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Results in Journal International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine: 131

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Sahar Galedari,
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 5, pp 101-107; doi:10.34172/ijbsm.2020.18

Introduction: Recently, the biosynthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) using medicinal plants has attracted the attention of researchers due to their low cost and environmental compatibility. The aim of this study was to determine the anti-biofilm effects of zinc oxide (ZnO)-NPs synthesized using the Artemisia plant extract on the clinical samples of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methods: In this experimental study, the alcoholic extract of Artemisia was prepared using the Soxhlet extraction method to synthesize ZnO-NPs. Then, the physical and chemical structures of the NPs were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and ultraviolet/visible (UV-Vis) techniques. In addition, the gene expression of ndvB was analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction method. Finally, anti-biofilm and antimicrobial effects were evaluated using the minimum inhibitory concentration test and microtiter plate assay. Results: The antimicrobial results showed that ZnO-NPs had a spherical structure approved by the UV-Vis test. Further, ZnO-NPs had inhibitory effects on biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa strains. The results demonstrated that ZnO-NPs were effective on the isolations at the lowest and highest viscosities of 3.125 and 100 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: The biosynthesis of ZnO-NPs using the Artemisia plant extract is low cost and easy. Moreover, these NPs can be used as a drug with antimicrobial and anti-biofilm effects.
Zahra Zare
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 5, pp 90-95; doi:10.34172/ijbsm.2020.16

Introduction: Genetic mutations have a significant role in causing cancers, and plants are effective on cancer recovery by producing metabolites. In this regard, the present study aimed to evaluate the Lantana camera anti-mutation effects applying Salmonella typhimurium in the Ames test. Methods: To this end, the plant was prepared from the Iran National Botanical Garden in 2018 (Tehran, Iran), and the methanolic extracts of its leaves and flowers were obtained by the percolation method. Then, anti-mutagenic activities were studied by the Ames method and the assessment of the rate of reverse mutations in mutant Salmonella typhimurium. Mutant strains cannot grow on minimal mineral media thus only those bacteria that have acquired a wild genotype after reverse mutation in the presence of the mutagen are able to grow on this medium. The plant extract, along with a mutagen substance was used to evaluate its anti-mutagenic effects by counting grown colonies and calculating the mean mutation inhibitory index according to the "Ong" formula. Finally, anti-mutagenic activities were retested by adding the sterile extract of the mouse liver (S9), and the data were analyzed by SPSS statistical software, version 22.Results: In general, the results showed that the mean number of grown colonies decreased significantly despite the plant material in comparison with the standard. According to the "Ong" formula, the percentage of inhibition was [1-T/M]×100. Based on the results, T grew a number of colonies on each petri dish despite the mutagen and extract, and M grew a number of colonies in positive control plates. Eventually, mutation inhibition percentages in leaf extracts were significantly higher than those of flower extracts, which were 75.59 ± 0.73 (+S9) and 84.79 ± 0.17 (-S9), as well as 49.57 ± 0.55 (+S9) and 62.32 ± 0.23 (-S9), respectively (P < 0.05). Conclusion: In general, the leaves and flowers of L. camara demonstrated anti-mutagenic activities with higher activities in the leaves compared to flowers.
Saeid Morovvati, Nima Kazemi Koohbanani, Iman Salahshouri Far,
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 5, pp 96-100; doi:10.34172/ijbsm.2020.17

Introduction: Coronary artery diseases (CAD) are still among the top causes of death in most populations. The polymorphisms of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene can influence the risk of CAD through modulating cholesterol metabolism. In this regard, the current study aimed to determine the role of the 2 important CETP gene polymorphisms in CAD patients. Methods: To this end, DNA was extracted from the whole blood of 100 CAD patients and 100 healthy controls and then subjected to polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism for the genotyping of rs5882 and rs708272 polymorphisms.Results: Based on the results, no meaningful association was found between rs5882 and rs708272 polymorphisms, neither separately nor in combination, and the risk of CAD. However, the risk of CAD significantly increased in male rs5882 polymorphism carriers (P = 0.01). Finally, no significant association was demonstrated between serum high-density lipoprotein levels and the genotypes or alleles of neither rs5882 nor rs708272 polymorphism. Conclusion: Despite the finding regarding the lack of an association between CAD and the studied polymorphisms of the CETP gene, the importance of those variants in CETP protein function and CAD pathogenesis warrants further investigation on larger populations.
Megha Banger, Supriya Khillare, Anita Chalak, Shalini Maksane
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 5, pp 85-89; doi:10.34172/ijbsm.2020.15

Introduction: Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global public health calamity since its outbreak in Wuhan, China in December 2019, and there is a lack of diagnostic biochemical data related to the disease. This study aimed to investigate routine biochemical parameters in COVID-19 positive Indian patients and check their predictive value for the detection of this novel disease. Materials and Methods: This observational study was conducted retrospectively with the participation of 166 patients referred to King Edward Memorial (KEM) Hospital, Mumbai, India during May 2020. The baseline characteristics (age and gender) and biochemical data of individuals with COVID-19-related symptoms but negative for COVID-19 were collected and classified into two groups of real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and COVID-19 positive. The value of organ function tests (blood urea nitrogen [BUN], creatinine, and levels of serum electrolytes, alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase (AST), bilirubin total, bilirubin direct, total protein, and albumin) were noted and analyzed. The groups were compared using unpaired t test, and predictive value of these parameters for COVID-19 was evaluated by calculating the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Results: There was a significant rise in the serum AST ALT, bilirubin direct, BUN, and creatinine levels of COVID-19 subjects compared to non-COVID-19 ones (P < 0.001). AST (AUC=0.826, CI: 0.76 to 0.89, P < 0.001), ALT (AUC=0.8525, 95% CI: 0.79 to 0.90, P < 0.001), and BUN (AUC=0.8097, 95% CI: 0.74 to 0.87, P < 0.001) showed very good accuracy and serum creatinine (AUC=0.7971, 95% CI: 0.73 to 0.86, P < 0.001) showed good accuracy in predicting COVID- 19 positivity. Conclusion: Serum levels of ALT, AST, BUN, and creatinine can be the reliable predictors of COVID-19 test and identify infected patients.
Roghaiyeh Afsargharehbagh, Kamal Khademvatani, Tohid Yahyapoor, Aliakbar Nasiri, Mahmood Moosazadeh, Motahareh Kheradmand, Mahdi Afshari, MirHossein Seyed-Mohammadzad
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 5, pp 114-117; doi:10.34172/ijbsm.2020.20

Introduction: It is still unclear whether platelet count can predict the outcomes of acute myocardial infarction. In this study, we assessed the relationship between the initial platelet count on the degree of ST-segment depression and coronary flow rate among patients with MI who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods: In this study, a total of 218 patients suffering from MI, who underwent primary PCI during 2016-2017 (Seyed-Shohada hospital, Urmia, Iran) were selected by consensus method. Demographic information and past medical history such as diabetes mellitus (DM), cigarette smoking, using Integrilin, and door-to-balloon (DTB) time were recorded. All patients were investigated in terms of cell blood count. Serial electrocardiogram (ECG) was also performed and the degree of ST-segment elevation was measured. Results: The mean (SD) age of participants was 58.67 (11.44) years. The initial platelet count was similar between patients with and without improvement in the ST-segment (P = 0.275). There was no significant difference regarding thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) between patients with and without improved ST-segment (P = 0.380). Conclusion: According to our results, the initial platelet count in patients who underwent angioplasty was not associated with coronary flow and echocardiographic responses to treatment.
Reza Shirazinia, Ali Akbar Golabchifar, Abolfazl Panahi Mishkar, Mohammad Reza Fazeli
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 5, pp 68-84; doi:10.34172/ijbsm.2020.14

Probiotics are beneficial bacteria living in the microbiota ecosystem of the human body playing particular important roles in human health. The increasing rate of various diseases and the studies about the balance of gut microbiome made scientists trying to find novel therapies in this regard and hypothesize the relationships between the imbalance of gut microbiome and spread of various diseases especially in the immune system. Previous studies have indicated that when administrated in specific amounts, probiotics exert beneficial properties for human health such as antibacterial effects, cytotoxic effects, Hypocholesterolemic effects, immunomodulatory effects, wound healing effects etc. Probiotics also are known to produce nourishing healthy supplements for the human body such as vitamin K and B as well as healthy fatty acids. In this regard summarization of scientific evidence may help to familiarize the scientists with this novel area of research helping to find effective therapies for various disease. In this study, we used published literature in scientific databases such as Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Medline, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, as well as Google Scholar for data collection. So, the present review describes scientific-based evidence about probiotics and some of their beneficial effects to highlight the path for further researches about these beneficial bacteria.
Elham Shakiba, Mehdi Hedayati, Ahmad Majd, Monireh Movahedi
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 5, pp 108-113; doi:10.34172/ijbsm.2020.19

Introduction: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) comprises nearly 5% of all cases of thyroid cancer (TC). Aberrant activation of RET (rearranged during transfection) signaling via somatic mutations is the basic molecular mechanism of MTC tumorigenicity. In this study, we determined the incidence of RET gene mutations in exons 10, 11, and 16 in Iranian patients. Methods: A total of 33 patients undergoing thyroidectomy at Imam Khomeini hospital of Tehran, Iran and diagnosed with MTC were enrolled. For investigating mutations in exons 10, 11, and 16, DNA was extracted from tumor tissues, and the genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and then sequenced. Results: Out of 33 patients, 20 (60.6%) subjects had mutations in one of the examined exons (10, 11, and 16). According to our results, the "ATG918ACG" mutation in codon 918 had the highest rate. Conclusion: Testing RET mutations can be beneficial in clinical evaluation and treatment management of MTC patients.
, , Younes Ghasemi, Mehrdad Sharifi, Abdolrasoul Hemmati, , Fatemeh Javanmardi,
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 5, pp 33-38; doi:10.34172/ijbsm.2020.02

Introduction: The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has created a global concern for public health. Having sufficient data is the first step to understand the behavior of contagious diseases such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Although various studies have assessed COVID-19 features, there are many limitations about patients’ characteristics, complications, and outcomes in different countries including Iran. The present study reported launching an electronic database for COVID-19 patients in Fars province, Iran. Method: A comprehensive web-based multicenter registry was designed and launched by Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in order to collect all information about COVID-19 hospitalized patients in Fars province, Iran. Results: In this registry, patients’ demographic characteristics, chest computed tomography scan findings, laboratory tests, complications during hospitalization, treatments, and disease course in Intensive Care units are recorded on a web-based electronic database. The virtual statues of the patient’s family are evaluated by telephone calls, and the proceeding will be implemented for quarantine and hospitalization if required. Conclusion: The registry is hoped to help all scientists to understand the current challenges and be prepared for possible future waves of the epidemic. Finally, this registry is a resource for all researchers who are interested in coronavirus and plays an important role in supporting the scientific community on the frontlines of combating the virus.
Katayoon Karimzadeh, Mahdiyeh Ramzanpoor, Shadi Keihankhadiv
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 5, pp 54-60; doi:10.34172/ijbsm.2020.11

Introduction: Seaweeds are valuable resources for the discovery of efficient and safe drugs for pain treatment. In the present investigation, we evaluated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of, methanolic extract of Laurencia caspica, a red algae, in mice models. Methods: The analgesic effect of methanolic extract of L. caspica was assessed by hot-plate and acetic acid-induced writhing tests in male Swiss albino mice (weight = 20-25 g). The anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extract of L. caspica was also evaluated by formalin-induced ear edema and xylene-induced paw edema tests. Results: The total flavonoid content of the extract was estimated as 0.0537 mg quercetin/g extract. Both first and second phases of the nociception were significantly inhibited at a dose of 120 mg/kg of methanolic extract of L. caspica. The observed anti-inflammatory effect was dose-dependent. Acetic acid-induced writhing test and hot plate test showed that the extract significantly reduced pain in all evaluated doses (15, 30, 60, and 120 mg/kg). The antinociceptive activity of the methanolic extract was significantly reduced by naloxone (4 mg/kg). Moreover, the extract significantly reduced paw edema at the dose of 120 mg/kg in all the animals. Conclusion: Methanolic extract of L. caspica exhibited central analgesic effect, as well as anti-inflammatory activity probably due to the presence of constituents like flavonoids and triterpenoids.
Fahimeh Piryaei, Hossein Mozdarani, ,
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 5, pp 39-42; doi:10.34172/ijbsm.2020.08

Introduction: MiRNA expression alterations are closely related to growth, proliferation, and cell development. In addition, miR-187 has been found to regulate cellular proliferation. Further, spermatogenesis is a highly complicated process which is regulated through several genes targeted by miRNAs. However, no study has completely addressed the etiology of spermatogenic impairments. Accordingly, the present study examined the expression pattern of Homo sapiens (human) microRNA (hsa-mir-187) in the testicular biopsies of infertile men with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) and Sertoli cell-only syndrome (SCOS) subtype in comparison with those with obstructive azoospermia (OA). Methods: Quantitative reverse‐transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to assess the expression level of hsa-mir-187 using the ΔΔCt method. Results: Our data indicated that hsa-mir-187 was significantly up-regulated in the testis of the SCOS group (P˂ 0.05) in comparison with the OA group. Conclusion: In general, the findings suggest that the differential expression of hsa-mir-187 is linked with male infertility and shed more light on molecular defects that underlie spermatogenic impairments.
Tahmineh Ostovar, Hosein Rezaei,
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 5, pp 48-53; doi:10.34172/ijbsm.2020.10

Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the most threatening and important disorders worldwide in both industrial and developing nations. In addition, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) are three factors suggested as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in CKDs. Considering the lack of enough efficiency of the creatinine in the prognosis of the CKD, the present study aimed to assess the relationship between these three factors and CKD occurrence and determine if they could be considered valid biomarkers in this regard. Materials and Methods: The present case-control study was designed enrolling 42 patients with confirmed CKD referring to the Imam Khomeini hospital of Kangan. The participants were 42 years old and gender-matched healthy counterparts. Blood samples were obtained, and then NGAL, KIM-1, and L-FABP were determined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using commercial kits (Bioassay Technology Laboratory). Finally, the serum creatinine was detected by applying Jaffe’s method. Results: Based on the results, significant differences were found in the serum levels of all four factors between CKD patients and the control group. More precisely, the serum levels of NGAL (P < 0.0001, specificity: 87.6%, sensitivity: 79.3%, and the area under the curve, AUC: 0.89), L-FABP (P < 0.0001, specificity: 83.3%, sensitivity: 78.3%, and AUC: 0.86), KIM-1 (P < 0.0001, specificity: 85.7%, sensitivity: 78.6%, and AUC: 0.88), and creatinine (P < 0.0001) were significantly higher in individuals with CKDs in comparison with controls. Eventually, the serum levels of NGAL, L-FABP, and KIM-1 were significantly correlated with each other in both patient and control groups (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: In general, NGAL, L-FABP, KIM-1, and creatinine could be used as independent biomarkers for the diagnosis of CKD. Moreover, the measurement of NGAL, L-FABP, and KIM-1 altogether could be a valid assessment for the diagnosis of CKD.
Parisa Shahbazi, Mohammad Jahantigh, Saeed Salari, Salehe Danesh
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 5, pp 43-47; doi:10.34172/ijbsm.2020.09

Introduction: The production of β-lactamase in bacteria, especially in Escherichia coli as a prevalent opportunistic bacterium, has caused many problems in patient treatment. β-lactamases are encoded by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes such as blaTEM and blaCTX-M. We aimed to assess the prevalence and antibiotic sensitivity of β-lactamases encoded by blaCTX-M and blaTEM in E. coli isolated from patients suffering from urinary tract infections (UTIs). Methods: Escherichia coli strains were isolated from the patients’ urine culture presented to medical diagnostic laboratories in Zabol, Iran. The agar disc-diffusion test was performed on Müller-Hinton agar to investigate the antibiotic resistance of these isolates using eight antimicrobial paper discs including gentamicin, tetracycline, co-trimoxazole, norfloxacin, cefuroxime, ampicillin, neomycin, and amoxicillin. A conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect blaCTX-M and blaTEM. Results: The frequencies of resistance to cefuroxime, norfloxacin, co-trimoxazole, neomycin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, gentamicin, and ampicillin were found to be 45 (90%), 15 (30%), 33 (66%), 33 (66%), 44 (88%), 34 (68%), 4 (8%), and 50 (100%), respectively. Moreover, the prevalence of blaCTX-M was 25 (50%) while that of blaTEM was 16 (32%). Conclusion: Based on the results, gentamicin and norfloxacin can be recommended as effective antibacterials for treating UTI caused by E. coli in the study population. Moreover, the frequency of resistant genes including blaCTX-M and blaTEM was high in the isolated E. coli. Effective control systems including appropriate treatments for ESBL-producing strains are therefore required for humans and food animals.
Masumeh Jalalvand, Gholamreza Shahsavari, Ali Sheikhian, Ali Ganji,
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 5, pp 61-65; doi:10.34172/ijbsm.2020.12

Introduction: Satureja khozestanica grows mainly in the southwest part of Iran as a native plant. This edible herb contains various compounds including the S. Khuzestanica essential oil (SKEO) and monoterpene known as Carvacrol. Previous studies have shown the anti-inflammatory effects of S. Khuzestanica without mentioning the exact mechanism of its function. Given that prostaglandin synthesis, which is one of the main mediators of inflammation, is regulated by the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) gene, the present study investigated the effects of SKEO and Carvacrol on the expression of the COX2 gene in the stimulated-J774A.1 macrophage cell line. Methods: To this end, fresh aerial parts of the plant were processed to prepare SKEO. Then, different doses of SKEO and Carvacrol (i.e., 0.004%, 0.008%, and 0.016% v/v) were used to treat with the lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated cell line for eight hours. After RNA extraction, the real-time polymerase chain reaction technique was applied for gene expression analysis. Results: In the LPS-stimulated J774A.1 macrophage cell line, COX2 gene expression reduced significantly in a dose-dependent manner (0.004%, 0.008%, and 0.016%, P = 0.024, P = 0.021, and P = 0.013 v/v of SKEO, respectively) by SKEO, and the effect of Carvacrol was less powerful (0.008% and 0.016%, P = 0.027 and P = 0.038 v/v, respectively) compared to SKEO. Finally, the comparison between SKEO and Carvacrol showed higher significant inhibitory effects of SKEO on COX2 gene expression in comparison with Carvacrol in 0.004% v/v concentration (P = 0.037). Conclusion: In general, SKEO significantly reduced COX2 gene expression, thus it can be suggested that its anti-inflammatory effect may result from the inhibition of the synthesis of this pro-inflammatory gene.
Naser Aslan Abadi, Roghaiyeh Afsargharehbagh, Aliakbar Nasiri, Mirhosein Seyedmohammadzad, Kamal Khademvatan, Sima Ghaemimirabad, Abbas Malandish
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 5, pp 4-8; doi:10.34172/ijbsm.2020.03

Introduction: Evidence indicates that the associations between coronary slow flow (CSF), cystatin C (Cys C), and body mass index (BMI) are unclear. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to determine the association among the above-mentioned parameters in female patients. Methods: This was a descriptive-analytical study and the participants were those who were referred to the Shohada Cardiovascular Center of Urmia in 2015-2016. The participants were measured by a quantitative method under angiography (corrected TIMI frame count, CTFC) for CSF assessment, followed by evaluating physiological indices and the serum Cys C by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Finally, Pearson correlation coefficient test was used to analyze the correlations among CTFC, Cys C, and BMI, and a significance level of P < 0.05 was used for this test. Results: Sixty-six female patients (mean age: 57.01±8.25 years) took part in this study. The correlations among Cys C with CTFC, and BMI (r=-0.189, P=0.128 and r=0.044, P=0.724, respectively) and BMI with CTFC (r=-0.178, P=0.153) were not meaningful in female patients’ who were candidates for angiography. Conclusion: In general, the results suggested that serum Cys C cannot be considered as a predictive biomarker for the prognostic stratification of CSF and BMI in female patients aged 34-73 years who were candidates for angiography.
Seyed Mohsen Dehghani, Anis Amirhakimi, Iraj Shahramian, Najmeh Rahanjam, Fatemeh Fazeli, Samaneh Hamzeloo, Zahra Bidar
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 5, pp 22-27; doi:10.34172/ijbsm.2020.06

Introduction: Celiac disease (CD) is one of the most common reasons for malnutrition. This study aimed to determine the status of the micronutrients, including vitamins and minerals in children with CD. Methods: The participants of this study included children
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 5, pp 16-21; doi:10.34172/ijbsm.2020.05

Introduction: The inflammatory system, oxidative stress, and cholinergic pathways are some important factors in long-term opioid dependence withdrawal. The adverse effects of some adjunctive medications on withdrawal symptoms treatment limit their clinical efficiency and finding compounds with inhibitory effects on opioid dependence can be helpful. The antioxidant, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory properties of Satureja khuzestanica extract (SKE) have been noted. Additionally, it could reduce morphine analgesic tolerance. Given that no study has assessed the effect of SKE on morphine-induced withdrawal symptoms, we have tried to investigate it in this study. Methods: Male Wistar rats were used in this study. The rats were treated with morphine for 7 days. The control group received saline, and intervention groups received SKE intragastrically by gavage (100 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg, and 25 mg/kg) 15 minutes before morphine injections. Five hours after the last injection, naloxone was used and withdrawal symptoms were assessed for one hour. SPSS software version 16.0 was used for statistical analysis, and P≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: SKE diminished weight loss and jumping (P≤0.001). It decreased grooming behaviors and cramps (P≤0.01). SKE was found to decrease morphine withdrawal symptoms and 100 mg/kg was the most effective dose. Additionally, different doses of SKE were able to eliminate ptosis, diarrhea, and teeth chattering in animals; however, different doses had different effects on withdrawal symptoms. Conclusion: Naloxone significantly increased the frequency of jumping, cramps, weight loss, grooming, and induced ptosis, diarrhea, and teeth chattering. Treatment with SKE can significantly reduce morphine withdrawal symptoms. This can be done through its ability to decrease inflammation.
, Fatemeh Javanmardi, Neda Pirbonyeh,
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 5, pp 1-3; doi:10.34172/ijbsm.2020.01

Specification and Misconception About COVID-19 Disappearing
Hamidreza Ghanbari, , Hamid Nejat
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 5, pp 28-32; doi:10.34172/ijbsm.2020.07

Introduction: Drug addiction is one of the most serious psychological, social, economic, and health hazards that needs prevention and treatment considering its serious consequences for the individual and human society. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and quality of life improvement training (QOLT) on distress tolerance and self-destructive behaviors in substance abusers. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study with pre- and post-test design and a control group. The statistical population included men over 20 years old referred to addiction treatment centers in Mashhad. The sample consisted of 45 volunteers who were selected by purposive sampling method and were divided into 3 groups (two experimental and one control group). Experimental groups received ACT and skills training based on the quality of life, while the control group did not receive any experimental intervention. The Distress Tolerance Scale (Simons and Gaher) and Self-destructive Behavior Questionnaire (Owens) were used as research tools in the study. Data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of covariance using SPSS version 24.0 software. Results: The results of the analysis of covariance showed that the therapeutic methods used in this study were effective in improving distress tolerance and self-destructive behaviors in men with substance abuse (P
Maryam Farbod, , Mohammad Rashidi, Zahra Mirakhori
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 5, pp 9-15; doi:10.34172/ijbsm.2020.04

Introduction: Obesity is a major risk factor for inflammation and cardiovascular diseases. We tried to assess whether 12 weeks of aerobic exercises affect serum resistin level and lipid profile in overweight females or not. Methods: For this purpose, 32 non-trained adult females with the mean age of 38 ± 7 years old and body mass index (BMI) of 32 ± 3 kg/m2 were randomly assigned to aerobic exercise (n=16) and control (n=16) groups. Twelve weeks of aerobic exercise program including 3 sessions weekly at 60-75% of maximum heart rate was considered. Fasting serum resistin level, lipid profile (total cholesterol [TC], low-density lipoprotein [LDL] and high-density lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterol, and triglyceride [TG]), and anthropometric indexes were measured and compared between the two groups before and after training. Results: Serum resistin, lipid profile markers, and anthropometrical indexes were not significantly different at baseline between the two groups (P>0.05). TG, TC, LDL, and serum resistin did not change significantly after the intervention in the exercise group (P>0.05). However, a significant increase in HDL (exercise: 46.3 ± 9.6 vs. 51.4 ± 8.5, P=0.011; control: 45.8 ± 7.9 vs. 46.8 ± 6.9 P=0.326) and a significant decrease in LDL/HDL ratio (exercise: 2.94 ± 0.12 vs. 2.47 ± 0.19, P=0.019; control: 3.14 ± 0.23 vs. 3.18 ± 0.63, P=0.265) were observed after the intervention. Other variables in the control group remained unchanged. Conclusion: Aerobic exercises had no impacts on the inflammatory profile but could improve lipid profile with an emphasis on HDL in adult obese women.
Fatemeh Dalayi, , Alireza Badiei, Elham Boorboor Azimi, Mohammad Reza Ganjali, Ghodsi Mohammadi Ziarani
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 4, pp 155-162; doi:10.34172/ijbsm.2019.06

Introduction: Ordered nanoporous silica such as SBA-15 has a great potential for application in controlled drug release systems. Chemical modification of the silanol groups of SBA-15 allows better control over drug loading and release. Therefore, tris(2-aminoethyl) amine-functionalized mesoporous silica SBA-15 was evaluated as a potential carrier for the delivery of citalopram. Methods: Tris (2-aminoethyl) amine-functionalized SBA-15 was synthesized and characterized by various methods. Citalopram was loaded on the functionalized SBA-15 and drug release into simulated body fluid (SBF) solution and phosphate buffers was investigated. Results: The optimal condition for loading of the citalopram was obtained at pH = 9 after stirring for 5 minutes. The release profile of citalopram was monitored in phosphate buffers with three different pH values of 5, 7, and 8. A faster release rate at lower pH value was observed, suggesting a weaker interaction because of the protonation of the amino group of the functionalized SBA15. The average release rate of citalopram from each gram of functionalized SBA-15 was 12 µg h-1 in the SBF. Conclusion: The results showed that loading amount and release rate of citalopram depended on pH value and the release process showed a very slow release pattern. Therefore, tris (2-aminoethyl) amine-functionalized SBA-15 is a suitable carrier for controlled release of citalopram and has a great potential for disease therapy.
, Shahrbanoo Oryan, Homayuon Khazali, Abdolkarim Hosseini
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 4, pp 137-142; doi:10.34172/ijbsm.2019.03

Introduction: The neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the neural circuits of the hypothalamus has a stimulating effect on reproductive activities in mammals. Kisspeptin (KiSS1) is a quintessential neurotransmitter in the reproductive axis which directly stimulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the hypothalamus. The distribution of KiSS1 expressing cells in the pituitary was described previously. Despite earlier reports showing the KiSS1 receptor, G-protein coupled receptor 54 (GPR54) expression in the pituitary, the potential physiological roles of kisspeptin at this gland have remained obscure. Accordingly, this study investigated the role of NPY on the relative expression of Kiss1 and Gpr54 genes in the pituitary gland in male Wistar rats. Methods: In general, 20 male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g in 4 groups (5 in each group) received saline, NPY (2.3 nM), BIBP3226 (NPY receptor antagonist, 7.8 nM), and NPY+ BIBP3226. Then, they received the simultaneous injection of these molecules through the third ventricle of the brain. Finally, the relative mean expressions of Kiss1 and Gpr54 genes in the anterior pituitary were quantitatively analyzed by the real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: The central injection of NPY increased the relative mean expressions of Kiss1 and Gpr54 genes in the pituitary gland compared to the control group although the injection of BIBP3226 eradicated these effects. However, the gene expression of Gpr54 in the rats receiving NPY coupled with BIBP3226 in hypophysis in comparison to the group receiving only NPY demonstrated a significant reduction (P
, Fatemeh Dahmardeh
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 4, pp 143-147; doi:10.34172/ijbsm.2019.04

Introduction: Opioid addiction (OA) is a neurologically life-threatening challenge associated with socioeconomic and health concerns for individuals and society. The addictive drugs trigger neuromodulators and neurotransmitters through the opioid receptors and corresponding endogenous peptide ligands. In addition, drug addiction is reportedly related to the mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1) encoding gene and its variants. According to the role of the rs648893 polymorphism of the OPRM1 gene in numerous disorders, it has been suggested as a candidate associated with drug addiction. The present case-control study was conducted to evaluate the role of OPRM1 rs648893 polymorphism in the OA risk. Methods: To this end, the rs648893 polymorphism was genotyped by tetra amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction among 160 Iranian subjects consisting of 105 OA cases and 155 controls. Results: According to our findings, there was no significant association between OA and the OPRM1 rs648893 gene polymorphism. Moreover, a marginally insignificant difference was found between OA cases and controls in accordance with the allelic frequencies (P=0.05) Conclusion: In general, our results reported no association between OPRM1 rs648893 gene polymorphism and OA although further research among various ethnicities with larger sample sizes is needed to draw a definite conclusion on the association of rs648893 polymorphism and other OPRM1 intronic variants with opioid and other addictions.
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 4, pp 148-154; doi:10.34172/ijbsm.2019.05

Introduction: Patients with non-specific low back pain (NSLBP) and movement control dysfunction demonstrate alternation in hip muscles flexibility and spinal movement patterns. Therapeutic modalities that augment hip muscles flexibility could help these patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of global postural reeducation (GPR) on pain and hip muscle flexibility in patients with NSLBP and movement control dysfunction. Materials and Methods: A total of 27 men with a mean age of 31.21±2.5147 years, height of 166.44±6.11 cm, and weight of 64.21±5.25 kg participated in this study. The visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to evaluate pain. The flexibility of hip muscles (rectus femoris, tensor fasciae latae, external rotators and hamstring) was measured using universal goniometer. All data were assessed at baseline and after the intervention. The Shapiro-Wilk test and paired t test were used for statistical analysis at significance level of P=0.05. Results: Our results revealed a decline in pain (P
Maryam Poursadeghfard, Sara Azhdari
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 4, pp 128-130; doi:10.34172/ijbsm.2019.01

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is known as an autoimmune disorder which affects transmission in neuromuscular junction. The serologic tests used for diagnosis include acetylcholine receptor and muscle specific receptor tyrosine kinase antibodies. Studies often have reported that patients with formal antibody are negative for the latter one. However, very limited studies have reported positive anti-muscle specific receptor tyrosine kinase antibody in a small percentage of patients with acetylcholine receptor antibody. Here, we reported a young woman who was diagnosed with MG and had a rapid and progressive course of the disease. She was seropositive for both acetylcholine receptor and muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase antibodies simultaneously. However, she discharged from the hospital with good condition after treatment.
Amin Afsharimoghaddam
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 4, pp 131-136; doi:10.34172/ijbsm.2019.02

Introduction: Metabolic syndrome as one of the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases has recently been the focus of clinical studies. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in hemodialysis patients in Iran. Methods: The present systematic review was done using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist. Case-control, cohort and crosssectional studies conducted in Iran were included. Clinical trials, case reports, letters to editors, systematic reviews, study protocols, narrative reviews, and case series were excluded. Subgroup analysis was conducted for determining the heterogeneity based on the participants as well as their gender. Meta-analysis was conducted using STATA version 14.0. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among 799 patients was 50% (95% CI: 47.0, 53.0, I2=50.6). The analysis of subgroups was conducted for determining the heterogeneity based on the participants as well as their gender. Based on the analysis of the subgroups using a random effects model, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was found to be 44% and 55% in Iranian men and women undergoing hemodialysis, respectively. Conclusion: Given the high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in hemodialysis patients, it is advisable and logical that patients with chronic renal failure should be regularly evaluated for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors both at the diagnosis time and afterwards.
Leila Foroutan, , Vahid Abdossi, Barat Ali Fakheri, Nafiseh Mahdinezhad, Kamal Gholamipourfard, Adolmajid Safarzaei
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 4, pp 119-127; doi:10.15171/ijbsm.2019.22

Introduction: Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori, is a nutritionally and medicinally important desert tree, which is constantly exposed to drought stress. This study was accomplished to alleviate the adverse effects of drought stress on M. peregrina populations through the foliar application of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) by monitoring some physiological and biochemical alterations. Methods: Moringa peregrina seeds were collected from the Southeast of Iran in 2014. Fourteen days after germination, the seedlings were subjected to drought stress by withholding watering until 50% field capacity (FC), followed by spraying 0.1% and 0.05% ZnO-NPs and no spraying (as control). Results: The changes of sodium (Na), potassium (K), chlorophylls, total phenolic content (TPC) as well as antioxidant activity under drought stress condition varied based on M. peregrina populations. Drought stress significantly reduced chlorophylls content, while it enhanced TPC and antioxidant activity. ZnO-NPs treatment significantly inhibited chlorophylls degradation under drought stress conditions. It also enhanced chlorophyll content in well-watered plants. Moreover, it was revealed that TPC and antioxidant activity of M. peregrina populations significantly increased in response to foliar application of ZnO-NPs in both drought-stressed and unstressed plants. Conclusion: Our results suggested that ZnO-NPs spray can augment drought tolerance of different populations of M. peregrina subjected to water deficit condition.
Masomeh Hoseini,
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 4, pp 96-101; doi:10.15171/ijbsm.2019.18

Introduction: Oxygen, light, heat, metal ions, and enzymes are among the agents that oxidize oils, fats, and high-fat food products which result in oxidative spoilage. Due to the toxicity and cancer risk of oxidative agents, the use of synthetic antioxidants is important for delaying the oxidation processes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of natural antioxidants including green tea leaf extract and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on the oxidation of the corn refined oil of microwave-heated fried potatoes. Methods: To this end, corn refined oil and corn oil were treated with green tea leaf extracts (i.e., 200, 400, 600, and 800 ppm), followed by treating the oils with a combination of green tea leaf extract (600 ppm) and BHT (200 ppm). The samples with no anti-oxidant treatments were used as the controls. Eventually, several parameters related to the corn oils were determined, including peroxide content, acidity, polar compounds, and ionic bond conjugates. Results: Based on the results, significant increases were observed in peroxide, acidity, polar compounds, and ionic bond conjugates in the corn refined oil of microwave fried potatoes (P0.05) and the lowest acid value was observed in the mixture of 600 ppm of the green tea leaf with 200 ppm of the BHT. There was no significant difference between the control group and the samples treated with 200 ppm of the green leaf extract (P
Iraj Shahramian, Kaveh Tabrizian, Mojtaba Delaramnasab, Ali Khosravi Bonjar, Seyed Mohsen Dehghani, Omolbanin Sargazi-Aval, Ali Bazi
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 4, pp 86-95; doi:10.15171/ijbsm.2019.17

Appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic measures for liver cirrhosis is critical, particularly in children. In the present review, a comprehensive approach was provided toward hematological parameters in pediatric liver cirrhosis. The literature search included MeSH terms "liver cirrhosis" and "hepatic cirrhosis" and databases such as PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched up until December 2017. Hematologic changes in the liver cirrhosis mainly encompassed anemia and coagulopathies. In addition, bleeding diathesis was considered as the most clinical complication in these patients. In addition to reduced coagulation factors, hyperfibrinolysis is a common feature in childhood cirrhosis and may be an important contributor to the risk of bleeding. Based on the results, children with liver cirrhosis also demonstrated a procoagulant state at laboratory and clinical levels. This may be partly due to a reduction in coagulation inhibitors such as anti-thrombin, C1 inhibitor, and α1-antitrypsin in children with cirrhosis. The portal vein thrombosis and portal hypertension are considered as the most clinical presentations of the hypercoagulable state. Further, children with liver cirrhosis complicated with portal hypertension usually show leukopenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia due to hypersplenism. Although the etiology of childhood and adult cirrhosis may be different, their hematological compilations and clinicopathological features are somehow similar.
Ali Es-Haghi, Saynaz Aseyd Nezhad
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 4, pp 108-112; doi:10.15171/ijbsm.2019.20

Introduction: Free radicals have singlet electron in their outer layer rendering them high reactivity against biomolecules (i.e., DNA, carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids). Oxidative stress is created when the production of free radicals exceeds their removal by antioxidant systems and is involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases such as diabetes, arthritis, inflammatory conditions, and various cancers. Regarding the therapeutic potential of nanoparticles (NPs) in human diseases, the purpose of this study was to synthesize cerium oxide NPs using Origanum majorana leaf extract. Methods: Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 -NPs) were synthesized using aqueous leaf extract of O. majorana. The sizes of NPs were characterized by a particle size analyzer. The antioxidant properties of the CeO2 -NPs were determined by Ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The anti-inflammatory effects of the NPs were also determined by measuring gene expressions of IL-1β and IL-10 using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: The CeO2 -NPs were successfully synthesized using O. majorana leaf extract. The results of FRAP assay showed that the anti-oxidant activities of CeO2 -NPs at concentrations of 50, 100, and 400 μg/mL were 75%, 77.1%, and 94.5%, respectively. Moreover, interleukin 10 (IL-10) gene expressions increased by 4.6 folds while the expression of IL-1β gene decreased by 0.75-fold in HUVECs. Conclusion: The CeO2 -NPs synthesized using the aqueous extract of O. majorana demonstrated antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, these NPs can be used as potential therapeutic agents in medicine.
, Masomeh Rabieepor, Fatemeh Jamalomidi, Zahra Baghaeifar, Leila Khodaei
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 4, pp 113-118; doi:10.15171/ijbsm.2019.21

Introduction: Green tea contains active polyphenols including catechins. The goal of the current study was to evaluate anti-cancer effects of Iranian green tea extract (IGTE) on 3 human cancer cell lines including A549, PC3, and MCF-7. Methods: First, Camellia sinensis was obtained from Lahijan, a city in the north of Iran and then IGTE was prepared. Next, catechins of IGTE were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Finally, the cell viability of different cancer cells was evaluated by treatment with IGTE at concentration between 100 and 1000 µg/mL for 72 hours using MTT assay. Cell death of treated cancer cells was assessed by DAPI staining and RT-PCR method. Results: Our results demonstrated the potential anti-tumor activity of IGTE on MCF-7 cells (IC50= 400 µM), A549 cells (IC50= 500 µM), and PC3 cells (IC50= 600 µM), respectively. Chromatin damages within the nucleus of the treated cancer cells were shown. In addition, we found that IGTE induced apoptosis by up-regulation of Bax (a pro-apoptotic protein) and down-regulation of Bcl2 (an anti-apoptotic protein). Conclusion: Herein, we showed that IGTE is a potent natural product with anti-tumor activity on breast, lung, and prostate cancer cells. The efficacy of current therapies against cancer is limited by a range of adverse effects, toxicity, and drug resistance; therefore, new therapeutic strategies and more effective agents, particularly with natural origin, are desired and green tea may be a potent candidate in the field of cancer therapy
Mozhgan Bahadoripour,
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 4, pp 102-107; doi:10.15171/ijbsm.2019.19

Introduction: Escherichia coli O157:H7, as a pathogenic agent, can be transmitted through the foods including meat, meat products, dairy products, vegetables and water. The World Health Organization has recommended that all countries in the world, especially developing countries, should consider the investigation of E. coli O157:H7 as a research priority. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of E. coli O157:H7 in meat of cow, sheep, goat, and camel in Kerman province of Iran using culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Methods: In this study, 280 meat samples consisting of sheep (90 specimens), cow (80 specimens), goat (60 specimens) and camel (50 specimens) meats were randomly separated from carcasses from April to July 2018. After the sampling, microbial culture was performed on the samples. Then, suspected E. coli O157:H7 colonies were evaluated by PCR assay. Results: Out of the 280 samples, 73 samples (26%) were contaminated with E. coli. based on bacteriological tests, and 28 samples were identified as suspected E. coli O157:H7 serotype based on the lack of sorbitol fermentation. Subsequently, sorbitol-negative samples were tested by PCR procedure using specific primers. The results revealed that out of 28 cases, 21 cases (7.5%) were E. coli O157:H7. Conclusion: As can be deduced from the observations of this study, to detect the E. coli O157, PCR as an accurate, fast, and reliable procedure can be used along with the culture method.
, Javad Payam
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 4, pp 51-55; doi:10.15171/ijbsm.2019.11

Introduction: Repeated heat shock (HS) stresses reduce the reproduction rate of Drosophila flies. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) protect cells against irreversible damages inducing heatinduced.Oxidative stress declines protective function of HSPs. Diploschistes ocellatus lichen aqueous extract possesses a strong antioxidant potential in vitro. Antioxidants can preserve HSPs function. Therefore, the present study for the first time investigated the cytoprotective effects of D. ocellatus aqueous extract against HS-mediated deleterious effects on reproductive function in Drosophila melanogaster. Methods: Three different types of culture media including control, 30% lichen extract, and 60%lichen extract were prepared. Adult D. melanogaster flies were placed on Delcour medium and allowed to lay eggs for 2 hours. Then the eggs were equally distributed between the culture media. After flies completed their life cycle, the adult enclosed flies were exposed to HS. To assess reproductive function, the newly emerged adult flies were transferred to the freshly prepared regular culture medium every three days for 3 times and finally adult offspring born to these flies were enumerated.Results: HS negatively affected the reproduction rate in flies in control group. Quantification of adult enclosed flies born to the D. ocellatus extract treated flies showed that lichen extract could negate the deleterious effects of HS on reproduction function of D. melanogaster in a dose-dependent manner.Conclusion: Diploschistes ocellatus aqueous extract attenuated the harmful effects of HS stress on reproductive function of D. melanogaster. The secondary metabolites present in D. ocellatus can be considered as a bona fide candidate in novel drug development to target reproductive diseases in which oxidative stress is involved. Moreover, it can be concluded that D. melanogaster is an ideal model organism to induce cellular stress in vitro and study therapeutic potential of lichen extracts.
Mostafa Dehghani, Mostafa Cheraghi, Mehrdad Namdari, Valiollah Dabidi Roshan
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 4, pp 75-80; doi:10.15171/ijbsm.2019.15

Introduction: Pedometer feedback home-based cardiac rehabilitation (PFHCR) programs have been effective in augmenting exercise tolerance. Our aim was to investigate the effects of PFHCR on cardiovascular functional capacity in patients with myocardial infarction (MI).Methods: Forty MI patients were divided into two intervention and two control groups (n=10)in a randomized controlled trial. The intervention group received a PFHCR program including routine medications along with continuous exercise program, whereas the control group received traditional care without PFHCR. Baseline evaluations and cardiovascular stresses were controlled during the 8-week follow-up rehabilitation program in all patients. Data analysis was conducted using one-way ANOVA and paired sample student’s t-test (P ≤ 0.05).Results: At baseline, no significant differences were observed between the groups. After eight weeks of PFHCR, the intervention groups had significantly higher metabolic equivalent(P = 0.001), VO2max (P = 0.001), total exercise times (P = 0.001), and total distance traveled(P = 0.003) when compared with the control groups. However, no significant intra-group or inter-group differences in variables were observed between the men and women.Conclusion: Our results showed that PFHCR exhibited significant optimal effects on the cardiovascular functional capacity in MI patients.
Ghazaleh Ilbeigi, Ashraf Kariminik, Mohammad Hasan Moshafi
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 4, pp 69-74; doi:10.15171/ijbsm.2019.14

Introduction: Given the increasing rate of antibiotic resistance among bacterial strains, many researchers have been working to produce new and efficient and inexpensive antibacterial agents. It has been reported that some nanoparticles may be used as novel antimicrobial agents.Here, we evaluated antibacterial properties of nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles. Methods: NiO nanoparticles were synthesized using microwave method. In order to control the quality and morphology of nanoparticles, XRD (X-ray diffraction) and SEM (scanning electronmicroscope) were utilized. The antibacterial properties of the nanoparticles were assessed against eight common bacterial strains using agar well diffusion assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were measured. Antibiotic resistance pattern of the bacteria to nine antibiotics was obtained by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Results: The crystalline size and diameter (Dc) of NiO nanoparticles were obtained 40-60 nm. The nanoparticles were found to inhibit the growth of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria with higher activity against gram-positive organisms. Among bacterial strains, maximum sensitivity was observed in Staphylococcus epidermidis with MIC and MBC of 0.39 and 0.78 mg/mL, respectively. The bacteria had high resistance to cefazolin, erythromycin, rifampicin,ampicillin, penicillin and streptomycin.Conclusion: NiO nanoparticles exhibited remarkable antibacterial properties against gram positive and gram-negative bacteria and can be a new treatment for human pathogenic and antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
Mohammad Shabani, Hamid Najat, Mohammad Reza Saffarian
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 4, pp 61-68; doi:10.15171/ijbsm.2019.13

Introduction: The effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and quality of life-based therapy on rumination were compared in patient with migraine. The present study also investigated the effectiveness of quality of life-based therapy and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy.Methods: This quasi-experimental study with 3 (2 experimental and one control) groups was carried out with pretest-post test design. The study population consisted of all patients with migraine headache referring to Torbat Heidarie hospitals and clinics from June to July 2018. The samples were 45 patients who were selected by random sampling and then randomly allocated to 2 experimental groups and one control group each with 15 members. One experimental group underwent mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and the other received quality of life based therapy. The control group received no intervention. Research instruments were Ahvaz Migraine Questionnaire and Huksema and Maro’s Ruminative Response Scale. The tools were filled out by the participants before and after the interventions. The data was analyzed in SPSS version 22.Results: The mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and quality of life-based therapy significantly improved rumination in patients with migraine. In addition, the effectiveness of the 2 interventions was not significantly different.Conclusion: The educational interventions based on modifying basic cognitions, replacing negative intrusive thoughts with positive thoughts, and avoiding and neutralizing intrusive thoughts through mindfulness-based cognitive methods and interventions based on improving quality of life resulted in a substantial improvement of rumination and frequent intrusive thoughts. Indeed, changes in cognitive reactions to pain and altering beliefs and expectations are the main mechanisms for improving headache.
Mina Mir, Jalileh Kordi, , Omid Tadjrobehkar, Hamid Vaez
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 4, pp 81-85; doi:10.15171/ijbsm.2019.16

Introduction: Staphylococcus aureus is known as the causative agent of various infections in humans, and the nasal cavity is the main anatomical site for storing and spreading this pathogen in health care workers (HCWs) in hospital settings. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains are resistant to many antibiotics. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns of S. aureus strains isolated from the nasal carriage of HCWs in a referral hospital in Zabol. Methods: A total of 277 HCWs of Amir-Al-Momenin hospital of Zabol participated voluntarily in this study from March to September 2017. Demographic information was collected using questionnaire. Bacterial isolates were collected from anterior nasal canal using cotton swabs. MRSA isolates were detected by Oxacillin Screen agar and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Antibiotic resistance was assessed by the disk-diffusion method.Results: In total, 10.8% of HCWs were carriers of S. aureus and 46.7% of the isolates were found to be MRSA. Laboratory staffs were the most frequently colonized HCWs. All the isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin and gentamicin. The highest resistance rate (64.3%) of MRSA isolates was observed against erythromycin.Conclusion: Our findings showed that gentamycin and rifampin might be useful to eradicate S.aureus. Regular screening of HCWs and assessment of antibiotic resistance profile are essential to prevent MRSA dissemination in hospitals.
Fauzia Aslam,
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 4, pp 43-44; doi:10.15171/ijbsm.2019.09

Mixed-Methodology in Disease Surveillance,Response, and Control
Amin Safari-Arababadi, , Seyed Mehdi Kalantar, Mojtaba Jaafarinia
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 4, pp 45-50; doi:10.15171/ijbsm.2019.10

Congenital heart disease (CHD) is considered as an important and developing area in the medical community. Since these patients can reach maturity and have children, the role of genetic determinants in increasing risk of CHD is extremely evident among children of these patients. Because genetic studies related to CHD are increasing, and each day the role of new genetic markers is more and more clarified, this review re-examined the effects of gene mutations in the pathogenesis of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) as an important pathological model among other CHDs. Due to the complexity of heart development, it is not astonishing that numerous signaling pathways and transcription factors, and many genes are involved in pathogenesis of TOF. This review focuses on the jag1, nkx2.5, gata4, zfpm2/fog2 and cited2 genes previously reported to be involved in TOF.
Malihe Mohammadi, Seyedeh Solmaz Moosavi
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 4, pp 56-60; doi:10.15171/ijbsm.2019.12

Introduction: The association between the incidence of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies(GADAs) and risk of diabetes in pregnant women is controversial. Here, our aim was to investigate the incidence and clinical relevance of GADA and its association with development of post-delivery diabetes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).Methods: This cohort study was conducted in Torbat–e Heydarieh (Khorasan Razavi, Iran) from October 2015 to March 2017. A total of 147 pregnant women with GDM were included in case group. The control group consisted of 147 healthy controls. A GAD diagnostic kit (Diametra Co.,Italy) was used for diagnosis of GADA. The history of insulin therapy and the development of diabetes one year after delivery were investigated.Results: Of 147 pregnant women with GDM, 9 (6.1%) had GADA in their sera. 14.3% (21 out of 147) of women with GDM had history of insulin therapy. 33.3% (7 of 21) of women who had received insulin developed diabetes one year after delivery. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes were observed in, respectively, 1 (0.7%) and 7 (4.8%) of women with GDM at one year after delivery.At one year after delivery, no women in GADA negative women was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. However, type 2 diabetes was observed in 2.9% of GADA negative pregnant women.Type 1 and type 2 diabetes were also noticed in, respectively, 11.1% and 33.3% of GADA positive mothers at one year after delivery.Conclusion: The prevalence of GADA was 6.1% in diabetic pregnant women. The GADA positivity and history of insulin therapy during pregnancy were significant risk factors for diabetes at one year after delivery. In addition, development of type 1 diabetes was higher in GADA positive pregnant women with GDM than GADA negative women.
Parastoo Rahdar,
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 4, pp 4-9; doi:10.15171/ijbsm.2019.02

Introduction: It is well-established that gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) and its mammalian orthologues (RFRP: RF-amid related peptides) can decrease gonadotrophin secretion. Moreover, substance P (SP) is another modulator of the secretion of gonadotropins in a species-dependent manner. This study aimed to find out the impacts of concomitant infusion of RFRP-3 and SP on luteinizing hormone (LH) concentration. Methods: Forty-two rats were arbitrarily assigned to 7 groups (n=6 per group). Animals in the experimental groups were intracerebroventricularly injected with saline +DMSO, SP, RFRP-3, SP + RFRP-3, SP + RF9 (RFRP-3 receptor antagonist), SP + P234 (kisspeptin receptor antagonist) + RFRP-3 and SP + CP-96,345 (SP receptor antagonist) + RFRP-3 in a final volume of 3 µL. Blood samples were collected at 30-minute intervals after injections, and serum was used to measure the LH concentration by radioimmunoassay. Results: According to the results, injections led to the elevation of LH serum concentration at 30-minute post injection (P
Naemeh Mohseni Zadeh, , Mohammad Ali Azarbayjani, Hasan Matin Homaee, Abbas Ali Keshtkar
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 4, pp 38-42; doi:10.15171/ijbsm.2019.08

Introduction: Inflammation, oxidative stress (OS), and obesity are documented to play key roles in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Accordingly, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), as a main innate immunity pro-inflammatory cytokine and a main free radical, respectively, are the main risk factors for CVDs. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of OS, regular aerobic exercise (RAE), and vitamin D3 (VD3) on the expression of TNF-α in the myocardial cells in a rat model. Methods: In this experimental study, 48 male Wistar rats were divided into 8 groups (6 in each group) including healthy controls, sham (injected with dimethyl sulfoxide [DMSO] + saline), H2 O2 (either 1 or 2 mmol/kg), H2 O2 (1 mmol/kg) + VD3, H2 O2 (2 mmol/kg) + VD3, H2O2 (1 mmol/kg) + RAE, and H2 O2 (2 mmol/kg) + RAE. TNF-α level of myocardial cells was evaluated after 8 weeks using the ELISA technique. Results: The results of the study demonstrated that exposure to 2 mmol/kg of H2 O2 significantly increased TNF-α level of myocardial cells compared to the rats which were exposed to one mmol/ kg H2 O2 (P=0.039). Furthermore, RAE (P=0.040), and the combination of RAE+VD3 (P=0.049) significantly reduced the expression of myocardial TNF-α. Conclusion: In general, VD3 and RAE were found to suppress TNF-α expression induced by H2 O2 in the rat myocardium. Therefore, they can be considered as potential therapeutic interventions for reducing OS-induced inflammation in the damaged myocardial cells.
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 4, pp 23-27; doi:10.15171/ijbsm.2019.05

Introduction: Oxidative stress seems to play a major role in diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction, known as diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase 2 is considered as one of the main enzymatic systems which primarily contributes to the production of reactive oxygen species in various organs including the heart. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of 8 weeks of aerobic exercise (AE) on the expression of p47phox and p67phox, which are regarded as the regulatory subunits of NADPH oxidase 2 in the cardiac tissue in diabetic rats. Methods: A total of 36 male Wistar rats with a mean weight of 231±25 g were randomly divided into non-diabetic, control diabetic, and trained diabetic groups (each containing 12 rats). Nicotinamide and streptozotocin were used to induce diabetes in the rats. The cardiac muscle was removed under sterile conditions 48 hours following the last training session. Finally, the mRNA levels of p47phox and p67phox were evaluated using the real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: The results showed that diabetes induction significantly increased the gene expressions of p47phox and p67phox in the cardiac tissue of diabetic rats. The expression of these genes was significantly attenuated after 8 weeks of AE. Conclusion: In general, AE was found to prevent the negative effects of diabetes by suppressing p47phox and p67phox in the cardiac tissue of diabetic rats. Therefore, this can improve cardiac function and may be a potential preventive or therapeutic modality for DCM.
Hamid Vaez, Zahra Rashki Ghalehnoo, Zahra Yazdanpour
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 4, pp 34-37; doi:10.15171/ijbsm.2019.07

Introduction: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a well-known pathogen which causes different kinds of infections including pneumoniae, urinary tract infection, and bloodstream infection. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the incidence of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (CRKP) in Zabol, which is located in Sistan and Baluchestan province, southeast of Iran. Methods: A total of 70 clinical specimens of K. pneumoniae were collected from patients who referred to Amiralmomenin hospital affiliated with Zabol University of Medical Sciences during (December) 2017-2018. Then, resistance to nine different antibiotics was evaluated based on the purpose of the study. Finally, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was performed using specific primers for detecting blaAIM, blaVIM, blaNDM-1, and blaSPM genes. Results: The highest sensitivities of the isolates were related to ertapenem (n=68, 97.1%), meropenem (n=67, 95.7%), followed by gentamicin (n=65, 92.8%) and amikacin (n=65, 92.8%). In addition, 3 isolates were imipenem-resistant (4.3%), which were metallo-beta-lactamase positive as well. Eventually, based on the results of PCR, two isolates were found to be blaNDM positive. Conclusion: In general, the results of this study revealed that the prevalence of CRKP was low in the region under investigation. Therefore, continued monitoring of antibiotic resistance profile is required for hindering the emergence and spread of drug-resistant bacteria.
Ali Sepehrian, Nader Shakeri, Hosein Abednatanzi, Shahram Soheili
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 4, pp 10-16; doi:10.15171/ijbsm.2019.03

Introduction: Inadequate awareness and knowledge exists regarding the effects of stimulant drugs on renal health among athletes. The present study aimed to determine the effects of methylphenidate, as a stimulant drug, and aerobic exercise on renal function in rats. Materials and Methods: Eighty male rats were randomly divided into 8 groups (n=10 per group) including control (Co), aerobic exercise sham (AE Sh), drug sham (D Sh), aerobic exercise (AE), the effective dose of drug (ED, 10 mg/kg), 3 times of effective dose (TED, 30 mg/kg), aerobic exercise-effective dose (AE-ED), and aerobic exercise-three times of effective dose (AE-TED). The drug was orally administrated to the animals, and then they were placed on a rat treadmill after 30 minutes. The physical activity (25 m/min) was performed 30 minutes a day, 3 days a week for two months. Twenty-four hours after the last session of AE, blood samples were taken from the rats and serum creatinine (Cr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were determined. Results: The results showed that serum Cr and BUN levels were not significantly different in the exercise group compared to the control groups (i.e., Co, AE Sham, and D Sham). However, serum BUN and Cr significantly increased in the AE-ED and AE-TED groups compared to the AE group (PCr=0.001 and PBUN=0.001). Conclusion: In general, significant increases in the serum BUN and Cr levels in rats received methylphenidate indicated decreased renal function in these animals.
Omolbanin Sargazi-Aval, Ali Bazi, Hojat Shahraki, Ahmad Ali Jalali Nezhad, Hanieh Bakhshi, Fatemeh Mirasghari, Ahmad Sohrabi, Leila Jafari
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 4, pp 28-33; doi:10.15171/ijbsm.2019.06

Introduction: Blood components are commonly used during surgical operations; however, limited sources are globally available in this regard. The present study aimed to assess blood product usage and wastage in Amir-Almomenin hospital, Zabol, Iran. Methods: A total of3883 ordered blood components were retrospectively analyzed in AmirAlmomenin hospital, Zabol, Iran (January) 2017-(July)2018. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software, version 18. Results: The results demonstrated that the most frequent ordered blood products included packed red blood cells (PRBCs, 2097 units, 54%), followed by fresh frozen plasma (823 units, 21.2%), platelet concentrates (757 units, 19.5%), and cryoprecipitate (206 units, 5.2%), respectively. Intensive care unit department had the highest records of orders (34.2%) and the ratio of crossmatched blood to transfused blood (C/T) was 1.73. In addition, based on the results, the total amount of component wastage was 2.03% with the highest and lowest percentage for PRBCs (59.6%) and cryoprecipitate (4.35%), respectively. The highest rate of wastage was related to the delivery ward (8.23%). There was no return from pediatrics, dialysis, pediatric critical care unit, critical care unit, and gastroenterology wards. Further, a significant difference was observed between the returned rates of D-positive and D-negative blood components with higher rates belonging to D-negative products (P=0.001). Conclusion: In general, due to the 2.03% wastage rate, there is an indispensable need regarding implementing sufficient supervision and assigning vigilant policies on the hospital-based transfusion policies in order to optimize the blood product management.
, Gohar Ashraf
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 4, pp 1-3; doi:10.15171/ijbsm.2019.01

Mohsen Baghani, Ali Es-Haghi
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 4, pp 17-22; doi:10.15171/ijbsm.2019.04

Introduction: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have grabbed special attention owing to their exclusive structural features. Green synthesis (i.e., plant-mediated) of AgNPs is an efficient and cost-effective method with widespread clinical applications. Therefore, the present study aimed to synthesize AgNPs based on green synthesis method employing the seed extracts of Amaranthus cruentus and to investigate the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the biosynthesized AgNPs. Methods: The Ag-NPs were biologically synthesized using the A. cruentus extract which served as a reducing agent. Then, the synthesized Ag-NPs were visualized by transmission electron microscopy. Next, the antioxidant activity of the synthesized Ag-NPs was evaluated by DPPH and ABTS methods. Finally, the cytotoxicity of AgNPs was investigated against MCF-7 breast cancer cell line using MTT assay. Results: The mean diameter of the synthesized Ag-NPs ranged from 20 to 40 nm. In addition, the IC50 of free radical scavenging activity of the Ag-NPs were obtained as 500 µg/mL (DPPH) and 400 µg/mL (ABTS). Further, the AgNPs showed time and dose-dependent cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells. Eventually, at the 24-hour exposition to the 80 µg/mL dose of AgNPs, the viability of cancerous cells was 19% plunging to 2.03% and 1.9% after 48 hours and 72 hours, respectively. Conclusion: In general, plant extracts can serve as facile and eco-friendly alternatives to hazardous methods for synthesizing the metal nanoparticles. Therefore, the A. cruentus biosynthesized AgNPs can be utilized in medicine for various purposes due to their low toxicity and appropriate antioxidant activity.
Ali Bazi, Zahra Poodineh, Bentolhoda Behdani, Mehrafrooz Rigi, Hamideh Arezoomandan, Fatemeh Sahragard, Fatemeh Miri, Najla Anvari, Anita Jahanpanah,
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 3, pp 168-171; doi:10.15171/ijbsm.2018.29

Introduction: The role of phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors in reducing neuropathic pains is uncertain. In this study, the antinociceptive effects of theophylline, milrinone, and tadalafil were investigated on sciatic nerve ligation-induced neuropathic pain (NP).Methods: Male mice (25-30 g) were purchased and housed in controlled environmental conditions before and during the experiments. The mice received identical diet and water ad libitum. Two weeks after sciatic nerve ligation, either theophylline (75 mg/kg), milrinone (4.5 mg/kg), or tadalafil (20 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally (IP) injected for either 1, 3, or 7 consecutive days. Antinociceptive effects were evaluated using the hot plate test. Negative controls received time course IP injections of saline (5 mL/kg). A single dose of imipramine (40 mg/kg,) was intraperitoneally administrated to the mice in the positive control group. Results: As was found for this study, a single-dose IP injection of either theophylline (75 mg/kg), milrinone (4.5 mg/kg), or tadalafil (20 mg/kg) on day 14th following sciatic nerve ligation induced significant antinociceptive effects at 30 minutes (P < 0.01), 60 minutes (P < 0.01), and 90 minutes (P < 0.05) compared to the control (saline– treated) animals. Accordingly, both 3- (on days 12–14) and 7-day (on days 8– 14) IP injections of tadalafil (20 mg/kg) induced significant antinociceptive effects at 30 minutes (P < 0.05), 60 minutes (P < 0.01), and 90 minutes (P < 0.01) after sciatic nerve ligation compared to the control (saline–treated) animals. However, the 3- and 7-day IP injections of theophylline and milrinone did not reveal any significant differences compared to the control group. Conclusion: Taken together, the results of this study suggested that selective PDE inhibitors that act predominantly on cGMP pathway, may contribute to the management of sciatic nerve ligation–induced pain.
Aliyeh Firoozkoohi, Zahra Rashki Ghalehnoo
International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, Volume 3, pp 154-158; doi:10.15171/ijbsm.2018.27

Introduction: Escherichia coli is one of the most prevalent bacterial species which cause gastrointestinal and digestive tract infections in humans and livestock. This study examined genotypic diversity of the E. coli isolates taken from fecal specimens in Zabol using random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method and phylogenetic background.Materials and Methods: In this study, 100 isolates were collected from human samples and identified by the common biochemical tests. The isolates were categorized into four main phylogenetic groups including group A (28 isolates), group B1 (7 isolates), group B2 (48 isolates), and group D (17 isolates). Two primers (H1 & H2) were used to study the genetic variation of E. coli and the electrophoresis band pattern was analyzed by the NTSYS.Results: The analysis of the difference in isolates using the RAPD technique showed a genetic similarity between 14% and 100%.Conclusion: The phylogenetic groups B2 and A were more frequent in fecal isolates. In addition, the number of isolates related to phylogenetic groups B1 and D was significantly lower than that of the other groups.
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