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Sharen Gill, Poonam Arora
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 8, pp 31-37; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2020.81005

Background: Many formulation strategies are presently in development in pharmaceutical industry. However, the formation of pharmaceutical adducts is considered to be the most appropriate technique for improving the drug solubility and dissolution as no chemical bond changes are involved in this technique.Purpose: This technique is highly used for compounds which are not able to give viable formulation products with standard techniques such as salt formation and polymorph generation. In the present study, this method is applied to repaglinide, which is an hypoglycemic agent, with compromised solubility. Methods: The adducts were prepared by slow evaporation method and characterized using DSC, FTIR and PXRD studies. The solubility and dissolution studies were carried out to determine the increased solubility of drug in adducts. The drug amount interacted with coformers has also been determined. Results: The present study demonstrates the improvement in solubility and thus dissolution of repaglinide in adducts.Conclusion: The adducts formed in the present study can be further exploited to prepare formulation of repaglinide adducts with better physicochemical characteristics.
Shiveena Bhatia, Tarun Kumar, Sonali Batra, Sumit Sharma
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 8, pp 15-22; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2020.81003

Introduction: Ophthalmic delivery system is one of the challenging domains of formulation and development due to tear dilutions, drug loss due to lacrimal drainage, limited volume and pre-corneal barriers. Several pharmaceutical technologies are exploited in order to counter the challenges posed by ocular route such as emulsions and suspensions. But all these technologies have stability issues which lead to their limited use.Background: Among polysaccharides, xanthan gum, a natural occurring biodegradable exopolysaccharide extracted from bacterium Xanthomonas campestris is widely accepted as one of the potential polysaccharide in ophthalmic.Review Results: Xanthan gum is commonly used as an additive to various ophthalmic formulations due to its mucoadhesive property and imparting stability to various novel pharmaceutical technologies for ophthalmic. Xanthan gum also allows chemical modifications with various ligands which consequently allow controlled release, modified dissolution rate and viscoelasticity. Conclusion: In this review we are providing an insight over potential of pharmaceutical applications of xanthan gum. Also, we have discussed the scope of chemical modifications in xanthan gum with modified physicochemical properties.
Rakesh K Sindhu, Bhavika Arora, Sandeep Arora
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 8, pp 1-8; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2020.81001

Background: Plants are easily prone towards microbial infections on exposure to microorganisms and pathogens. In order to defense, plants produce low molecular weight secondary metabolites which were later known as “Phytoalexins”. These molecules have vast therapeutic potential also. Purpose: The purpose of this review is to explore the phytoalexins and their pharmacological effects.Methods: The data included from the articles were published from Web of Science, PubMed, Medline, Scopus, and Embase by using relevant keywords including plants possessing phytoalexins and their specific biological applications.Results: The review insights the potential of phytoalexins in various diseases and to explore have phytoalexins applications in human health and disease control. Conclusions: On the basis of this review we may be conclude that phytoalexins have tremendous potential in the treatment and prevention of various life-threatening diseases like diabetes mellitus, cancer, brain damage, and heart attack.
Ritchu Babbar, Swikriti, Sandeep Arora
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 8, pp 23-29; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2020.81004

Background: Benzimidazole is a category of heterocyclic aromatic compounds formed from the fusion of six membered benzene with five membered imidazolering. The moiety possesses diverse biological and clinical applications. A number of studies have shown that a varied substituent around the benzimidazole nucleus results in pharmacologically active compounds of therapeutic interest. Purpose: Owing to its number of pharmacological properties, this moiety is of choice of interest in designing and synthesis of new therapeutic compounds. The existence of the benzimidazole core in numerous groups of biological agents like antimicrobial, antiviral, antiparasitic, antihypertensive, anticancer, CNS stimulant as well as depressants has made important scaffold for development of many newer therapeutic agents. There is utmost need to understand the synthesis and associated role of benzimidazole derived compounds in different diseases. Therefore, in the present review, we attempt to discuss various derivatives of benzimidazole nucleus with different pharmacological activities. Conclusion: Benzimidazoles have played a great role in discovery of drug and development. Huge attempt has been made towards benzimidazole heterocyclic-based organic compounds with great excellence that resulted in drugs with enormous biological activity. Therapeutic drugs containing benzimidazole nucleus are used in building drugs that serve to be an active area of research. This article becomes a source that will lead to discovery of new opportunities for all researchers interested in benzimidazole-based heterocyclic medicinal chemistry.
Onkar Bedi, Amit Bandyopadhyay Banerjee, Thakur Gurjeet Singh, Sandeep Arora, Manisha Gupta
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 8, pp 39-46; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2020.81006

Background: Ranitidine (RAN) is one of the common drugs associated with idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions (IADRs) in humans. It was found to be associated with severe adverse drug reactions due to the presence of contaminants such as N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) which is claimed to be carcinogenic. As a consequence, on April 1, 2020, United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) had decided to call off all the RAN products from the market. The exact cause of RAN associated idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity is not clear yet. Purpose: To summarize and analyze the reason behind the withdrawal of RAN products from the market and whether ranitidine will be available again in future or will FDA withdraw approvals of ranitidine National Drug Authority (NDA) and an abbreviated new drug application (ANDA)? Methods: We performed a systematic PubMed/MEDLINE search of studies investigating the reason behind the withdrawal of RAN products and explored the possible mechanism associated with RAN induced hepatotoxicity.Conclusion: RAN induced liver injury is difficult to diagnose and study because of its relative rarity and unpredictive occurrence. Recent studies suggest that most of the RAN associated idiosyncratic reactions may lead to hepatocyte damage, followed by a series of events, such as activation of specific T- and B-cells, release of proinflammatory mediators like TNFα, interleukins, various cytokines and chemokines. The exact cause of RAN associated idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity is not clear yet. More studies must be carried out on this to know about the exact reason behind RAN associated hepatotoxicity.
Varinder Singh, Amit Kumar
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 8, pp 9-13; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2020.81002

Background: The study was aimed to determine the mechanism of antioxidant effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (GG) roots using in-vitro assays.Methods: The various extracts of GG roots were prepared and evaluated for DPPH scavenging, reducing effects and nitric oxide inhibiting activities. Prepared extracts were screened for the presence of various phytochemicals and quantified on the basis of phytochemical present therein.Results: The results showed that all the prepared extracts contained phenolic compounds. Also, extract showed appreciable antioxidant effects in all three assays employed. However, among prepared extracts, ethylacetate extract was found to have strong free radical inhibition, ferric reducing potential and nitric oxide inhibitory effects. The reason for high antioxidant activity in ethylacetate extract could be attributed to the significant amount phenol compounds present in it. Conclusion: Evidently, GG’s capacity to scavenge free radicals, reducing potential and inhibit nitric oxide contributes to its antioxidant effects and thus, could be a strong candidate for developing antioxidant based drug therapy.
R. K. Gupta, M. Lohani, R. Vishwakarma
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 7, pp 63-66; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2019.72008

Traditionally, Bryophyllum pinnatum is used in the management of arthritis and inflammatory diseases. However, B. pinnatum has not been analysed previously for anti-inflammatory activity. Hence, this study is designed to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of various fractions of B. pinnatum leaf extract using rat model of formalin-induced paw edema. Treatment with various fractions showed marked decrease in formalin-induced paw volume and edema in rats. The results of BPAAF treatment were comparable to standard drug, diclofenac. These results indicate that B. pinnatum could be developed as ant-inflammatory drug after further studies.
R. K. Gupta, Ravi Vishwakarma, Yashwant Giri, Varinder Singh
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 7, pp 59-61; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2019.72007

Peptic ulcer is a condition which results from an imbalance between offensive and defensive factors of gastrointestinal system. The investigation was designed to evaluate the antiulcer activity of Symplocos racemosa whole plant methanol extract (MESR) in rat model of indomethacininduced gastric ulceration. The total acidity, gastric volume, pH and free acidity were measured to determine the anti-ulcer activity of MESR. Pretreatment with MESR (125-500 mg/kg) markedly reduced the indomethacin-induced increase in gastric ulcer index and score. These results revealed that antisecretory effects MESR were responsible for antiulcer activity of MESR.
R. A. Ahirrao, B. S. Patange, S. V. More
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 7, pp 67-71; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2019.72009

Objective: Natural occurring phenolic compounds play an important role in cancer prevention and shows antimitotic activity. Number of active constituents like phenolic acid, curcuminoids, coumarine, ligans, quinones, etc. is showing antimitotic activity of Momordica dioica. The present work is on phytochemical investigation and examines antimitotic activity of aqueous extract of fruits Momordica dioica at concentration of 15 mg/ml on Allium cepa root meristamatic cells.Methods: The fruits are air dried and extracted with solvents like water by maceration method. The evaluation of antimitotic activity is done by using Allium cepa root meristamatic cells parameters where and methotrexate was used as a standard drugs. Result and discussion: In Allium assay, aqueous extract of fruits of Momordica diocia (15 mg/ml) and methotrexate act against cells of allium roots and lesser the growth of root and mitotic index when compared with distilled water as control group. The result indicated that cytotoxic property is due to presence of phenolic, alkaloids and flavonoids compounds in 15 mg/ml concentration of aqueous extract of Momordica diocia fruits extract.Conclusion: On the basis of result, we concluded that, 15 mg/ml concentration of Momordica dioica fruits shows good antimitotic activity on the Allium cepa root tip assay.
Nidhi Garg, Suman Baishnab, Rosy Das, Kiranjeet Kaur, Saurabh Gupta, Sandeep Arora
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 7, pp 73-86; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2019.72010

Breast cancer is the most common cancer across the globe occurring commonly in women population, and it is one of the main causes of mortality in women. In 2018, 1,62,468 new cases and 87,090 death cases of breast cancer were registered in India. In these recent years, lots of studies were conducted in breast cancer related to treatment and management, but in spite of getting so much advancement in the treatment of breast cancer still, the mortality rate of women is increasing day by day. Numerous factors are acting as barriers or challenges in breast cancer preventive therapy. It includes lack of knowledge regarding the treatment of cancer and patient getting insecure about treatment, fear of having side effects, cost of treatment and the efficacy of the drugs being prescribed. The study intended to determine the perceived insights and barriers to treatment of breast cancer.
Simran, Amarjot Kaur Grewal, Sandeep Arora, Thakur Gurjeet Singh
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 7, pp 87-95; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2019.72011

Diabetes is the most common and systemic disorder associated with hyperglycemia which is the significant factor in the development of micro- and macrovascular changes. Many mechanistic approaches i.e. activation of Protein kinase C, glycation end products production, hexosamine pathway and polyol pathway induce cellular damage and lead to the development of diabetic complications like nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy, and myopathy. One of the adverse effects of long-lasting hyperglycemia is activation of PKC (intracellular signaling enzyme) and has become a field of great research interest. Hence, in this review special emphasis is placed on microvascular complications which are due to activation of PKC. Clinical trials have also been conducted using selective PKC inhibitors and have shown positive results against hyperglycemia.
Harsheen Kaur, Arti Thakkar, Kalpana Nagpal
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 7, pp 1-5; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2019.71001

Development and validation of a simple UV- Spectroscopy method was done for the quantitative analysis of Ellagic Acid (EA). The stock solution of 50μg/ml was prepared and scanned, for which absorption maxima was found to be 277nm. Further dilutions to different concentrations (1-5μg/ml) were prepared and analyzed at 277nm. The method so developed was validated as per ICH guidelines for: linearity, robustness, precision, accuracy, limit of detection and quantification. The Lambert- Beer’s law is followed in the range (1-5μg/ml) with correlation coefficient value 0.9994. It was observed that the method is precise and accurate for EA analysis with good recovery percent of 94.47% to 106.83%. The method developed was further employed for determining the entrapment efficiency of ellagic acid and its release from its nanoparticle dosage form. The method may be utilized for determining the concentration of EA when present as formulation and in combination with other drugs.
Vijaykumar K. Parmar, Deepika Mohanta, Harsh Shah
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 7, pp 7-13; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2019.71002

A simple, precise, and robust high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was developed and validated for the determination of berberine chloride and guggulsterone Z in herbal formulation. Chromatographic separation was achieved on aluminium plates precoated with silica gel G60F254 as the stationary phase and toluene-acetonitrile-formic acid (5:3:0.5 v/v/v) as the mobile phase. Densitometric evaluation was carried out at 264 nm. The present method was validated according to ICH guidelines. The Rf value of berberine chloride and guggulsterone Z was found to be 0.40 ± 0.02 and 0.68 ± 0.02, respectively. The response in terms of peak area was found to be linear over the concentration range of 100-500 ng/spot for berberine chloride and 200-1000 ng/spot for guggulsterone Z with regression coefficient value greater than 0.995 for both the phytoconstituents. The method was validated by determining its accuracy, precision, robustness, specificity and system suitability. The method was found to be accurate, precise and robust to carry out the simultaneous estimation of berberine chloride and guggulsterone Z. The developed method was successfully applied for the simultaneous estimation of berberine chloride and guggulsterone Z in herbal formulation.
Kenneth C. Ugoeze, Nkemakolam Nwachukwu, Precious C. Anyino
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 7, pp 23-30; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2019.71004

The current work considered the influence of methods of modification on the physical characteristics of Lentinus Tuber Regium (LTR) powders. The sclerotia of the LTR was pulverized to 250.0 μm and coded as native Lentinus Tuber Regium (NLTR-A). A 500.0 g of NLTR-A was submerged in 3.5 % w/v sodium hypochlorite and stirred continuously for 30.0 min. The resultant slurry was washed severally with purified water until it was neutral to litmus. The mass was dried in an oven at 60.0 °C for 2.0 h, pulverized (250.0 μm) and was noted as the modified Lentinus Tuber Regiumpowder (MLTR-B). Another 500.0 g of NLTR-A was extracted with 70.0 % v/v ethanol in a Soxhlet extractor. The resultant powder was dried at 60.0 o C for 2.0 h, micronized (250.0 μm) and coded as the modified Lentinus Tuber Regium powder (MLTR-C). Additional 500.0 g of NLTR-A was submerged in 600.0 mL of 0.5 N sodium hydroxide in a 1.0 L beaker and shaken constantly for 30.0 min. The subsequent material was splashed with purified water until the material was neutral to litmus. The mass was freed from water and introduced into 200.0 mL of 0.5 N hydrochloric acid. It was agitated for 30.0 min in a water bath at 100.0 °C. It was flooded in purified water until it was neutral to litmus. The product was dried to constant weight at 60.0 °C and pulverized (250.0 μm). The product was coded as the modified Lentinus Tuber Regium powder (MLTR-D). Generally, NLTR-A, MLTR-B, MLTR-C and MLTR-D were investigated for their organoleptic, solubility, pH, moisture studies, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffractometry (XRD), flow parameters and densities. The results showed that both the native and the modified powders were insoluble in water and most organic solvents. The pH of the derived powders was consistently higher. SEM and XRD revealed morphological differences in each of the derived powders, though, all the powders were non-crystalline. The respective modification methods brought about an improvement in the hydrophilic and flow properties of the modified powders when compared to the native form of LTR
Ajmer Singh Grewal, Neelam Sharma, Sukhbir Singh, Sandeep Arora
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 6, pp 125-133; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2018.62009

Treatment of type 2 diabetes without any side effects is still a challenge to the medical system. This leads to increasing demand for natural products with antidiabetic activity with fewer side effects. Syzygium cumini is a traditional herbal medicinal plant and is reported to possess a variety of pharmacological actions. It contains various types of chemical constituents including terpenoids, tannins, anthocyanins, flavonoids and other phenolic compounds. Some flavonoids and other phenolic compounds from S. cumini were reported in literature to have type 2 antidiabetic potential. The main objective of the current investigation was in silico screening of some phenolic compounds from S. cumini against multiple targets associated with type 2 diabetes to explore the mechanism of antidiabetic action and prediction of binding mode using molecular docking studies. In silico docking studies were performed for the selected molecules in the binding site of multiple targets associated with type 2 diabetes (α-glucosidas , dipeptidyl peptidase 4, glycogen synthase kinase 3, glucokinase and glucagon receptor). Amongst the compounds tested in silico, rutin showed appreciable binding with multiple targets of type 2 diabetes including α-glucosidase, dipeptidyl peptidase 4, glycogen synthase kinase 3, and glucagon receptor. Catechin was found to inhibit both α-glucosidase, and dipeptidyl peptidase 4. This information can be utilized for the design and development of potent multi-functional candidate drugs with minimal side effects for type 2 diabetes therapeuticsa.
Ajmer Singh Grewal, Kapil Sharma, Sukhbir Singh, Vikramjeet Singh, Deepti Pandita, Viney Lather
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 6, pp 115-124; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2018.62008

The present work has been planned to design, synthesize and evaluate the antidiabetic potential of a series of sulfamoyl benzamide derivatives as potential glucokinase (GK) activators. A new series of sulfamoyl benzamide derivatives was synthesized starting from 3-nitrobenzoic acid and characterized. In silico docking studies were performed to determine the binding interactions for the best fit conformations in the allosteric site of GK enzyme. Based on the results of in silico studies, the selected molecules were tested for their antidiabetic activity in animal studies (alloxan induced diabetic animal model). Compound 7 exhibited highest antidiabetic activity in animal studies. The results of in vivo antidiabetic activity studies were found to be in parallel to that of docking studies. These newly synthesized sulfamoyl benzamide derivatives thus can be treated as the initial hits for the development of novel, safe, effective and orally bioavailable GK activators as therapeutic agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Ravinder Kumar, Diksha Gera, Govind Arora, Pratima K Syal
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 6, pp 143-151; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2018.62011

Diabetes would not just have a high blood glucose level in the individual body, yet these days diabetes likewise goes with numerous other organic issues like hypertension, feeble the myocardial layer working, sexual broke, and so on. These are some real issue which is these days joined by diabetes to a person’s body. Guys are for the most part being determined to have the sexual broke issue, guys, as well as experience a sexual broke issue. As similarly we may see less clinical examinations, including sexual broke issues looked for the sort two diabetic ladies. The primary goal of this article is to illuminate the situation that females proceed with much trouble with regards to the sexual broke Complication that might be physiological or neurotic if there should arise an occurrence of sorting two diabetes in ladies. It chiefly involves the useful extent of females like sexual drive, excitement, vaginal grease, Orgasm and general fulfilment space. Talking about the treatmentaccess of the ailment in the analyti way for it, Diabetes essentially hinders the sexual execution of Diabetic Women. Determinants of sexual ability incorporate age and extent of diabetes.
Tapan Behl, Chanchal Kumar, Roshan Kumar Singh, Taruna Katyal Arora, Sandeep Arora
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 6, pp 31-53; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2018.61004

Background: Herbal drugs are used in treatment of diseases since decades. Major contributing factor for their use is easy availability, less expensive and more belief of common population because of relatively less side effects compared to allopathic medicines. Medicines of natural origin or functional foods in the prevention of disease are the need of hour. Hence, the present review focused on activity of four drugs viz. Withania somnifera,Allium sativum,Curcuma longa andAzadirachta indica and role in different clinical complications.Methods: A thorough review of all the articles, research as well as reviews available regarding the concerned topic was performed. MEDLINE database was searched and English language articles were preferably selected.Results: Withania somnifera, Allium sativum, Curcuma longa andAzadirachta indicahave shown alleviation in inflammation, diabetes and cancer states. The herbal drugs have shown beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of these disorders. Conclusion from these facts:Utilizing this concept, it can be assumed that herbal drugs play an intricate role in safeguarding the health of individuals from life-threatening complications. However, validation and reproducibility of results in clinical trails should be there in order to confirm the safety andefficacy of these herbal drugs.
Ishan Dubey, Manmeet Singh Saluja, Ritu M Gilhotra, Mahavir Chhajed
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 6, pp 67-79; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2018.61006

Cancer is a malignant abnormal growth of cells, one of the most dreaded and complex diseases. It concerns with several tempo spatial changes in cell composition, which finally lead to neoplasia. Various types of cancers have been reported. Chemotherapy, radiation, and/or surgery may cure them. Herbal remedies are supposed to be harmless as they cause fewer complications and are less likely to habitual. Antioxidant compositions of therapeutic plants show the anticancer activity and therefore, use of different proportions of the active components to formulate various standardized preparation with single or multiple components for their synergistic effects play a crucial role in curing cancer. Evaluation parameters to assess the in vitro anticancer activity includes Caspase-3, Caspase-9, alamar blue, LDH assay, XTT assay, sulforhodamine-B assay, MTT assay, DNA fragmentation assay, neutral red uptake cytotoxic assay, tryphan blue assay. Evaluation of dried extract or granules includes bulk density, tapped density, Carr’s index, Hausner’s ratio, angle of repose while the tablets evaluated by drug-excipient compatibility study by FT-IR, stability studies, hardness, thickness, weight variation, friability, disintegration time and dissolution test.
Eshita Sharma, Tapan Behl, Monika Sachdeva, Rashita Makkar, Sandeep Arora
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 6, pp 21-30; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2018.61003

Medicinal plants play a beneficial role in health care and are commonly used in preventing and testing diseases and specific ailments. The advantage associated with herbals plants are numerous and cannot be ignored as they have less adherence issues and are accepted widely by the population due to greater belief in Ayurveda since ancient times. Neuropathic pain has immersed as a serious threat to patient that occurs by damaging the blood vessels leading to morbidity and mortality. The present review paper aims in providing an account of various herbal plants that could be employed in treatment of neuropathic pain.
Mahavir Chhajed, Atika Jain, Sourabh Gupta, Ishan Dubey, A. K. Shrivastava
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 6, pp 55-65; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2018.61005

The study was done to assess the in-vitro antibacterial potential of various extracts was studied and compared with ciprofloxacin as the standard and shows significant action against E. coli, B. substilis S. aureus, S. pyrogenes, P. aeruginosa, and S. typhi. Anti-fungal potential of the aqueous extract also studied using miconazole as standard and shows significant action against A. niger and C. albicans. Anthelmintic potential of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts was also studied on earthworms, Eudrillus eugeniae using albendazole as standard and shows moderate activity. In the present study in-vitro free radical scavenging activity of whole plant material performed. Various crude extracts of S. xanthocarpum was prepared by successive maceration process using various solvents such as; chloroform, petroleum ether (60-80o), acetone, ethanol and distilled water. Each one extract have been chosen to study the free radical inhibitory activity by DPPH radical scavenging method. The preliminary phytochemical screening of extracts showed that sterols, alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, saponins, phenolic compounds, carbohydrates and proteins were present in the plant. Petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, ethanol and distilled water extracts showed 52.69, 46.15, 21.08, 52.72 and 44.35 % respectively compared to standard ascorbic acid. Acetone extract showed poor inhibition of DPPH radical compared to standard and other extracts also.
Deepak Kumar, Suresh Kumar
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 6, pp 1-8; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2018.61001

The methanol extract of Actaea acuminata roots have beenpreviously reported to exhibit significant antianxiety, anticonvulsant andantidepressant activities. In present study fractionation of crude bioactivemethanol extract was carried out using different solvents employing standardprocedure. Various fractions were evaluated for antianxiety, anticonvulsantand antidepressant activities using elevated plus maze model (EPM), maximalelectroshock-induced convulsions model (MES) and forced / despair swim test(FST) respectively. Successive partitioning of bioactive methanol extract wasdone with ethyl acetate and 1-butanol. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF; 100mg/kg), 1-butanol fraction (BF; 25 mg/kg) and remaining methanol extract(RME; 70 mg/kg) were subjected to neuropharmacological activities. TheEAF significantly enhanced entries and average time spent in open arms;significantly decreased duration of MES-induced tonic extension phase andsignificantly decreased duration of immobility time of rats in comparisonto control. BF and RME did not exhibit any neuropharmacological activity.Qualitative chemical tests confirmed presence of alkaloids and polyphenolsin EAF. It is finally concluded that alkaloids and/or polyphenols are bioactiveconstituents of A. acuminata which are responsible for neuropharmacologicalactivities.
Ajinkya G. Dhandar, Saurabh B. Ganorkar, Amod S. Patil, Atul A. Shirkhedkar
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 6, pp 9-20; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2018.61002

The present work described the development of two simple, accurate, rapid, cost effective and reproducible UV-Spectrophotometric methods for the simultaneous estimation of Quinfamide and Mebendazole in bulk and in laboratory mixture using 0.01M methanolic HCl as a solvent. The absorption maximum for Quinfamide and Mebendazole were found to be at 260.00 nm and 232.40 nm respectively. Beer’s - lamberts was followed in concentration ranges of 1 - 6 μg/mL for Quinfamide and 2- 12 μg/mL for Mebendazole. The percentage recovery of Quinfamide and mebendazole ranged from 98.48 to 99.08 and 98.83 to 99.62 (Method I); from 98.14 to 98.93 and 99.16 to 99.35 (Method II) for Quinfamide and Mebendazole. The established methods were sensible for simultaneous quantitative determination of both these drugs in fixed dose combinations. Validation of both these methods was performed as per ICH guidelines. The developed methods can routinely be used for estimation of both these drugs in their combined dosage form.
Kajal Thapa, Savir Kumar, Anurag Sharma, Sandeep Arora, Amarjot Kaur Grewal, Thakur Gurjeet Singh
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 5, pp 235-253; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2017.52014

Epigenetic modification acetylation or deacetylation of histone considered as an important element in various disorders. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) are the enzymes which catalyse the acetylation and deacetylation of histone respectively. It helps in regulating the condensation of chromatin and transcription of genes. Lysine acetylation and deacetylation present on the nucleosomal array of histone is the key factor for gene expression and regulation in a normal working living cell. Modification in histone protein will lead to the development of cancer and can cause various neurodegenerative disorders. To safeguard the cells or histone proteins from these diseases histone deacetylase inhibitors are used. In this review, the main focus is upon the role of histone deacetylases inhibitors in various diseases.
Ajinkya G. Dhandar, Suraj R. Chaudhari, Saurabh B. Ganorkar, Amod S. Patil, Sanjay J. Surana, Atul A. Shirkhedkar
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 5, pp 185-216; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2017.52012

BF is Beta-adreno receptor antagonist and used as an AntiHypertensive Drug. BF gives the blocking action on β1-adrenergic receptors in the heart and vascular smooth muscle. The present review compiles the various approaches implemented for quantification of BF in bulk drug, pharmaceutical matrix and biological fluid. This review represents more than 50 analytical methods which include capillary electrophoresis, HPLC, HPTLC, UV-Spectroscopy, UPLC, impurity profiling and electrochemical methods implemented for estimation of BF as a single component as well as in multicomponent.
Ajmer Singh Grewal, Neelam Sharma, Sukhbir Singh, Sandeep Arora
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 5, pp 149-162; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2017.52010

Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) and phosphodiesterase 7 (PDE7), members of PDE super family, catalyse metabolism of secondary messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate leading to augmented inflammatory processes in pro-inflammatory and immune-modulatory cells. Dual inhibitors of PDE4/7 are a novel class of drug candidates which can regulate pro-inflammatory as well as function of immune T-cell and are particularly beneficial for the treatment of various inflammatory diseasesdevoid of unwanted actions. Intense efforts have been directed towards the development of effective dual inhibitors of both PDE4 and PDE7, but not much success has been reported till yet. The aim of present study was to design some newer substituted thiazolidine-2-one derivatives as dual inhibitors of PDE4/7 using structure based rational drug design approach. A new series of thiazolidine-2-one analogues were designed and molecular docking was performed using AutoDock Vina to explore the bondinginteractions of the designed molecules with the amino acid residues in the active site of target proteins. The docking study indicated that all the substituted thiazolidine-2-one derivatives have appreciable binding interactions with protein residues of both PDE4 and PDE7. The newly designed compounds could be used as lead molecules for development potent and non-toxic dual inhibitors of PDE4/7 for the management of various inflammatory conditions.
Rajneet Kaur, Manjinder Kaur, Poonam Arora
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 5, pp 117-133; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2017.52008

This study is designed to investigate the attenuating prospective of aminophylline in immobilization stress generated behavioural changes in rats. Animals were exposed to restrain stress before being subjected to varying doses of aminophylline (1mg/kg, 2mg/kg and 4mg/kg). Behavioural changes were analyzed to assess the intensity and the degree of the stress, by estimating the changes in the exploratory behaviour, spontaneous activity and social behaviour using various paradigms. As a consequence of stress, the behavioral patterns so changed were assessed in the terms of changes in the locomotor activity, number of head dips and increased avoidance behaviour. Aminophylline (4mg/kg) modulated the stress produced changes in the behaviour and oxidative stress generated biochemical alterations in a significant manner (p
Jaskaran Singh, Thapa Komal, Sandeep Arora, Amarjot Kaur, Thakur Gurjeet Singh
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 5, pp 217-234; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2017.52013

Swiftly growing viruses are a major intimidation to human health. Such viruses are extremely pathogenic like Ebola virus, influenza virus, HIV virus, Zika virus etc . Ebola virus, a type of Filovirus, is an extremely infectious, single-stranded ribonucleic acid virus that infects both humans and apes, prompting acute fever with hemorrhagic syndrome. The high infectivity, severity and mortality of Ebola has plagued the world for the past fifty years with its first outbreak in 1976 in Marburg, Germany, and Frankfurt along with Belgrade and Serbia. The world has perceived about 28,000 cases and over 11,000 losses. The high lethality of Ebola makes it a candidate for use in bioterrorism thereby arising more concern. New guidelines have been framed for providing best possible care to the patients suffering from Ebola virus i.e Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development And Evaluation (GRADE) methodology to develop evidence-based strategy for the treatment in future outbreak of Ebola virus. No drugs have been approved, while many potent drugs like rVSV-EBOV, Favipiravir, ZMapp are on clinical test for human safety. In this review we will discover and discuss perspective aspects that lead to the evolution of different Ebola variants as well as advances in various drugs and vaccines for treatment of the disease.
Anureet Arora, Manju Nagpal, Geeta Aggarwal
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 5, pp 163-184; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2017.52011

Microneedles can be representative for paradigm shift of drug delivery from patient non-compliant parenteral injections to patient compliant drug delivery system, which can be utilized for administration of vaccines particularly along with macromolecular/micromolecular drugs. The concept of microneedles came into existence many decades ago but the use of microneedles to achieve efficient delivery of drugs into the skin became subject of research from mid of 1990’s. Various types of microneedles were utilized to enhance delivery of drugs and vaccines including solid microneedles for pre-treatment of skin to enhance drug permeability, dissolvable polymeric microneedles encapsulating drugs, microneedles coated with drugs and hollow microneedles for infusion of drugs through the skin. Microneedles have shown promisingdelivery of vaccines through skin in literature. But the successful utilization of this system for vaccine drug delivery mainly depends on design of device to facilitate microneedle infusion, vaccine stability and storage in system, recovery of skin on removal of microneedle and improved patient compliance. This article reviews the conventional and advanced methods of vaccine drug deliver, microneedles for drug delivery, types of microneedles, advantages of microneedles and potential of microneedles for vaccine drug delivery.
Ajmer Singh Grewal, Neelam Sharma, Sukhbir Singh, Sandeep Arora
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 5, pp 135-148; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2017.52009

The enzyme aldose reductase (AR) is a member of aldoketoreductase super-family which catalyzes the formation of sorbitol from glucose through polyol pathway of glucose catabolism. Reduced sorbitol production via polyol pathway due to AR inhibition is a target of choice for controlling major complications of diabetes. Epalrestat is the only commercially available inhibitor of AR till date,thus, there is a great need to search for more economical, nontoxic and safer inhibitors of AR enzyme. Flavonoids,the polyphenol compounds in plants have been reported for inhibitory effects against AR. The objective of this study is to explore the binding modes of naturalphenolic compounds with AR to design safer natural drugs as alternatives to synthetic drugs. We conducted a molecular docking study on some naturalphenolic compounds with AR enzyme in complex with the synthetic inhibitor. The overlay of the docked pose of the selected natural phenols with the ARreference inhibitor complex showed that the selected natural compounds have the similar binding pattern with the active site residues of the enzyme as that of co-crystallized inhibitor. The results of docking study showed the best binding affinity of AR with that of 2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) ethanoic acid and butein, having the lowest binding free energy of –9.8 kcal/mol and–9.7 kcal/mol, respectively. This information can be utilized to design potent, economical and non-toxic natural AR inhibitors from natural phenols for the therapeutics of diabetic complications.
Pawan Kumar, Reecha Madaan, Shabir Sidhu
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 5, pp 71-75; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2017.51006

Habenaria intermedia D. Don (Vriddhi; Orchidaceae) has been traditionally used in the treatment of nervous disorders, skin disorders and asthma. The available pharmacological reports on H. intermedia reveal that the plant has not been screened for antianxiety activity. Thus, it was envisaged to subject H. intermedia for screening of antianxiety activity using elevatedplus maze model. The crude extracts (n-hexane, chloroform, methanol and water extracts) of plant material were prepared successively in increasing order of polarity. The anxiolytic activity was assessed by comparing number of entries and average time spent by mice treated with test extracts (200 or 400 mg/kg, p.o.) in open arms of EPM with respect to control and standard drug, diazepam (2 mg/kg, p.o.). Significant antianxiety activity was observed in methanol extract with respect to control, whereas n-hexane, chloroform and water extracts did not exhibit antianxiety activity. It is further observed that antianxiety activity exhibited by the methanol extract was statistically not equivalent to the standard drug. Based on these observations, it is concluded that the methanol extract of H. intermedia exhibits mild anxiolytic activity.
Madhaw Dwivedi, S. M. Biradar, Ajay Pandey, Anand P. Ambali, Rishu Sharma
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 5, pp 59-69; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2017.51005

Ashok Peepliwal
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 5, pp 77-104; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2017.51007

Ashwini V. Gujar, Anand B. Mundada, Atul A. Shirkhedkar
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 5, pp 41-57; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2017.51004

Ms Manisha, Kumar Suresh
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 5, pp 31-40; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2017.51003

Jasmeen Kaur, Munish Singla, Balraj Saini,
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 5, pp 21-30; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2017.51002

Astha Jain, Jasmeen Kaur, Ms Nancy, Yogita Bansal, Balraj Saini, Gulshan Bansal
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 5, pp 1-19; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2017.51001

Meena Parulekar, Nandakumar Mekoth, C.M Ramesh, Ajit Parulekar
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 4, pp 103-127; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2016.42007

D Dhingra, S Parshad
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 4, pp 147-159; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2016.42010

Anju Goyal, Sandeep Jain
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 4, pp 129-137; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2016.42008

Mostafa Essam Eissa, Quality Unit Quality Compliance Section Head
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 4, pp 161-169; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2016.42011

Punit R. Bhatt, Kajal B. Pandya, Navin R. Sheth, Ahmedabad (Gujarat) India Gujarat Public Service Commission
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 4, pp 139-146; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2016.42009

Prashant Sharma
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 4, pp 13-29; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2016.41002

Jaspreet Kaur, Manish Kumar, Nitin Bansal
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 4, pp 31-46; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2016.41003

Vivek Puri, Pratima Sharma, Manju Nagpal
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 4, pp 45-62; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2016.41004

Manju Nagpal, Loveleen Kaur, Janita Chander, Pratima Sharma
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 4, pp 1-11; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2016.41001

Atanu Chatterjee, Jayita Mondal, Rudranil Bhowmik, Anshuman Bhattachayra, Hirak Roy, Swarnendu Kundu
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 3, pp 153-166; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2015.32012

Ritchu Sethi, Sandeep Arora, Neelam Jain, Sandeep Jain
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Volume 3, pp 97-111; doi:10.15415/jptrm.2015.32008

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