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Results in Journal Journal of Geoscience, Engineering, Environment, and Technology: 147

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Danni Gathot Harbowo, Stiva Alouw, Theresia Gerungan Soetamanggala, Azalia Gerungan
Journal of Geoscience, Engineering, Environment, and Technology, Volume 2; doi:10.24273/jgeet.2017.2.2.300

Abstract:
Stiva Cave is an underwater cave (15,3 m below recent sea level), which located in Nusa Penida, Bali, Indonesia. Nusa Penida is a Karst landscape island in southern Bali Island. No many underwater caves are known and explored in this area, Stiva Cave is a first underwater cave which explored and discovered in Nusa Penida area. In this cave we found a number of fossils that we identified as vertebrate fossil and unique process that very potential for geotourism, especially for fun diving tourism. We mapped entire cave tunnel and measure a safety and risk for scuba diving, then we identified the fossil. At the result, there a several risk that need to be aware and several safety procedures that must be allow for observer. In other way, we found many similar fossils that and it spread in different tunnel that very potential for education in geotourism. We suggest that this cave is a shelter for hominid species when Last Glacial Maximum happens, before 21.000 years ago
Puji Adiatna Nadi, Abdulkader Murad
Journal of Geoscience, Engineering, Environment, and Technology, Volume 2; doi:10.24273/jgeet.2017.2.2.345

Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to show how Geographical Information Systems (GIS) used to measure the performance of Urban Transport Sustainability. The first, this paper discusses about understanding about transport performance and how to measure it. The second, explore about sustainability in urban transport. The third, defines GIS and its possible uses in the sustainable urban transport performance. The relevant GIS functions have also been explained. The GIS models are explored to assist urban transport planner to measure sustainability in urban transport.
Arifudin Idrus
Journal of Geoscience, Engineering, Environment, and Technology, Volume 3, pp 30-38; doi:10.24273/jgeet.2018.3.01.1022

Abstract:
Porphyry copper-gold deposit commonly exhibits an extensive alteration zone of hydrothermal micas particularly biotite and sericite. This study is aimed to analyze and utilize the chemistry of halogen fluorine and chlorine of biotite and sericite to be a possible tool in vectoring to ore for copper porphyry deposits. To achieve the objectives, several selected altered rock samples were taken crossing the Batu Hijau copper-gold mine from inner to outer of the deposit, and hydrothermal micas contained by the rocks were analyzed petrographically and chemically. Mineral chemistry was detected by electron microprobe analyzer, whilst biotite is petrographically classified as either magmatic or hydrothermal types. Sericite replacing plagioclase occurred as fine-grained mineral and predominantly associated with argillic-related alteration types. Biotites in the Batu Hijau deposit are classified as phlogopite with a relatively low mole fraction magnesium (XMg) (~0.75) compared to the “typical” copper porphyry deposit (~0.82). The relationship between the XMg and halogen contents are generally consistent with “Fe-F and Mg-Cl avoidance rules”. F content in biotite and sericite decrease systematically from inner part of the deposit which is represented by early biotite (potassic) zone where the main copper-gold hosted, to the outer part of the deposit. However, chlorine in both biotite and sericite from each of the alteration zones shows a relative similar concentration, which suggests that it is not suitable to be used in identification of the alteration zones associated with strong copper-gold mineralization. H2O content of the biotite and sericite also exhibits a systematic increase outward which may also provide a possible geochemical vector to ore for the copper porphyry deposits. This is well correlated with fluorine content of biotite in rocks and bulk concentration of copper from the corresponding rocks.
Husnul Kausarian, Batara Batara, Dewandra Bagus Eka Putra
Journal of Geoscience, Engineering, Environment, and Technology, Volume 3, pp 39-46; doi:10.24273/jgeet.2018.3.01.1221

Abstract:
A strategic city located on the northern coast of Sumatera Island known as Dumai City. This city is a growth and industrial city that always increase everyday economically. This city faces the flood problem that not only from the excess water from the rain, but also from the phenomena of seawater tidal. The tidal should not reach the mainland for the ideal situation, but the urbanization and development problem made it happen. Field observation and satellite data analysis shows the problem that happened in this city, also find out the solution how to make the seawater tidal will not being the flood when it occurs. The flood caused by the inadequate drainage condition is exacerbated by the low awareness of people who still do not maintain cleanliness, a lot of garbage that accumulates in the drainage causing the process of water flow to be inhibited. Geologically, the base rock of Dumai City consists of sand and peat which logically is a good system to absorb water because sand and peat are materials that have high porosity. Topographically, the city of Dumai is at an average height of three meters above sea level, so in fact, this city could be spared from the flood caused by the tide when it occurs. The solutions that can be proposed for this city are making the rivers being clean with normalization, well-designed drainage, Watergate and making an artificial lake for sinking the tidal seawater.
Harindar Devavath, Shankar S
Journal of Geoscience, Engineering, Environment, and Technology, Volume 3, pp 1-7; doi:10.24273/jgeet.2018.3.01.882

Abstract:
The construction and maintenance of pavement over the weak subgrade soil become the challenging task to the pavement engineering. One of the major reasons of subgrade failure of pavement is weak subgrade. The weak subgrade soil noticed a Black Cotton (BC) soil. The BC soil subgrade poses several serious problems to the pavement such as rutting, fatigue, reflecting crack and undulation of the pavement. To minimize this problem of pavement, there are many conventional stabilization techniques were adopted and reported. But these techniques are not applied effectively into the pavement to stabilize the weak subgrade. To address this problem, to give the additional strength to the pavement geosynthetics are taken as alternate material for stabilization of pavement. In the present study, an attempt is made in the laboratory with four types of coir mats by using the fabricated mould. The study is conducted in the form of two-layer pavement system. The pavement model layer is prepared as subgrade and sub-base with BC soil and sandy gravel soil respectively. The prepared fabricated mould is tested by using the Wheel Tracking Test (WTT) under moving traffic loading condition. This study concluded that the suitable placement position and the types of coir mats can be affect the performance of the LVRs. It’s also noticed that the suitable coir mats can effectively reduce the deformation, so that it can be used over the weak subgrade to improve the performance of the LVRs.
Catur Cahyaningsih, Anjas Latif Ritonga, Shaury Aldila, Zulhikmah Zulhikmah
Journal of Geoscience, Engineering, Environment, and Technology, Volume 3, pp 128-133; doi:10.24273/jgeet.2018.3.2.340

Abstract:
Research areas were located in the west of Kolok Nan Tuo Village. Geographically this area is located at coordinates 00 ° 36'57,85 '' - 00 ° 37'56,89 '' latitude and 100 ° 42'10,08 '' 100 ° 43'47,28 " BT. The methods used in research is geological mapping. Based on the results of stratigraphic research area is divided into three units consist of: Crystalline Limestone Unit (SBGK) consisting Crystalline Limestone of and mudstone lithofacies, Conglomerate Units (SK) consists of polymic conglomerate and sandstones greywacke lithofacies while claystone Unit (SBL) lithofacies consists of claystone with sedimentary structures is flake. Result of research can interpreted Depositional environment based on type of lithofacies include of grain size, sedimentary structures and content of fossils. SBGK interpretated depositional environment is a basement of basin, SK depositional environment debris unit limestones can be seen from fragments of conglomerates that many there are crystalline limestones and mudstone that make up the alluvial fan (deposition surface) and lithologies clay from sedimentary structures where rock mudstone generally in doposition the current flow that quiet can form sedimentary structures flake and properties of claystone which carbonated an identifier depositional environments sea so can be determined that the environment in the form of neritic environment.
Reza Rizki, Handoyo Handoyo
Journal of Geoscience, Engineering, Environment, and Technology, Volume 3, pp 103-106; doi:10.24273/jgeet.2018.3.2.1544

Abstract:
The technology of digital rock physics (DRP) allowed to predict the physical properties in core data sample, for example to predict value of porosity of data sample. This research applied the digital rock physics technique to predict the microporosity in sandstone sample: Fontanebleau Sandstone. The data are digital images from Fontanebleau Sandstone with high resolution scanned from micro tomography CT-Scan processing. The result of image processing shown in 2D and 3D image. From the data, the value of microporosity Fontanebleau Sandstone are beetwen 6% - 7%. This result confirmed by the quartz cemented sample of Fontanebleau Sandstone. The scale and sub-cube give the different value of microporosity which is indicated the scale influence to value of porosity value. So the simplest and best way is to average the all result from sub-cubes.
Mohd Akhmal Bin Muhamad Sidek, Umar Hamzah
Journal of Geoscience, Engineering, Environment, and Technology, Volume 3, pp 69-76; doi:10.24273/jgeet.2018.3.2.1413

Abstract:
The tectonic evolution of thrust fold belt and thrust sheet zone in Northwest Sabah basin was described based on balanced reconstruction of seismic sections representing Mid-Miocene to Recent deposits. The study area is located at the center of a wide crustal deformational zone bordered by the Sunda Shelf on the northeast, Sulu Sea in the southwest and the South China Sea in the northwest. Balancing cross section can be applied after the deformed geological structure geometry is accurately determined from seismic sections and 7 seismic stratigraphic unit from 15 Ma until Recent is consecutively restored. There are four steps involved in retro-deformation processes beginning with removing all faults displacements followed by unfolding the folds, isostasy correction and finally the removal of each compacted layer parts or decomposition. Wider fold wavelengths with least thrust faults were observed from south to north in the seismic sections ranging from 12 to 4 km with an average of about 7 km, while smaller fold wavelengths and more thrust faults were observed in the north based on the same seismic sections. In general, the reconstructed cross sections revealed compressional tectonic deformation activity as shown by shortening strain trending NW-SE. Measurement of total shortening shows that thrust fold belt is imbalance by an exceeds of 14.7 km and more active compared to thrust sheet zone which has only 0.9 km. Results of the study also indicate facies destruction due to shortening which is decreasing towards Pliocene or younger deposits.
Yonathan Mangatur Rajagukguk, Stevanus Nalendra Jati
Journal of Geoscience, Engineering, Environment, and Technology, Volume 3, pp 94-102; doi:10.24273/jgeet.2018.3.2.670

Abstract:
The Muaraenim Formation is a coal bearing formation in South Sumatra Basin of the Late Miocene – Pliocene. Shell (1978) divides this formation based on coal seam content are: M1, M2, M3, and M4. Coal seam in this area include in seam M2 member, with the general characteristics of the presence of silicified coal on the roof and floor of coal seams as a marker. The administration of the research area is located in east Kendi Hill, South Sumatra. The Kendi Hill is composed of adesite igneous rocks that intruded Muaraenim Formation in unconformity at the time of Pleistocene. This study aims to determine the environment of coal depositional based on maceral analysis and determine the factors influence the physical characteristics of coal seams in Kendi Hill. Data that has been obtained from the field, then conducted a selection process. The number of samples analyzed were nine sample based on near and far to the Kendi Hill spread from the southern, central, and northern of the location. The result of the analysis will display the maceral diagram. Megascopically, coal seam in the Kendi Hill are black, dull with bright, uneven – subchoncoidal, blackish brown in streak, have a pyrite and resin. The thickness of the coal seams ranges from 0,45 to 14 meters. Based on the maceral analysis, the coal seam in the Muaraenim Formation is composed dominated by vitrinite, then liptinite, inertinite and mineral matter pyrite (1,6-6,6%). Vitrinite reflectance of coal in the research area ranges from (0,37-0,48%) that included to the Sub bituminous – High Volatile Bituminous C. From the results of Tissue Preservation Index and Gelification Index value indicated that the environment of coal depositional in the research area was a limnic to wet forest swamp. Whereas the deposition of the Muaraenim Formation in deltaic environment (Transitional lower delta plain).
Jemi Saputra Ahnaf, Aton Patonah, Haryadi Permana, Ismawan Ismawan
Journal of Geoscience, Engineering, Environment, and Technology, Volume 3, pp 77-85; doi:10.24273/jgeet.2018.3.2.1554

Abstract:
The research aimed to reconstruct the geological structures and tectonics of the Bayah complex area. The structures found that grouped into regional structural patterns used to determine the ages and the events that responsible to its formation. The methods used in this research include field and studio method. Field method carried out to map the outcrops and record geological structures data using geological compass, GPS, tape measurement, and geological hammer, while studio method performed to process and analyze data using software such as Win Tensor, Dips, MapInfo Professional 10.5 and CorelDraw X4. The geological structure of the Bayah has varying patterns and ages. The fracture patterns show N-S and E-W direction which is belong to Sundanese and Java Pattern formed in range of the Early Eocene to Pliocene. While the faults that have direction of SW-NE and E-W are classified into Meratus and Java Pattern. However, metamorphic rock foliations show NW-SE and N-S direction that belonging to the Pre-Tertiary Sumatra Pattern. The three faults of this research are estimated to be formed by the effect of orogenesis that occurring in different events and ages. JSA-014 fault is predicted to form due to orogeny I or orogeny II in the Early Oligocene - Middle Miocene, this fault classified as the 2nd order right lateral wrench fault. JSA-034 fault is formed by orogeny I in Early Oligocene - Middle Miocene, this fault is also classified as the 2nd order right lateral wrench fault. While JSA-080 fault has relatively young age that formed due to orogeny III in the Middle Miocene - Pliocene and belonging to the 3rd order left lateral wrench fault.
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