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R Sandhya, Satya Swapnika, Sandhya R, Swapnika Satya
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00023.8

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, Akshatha M. Dharmesh, R. Jayaram
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00057.3

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Preeti A. Patil, , Bhimrao S. Kamble, Rachana R. Tiwari
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00031.7

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Tania Ayad Baban, Fady Kamal Sammouh, Haitham Muhidine El Ballouz, Elias Lutfalla Warrak
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00037.8

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, Brij Mohan Rao, Praveen Kumar, Akash Srivastva
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00059.7

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RamanDeep Kaur, Sachin Walia, Harsimran Singh, Navreet Kaur, Kaur Ramandeep, Walia Sachin, Singh Harsimran, Kaur Navreet
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00038.x

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Anil Kumar, Kumar Anil
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00020.2

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Suresh V Naga, R Radhika
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00039.1

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, Srinivas Siddegowda, Prathibha Shiveshi
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00024.x

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, Lokesh Kumar Singh, Alka Gupta, Bhaskar Dutt
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00053.6

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Kalpana Badami Nagaraj, Roopashree Kamisetty
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00025.1

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Shazia Qayum, Dinesh Gupta, Shagufta Rather, Ravi Bamotra, Qayum Shazia, Gupta Dinesh, Rather Shagufta, Bamotra Ravi
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00026.3

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, Akash Srivastava, Deepti Yadav
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00058.5

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Chetan P. Saoji, , Preeti A. Patil, Bhimrao S. Kamble
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00054.8

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Meenu Babber, , Sushil Ojha, Anupama Tandon, Reena Sharma
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00043.3

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, Akshatha M. Dharmesh, R. Jayaram, Nidhi Pandey
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00032.9

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, B.M. Rao, Monika Bareja, Ajeet Pandey
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00027.5

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Shrikant Deshpande, , Swetha Narayanam, Nitesh Bhalla
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00041.x

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Gursatinder Singh, Navneet Kaur, Ankush Bhagat, Anita K. Gupta
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00021.4

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Srinivas Siddegowda, , Manjula Thambuswamy Ramamurthy, Prathibha Shiveshi
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00051.2

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Sundip Shenoy, Reagan Madan, Shenoy Sundip, Madan Reagan
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00055.x

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, Bhaskar Dutt, Lilaraj Puri
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00030.5

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, Manjunath Patil, Shubashree Page
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00034.2

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Kavitha Chikkanayakanahalli Venugopal, Pavana Acharya, , Sudeep Navule Siddappa, Tintu Susan Joy, Sahana Raviraj Manipur
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00049.4

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Gnanaselvan Joseph, Raja Rengaraj
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00046.9

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Sumeet Deshpande, Sunita S Deshpande, Rajashree Reddy, Vishwanath Reddy
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00044.5

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R Radhika, V Naga Suresh
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00040.8

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Sandhya Ramachandra,
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00048.2

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, Nikhil Dixti, Neeti Garg, Rohini Godara
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00056.1

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, Pravenya Praveen Kemidi
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00050.0

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Shanti Pandey, Vivekanand Satyawali, Pankaj Kumar, Nishith Panwar, Pandey Shanti, Satyawali Vivekanand, Kumar Pankaj, Panwar Nishith
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00035.4

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, Arun Kumar Singh, Vanlalhruaii Hauhner, Mimansaa Agasti
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00042.1

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, S Manish, R. Ravikumar, Syed Asghar Hussain
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00052.4

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S Shashidhar, Apoorva Mithrananda, Rita Mary Tomy
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00045.7

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, C.P Mishra, R.G Singh, , P.N. Tiwari, Rajendra P. Maurya
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00022.6

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Nishith Panwar, Vimlesh Sharma, G.S. Titiyal, Panwar Nishith, Sharma Vimlesh, Titiyal G.S.
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00028.7

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, Ananth Bhandary, Pradeep Thanuja G., Bhandary Ananth
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00033.0

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Girish Dutt Chaturvedi, Ritu Chaturvedi, Chaturvedi Girish Dutt, Chaturvedi Ritu
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00002.0

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Background Diabetes is considered as a risk factor for glaucoma as they both shares the common pathogenesis. Aims and objective The present study was done to find out the prevalence of glaucoma in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Materials and Methods The present hospital based prospective study included 100 patients of type 2 diabetes, between July 2014 to August 2015, presenting to the outpatient department of Department of Medicine and Ophthalmology, G R Medical College, Gwalior (MP). Diagnosis of glaucoma was done as per raised intra ocular pressure (IOP) and gonioscopy. Patients were classified into primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), primary angle closure suspects (PACS), primary angle closure (PAC), primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG), ocular hypertension (OHT), normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) and secondary glaucoma. Results Mean age in present study was 57.39±9.08 years. Mean duration of diabetes was 6.26±3.91 years. Prevalence of glaucoma was 15%. Most of the patients (80%) were having IOP between16-20 mmHg. 96% of the patients belong to Grade 4 (96%) as per Gonioscopic Shaffer's grading system. Conclusion Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are at high risk of developing glaucoma. Top
Manjunath Patil, Reshma Mehta, Ira Dhamdhere, , Mehta Reshma, Dhamdhere Ira
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00019.6

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Introduction Poor performance in schooling due to refractive error is a major public health concern specially in rural areas of developing countries like India and globally, refractive error being the most common cause of visual impairment following cataract. Materials and Methods This study is a cross sectional study conducted to determine the prevalence of refractive errors in school going children in the rural setup of Kumbhari. Two schools were randomly selected from the 5 schools in the area. 400 students from these schools were selected by stratified random sampling for proportionate representation from each category, that is, the class the pupil studies in and sex. Results Mean age was found to be 11.13 years, 50.5% were females while 197 (49.5%) were males. It was observed that most of the students (68.5%) belonged to middle class (class III) and 20% to lower middle class (class IV). 73% had normal vision (6/6) in their right eye while 65.5% had normal vision (6/6) in their left eye. Considering visual acuity of less than 6/6, in the right eye, most of the students presented with visual acuity 6/9 (16.8%), followed by 6/12(3.2%) and 6/6 partial(3%). Similarly in the left eye, most of the students presented with visual acuity 6/9 (24.2%), followed by 6/6 partial (3.8%) and 6/12(3%). Conclusions Our study proves need for timely screening of school children, and creating awareness among the parents as well as the teachers as they are in close association with the students and are aware of their activities & change in learning skills. Top
Navneet Kaur, Gursatinder Singh, Ardaman Singh, Rajinder Singh, Shray Dogra, Kaur Navneet, Singh Gursatinder, Singh Ardaman, Singh Rajinder, Dogra Shray
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00015.9

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Objectives In this study, intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) was compared with posterior subtenon injection of TA for treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME). Materials and Methods In this prospective, open, randomized, parallel group, comparative study, 60 patients of diabetic macular oedema visiting the Department of Ophthalmology, Govt. Medical College, Patiala were included. The patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria and having none of the exclusion criteria were enrolled in the study after obtaining written informed consent. Patients were then randomized into two groups (group I, II) and received intravitreal and posterior subtenon injection of triamcinolone acetonide, respectively. The comparison was based on change in best corrected visual acuity and macular thickness using optical coherence tomography (OCT). The results were subjected to statistical analysis and observations thus made in both groups were compared. Results With intravitreal TA, the mean pre-treatment CMT, mean post-treatment CMT and mean reduction in CMT were 395.53 ± 15.31 μm, 221.2 ± 10.71 μm and 174.33 μm (44.08%) while the mean pre-treatment VA, mean post-treatment VA and mean improvement in VA were 0.79 ± 0.16, 0.51 ± 0.15 and 0.28 (36.11%) logMAR units. With posterior subtenon TA, the mean pretreatment CMT, mean post-treatment CMT and mean reduction in CMT were 394.43 ± 15.03 μm, 247.3 ± 11.82 μm and 147.13 μm (37.3%) while the mean pre-treatment VA, mean post-treatment VA and mean improvement in VA were 0.81 ± 0.15, 0.58 ±0.14 and 0.23 (28.24%) logMAR units. The mean pre-treatment IOP, mean post-treatment IOP and mean rise in IOP with intravitreal TA were 16.67 ± 1.92 mm Hg, 18.87 ± 1.81 mm Hg and 2.2 mm Hg (13.19%), whereas with posterior subtenon TA were 16.87 ± 1.85 mm Hg, 17.4 ± 1.59 mm Hg and 0.53 (3.14%). Conclusions When used in diabetic macular edema, intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide is more effective than posterior subtenon triamcinolone acetonide in reducing the central macular thickness, although it produces a greater rise in IOP than PST. Top
Sahil Bhandari, Manas Nath, Prasanth Gireesh, , Nath Manas, Gireesh Prasanth
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00007.x

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Background Capsulorhexis in intumescent mature cataract has high chance of peripheral extension. This paper aims at describing a modified “C-rhexis technique”, with the unique mechanism of “simultaneously acting unidirectional vector forces” for virtually eliminating the risk of peripheral extension. Methods Retrospective analyses of patients who were diagnosed to have intumescent mature cataract and underwent surgical intervention by a single surgeon using the modified “C-rhexis technique” were included. Results A total of 125 eyes were included. None of the eyes experienced any capsular tag or peripheral extension of rhexis. Conclusion In the nutshell, the “C-rhexis” virtually eliminates the risk of peripheral extension of capsulorhexis due to its unique “simultaneously acting unidirectional vector forces”. It can be easily mastered, creates an adequate size rhexis in first attempt, does not require expensive instruments and can be advocated in both MSICS and phacoemulsification. Top
Kamya Sharma, Rajendra P Maurya, Mahendra K Singh, Virendra P Singh, Prashant Bhushan, Laxmi Dorenavar, Sharma Kamya, Maurya Rajendra P, Singh Mahendra K, Bhushan Prashant, et al.
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00016.0

Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00011.1

Abstract:
Aim To compare the effect of clear corneal incision and sclera tunnel incision on central corneal thickness in eyes undergoing phacoemulsification. Setting Department of ophthalmology, Government Medical College Haldwani, Nainital, Uttarakhand. Materials and Methods This prospective study included 68 eyes with senile cataract from grade 1 to 3 which underwent phacoemulsification during May 2015 to October 2015 through clear corneal incision or through sclera tunnel incision. Patients were randomly assigned in group 1 with clear corneal incision and group 2 with sclera tunnel incision. All the surgeries were performed by single surgeon using same technique. Postoperatively central corneal thickness were measured with optical non-contact biometry in both the groups on 2nd post-op day, at 1–2 weeks, 6–8 weeks and at 3 months and compared. Results Mean increase in CCT on 2nd postoperative day was 82μm and 62 μm in Group I and Group II respectively. At 2 weeks it was 51 μm and 23 μm, at 6 weeks it was 30 u μm and 5 μm, at 3 months 4 μm and 5 μm more than the baseline values. Conclusion This study revealed that increased CCT as caused by corneal oedema occurring in immediate postoperative period was more in Group I as compared to Group II. The values returned to normal range in 3 months and 2 months in Group I and Group II respectively. Top
, Somesh Vedprakash Aggarwal, Sonali Satish Shah, Puja Shubham Negi
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00003.2

Abstract:
Background 26 million people were estimated to be affected by diabetes in 2010 across the globe. Diabetic macular edema (DME) is the most important cause of visual impairment due to diabetic retinopathy. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive modality which produces cross-sectional or three-dimensional, high-resolution images of the retinal layers and quantitative assessment of retinal thickness Aim of study was to study the incidence of different patterns of diabetic macular edema on Optical coherence tomography (OCT), to decide treatment & follow-up protocol. Material & Methods 200 eyes of 167 patients attending the M & J Institute of Ophthalmology and having diabetic macular edema were enrolled in this study. Base line examination like best corrected visual acuity, anterior segment examination, indirect ophthalmoscopy, slit lamp biomicroscopy, OCT and fundus fluorescein angiography were done in all patients. The patients will be classified according to type of macular edema on OCT. Follow up visits will be scheduled one week, one month post procedure and every two monthly thereafter. Results In this non-randomized, prospective study, 200 eyes of 167 patients with diabetic macular edema were enrolled. Out of 167 patients 33 (19.7%) patients were having DME in both eyes. Single type of edema was present in 122 (61%) eyes, combination of two types of edema in 56 (28%) eyes & combination of three types of edema in 22 (11%) eyes. Grid laser treatment was given in 72 (36%) eyes. Intravitreal triamcinolone injection was given in 110 (55%) eyes. Parsplana vitrectomy was done in 18 (9%) eyes. Discussion Diabetic macular edema is the most important cause of visual impairment in patients with diabetes. OCT is a noninvasive and reproducible tool for obtaining high resolution, cross-sectional images of the retina. In our study spongy edema was most common type found (36%), followed by cystoid edema (14%), serous detachment (7%) & vitreomacular traction in 2%. OCT provides a better anatomical description of CSME for deciding treatment protocols. Conclusion Identifying the structural changes in eyes with DME using OCT may allow more effective management of these patients. Top
, Preeti A. Patil, , Sonam S. Rathod, Chetan M. Sawat
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00009.3

Abstract:
Background Dacryocystitis is an infection and inflammation of the lacrimal sac and most common cause of ocular morbidity in India. It's accounting for 87.1% of epiphora and causes social discomfort due to continuous watering from the eyes. It is more common in Whites than in Negros and more common in India as being tropical country. It has higher incidence among lower socioeconomic status. Objective To find out occurrence of Dacryocystitis in patients belonging to various socio-economic groups and to correlate Dacryocystitis with socioeconomical status. Material & Methods The present study is a cross-sectional hospital based study which performed during the months of June and September, 2014 in the department of Ophthalmology of ACPM Medical College, Dhule, and Maharashtra, India. Results Maximum number of cases of chronic Dacryocystitis belongs to the seventh decade of life. Chronic Dacryocystitis affected females predominantly. Chronic Dacryocystitis were observed in majority of patients belongs to class V & III socioeconomic status of modified B.G. Prasad Classification, and observed more in wage traders followed by farmers. Conclusion Most of the people consider watering from eyes as minor discomfort and avoid themselves from presenting to ophthalmologist as they are unaware of the deleterious complication. So the present study was taken up in Dhule district to create awareness of morbid condition. It's early diagnosis and treatment is always warranted to avoid complication and need for surgical intervention. Top
Kunal De Kanti, Dan Amitabha, Ar Pasi, M Jalaluddeen, Bibhash Roy, De Kanti Kunal, Amitabha Dan, Pasi Ar, Jalaluddeen M, Roy Bibhash
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00018.4

Abstract:
Background Blindness is a major public health problem. Major causes of blindness are cataract (62.6%), refractive error (19.7%), glaucoma (5.8%) and corneal pathologies (0.9%). National Programme for Control of Blindness (NPCB) is a centrally sponsored programme with goal to reduce the prevalence of blindness from 1.4% to 0.3% by 2020. Objective Present study was conducted to describe the epidemiology of cataract surgeries done in Hooghly district and to identify the strengths and gaps. Materials and Methods A secondary analysis was done on NPCB data on cataract surgery. Data was collected from all 5 governmental hospitals, NGOs and private hospitals of Hooghly district. Data from year 2006–07 to 201011 was collected and compared. Results During the study period there were 2860 registered blinds in Hooghly district, so the blindness prevalence rate was 0.06 percent. The target of cataract surgery was 23000 and achievement was 23951(104.1%). Out of total 23951 cataract surgeries done, more than 50% were from NGO sector followed by Private and Government sector. More than 99% surgeries were done with IOL. Conclusions and Recommendations As per the strategy of NPCB, role of NGOs and private sectors are increasing gradually. Intense IEC activities are necessary to increase public awareness. Top
, Reddy Shivaprasad
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-1451.2016.00001.9

Abstract:
Background Biometric studies of the ocular dimensions in eyes with narrow anterior chamber angles provide insight into the pathophysiology of pupillary block and may show which eyes are more prone to develop angle closure glaucoma. Aim of this study was to compare ocular biometric values in eyes of patients with primary angle closure suspect, primary angle closure glaucoma and normal subjects. Methods and Materials In this hospital based observational study, 40 cases of primary angle closure suspect and 40 cases of primary angle closure glaucoma and 40 normal subjects were included. The study subjects satisfying inclusion criteria, were underwent for ultrasonic A scan biometry, Keratometric readings (K1, K2), axial length (AXL), anterior chamber depth (ACD) and lens thickness (LT) measurement. Lens/axial length factor (LAF) as the lens thickness to axial length ratio multiplied by 10 was calculated. Relative lens position (RLP) as the relative position of the centre of the lens determined by adding the anterior chamber depth to half the lens thickness and then dividing the sum by axial length and multiplied by 10 was calculated. Statistical Analysis Used One way analyses of variance (ANOVA) and Chi square test were used. P value of less than 0.05 was accepted as indicating statistical significance. Data analysis was carried out using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS, V 10.5). Results Mean values of K1 were 44.74D, 43.99D, 43.99D and mean values of K2 were 45.01D, 44.04D, 44.42D among PACG, primary angle closure suspect and Normal group respectively. Mean values of AXL were 22.39mm, 23.07mm and 23.16mm among PACG, primary angle closure suspect and Normal group respectively. Mean values of ACD were 2.42mm, 2.74mm and 3.19mm among PACG, primary angle closure suspect and Normal group respectively. Mean values of LT were 4.77mm, 4.32mm and 3.96mm among PACG, primary angle closure suspect and Normal group respectively. Mean values of LAF were 2.13, 1.88 and 1.71among PACG, primary angle closure suspect and Normal group respectively. Mean values of RLP were 2.14, 2.12 and 2.23 among PACG, primary angle closure suspect and Normal group respectively. Conclusions Our findings regarding AXL, ACD, LT, LAF and RLP show a significant progressive shift in biometric characteristics from normal eyes to eyes with primary angle closure suspect and then to eyes with PACG. Top
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