉血流竞争导致移植肝衰竭、移植早期的急性排斥反应等难题,阻碍了该术式更好的发展。本文就异位辅助性肝移植的目前现状及难点问题作一综述,以期进一步增加对异位辅助性肝移植的认识,为肝移植开拓新的思路。 Heterotopic auxiliary liver transplantation has many unique advantages over orthotopic liver transplantation in the treatment of acute liver failure, inherited metabolic liver disease, end stage liver disease and so on. However, the lack of abdominal space, portal vein blood flow competition lead to graft failure, early acute rejection and other problems, which hinder the better development of this technique. This article reviews the current status and difficulties of heterotopic auxiliary liv-er transplantation, in order to improve the understanding of heterotopic auxiliary liver transplan-tation and open up a new way for liver transplantation.
英乔 健
Published: 1 January 2021
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 11, pp 55-62; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2021.112008

Abstract:
目的:观察盐霉素对人胶质母细胞瘤(U87)细胞增殖、凋亡的影响,检测盐霉素对凋亡相关基因表达影响以探究对U87细胞抑制机制。方法;分别用高浓度(SH, 4 μmol/L)、低浓度盐霉素(SL, 2 μmol/L)处理U87细胞,分为空白对照组(NC组)、SH组、SL组,48小时后,通过集落形成实验观察盐霉素对U87细胞的集落形成能力的影响。通过RT-PCR检测SENP2等33个凋亡相关下调基因RNA的表达水平。结果:集落形成实验结果显示,SH和SL组均能抑制U87的增殖,且成浓度依赖性(P Objective: To observe the effect of salinomycin on the proliferation and apoptosis of human glio-blastoma U87 cells, and to detect the effect of salinomycin on the expression of apoptosis-related genes to explore the mechanism of inhibition on U87 cells. Methods: U87 cells were treated with high concentration (SH, 4 μmol/L) and low concentration salinomycin (SL, 2 μmol/L), and divided into NC group, SH group, and SL group. After 48 hours, observe the effect of salinomycin on the col-ony forming ability of U87 cells through the colony formation experiment. RT-PCR was used to de-tect the RNA expression level of 33 apoptosis-related down-regulated genes such as SENP2. Results: The results of MTT and colony formation experiments showed that both SH and SL groups could in-hibit the proliferation of U87 in a concentration-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Flow cytometry re-sults showed that the apoptosis rate in SH group increased. PCR results showed that the expression of 33 apoptosis-related genes such as SENP2 was down-regulated. Conclusion: Salinomycin can sig-nificantly inhibit the proliferation of U87 cells and promote cell apoptosis.
伟林 诗
Published: 1 January 2021
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 11, pp 1-7; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2021.111001

Abstract:
长期暴露于高压环境下将影响大脑中具有调控情绪、行为表现的单胺类神经传导物质如多巴胺和血清素的浓度。精神益生菌被认为可在肠道中刺激神经传导物质的产生,再经由脑肠轴线的途径而对心理或行为方面产生正面有益的帮助,因此可利用身心压力的方式诱导类忧郁发生的模式来进行精神益生菌的筛选作业。在实验中,选用了ICR小鼠进行益生菌喂食两周后执行两周禁锢之测试,区分为禁锢组(RS)与乳酸菌补充之组别。比较每日管喂1.0 × 109 CFU乳酸菌株对禁锢鼠产生的影响。实验结束后牺牲小鼠,检测脑部中多巴胺与血清素的浓度,发现摄取GKF3四周后的小鼠脑中多巴胺与血清素显着的增加(p Long-term exposure to stress can affect the concentration of monoamine neurotransmitters such as dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) in the brain which is linked to certain symptoms of depression. Psychobiotics, the probiotics which stimulate the neurotransmitters via gut-brain axial and benefit the mental health, were screened by the stress-induced depressive-like behavior in mice. Twen-ty-five ICR mice were divided into five groups as follows: restraint-stressed group (RS), RS+ probi-otics Lactobacillus plantarum GKM3 group, RS+ probiotics L. reuteri GKR1 group, RS+ probiotics L. fermentum GKF3 group, and RS+ probiotics L. plantarum group (isolated from a commercial prod-uct). After two weeks of probiotics consumption at dosage 1.0 × 109 CFU/mice/day, mice were im-mobilized in restrainers for two hours once a day for two weeks. The probiotics strain GKF3 was se-lected as shown significant increases in levels of DA and 5-HT in the brain after four weeks of the experiment (p < 0.05). These results suggested the potential applications of psychobiotics, L. fer-mentum GKF3, in the prevention of depression-related brain diseases.
豫牟 思
Published: 1 January 2021
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 11, pp 75-86; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2021.112011

Abstract:
情绪是人对外界或自我刺激产生的心理和生理反应。如果人机交互(Human Computer Interaction, HCI)系统可以识别情绪,那么心理疾病的诊断和心理学的研究将会更加客观和有效。本文提出了一种仅基于光电容积脉搏波(photoplethysmography, PPG)的情绪识别方法对情感进行分类。由多波长近红外透射光谱法测量获得的脉搏波,经过特征点检测,获得其信号特征,使用不同的机器学习算法验证由PPG信号识别情绪的性能。结果表明,使用脉搏波进行情绪四分类,其识别正确率为96.2%,且单个样本的测试时间短。这意味着基于PPG信号可以实现快速的多类情绪识别,对无创检测、可穿戴设备和临床实践具有潜在的价值。 Emotion is person’s psychological reaction to external or self-stimulation with the physiological re-action. If Human Computer Interaction (HCI) system can be used to recognize emotion, the diagnosis of mental illness and psychological research will be more objective and effective. In this paper, an emotion recognition method based on photoplethysmography (PPG) is proposed to classify emo-tions. The signals measured by multi-wavelength near-infrared transmission spectroscopy are de-tected by feature points, and the signal characteristics are obtained. Different machine learning al-gorithms are used to verify the performance of emotion recognition by PPG signals. The results show that when PPG is used for emotion classification, the accuracy of recognition is 96.2%, and the testing time of a single sample is short. This means that fast multi-class emotion recognition can be achieved based on PPG signals, which has potential value for non-invasive detection, wearable de-vices and clinical practice.
雯邹 妙
Published: 1 January 2021
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 11, pp 129-133; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2021.113017

Abstract:
目的:测定本校生命学院大三本科生苯硫脲(PTC)味盲基因频率。方法:采用阈值法测定250名本科生对PTC的尝味敏感性。结果 味盲率为10.4%,味盲基因频率为0.356,尝味基因频率为0.644。结论:尝味能力与民族、地理位置以及某些疾病相关。 Objective: To determine the taste-blindness gene frequency of PTC among undergraduate students in our college of life science. Methods: To adopt the way of deciding taste-blindness with threshold to determine the sensitivity to the taste on PTC of 250 juveniles. Result: The taste-blindness rate was 10.4%, the taste-blindness gene frequency was 0.356 and the taste frequency was 0.644. Con-clusion: The PTC tasting ability is relevant to nationality, geographic position and some diseases.
段 超
Published: 1 January 2021
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 11, pp 134-141; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2021.113018

Abstract:
由病原微生物引起的疾病以及使用常规抗菌剂治疗对社会经济、环境和健康的影响是日益增加的。对抗生素的抗药性越来越强,许多普通抗生素对人类健康和免疫系统产生了有害的生物副作用,这促使人们寻找新的成本效益高、效率高的消毒处理方法和对免疫力有改善的方法。低频活化水(等离子体活化水)是冷大气等离子体与水反应的产物,是一种很有科研发展前景的广谱杀菌剂,低频共振装置发射的舒曼低频的7.83赫兹复制大地磁场的频率,舒曼共振与身体健康息息相关,7.83赫兹的舒曼波与人体脑电波及α波的频率基本接近,它对提高人体免疫力,辅助改善亚健康,激活细胞等方面有一定作用。低频活化水的瞬时活性,即低频活化水在储存和应用后几天内就会恢复到水中,用低频活化水处理大肠杆菌导致超过4-log的减少,该研究成功地证明了低频活化水作为一种有效的环境良性消毒剂的可能性,为优化低频活化水的生化活性和将这种灭毒机制转化为生活中的应用提供了极大的依据。 Diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms and the use of conventional antimicrobial treatments have an increasing impact on social economy, environment and health. The resistance to antibiotics is getting stronger and stronger. Many common antibiotics have harmful biological side effects on human health and the immune system. This has prompted people to find new cost-effective and efficient disinfection methods and methods to improve immunity. Low-frequency activated water (plasma activated water) is the product of the reaction between cold atmospheric plasma and water. It is a broad-spectrum fungicide with promising scientific research and development. The Schumann low-frequency 7.83 Hz emitted by the low-frequency resonance device replicates the frequency of the geomagnetic field. Schumann resonance is closely related to physical health. The Schumann wave of 7.83 Hz is basically close to the frequency of human brain waves and alpha waves. It has a certain effect on improving human immunity, assisting in improving sub-health, and activating cells. The instantaneous activity of low-frequency activated water, that is, the low-frequency activated water will be restored to the water within a few days after storage and application. Treatment of E. coli with low-frequency activated water resulted in a reduction of more than 4-log. This study successfully proved that low-frequency activated water can be used as The possibility of an effective environmental benign disinfectant provides a great basis for optimizing the biochemical activity of low-frequency activated water and transforming this detoxification mechanism into daily applications.
斌闵 继
Published: 1 January 2021
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 11, pp 168-175; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2021.113022

Abstract:
CXXC锌指蛋白5 (CXXC finger protein 5, CXXC5)属于CXXC锌指蛋白家族。CXXC5基因是视色素反应基因,编码视色素诱导的核因子,又可称为RINF。CXXC5除了作为表观遗传调控因子外,还可以通过调控Wnt/β-catenin通路参与细胞的生长和分化过程;CXXC5多种恶性肿瘤的发生发展相关,可以作为TGF-β的靶基因,可活化激活TNF-α,参与调控肿瘤细胞的生长代谢过程,CXXC5表达情况对肿瘤治疗的预后也有参考作用;CXXC5对氧反应元件起抑制作用,参与细胞能量代谢等生物学过程。本文对近年来CXXC5的研究进展作一综述。 CXXC finger protein 5 (CXXC5) belongs to the CXXC zinc finger protein family.CXXC5 gene, also known as RINF, is a visual pigment response gene that encodes the nuclear factor of visual pigment induc-tion. In addition to acting as an epigenetic regulator, CXXC5 also participates in the process of cell growth and differentiation by regulating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. CXXC5 is related to the occur-rence and development of a variety of malignant tumors. It can be used as a target gene of TGF-β, activate TNF-α, and participate in the regulation of the growth and metabolism of tumor cells. The expression of CXXC5 also plays a reference role in the prognosis of tumor therapy. CXXC5 inhibits oxygen response elements and participates in biological processes such as cell energy metabolism. In this paper, the research progress of CXXC5 in recent years is reviewed.
溢邓 文
Published: 1 January 2021
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 11, pp 142-148; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2021.113019

Abstract:
背景:目前,谷–丙转氨酶活性采用比色法测定。但在经典测定方案中,加入显色剂后,对照管中须加入与测量组等体积的谷丙转氨酶底物液,而对照管中先前加入的血清未灭活,可能具有酶活性,并与底物液发生额外的转氨基反应,造成阴性对照失真。目的:探究和了解经典谷–丙转氨酶活性测定实验方案的原理和流程,优化原有实验方案。方法:按经典方案进行操作,发现其由于对照管转氨酶不及时灭活可能对照失真的问题;改进方案验证,将测定管和对照管分别细分为灭活管与非灭活管,按经典方案进行操作,并对实验结果进行比较分析。结果:灭活与否显著影响对照管的光密度值,但不影响测定管光密度值。即灭活后的对照管光密度值明显小于未灭活的对照管,而灭活的测定管光密度值则几乎与未灭活的测定管相等。结论:经典实验在颜色反应前未对已有的转氨酶灭活,导致转氨基反应持续进行,对照管无法形成阴性对照。应该将原实验所有试管在颜色反应之前统一进行高温处理,以此将血清中的转氨酶及时灭活。 Background: At present, colorimetry was used to determine the activity of serum ALT. However, in this classical measurement scheme, we should add the same volume of ALT substrate solution to the control group as the experimental group after we add chromogenic agent. The serum ALT added before has not been inactivated, which means it may still have enzyme activity and catalyze addi-tional transamination with substrate solution at the same time, resulting in the distortion of the negative control. Objective: To explore and understand the principle and process of the classical experiment for the determination of ALT activity and optimize the original experimental scheme. Methods: We operated the classical scheme, and found that the inactivation of transaminase in the control tubes in time might cause the distortion of negative control. The improved scheme was set up to verify this conjecture, where the test tubes in the experimental group and the control group were both divided into inactivated tubes and non-inactivated tubes respectively. We operated the improved scheme in accordance with steps of the classical scheme and compared the results be-tween the two schemes. Results: The inactivation has a significant effect on the optical density of the control tubes, but not on that of the experiment tubes. That is, the optical density of the inactivated control tubes was significantly lower than that of the uninactivated control tubes in the original scheme, and the optical density of the inactivated experimental tubes was almost the same as that of the uninactivated experimental tubes in the original scheme. Conclusion: The classical experi-ment did not inactivate the existing ALT before the color reaction, which led to the continuous transamination so that the negative control could not be formed between the control group and ex-perimental group. All test tubes in the original experiment should be uniformly processed at high temperature before the color reaction so as to inactivate the serum ALT in time.
普冯 亚
Published: 1 January 2021
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 11, pp 23-30; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2021.111004

Abstract:
POCT (Point of Care Testing)是一种在采样现场进行的、利用便携式分析仪器及配套试剂快速得到结果的检测方式,本文主要阐述了POCT (Point of Care Testing)的微流控芯片技术、传感器技术、干化学技术、免疫层析技术、生物芯片技术等主要检测技术,并介绍了其在临床上的广泛应用。 POCT (Point of Care Testing) is defined as medical diagnostic testing that can be performed at the patient’s bedside. This paper mainly discussed various POCT (Point of Care Testing) devices devel-oped by different technologies including microfluidics, sensor technology, dry reagent technology, immunochromatography, biochip technology. As healthcare becomes more consumer-focused, POCT (Point of Care Testing) is rapidly expanding worldwide and has been widely used in clinical.
恒孟 子
Published: 1 January 2021
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 11, pp 14-22; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2021.111003

Abstract:
本文针对高光谱成像,提出了一种基于主成分分析(Principal Component Analysis, PCA)和线性判别分析(Linear Discriminant Analysis, LDA)生成非负光谱透过率的方法。该非负光谱透过率可应用于可编程高光谱成像系统的光学成像结果等效于PCA-LDA数字模型后处理的高光谱数据的结果。该方法通过滤除训练过程中的负值,无需补偿透过比的二次采集,可以直接针对高光谱数据应用,即高光谱数据采集和PCA-LDA后处理可以通过光学成像的物理过程一次性同时实现,有助于在光学和遥感领域的信息应用中实现更智能便捷的光学检测与传感。 In this paper, a method to derive nonnegative spectral transmittance based on Principal Compo-nent Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) is proposed for hyperspectral imaging. The nonnegative spectral transmittance can be applied to the optical imaging of programmable hyperspectral imaging system, and the collected images are supposed to be equivalent to the re-sults after PCA-LDA post-processing. By filtering out the negative value in the training process, the method can be directly applied to hyperspectral data, that is, hyperspectral data acquisition and PCA-LDA post-processing can be realized simultaneously through the physical process of optical imaging, which is helpful to realize more intelligent and convenient optical detection and sensing in sensing applications.
邹 丰
Published: 1 January 2021
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 11, pp 8-13; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2021.111002

Abstract:
YAP/TAZ介导的Hippo信号通路在生命进程中扮演重要角色,它主要调控器官大小,胚胎发育,细胞增殖以及肿瘤发生等。最新研究发现Hippo信号通路关键蛋白YAP/TAZ在调控人类病毒侵染及免疫反应中发挥非常重要的作用。文章总结了YAP/TAZ蛋白的病理学特征,重点介绍YAP/TAZ蛋白在调控人类病毒侵染、复制、诱发疾病以及免疫调控中的功能及其机理,以期为病毒致病机制研究及治疗手段开发提供新的见解和思路。 Accumulating evidence showed that YAP/TAZ mediated Hippo pathway plays a critical role in bio-logical processes, including the control of organ size, embryonic development, cell proliferation, and cancer development. The Hippo signaling pathway key protein YAP/TAZ has been found to play a very important role in human virus infection and immunity. This paper summarizes the pathologic characteristics of YAP/TAZ protein, and focuses on the functions and mechanisms of YAP/TAZ pro-tein in the regulation of human virus infection, replication, disease induction and immune regula-tion. It might give new insights into the research of viral disease and its therapy.
强吴 润
Published: 1 January 2021
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 11, pp 49-54; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2021.112007

Abstract:
外泌体是一种由大多数类型的细胞分泌到细胞外空间的膜性囊泡。它们存在于包括血液、尿液、血清和唾液在内的体液中,在细胞间的通讯中起着至关重要的作用。外泌体包含各种生物标记物,如核酸和蛋白质,可以反映其母细胞的状态。因此,肿瘤衍生的外泌体是肿瘤早期诊断和预后评估的新型生物标志物。在这里,我们回顾了用于检测肿瘤来源外泌体生物传感(主要是基于光学生物传感器)的最新研究进展。此外,还分析了基于光学生物传感技术检测肿瘤来源外泌体所面临的挑战和机遇。 Exosomes are membranous vesicles secreted into the extracellular space by most types of cells. They exist in body fluids including blood, urine, serum and saliva, and play a vital role in the com-munication between cells. Exosomes contain various biomarkers, such as nucleic acids and proteins, which can reflect the state of their parent cells. Therefore, tumor-derived exosomes are new bi-omarkers for early tumor diagnosis and prognosis evaluation. Here, we review the latest research progress in biosensing (mainly based on optical biosensors) for detecting tumor-derived exosomes. In addition, the challenges and opportunities of detecting tumor-derived exosomes based on optical biosensing technology are also analyzed.
林邓 爱
Published: 1 January 2021
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 11, pp 69-74; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2021.112010

Abstract:
血脑屏障是人脑的一种重要功能性屏障,也是药物治疗脑部疾效果欠佳的重要原因。鼻腔给药作为一种非侵入性的脑部给药方式,联合纳米颗粒能有效透过血脑屏障,提高进入脑内的药物浓度,从而改善脑部疾病的治疗效果。本文章将对适用于经鼻腔给药的纳米颗粒,用于治疗脑部疾病的研究进展进行综述。 Blood-brain barrier is an important functional barrier of human brain, and it is also an important reason for the poor effect of drug treatment on brain diseases. Nasal administration, as a non-invasive way of brain administration, combined with nanoparticles, can effectively penetrate the blood-brain barrier and increase the concentration of drugs entering the brain, thus improving the therapeutic effect of brain diseases. In this article, we will review the research progress of na-noparticles for intranasal administration in the treatment of brain diseases.
雷 虹
Published: 1 January 2021
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 11, pp 113-119; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2021.112015

Abstract:
目的:比较传统的蛋白免疫印迹和全自动蛋白质定量分析检测特异性蛋白质相对含量的差异,并进行方法学优化,为蛋白质定量分析提供技术参考。方法:分别使用两种系统对不同分子量的目标蛋白进行检测,比较两种系统的灵敏度、重复性和适用范围。结果:相比传统WB系统,全自动系统灵敏性、重复性和稳定性更高,并且可进行多分子同时检测,尤其在检测微量蛋白、分子量较大或较小的蛋白以及高通量方面具有优势。结论:全自动蛋白检测是一种灵敏、高效的检测特异性蛋白丰度变化的系统,值得在科研和医学检验中推广。 Objective: To compare the difference between traditional Western Blotting (WB) and automatic quantitative protein analysis on specific protein relative content , and to optimize the methodology, so as to provide technical reference for protein quantitative analysis. Methods: In order to compare the sensitivity, repeatability and applicable range of the two methods. WB and automatic quantita-tive protein analysis are used to detect the target molecules, which with different molecular weights. Results: Compared with traditional WB, WES had higher sensitivity, repeatability and stability, and can carry out multi-molecule detection, which has high throughput especially in the detection of trace proteins or proteins with larger or smaller molecular weights. Conclusion: WES is a sensitive and efficient method to detect the changes of abundance of specific protein, which is worth popular-izing in scientific research and medical examination.
婷潘 业
Published: 1 January 2021
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 11, pp 149-158; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2021.113020

Abstract:
目的:以阿霉素(DOX)和内消旋–四(4-羧基苯基)卟吩(meso-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)porphine:TCPP)为模型药物,UiO-66-NH2为纳米载体,构建了一种能响应肿瘤微环境的复合纳米载药体系,并对其性能进行研究。方法:将TCPP通过配位作用引入到金属–有机框架的周期性结构中,负载DOX,构建了[email protected]@DOX复合纳米载药体系。通过SEM、XRD、IR和荧光光谱进行形貌和结构的表征。同时,研究了其在不同pH缓冲溶液中药物的释放情况、细胞外和细胞内单线态氧产量及对B16F10肿瘤细胞的细胞毒活性。结果:纳米载药体系平均粒径约为200 nm,DOX的负载量为31 wt%,TCPP的负载量为10.9 wt%。在pH为5.0的缓冲液中,时间108 h内DOX的累积释放率为47.2%,TCPP的累积释放率为76.8%,高于在pH为7.0的缓冲溶液中的相应释放量。此外,[email protected]@DOX在细胞外和细胞内都有较高的单线态氧产量,细胞毒实验证明其在体外能够明显杀伤肿瘤细胞B16F10,在660 nm激光照射下,细胞存活率为55%,表明[email protected]@DOX中光敏剂协同化疗药物对肿瘤细胞的高效杀伤效果。结论:本实验通过构建复合纳米载药体系[email protected]@DOX有效避免了光敏剂的聚集,提高了DOX负载量,增强了靶向性,从而实现了光敏剂和化疗药的有效递送和对肿瘤细胞的协同杀伤作用。 Purpose: A smart composite nano-drug delivery system, which was responsive to the acid tumor microenvironment was developed based on UiO-66-NH2, loading doxorubicin and meso-tetra(4- carboxyphenyl)porphine(TCPP). Its properties were also studied in detail. Methods: TCPP was in-troduced into the periodic porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) by the coordination ability of TCPP. [email protected]@DOX was constructed after DOX was loaded into the pores of UiO-66- [email protected] After all, the morphology and structure were characterized by SEM, XRD, IR and fluo-rescence spectra. At the same time, the properties including the drugs release in different buffer solutions, the extracellular and intracellular singlet oxygen production and cytotoxic activities against B16F10 were also investigated. Results: The average diameter of nanoparticles was about 200 nm and 31 wt% of DOX, 10.9 wt% of TCPP existed in the composite nano particles respectively. In the buffer solution with a pH of 5.0, the cumulative release rate of DOX and TCPP was 47.2% and 76.8% respectively within 108h, which were higher than that in the buffer solution with a pH of 7.0. In addition, [email protected] @DOX exhibited high efficient singlet oxygen generation, which was confirmed by the extracellular and intracellular experiments. Cytotoxic experiments have shown that it can kill tumor cells B16F10in vitro effectively. The cell survival rate was 55% under irradiation of 660 nm laser, indicating that the photosensitizer combined with chemotherapeutic drugs in [email protected]@DOX has a high killing effect on tumor cells. Conclusion: The composite nano-drug loading system can effectively avoid the aggregation of photosensitizers, improve the loading capacity of DOX and enhance the targeting ability, so as to realize the effective delivery of photosensitizers and chemotherapeutic drugs, which have synergistic effects in the treatment of cancer.
帆武 诺
Published: 1 January 2021
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 11, pp 176-185; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2021.113023

Abstract:
为了研究Cdc42协同拟肽化合物对A549细胞迁移的影响,构建携带红、绿荧光报告基因的Cdc42真核表达载体,转染293T细胞,观察基因表达情况;测定实验用化合物(PMC4)对A549细胞的毒性;进一步将Cdc42转染高迁移率的A549细胞,然后用拟肽化合物刺激,通过细胞划痕实验,初步检测Cdc42协同拟肽化合物对A549细胞迁移的影响。结果表明:本实验成功构建了Cdc42异构体基因的真核表达载体pGFP-cdc42-2、pGFP-cdc42-3、pRed-cdc42-2、pRed-cdc42-3,转染293T细胞效率约为90%;10 μmol/L的拟肽化合物对A549细胞毒性微弱,拟肽药物分子末端对位上的取代基为氟时,其对细胞迁移具有促进作用,过表达Cdc42时,Cdc42协同药物使细胞迁移进一步增加,具体机制有待进一步研究。 In order to study the effect of Cdc42 coordinating with the peptidomimetics on the migration of A549 cells, the Cdc42 eukaryotic expression vectors harboring fluorescent reporter genes were constructed and transfected into 293T cells. The expression of Cdc42 was observed by fluorescence microscopy. The cytotoxicity of the compound (PMC4) on A549 cells was tested. The Cdc42 genes were further ex- pressed in the high mobility cells A549 and the compound was added. The cooperation effect of Cdc42 with the compound on the cell migration was investigated by cell wound scratch assay. The results showed that the eukaryotic expression vectors of Cdc42 isoform genes were successfully constructed named pGFP-cdc42-2, pGFP-cdc42-3, pRed-cdc42-2, pRed-cdc42-3 respectively. These recombinants plasmids were transfected into 293T cells and the transfection ef-ficiency was about 90%. 10 μmol/L peptidomimetic compounds showed weak toxicity to A549 cells. When the substituent group at the terminal para-position of the peptidomimetic drug molecule is F (fluorin), it can increase the migration of A549 cells. While the Cdc42 gene was over-expressed in A549 cells and the cell migration rate was enhanced furtherly. More studies and results need to be carried out to reveal the detail mechanism.
静王 文
Published: 1 January 2020
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 10, pp 35-42; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2020.103006

Abstract:
先天免疫应答是机体抵抗病毒感染的第一道防线。NF-κB信号通路作为先天免疫应答的重要部分,能够通过促进多种细胞因子产生而抵抗病原体的入侵。病毒可通过抑制NF-κB表达,逃逸宿主免疫反应,而有些病毒则可利用NF-κB的活化,促进自身的复制。肝炎病毒是引起病毒性肝炎的一大类病原体。目前,有关肝炎病毒对NF-κB信号通路的调控还没有系统的文献报道,本文将就乙型、丙型、丁型、戊型四种肝炎病毒对NF-κB信号通路的调控进行综述。 The innate immune response is the first line of host against viral infection. As an important part of the innate immune response, NF-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway can protect host against patho-gen invasion by activating the production of cytokines. Viruses can inhibit the expression of NF-κB by escaping the host immune response, while some viruses can use the activation of NF-κB to promote replication. Hepatitis viruses are the major pathogens of viral hepatitis. Up to now, there is no comprehensive report about the relationship between hepatitis viruses and NF-κB signaling pathway. The regulation of NF-κB signaling pathway during hepatitis viruses (B, C, D and E) infection was summered to clarify the interaction between NF-κB signaling pathway and hepatitis viruses.
伟王 佳
Published: 1 January 2020
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 10, pp 19-25; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2020.102004

Abstract:
为了研究高频激励源对经颅磁刺激线圈产生的磁场特性的影响,同时为解决目前通用特斯拉计只能检测恒定中强磁场、少数特斯拉计也仅能检测200 Hz以下的交变磁场的问题。因此,基于法拉第电磁感应定律,研究设计了用于检测70 kHz以上的交变高频磁场的检测装置。该磁场检测装置由AD8130模块电路与两个NE5532模块电路级联而成,可几乎无失真地检测到频率10 KHz~60 MHz、幅度0~25 V的交变信号;AD8130模块是差分放大模块,NE5532模块是运算放大器,这两个模块联合使用将检测线圈接收到的感应电动势大小放大6615倍输出。 In order to study the influence of high-frequency excitation source on the characteristics of mag-netic field produced by transcranial magnetic stimulation coil, and to solve the problem that the current general Tesla meter can only detect the constant medium strong magnetic field, and a few Tesla meters can only detect the alternating magnetic field below 200 Hz. Therefore, based on Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction, a detection device for detecting alternating high frequency magnetic field above 70 kHz is designed. The magnetic field detection device is composed of ad8130 module circuit and two ne5532 module circuits, which can detect the alternating signal with the frequency of 10 khz - 60 mhz and the amplitude of 0 - 25 v almost without distortion; ad8130 module is the differential amplifier module, ne5532 module is the operational amplifier, and the two modules jointly use to amplify the induced electromotive force received by the detection coil by 6615 times.
牟 畅
Published: 1 January 2020
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 10, pp 9-12; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2020.102002

Abstract:
1型糖尿病(Type 1 diabetes mellitus, T1DM)是一种具有致病性、适应性和自身免疫性的复杂疾病,可导致β细胞的破坏和功能障碍。目前,普遍认为T细胞是大多数T1DM患者β细胞损伤的关键介质,此外,B细胞、巨噬细胞及树突状细胞等也在其发病过程中发挥着不容忽视的作用。 Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a complex disease that is pathogenic, adaptive, and autoim-mune, which can cause β-cell destruction and dysfunction. At present, T cells are generally con-sidered to be the key mediator of β cell damage in most T1DM patients. In addition, B cells, mac-rophages, and dendritic cells also play a role that cannot be ignored.
佳程 丽
Published: 1 January 2020
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 10, pp 75-81; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2020.104011

Abstract:
近年来,随着骨组织工程研究的逐步深入,发现血管化是骨缺损疾病愈合的关键。骨缺损修复的过程中,血管的生长及血管网的建立有益于移植部位的血供及营养成分的供给,从而促进骨缺损处骨组织的生长及愈合。本文将对血管化在骨组织工程中的作用及其相关影响因素进行探讨。 In recent years, with the development of bone tissue engineering, it has been found that vasculari-zation is the key to bone defect healing. In the process of bone defect repair, the growth of blood vessels and the establishment of vascular network are beneficial to the blood supply and nutrient supply of the graft site, so as to promote the growth and healing of bone tissue at the bone defect site. This paper will discuss the role of vascularization in bone tissue engineering and its related in-fluencing factors.
珈徐 艺
Published: 1 January 2020
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 10, pp 103-109; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2020.104014

Abstract:
电压门控钠离子通道广泛分布于可兴奋细胞的细胞膜上,参与动作电位的产生及传导,主要负责调控动作电位的初始上升相。钠离子通道是最重要的心脏离子通道之一,分布于窦房结、传导系统、心房肌和心室肌,是一类抗心律失常药物的靶蛋白。心脏钠通道的表达正常与否直接影响到心脏的生理病理功能,其功能获得性和功能缺失性的突变均会导致相关心脏疾病的发生。本文阐述了心脏钠离子通道(Nav1.5和Nav1.8)的结构及功能,以及通道异常表达时相关疾病的研究现状,为药物临床应用前的心脏毒性研究及心血管药物的研究开发和临床应用提供重要的理论依据。 Voltage gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are transmembrane proteins responsible for the initial and rapid phase of the action potential in most electrically excitable cells. VGSCs are the most important cardiac ion channels, which are widely located in highly expressed in all types of cardiac myocytes, including the sinus node, the conduction system, atrial and ventricular myocytes. VGSCs are target proteins of type 1 anti-arrhythmic drugs. The expression of cardiac VGSCs may affect the physiological and pathological functions of cardiac. Gain-of-function mutations and loss-of-function mutations of cardiac VGSCs may cause several cardiac diseases. In this article, we focused on reviewing the structure, function and related diseases of cardiac VGSCs (Nav1.5 and Nav1.8), in hopes of providing a reference for further in-depth research regarding relevant drug cardiotoxicity before clinical applications and cardiovascular drug discovery.
慧宋 珂
Published: 1 January 2020
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 10, pp 82-94; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2020.104012

Abstract:
目的:分离培养符合用于治疗系统性红斑狼疮的产业化的脐带间充质干细胞(UC-MSC),并进行脐带间充质干细胞产品质量控制的研究。方法:从脐带中通过贴壁法获得间充质干细胞,传代培养后,采用无血清培养体系扩增培养UC-MSC。通过流式细胞术和诱导分化技术,检测其中干细胞含量、细胞总数、细胞活率,并取样进行细菌检测、内毒素检测、支原体检测,满足质量标准方能应用。选取BALB/c小鼠,进行pristane造模,将BALB/c小鼠随机分为对照组、模型组和治疗组,对照组和模型组给予等量的生理盐水;治疗组给予UC-MSC (4 × 105 cells/ml),0.2 ml。进行抗双链DNA (ds-DNA)抗体、系统性红斑狼疮活动度评分(SLEDAI)和常规血液检查。通过裸鼠致瘤性实验、毒性试验等评估脐带间充质干细胞产品的安全性。结果:经过技术改造升级,无血清培养的UC-MSC贴壁生长,主要为典型的成纤维样细胞形态,可传15代以上,第5代MSCs高表达CD73、CD105、CD90、CD44;低表达CD34、CD45和HLA-DR;在不同的诱导条件下,脐带MSCs可被诱导分化为成骨细胞和软骨细胞。治疗组UC-MSC给药30天,抗ds-DNA抗体水平明显降低,与对照组相比差异有显著性意义,疾病活动度评分明显降低,蛋白尿、血肌酐、尿素氮等指标得到改善,与模型组比较差异均具有统计学意义(P Objective: To isolate and cultivate umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSC) suitable for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods: MSCs were obtained from umbilical cord by adherent method. After subculture, UC-MSC was amplified by serum-free culture system. Through flow cytometry and induced differentiation technology, stem cell content, total number of cells and cell viability were detected, and samples were taken for bacterial detection, endotoxin detection and mycoplasma detection to meet the quality standards before application. To establish sound technical procedures and quality standards for the production, packaging, storage and transportation of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells; complete the quality control system plan, BALB/C mice were selected and pristane was used for modeling. BALB/C mice were randomly di-vided into control group, model group and treatment group. The treatment group was given UC-MSC (4 × 105 cells/ml), 0.2 ml. Antidouble-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) antibodies, systemic lupus erythem-atous Activity score (SLEDAI), and routine blood tests were performed. The safety of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells was evaluated by tumorigenicity test and toxicity test in nude mice. Re-sults and Conclusion: After technical modification and upgrading, the serum-free culture of UC-MSCs grew adherently, mainly in the form of typical fibroblasts, which could be transmitted over 15 gen-erations. The fifth generation MSCs showed high expression of CD73, CD105, CD90, CD44 and low expression of CD34, CD45 and HLA-DR. Under different induction conditions, umbilical cord MSCs could be induced to differentiate into osteoblasts and chondrocytes. After 30 days of UC-MSC ad-ministration, the level of anti-DS -DNA antibody in the treatment group was significantly reduced, with significant differences compared with the control group. The disease activity score was signifi-cantly reduced, and indicators such as proteinuria, serum creatinine and urea nitrogen were im-proved, with statistically significant differences compared with the model group (P < 0.05). This study established a quality management system for the industrial production of UC-MSC, verified the safety and effectiveness of UC-MSC in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus, and pro-vided theoretical basis and technical support for subsequent clinical trials of UC-MSC in the treat-ment of systemic lupus erythematosus.
涛龚 仕
Published: 1 January 2020
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 10, pp 95-101; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2020.104013

Abstract:
脆性X综合征(Fragile X syndrome, FXS)是一种智力缺陷和自闭症谱系的单基因遗传疾病。位于Xq27.3染色体的Fmr1基因沉默,造成该基因编码的转录抑制因子FMRP表达缺失,从而导致FXS患者神经系统发育障碍。本研究采用质粒转染293T细胞获取AAV9-FMRP腺相关病毒载体,通过立体定位方法将AAV9-FMRP注射到成年Fmr1 KO小鼠侧脑室。免疫组化检测发现AAV9介导的FMRP可以在Fmr1 KO小鼠海马和顶叶皮层等脑组织中获得性表达;免疫荧光检测发现FMRP定位于小鼠海马神经元胞质。研究结果表明,通过腺相关病毒可以介导FMRP在成年Fmr1 KO小鼠脑组织中获得性表达。 Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a genetic disease with mental retardation and autism spectrum, caused by the silence of Fmr1 gene on chromosome xq27.3 and the expressing loss of FMRP, which is a transcriptional inhibitor. Silencing of Fmr1 gene leads to developmental disorders of the nervous system in FXS patients. In this study, adeno-associated virus 9-mediated FMRP vector (AAV9-FMRP) was obtained by transfecting 293T cells with plasmids. AAV9-FMRP was injected into the lateral ventricle of adult Fmr1 KO mice stereotactically. Immunohistochemistry assay showed that AAV9-FMRP was able to be expressed in hippocampus and parietal cortex in Fmr1 KO mice, and immunofluorescence assay showed that FMRP expression localized in the cytoplasm of hippocampal neurons. The results indicate that it is feasible to acquire FMRP expression mediated by adeno-associated virus in brain tissues of adult Fmr1 KO mice.
洋冯 启
Published: 1 January 2020
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 10, pp 1-7; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2020.101001

Abstract:
3D打印技术综合了维系数字建模、机械调控等技术,已被广泛应用于精准、个性化的骨缺损疾病修复中。本文从3D打印技术的原理、制造工艺、特点以及3D打印技术应用于临床的预后几个方面,探讨了3D打印技术精准化和个性化制备的人工骨在临床上治疗骨缺损等相关疾病的应用。 3D printing technology which integrates maintenance digital modeling, mechanical control and other technologies has been widely used in accurate and personalized bone defect disease repair. This paper discusses the clinical application of 3D printing precision and personalized artificial bone in the treatment of bone defects and other related diseases from the aspects of the principle, manufacturing process and characteristics of 3D printing technology and the clinical prognosis of 3D printing technology.
慧江 玲
Published: 1 January 2020
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 10, pp 50-61; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2020.103008

Abstract:
本研究旨在利用细胞试验评估液态发酵桑黄(Sanghuangporus sanghuang)菌丝体萃取物之抗A型流感病毒(H1N1)的能力,并进而分析活性所在之分层。实验使用MTS法评估桑黄菌丝体萃取物分别在预防、共培养以及治疗三种试验中减轻病毒对于宿主细胞的毒杀性的效果。结果显示酒萃物优于水萃物,再将酒萃物进行层析分离,共获得四种分层,分别为水层(PlH2O)、1-丁醇层(PlBtOH)、二氯甲烷层(PlDCM)以及己烷层(PlHex)。其中,以PlBtOH、PlDCM两组在预防试验、共培养试验以及治疗试验中,皆可见显著提升细胞存活率之效果(p The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-influenza (H1N1) effect in vitro using submerge fermentation of Sanghuangporus sanghuang mycelia with cell test and analyze its active compound fractions. Three different timing (pre-treatment, co-treatment and post-treatment) of infection was used to evaluate the anti-influenza effect. MTS assay was used after treatment to analysis if Sanghuangporus sanghuang mycelia extracts can effectively lower the H1N1 virus cytotoxicity. The results showed that ethanol extract had better protective effect than the water extract. Next, the ethanol extract was partition to four fractions: water layer (PlH2O), 1-butanol layer (PlBtOH), dichloromethane layer (PlDCM) and hexane layer (PlHex). Among these fractions, both PlBtOH and PlDCM showed that it can significantly improve the cell protective effect in the pre-treatment, co-treatment and post-treatment group (p
林龚 石
Published: 1 January 2020
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 10, pp 62-67; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2020.103009

Abstract:
戊型肝炎病毒(HEV)是人类戊型肝炎的致病因子,也是全世界肠道传播的病毒性肝炎的主要原因。病毒学研究需要强大的细胞培养系统。不幸的是,与其他肝炎病毒一样,HEV难以在常规细胞中繁殖。虽然已经使用各种HEV毒株测试了许多不同的细胞培养系统,但是病毒复制通常进展非常缓慢,并且具有低病毒粒子计数的感染导致HEV复制无效。然而,最近发现在不同细胞系中传代原发患者分离株的进展改善了体外HEV传播。本综述描述了几个典型毒株的细胞培养情况。 Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of human hepatitis E and the main cause of viral hepatitis transmitted in the intestines worldwide. Virology research requires a powerful cell culture system. Unfortunately, like other hepatitis viruses, HEV is difficult to reproduce in conventional cells. Many different cell culture systems have been tested using various HEV strains, but virus replication generally progresses very slowly, and infections with low virion counts render HEV replication ineffective. However, recent advances in the passage of primary patient isolates in different cell lines have improved in vitro HEV transmission. This review describes the cell culture of several typical strains.
Smirnov Igor
Published: 1 January 2020
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 10, pp 43-49; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2020.103007

Abstract:
在临床实验期间,我们观察到MRET补水治疗HIV患者的积极结果。最近的研究数据表明,这两种病毒蛋白的作用方式相似,这表明靶向病毒诱导的膜融合步骤的抗病毒策略可以从HIV-1适应SARS-CoV。病毒刺突蛋白结构的稳定性基于范德华斯弱电动力和氢键的整体相互作用。显然,蛋白质的所有生物化学形成都需要生物系统中存在水分子。观察到的研究数据表明,修改人体组织的水基电介质动力学参数(在生理“窗口”范围内有利于人体的体内平衡)可导致范德沃尔斯相互作用和氢键的显着变化,导致抑制和中和病毒刺突蛋白的形成。这种情况显然使病毒的生命序列无法与人体细胞膜结合和融合。可以采用相同类型的机制来抑制其他病原微生物。美国AltheaDx技术公司进行的研究证实,MRET活化水基培养基在遗传水平上不会影响正常PBMC细胞的形态。它以积极的方式影响了正常PBMC细胞的形态,提高了其生存能力。MRET活化水分子共振效应技术(MRET,美国专利号6022479)在美国获得专利。我们得出人类受试者消耗MRET的水,可以导致人体组织中介电常数在生理上发生有利改变和水基介质的氢键结合。它可以为人体提供最初的自然防御力,以防病原微生物的干预和传播。 We observed positive results of MRET water complimentary treatment for HIV patients during a clinical trial. There are recent research data which allow pointing to a similar mode of action for the two viral proteins, suggesting that anti-viral strategy that targets the viral-induced membrane fusion step can be adapted from HIV-1 to SARS-CoV. The stability of virus spike protein structure is based on the overall interactions of van der Walls weak electrodynamic forces and hydrogen bonding. It is obvious, that all biochemical formations of proteins require presence of water mol-ecules in biological systems. The overall observed research data suggest that modification of wa-ter-based medium electrodynamic parameters of the human tissues (that are favorable for the homeostasis of the body in the range of physiological “window”) can lead to significant change of van der Walls interactions and hydrogen bonding that may result in the inhibition and interruption of virus spike proteins formation. Such scenario obviously disables virus life sequence of attachment and fusion with human cell membranes. The same type of mechanism can be adopted for the inhibition of other lines of pathogenic microorganisms. The studies conducted at AltheaDx Technology, USA confirm that MRET activated water based medium did not affect the morphology of normal PBMC cells on genetic level; it affected the morphology of normal PBMC cells in a positive way increasing their viability. MRET Activated Water is produced with the patent in the USA Molecular Resonance Effect Technology (MRET, US Patent # 6022479). We suggest that MRET water consumption by human subjects can lead to physiologically favorable modification of dielectric permittivity and hydrogen bonding of water-based medium in the human body tissues. It can pro-vide the initial human body natural defense against intervention and spread of pathogenic micro-organisms.
毛 宁
Published: 1 January 2020
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 10, pp 27-34; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2020.103005

Abstract:
目的:探讨踝关节贴扎后对膝关节功能的影响。方法:18名健康男女大学生(男女各9名),使用Biodex等速测试仪,测量踝关节无贴扎、踝关节贴扎(限制內翻背屈活动范围) 2种情况下的膝关节屈伸肌相对峰力矩以及位置觉;使用量角器测量膝关节主动关节活动度。结果:踝关节进行贴扎后膝关节伸肌相对峰力矩明显高于无贴扎时(P 0.05);膝关节位置觉2种情况下无显著性差异(P > 0.05);膝关节主动关节活动度2种情况下无显著性差异(P > 0.05)。结论:踝关节贴扎(限制內翻背屈活动范围)可提高膝关节伸肌肌力,但对屈肌肌力、位置觉、主动关节活动度没有影响。 Objective: To investigate effects of the ankle joint after the taping on function of knee. Methods: Eighteen healthy male and female university students (9 males and 9 females) were tested with the relative peak torque of knee flexion and extensor and position sense using Biodex isokinetic testing system under the conditions of no ankle joint taping and ankle joint taping (limiting the range of varus and dorsiflexion), and the range of motion of knee joint was measured with protractor. Results: The relative peak torque of knee extensor after ankle joint taping was significantly higher than that without ankle taping (P 0.05). There was no significant difference in knee joint position sense between two cases (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in active range of motion of knee joint between two cases (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Ankle joint taping (limiting the range of flexion and varus dorsiflexion) can improve the extensor muscle strength of knee joint, but has no effect on flexor muscle strength, position sense and active joint range of motion.
李 博
Published: 1 January 2020
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 10, pp 69-74; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2020.104010

Abstract:
病毒引发的疫情溯源往往成为一个世界难题。通过流行病学调查和基因分析等进行疫情溯源探索,是当前通行的做法。COVID-19疫情起源的多源性学说具有一定的科学性,但是2020年6月上旬北京新发地爆发疫情的结果,使得我们逐渐倾向下列结论:人为布撒SARS-CoV-2的“阴谋论”几率进一步增加。 Traceability of viral outbreaks has often become a world problem. Tracing the origin of the epi-demic through epidemiological investigation and gene analysis is the current practice. The multi-source theory of the origin of the COVID-19 epidemic is scientific, but the outbreak in Beijing in early June 2020 made it easier for people to draw the following conclusions: the probability of ar-tificially spreading the “conspiracy theory” of SARS-CoV-2 is further increased.
航王 晨
Published: 1 January 2020
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 10, pp 13-18; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2020.102003

Abstract:
ABO基因中几个碱基的替换、单碱基缺失导致A、B、O三种等位基因的产生,可使红细胞膜表面带有不同抗原,进而形成四种血型表型。根据三种等位基因关键位点的不同,采用PCR-RFLP方法扩增DNA片段并进行特异性酶切,根据酶切结果可以初步判断基因型,再通过测序的方法验证酶切结果。本实验对笔者和另一名同学进行了ABO基因型鉴定,结果显示,PCR-RFLP结果与测序结果相一致。 The substitution of several bases in ABO gene and the deletion of single base lead to the produc-tion of A, B and O alleles, which can make the erythrocyte membrane surface with different anti-gens, and thus form four blood type phenotypes. According to the differences of the key loci of the three alleles, the PCR-RFLP method was used to amplify the DNA fragments and perform specific enzyme digestion. The genotype could be preliminarily determined based on the enzyme digestion results, and then the enzyme digestion results are verified by sequencing method. In this study, ABO genotypes were identified for the first author and another student, and the results showed that the PCR-RFLP results were consistent with the sequencing results.
萍刘 志
Published: 1 January 2019
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 9, pp 96-102; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2019.92014

Abstract:
目前表观遗传学的研究正愈加受到重视,表观遗传不通过改变DNA的编码顺序也可以调控基因的表达,而DNA甲基化和组蛋白乙酰化作为表观遗传学的重要机制,更是目前表观遗传学研究的热门方向。DNA的甲基化和去甲基化,组蛋白的修饰之间是否达到平衡更是保证干细胞向成骨细胞正常分化的关键。基因表达时序性被打破不仅会影响到成骨分化,更与骨科类疾病,如骨质疏松有密切的联系。本文主要综述了近年来DNA甲基化、组蛋白乙酰化和miRNA对成骨细胞分化的调控作用及其与骨质疏松关系的最新研究进展。 At present, epigenetics is getting more and more attention. Epigenetics can also regulate gene expression without changing the coding sequence of DNA, and DNA methylation and histone acetylation, as important mechanisms of epigenetics, are the hot research directions of epigenetics. The balance between DNA methylation, demethylation and histone modification is the key to ensure the normal differentiation of stem cells into osteoblasts. The disruption of gene expression timing not only affects osteogenic differentiation, but also is closely related to orthopedic diseases, such as osteoporosis. In this paper, the recent advances in DNA methylation, histone acetylation and miRNA regulation of osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation and their relationship with osteoporosis were reviewed.
超乔 翰
Published: 1 January 2019
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 9, pp 63-69; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2019.92010

Abstract:
热休克蛋白广泛存在于各种生物体内,当生物体受到外界环境刺激后会大量表达,帮助生物体维持细胞的稳态。近期研究表明,热休克蛋白在伤口愈合过程中有促进细胞迁移的功能,通过向动物注射热休克蛋白能加速伤口的愈合过程,并且在高血糖环境下不受到阻碍。本综述通过查阅近年来相关资料,将热休克蛋白与传统的生长因子做了对比,描述了热休克蛋白90的功能和信号通路,总结了热休克蛋白在治疗伤口愈合过程中的优势和面临的困境。为将来研究伤口愈合的新药提供思路。 Heat shock proteins are widely present in various organisms. When organisms are stimulated by the external environment, they are expressed in large amounts, helping the organisms maintain the homeostasis of the cells. Recent studies have shown that heat shock proteins have a function of promoting cell migration during wound healing. By injecting heat shock proteins into animals, the healing process of wounds can be accelerated and unobstructed in a hyperglycemic environment. This review compares heat shock proteins with traditional growth factors, describes the function and signaling pathways of heat shock protein 90, and summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of heat shock proteins in the treatment of wound healing, providing ideas for future research on new drugs for wound healing.
赵 珂
Published: 1 January 2019
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 9, pp 103-106; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2019.92015

Abstract:
目的:评价补肾调轴方改善IVF-ET反复种植失败者子宫免疫微环境的临床疗效。方法:将47例反复种植失败的患者作为研究对象,予补肾调轴方颗粒进行治疗,检测子宫内膜IDO的表达。结果:治疗后IDO的表达较治疗前提高,差异有统计学意义。结论:中药补肾调轴方能上调子宫内膜IDO的表达,促进胚胎免疫耐受,有助于胚胎的着床成功。 Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of uterine immune microenvironment of Bushen Tiaozhou Recipe in IVF-ET repeated implant. Methods: 47 cases which failed implanting repeatedly were as the research objectives, and given Bushen Tiaozhou treatment; the expression of IDO was then tested. Results: The expression of IDO was higher after treatment. The difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: The traditional Chinese medicine recipe Bushen Tiaozhou can increase the expression of IDO. Besides, it can promote the embryo immune tolerance and help the embryo implantation success.
肖 苗
Published: 1 January 2019
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 9, pp 1-9; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2019.91001

Abstract:
针对心音信号的非平稳特性和易被噪声干扰的特点,本文提出一种基于自适应噪声的完备经验模态分解(CEEMDAN)与IMF样本熵结合的特征提取方法。将信号进行CEEMDAN自适应分解为若干个IMF分量,并计算各阶IMF分量的样本熵作为特征向量。在此基础上提出一种基于因子分解机(Factorization Machines, FM)的推荐模型,能更好的处理稀疏大数据的缺点,较好的解决了样本熵的稀疏性。为了验证该模型的优劣,进行了AUC曲线分析。通过对600例先心病病例心音和600例正常心音实验数据分析,证明该方法能够改善信号特征提取的效果,对先心病心音类型上的判断表现出较高的识别率。 Due to the nonstationary characteristics of heart sound signal which was often disturbed by noise, a feature extraction method based on complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition with adaptive noise (CEEMDAN) with IMF sample entropy was proposed in this work. The heart sound signals were adaptively decomposed into several IMF components by using CEEDDAN, and the sample entropy of each order IMF component was calculated as the feature vector. A recommendation model based on Factorization Machines (FM) was proposed, which can deal with the disadvantages of sparse big data and solve the sparsity of sample entropy better. In order to verify the pros and cons of the model, AUC curve analysis was performed. 600 heart sounds of congenital heart disease and 600 normal heart sounds were analyzed. It is proved that the method can improve the signal feature extraction and show a higher recognition rate for the heart sound of congenital heart disease.
情邹 治
Published: 1 January 2019
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 9, pp 154-161; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2019.94023

Abstract:
目的:比较4种方法,包括煮沸法、改良碱裂解法、磁珠法和吸附柱法提取金黄色葡萄球菌基因DNA效果,为临床金黄色葡萄球菌感染的快速检测提供技术支撑。方法:选取20株临床分离耐甲氧西林的金黄色葡萄球菌,分别使用煮沸法、改良碱裂解法、磁珠法和吸附柱法提取基因DNA。通过PCR法扩增所提取DNA模板中金黄色葡萄球菌spa基因、mecA基因和femB基因,以评估4种方法提取效果。结果:磁珠法制备的模板中,PCR法可以扩增出所有标本的spa基因、mecA基因和femB基因;吸附柱法制备的模板中,所有标本均可扩增出spa基因和mecA基因,而仅19个标本扩增出femB基因;以改良手工碱裂解法制备的模板,所有标本均可扩增出mecA基因,19标本可以扩增出spa基因和femB基因;煮沸法制备的模板中,PCR法可以分别扩增出7个标本的spa基因,8个标本的mecA基因,所有标本均未扩增出femB基因。结论:改良碱裂解法、吸附柱法和磁珠法提取金黄色葡萄球菌基因组DNA均可以用于PCR扩增,直接煮沸法提取效果较差,不适合用于临床金黄色葡萄球菌基因组DNA提取;磁珠法用时最短,更适合于大量快速自动化提取。 Objective: To compare the effects of four methods, including boiling method, improved alkali cracking method, magnetic bead method and adsorption column method, for extracting the genomic DNA of S. aureus, selecting methods with better extraction quality and more suitable for automation, to provide technical support for rapid detection of clinical S. aureus infection. Methods: 20 clinical strains of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were isolated and their DNA was extracted by boiling method, improved alkali cracking method, magnetic bead method and adsorption column method. The extraction effects of spa gene, mecA gene and femB gene in S. aureus were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: In the DNA gene template extracted by magnetic bead method, all samples detected spa genes, mecA genes and femB genes; in the DNA gene template extracted by adsorption column method, all samples detected spa genes and mecA genes, while 19 samples detected femB genes; in the DNA gene template extracted by improved alkali cracking method, all samples detected spa genes, and 19 samples detected mecA genes and femB genes; in the DNA gene template extracted by boiling method, only 7 samples and 8 samples detected spa genes, mecA genes and none of the samples detected femB genes. Conclusion: The DNA gene template extracted by improved alkali cracking method, magnetic bead method and adsorption column method can be used for PCR assay, but the direct boiling method is not suitable for clinical S. aureus genomic DNA extraction. Magnetic bead method uses the shortest time, which is more suitable for a large number of rapid automatic extraction.
静康 静
Published: 1 January 2019
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 9, pp 169-176; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2019.94025

Abstract:
牛β防御素4 (BNBD4)是一种天然存在于牛肺脏肺泡巨噬细胞内的抗菌肽,本研究拟通过克隆BNBD4成熟肽片段的编码区序列,连接至真核表达载体pPIC9K构建重组质粒mBNBD4-pPIC9K,转化至毕赤酵母菌株GS115诱导表达,镍柱纯化后,经Tricine-SDS-PAGE检测和Western Blot鉴定,成功获取重组蛋白mBNBD4,为进一步研究牛防御素BNBD4的作用机制提供试验材料。 Bovine neutrophil β-defensins 4 (BNBD4) is one of the antimicrobial peptides which naturally exists in bovine pulmonary alveolar macrophages. In this study we will clone the CDs sequence of mature BNBD4 gene, and connect it to the eukaryotic expression vector pPIC9K to construct recombinant plasmid mBNBD4-pPIC9K, and purify it by Ni-sepharose after inducing expression. Finally, we can successfully obtain the recombinant protein mBNBD4 by Tricine SDS-PAGE detection and Western Blot identify, therefore to provide the experimental materials for the further study of mature BNBD4.
萍刘 志
Published: 1 January 2019
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 9, pp 107-113; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2019.93016

Abstract:
目的:近年来,标准化和单靶向疗法对骨肉瘤都没有显著效果,因此,多靶向治疗骨肉瘤是目前发展的趋势。方法:通过基因数据库寻找到骨肉瘤相关芯片GSE16088,对正常骨和骨肉瘤芯片中基因的差异表达进行分析,并构建交互网络,最后基于其相互作用性强的基因进行骨肉瘤信号通路机制分析并找出多个靶点。结果:通过对骨肉瘤和正常骨组织基因芯片的差异表达分析,得出其差异表达最强的是胶原(Collagen, COL)系基因,并通过构建交互网络发现其致病相关通路为COL-MMPs-RhoA-JNK通路,基于此通路,可同时进行细胞质机制重塑和药物多靶向治疗。结论:多靶向COL-MMPs-RhoA-JNK通路中的关键基因是治疗骨肉瘤的一个新思路,为临床靶向治疗骨肉瘤提供更多的切入点。 Objective: In recent years, both standardized and single targeting methods have not been effective in the treatment of osteosarcoma; therefore, multi-target therapy is the trend of development on osteosarcoma. Methods: The differentially expressed genes in normal bone and osteosarcoma microarray were analyzed and the interactive network was constructed through searching for osteosarcoma related chip GSE16088 in gene database. Finally, multiple targets were identified based on these highly interacting genes. Results: The strongest differentially expressed genes were collagen (COL) genes based on analyzing the differentially expressed genes between osteosarcoma and normal bone tissues. And the pathogenicity related pathway was COL-MMPs-RhoA-JNK pathway through the construction of interactive network. Conclusion: COL-MMPs-RhoA-JNK pathway could be used to multiple-target osteosarcoma, which provides more ideas for clinical treatment of osteosarcoma.
刘 成
Published: 1 January 2019
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 9, pp 121-127; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2019.93018

Abstract:
心率是脉搏波的最基本信息,是人体健康的一项重要生理指标。传统的心率检测多与人体有直接接触,而长时间的接触会造成被试者的不适,因而不适合长时间的心率测量。因此本文提出了利用摄像头实现非接触式对被测者的光电容积脉搏波(RPPG: remote Photo Plethysmography)的提取和分析的方法。即基于人脸识别技术,实现从摄像头中自动分割被测试者的面部信息,选取感兴趣区域(ROI: Region of Interest),使用计算机视觉技术和独立成分分析算法(ICA: Independent Component Analysis),从摄像头视频中提取被测者的光电容积脉搏波信号。本文设计实现了非接触式测量心率,提供了一种较为准确的心率测量方法。 Heart rate is the most basic information of pulse wave and an important physiological index of human health. Traditional heart rate measurement is mostly in direct contact with the human body, and prolonged contact will cause discomfort to the subjects, so it is not suitable for long-term heart rate measurement. Therefore, this paper proposes a method for the extraction and analysis of non-contact Remote Photo Plethysmography (RPPG) of the subject using the camera. That is, based on face recognition technology, the facial information of the testee can be automatically segmented from the camera, and Region of Interest (ROI) can be selected. In this paper, computer vision technology and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) are used to extract the photoelectric volume pulse wave signal of the subject from the camera video. The design realizes the non-contact heart rate measurement and provides a more accurate heart rate measurement method.
熊 丽
Published: 1 January 2019
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 9, pp 10-16; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2019.91002

Abstract:
目前先心病的初诊主要依靠心脏听诊,对心音信号进行分析研究有助于先心病初诊阶段的辅助诊断。本文首先对从临床采集的正常心音信号和先心病心音信号进行去噪预处理,之后提取心音信号的小波倒谱系数(WCC)作为特征,采用概率神经网络(PNN)作为分类器,用154例正常心音和105例先心病心音对分类器进行训练,用66例正常心音和45例先心病心音进行了测试。实验结果为:对正常心音的正确识别率为91%,对异常心音的正确识别率为86.7%,平均识别率89.2%。 At present, the initial diagnosis of congenital heart disease mainly relies on cardiac auscultation. The analysis and study of the heart sound signal is helpful to the auxiliary diagnosis of congenital heart disease (CHD) at the initial stage. Firstly, the normal heart sounds and CHD heart sounds were denoised and pretreated. Then the wavelet cepstrum coefficients (WCC) of heart sounds were extracted as features. The probability neural network (PNN) was used as classifier. The classifier was trained with 154 cases of normal heart sound and 105 cases of CHD heart sound. It was tested by using 66 cases of normal heart sound signal and 45 cases of CHD heart sound. The experiment results show that the correct recognition rate of normal and abnormal heart sounds is 91% and 86.7% respectively, and average identification rate is 89.2%.
翔林 鑫
Published: 1 January 2019
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 9, pp 49-56; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2019.92008

Abstract:
脑动脉中的栓子有可能阻塞脑血管而引起缺血性脑卒中等疾病,因此脑血栓检测具有重要的临床意义。传统的脑血栓检测依赖于专家的主观判断,并且耗时长。为了克服这些缺点,本文提出了一种基于双树复小波变换(DTCWT)的快速、准确和健壮的脑血栓检测方法。双树复小波变换相对普通离散小波变换,增强了从多普勒超声信号中提取的系数的鲁棒性。对于本文提出的检测方法,采用栓塞和人工伪像信号进行实验论证,首先对不同样本的正向血流信号使用DTCWT分别提取其血流系数,然后对每组系数进行降维,并将降维后的系数逐一馈送进分类器。将所得结果与基于FFT和DWT的脑血栓检测方法进行比对,结果表明使用DTCWT提取的特征具有最高的准确性和栓塞检测率。 The embolus in the cerebral arteries may block the cerebral blood vessels and cause ischemic stroke. Therefore, cerebral thrombosis detection has important clinical significance. Traditional cerebral thrombosis testing relies on subjective judgment by experts and is time consuming. In order to overcome these shortcomings, this paper proposes a fast, accurate and robust method for detecting cerebral thrombosis based on dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DTCWT). The dual-tree complex wavelet transform is more robust than the ordinary discrete wavelet transform, which enhances the coefficients extracted from the Doppler ultrasound signal. For the detection method proposed in this paper, embolization and artificial artifact signals are used for experimental demonstration. Firstly, the blood flow coefficients of the forward blood flow signals of different samples are extracted by DTCWT, then the dimensionality of each set of coefficients is reduced and the dimension is reduced. The subsequent coefficients are fed into the classifier one by one. Comparing the results with the FFT and DWT-based cerebral thrombus detection system, the results showed that the features extracted using DTCWT had the highest accuracy and embolization rate.
诉吴 诉
Published: 1 January 2019
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 9, pp 43-48; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2019.92007

Abstract:
人体肝脏具有多种免疫学功能。它独特的解剖学特点以及肝脏内多种参与免疫反应的细胞使它成为人体免疫系统的哨兵。了解肝脏发挥免疫功能的分子机制对于肝脏相关疾病发病机制的阐释及寻找有效的药物治疗靶点都有十分重要的意义。本文综述了肝脏的解剖学结构以及肝细胞、Kupffer细胞、肝血窦内皮细胞、树突状细胞、肝星状细胞以及胆管细胞通过表达特定分子来介导免疫反应的过程。 Human liver possesses many immunological functions. Its unique anatomical characteristics and multiple cells within liver which were involved in immunoreaction make it the sentinel of the human immune system. Understanding the molecular mechanism of liver immune function is of great significance to elucidate the pathogenesis of liver-related diseases and to find effective drug treatment targets. Here, we review the anatomy of the liver and the immunoreaction processes of multiple cells within liver through expressing specific molecules.
武 康
Published: 1 January 2019
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 9, pp 81-88; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2019.92012

Abstract:
藻蓝蛋白的提取纯化有利于其作为药品和荧光试剂的研究和推广应用。本文以巢湖蓝藻为原料,利用柱色谱法纯化藻蓝蛋白,开展单因素实验优化柱色谱的运行条件,并使用紫外–可见吸收光谱与红外吸收光谱分析整个纯化工艺的机理。研究表明,CellufineA-500纯化藻蓝蛋白实验的最适单因素条件分别为pH 7.0、离子强度0.25 mol/L、洗脱速度5 mL/min、进样浓度1 mg/mL。紫外–可见吸收光谱表明一步盐析工艺去除了少量杂蛋白,二步盐析去除了大量核酸和杂蛋白,柱色谱工艺进一步去除杂蛋白,得到试剂级藻蓝蛋白。红外吸收光谱表明整体工艺去除的杂蛋白二级结构以β-折叠为主,硫酸铵等添加物会被有效去除。 The extraction and purification of phycocyanin is beneficial to its research and popularization as a drug and fluorescent reagent. In this paper, the phycocyanin was purified by column chromatography using cyanobacteria from Chaohu Lake. The single-factor experiment was carried out to optimize the operating conditions of column chromatography. The mechanism of the whole purification process was analyzed by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and infrared absorption spectroscopy. Studies have shown that the optimum single factor conditions for Cellufine A-500 purified phycocyanin experiments are pH 7.0, ionic strength 0.25 mol/L, elution rate 5 mL/min, and injection concentration 1 mg/mL. Ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy showed that a small amount of heteroprotein was removed by one-step salting-out process, a large amount of nucleic acid and heteroprotein were removed by two-step salting-out, and the heterologous protein was further removed by column chromatography to obtain reagent-grade phycocyanin. The infrared absorption spectrum indicated that the secondary structure of the hetero protein removed by the whole process was mainly β-sheet, and the additives such as ammonium sulfate were effectively removed.
李 敬
Published: 1 January 2019
Hans Journal of Biomedicine, Volume 9, pp 30-33; doi:10.12677/hjbm.2019.91005

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